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In this case, there is some ethnocentrism at work and the restaurant is just an expression of that. The reality is that only a crazy person would blow off a business deal on account of a restaurant not serving horse. French people do not actually eat a lot of it, and they know that American restaurants do not serve it. So the cheval blowup sounds like a pretext to bail on the deal. However, the client did display a certain amount of ethnocentrism in his rant, and his discomfort with America and our way of doing things in general might have been the catalyst for the deal going south.
So while in this case the client demonstrates a high degree of ethnocentrism in his rant about American hospitality, it was directed more at the totality of the experience than the lack of horse on the menu. The client had…
Sing-Toomey, S. (1994). Managing intercultural conflicts effectively. Intercultural Communication. Retrieved May 6, 2014 from https://www.ohrd.wisc.edu/home/Portals/0/ManagingInterculturalConflicts.pdf
Even in the most democratic of the Western capitalist nations, equal rights were not extended to all individuals until fairly recent times. acism and ethnocentrism were built into the world political and economic system, and authoritarian forms of government remained the norm well into the 20th Century. Defining ethnocentrism is not necessarily as simple a matter as it might appear to be at first sight, however. This tendency to ascribe negative characteristics to those of other colors, cultures, languages and religions has hardly been unusual in history, and is by no means confined to the Western capitalist powers. Even after the end of feudalism in the West in the early modern period, ethnocentrism and racism continued in new forms, even if the labor system was no longer as violent and coercive as slavery or serfdom. Slave labor was generally relegated to the colonies and the periphery, including ussia and…
Eisenstein, Z.R. (2004). Against Empire: Feminism, Racism, and the West. Zed Books.
Mies, M. (1998). Patriarchy and Accumulation on the World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour.
This incidence shows that The New York Times did a responsible job of reporting the Danish point-of-view. In Denmark, it is not uncommon at all for parents to leave their babies outside for the reasons outlined by the commentator. What is ironic and interesting, however, is the fact that the commentator forgot to mention that Americans are also paranoid -- perhaps rightfully so -- about safety. In this case, the child protective services might have been more concerned for the safety of the child in terms of its being kidnapped or worse. The exposure to the elements is a relatively minor concern, but the Danish commentary shows that such types of violence are almost unheard of in Danish culture.
The concerned citizens of the city actually did the right thing by calling the authorities and alerting child protective services. The parents may have been unaware that the United States…
Ethnocentrism Analysis Paper
This paper explores ethnocentrism in all its manifestations, including the stages, i.e., denial, defense, and limiting cultural differences. It also highlights the strategies needed to change an individual into a culturally competent person.
Ethnocentrism refers to an individual's tendency to prioritize their race, culture, or ethnic persuasions and use them as their thinking foundations. Northouse ( 2013, pp. 384) contends that everyone harbors some ethnocentrism in one way or another. Dr. Milton Bennet developed the Developmental Model for intercultural Sensitivity. In six stages, the model describes a continuum of attitudes focused on cultural differences. It aims at moving from the ethnocentric point of denial and minimization to acceptance, adaptation, and integration. Bennet describes ethnocentrism as a mindset or attitude that presumes that one's view is superior and often oblivious of other possible and existing views.
On the other hand, ethnorelativism does not judge other people basing…
Ashoka. (2013). Why underprivileged employers need to employ the \\'unemployable\\' – Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ashoka/2013/08/12/why-underprivileged-employers-need-to-employ-the-unemployable/
Bennett, M. (1993). A Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity.\\" Derived from: Bennett, Milton J. \\"Towards a Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity\\" in R. Michael Paige, ed. Education for the Intercultural Experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Guérin-Marion, C., Manion, I., & Parsons, H. (2018). Leading an intergenerational workforce: An integrative conceptual framework. International Journal of Public Leadership, 14(1), 48–58
Mercer, J. (2015). Understanding your own ethnocentrism. Retrieved from https://sites.psu.edu/global/2015/01/25/understanding-your-own-ethnocentrism/
Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE
Sugiyama, K., Cavanagh, K. V., van Esch, C., Bilimoria, D., & Brown, C. (2016). Inclusive leadership development: Drawing from pedagogies of women\\'s and general leadership development programs. Journal of Management Education,40(3), 253–292
Sugiyama, K., Cavanagh, K. V., van Esch, C., Bilimoria, D., & Brown, C. (2016). Inclusive leadership development: Drawing from pedagogies of women\\'s and general leadership development programs. Journal of Management Education, 40(3), 253–292.
Kennedy's Catholicism created the symbolic link between political ambition, leadership, and, for years, helped to maintain the link between America's moral and political identity (Billett, 1995). It allowed the stereotypical image of Americans as "the people" who were represented by their duly elected political leaders, long after those political leaders ceased to even maintain the pretense of being one of "the people." The "Camelot" years, as Kennedy's presidency was romanticized, has only in recent years been identified as consistent with other presidencies in American history; the dominant elite and the counter elite (Adrain, 1973, p. 30). However, Kennedy's presidency, and his untimely assassination, served as the symbol of how Americans saw themselves in their political system.
For many years, Kennedy was not mentioned in conversations about the most controversial and debated events in American history; the Vietnam conflict. Kennedy reigned as a symbol of American values, and he…
Adrian, C.R. (1973). American Politics Reappraised: The Enchantment of Camelot Dispelled. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved April 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10393799
Billiet, J.B. (1995). Church Involvement, Ethnocentrism, and Voting for a Radical Right-Wing Party: Diverging Behavioral Outcomes of Equal Attitudinal Dispositions. Sociology of Religion, 56(3), 303-326. Retrieved April 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97820584
Gathercole, P. & Lowenthal, D. (Eds.). (1994). The Politics of the Past. New York: Routledge. Retrieved April 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105546189
Lain, C.B. (2007). Deciding Death. Duke Law Journal, 57(1), 1+. Retrieved April 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024218717
Ethnocentrism is when one judges another culture by the standards of their own culture (Cherry, 2014). Prejudice is when one has a preconceived opinion for which there is no factual or experiential basis. In this case, the department head is being prejudiced. His decision is based on assumptions that he is making about the friend, in particular that he is lazy. This is a notion about Jamaicans that exists mostly because of impressions people have of their culture, most of which come from entertainment -- the rasta stereotype -- or from people's vacations at the beach.
The point about the accent being difficult to understand might sound like ethnocentrism, but this is more of a smokescreen than a genuine complaint. It is a feeble excuse to rule somebody out of a position for which they are otherwise qualified, and that comes down to prejudice, not a genuine concern over…
Cherry, K. (2014). What is ethnocentrism? About.com. Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://psychology.about.com/od/eindex/fl/What-Is-Ethnocentrism.htm
Ethnocentrism and Understanding Cultures
Ethnocentrism can create difficulties when we seek a better understanding of another culture because it causes us to view the other culture from the perspective of our culture's values. For instance, in the West, we value independence and comfort and status -- but in the East, for example, in China, the culture is geared more towards valuing honor, duty, learning, and commitment to one's community/family. Status (such as the sporting of luxury brands) is not as important to common people there because they do not have the same consumer culture that we in the West have. They have thousands of years of history behind them that comes from a different philosophical system and their nation, even though parts have been industrialized, still remains largely rural. The West, on the other hand, has led the world in terms of Industrialization and is committed to a consumerist culture,…
Voigt, K. (2012, November 21). What do Chinese consumers want? Not Barbie. CNN.
Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/21/business/china-consumers-barbie/
" (Monaghan & Just, 2000, p. 49)
An extreme example of cultural relativity and the possible moral issues that it might raise, is the practice of female circumcision in many East African societies. From a western cultural perspective, this practice is ethically and morally unacceptable. However, when considered form the vantage point of the societies in question and their specific cultural norms and values, the practice takes on another dimension.
It is easy to see this practice as violating basic human rights and equally easy to be moved to work for its suppression. On the other hand, doing so would be a fundamental violation of the cultural autonomy of the people who practise this ritual. Moreover, when, as cognitive relativism dictates, we view the practise in the context of cultural theories regarding sexuality, reproduction, gender, and the life cycle, we may find,...that female circumcision participates with male circumcision in a…
http://www.answers.com/topic/ethnocentrism .[Accessed 8 May 2005].
Barger K. (2004) [Internet] Available at http://www.iupui.edu/~anthkb/ethnocen.htm [Accessed 7 May 2005].
Ethnocentrism [Internet] Encyclopedia.com. Available at http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/e1/ethnocen.asp .[Accessed 8 May 2005].
Post on acism and Ethnocentrism in Modern Media
A recent television advertisement for Coca-Cola aired for the first time during the Super Bowl. It was intended to be a recognition of multiculturalism and to tie in the product to one of the quintessential American values: namely, the melting-pot element of American society that enabled all of our ancestors to immigrate and begin new lives in the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries. Instead, the commercial inspired a nasty reaction from the so-called "conservatives" of the radial and extreme ight Wing of American politics and punditry. The ad was very simple in concept but important in its message: it featured individuals from many races, cultures, ethnicities (and even one gay couple) all singing along to the song America the Beautiful. In the 21st century, one would think (and hope) that such a commercial would be well received and appreciated…
Day, P.K. (2014). Coca-Cola Super Bowl ad stirs controversy. Los Angeles Times (February 3, 2014). Retrieved online:
Every year, there's always one Super Bowl ad that generates a bit of next-day controversy. And this year's ad appears to be Coca-Cola's "It's Beautiful" ad.
The one-minute ad features children and adults from all walks of life, from across the country, singing "America the Beautiful" in multiple languages. Seems fairly straight-forward, right? Not like the infamous Bar Refaeli Go Daddy ad from last year that featured the Israeli
What factors contributed to Euroisney's poor performance during its first year of operation? What factors contributed to Hong King isney's poor performance during its fiscal year?
There are a wide variety of factors that contributed to Euroisney's poor performance during its first year of operation, spanning the spectrum of social, political and economic. One of the most significant was the backlash over the overt American ethnocentrism of the parks' attractions, market messaging, characters and approach to marketing the location across Europe (Curwen, 1995). Compounding this was the lack of cultural empathy that isney showed in how they created, staffed and managed the park once opened as well (Yue, 2009). Hong Kong isneyland had poor performance due to the value it delivered to customers relative to the price. In addition, like Euro isney, isney planners failed to realize just how many Chinese had no idea who the main characters…
Disneyland Tokyo is a cultural anomaly compared to all other Disney parks outside the United States, as the Japanese cherish and deeply value the opportunity to consume American experiences. The success of Disneyland Tokyo further engrained an ethnocentric mindset in the senior management team at Disney corporate, which led to a strong cultural bias and belief that France would be just as successful (Yue, 2009)
Why do you think the experience in France didn't help Disney avoid some of the problems in Hong Kong?
First, the problems in France were completely different than they ones they
Sex Lives of Cannibals
The book Sex Lives of Cannibals gives clear examples and instances of ethnocentrism to varying degrees and in different forms. Indeed, in various areas around the world, ethnocentrism manifests in different ways that can be both positive and negative for the people engaging in the behavior as well as what is experienced and felt by outsiders as a result. emote and shrouded enclaves of humanity, whether it is their choice or just how life and civilization have panned out for them, are the most pertinent and applicable examples of this in motion and the peoples of Tarawa as depicted in the Sex Lives book are a sterling example of ethnocentrism in all of its forms and functions. While the general act of ethnocentrism is not inherently evil, it can lead to hurt feelings and bad blood on a number of different levels.
Bizumic, B., & Duckitt, J. (2012). What Is and Is Not Ethnocentrism? A Conceptual
Analysis and Political Implications. Political Psychology, 33(6), 887-909.
Jae-Woong, Y., Samsup, J., & Jaemin, J. (2014). The effects of television viewing, cultural proximity, and ethnocentrism on country image. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 42(1), 89-96. doi:10.2224/sbp.2014.42.1.89
S. market. Instead of purchasing millions of dollars in research, Japanese manufacturers will often send their engineering and development teams to a foreign nation to study not just market conditions, but also the nuances of a given customer base as well (Aldridge, 1990). This will allow for greater insights into unmet needs, including the need to see the foreign manufacturers as being a contributor, not detractor, to national welfare. Toyota and Honda did this exceptionally well, as does Panasonic and Samsung with Google Android smartphones today.
2. Do you feel that there is really any difference, in a consumer's mind, between a Toyota Camry manufactured in the United States and an identical Camry that was manufactured in Japan but sold in the United States?
The indirect answer is that it depends on the individual consumer and their perceptual biases. From those consumers with a high level of ethnocentric mindsets, then…
Aldridge, D.N. (1990). Marketing strategy: The Japanese Approach. Marketing and Research Today, 18(4), 239.
Genestre, a., Herbig, P., & Shao, a.T. (1995). What does marketing really mean to the Japanese? Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 13(9), 16.
Halfhill, D.S. (1980). Multinational marketing strategy: Implications of attitudes toward country of origin. Management International Review, 20(4), 26.
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
According to Cleveland and Laroche (2007), the global consumer is characterized as someone who fits in with global consumer culture. This is a culture that has certain characteristics that are static internationally, such that the global consumer can be subject to global marketing. The global consumer is understood in contrast to the local consumer. The local consumer bears strong characteristics of the local market, in their tastes and buying patterns. The global consumer trends more towards international norms. The global consumer is aware of and has some preference for international products and bears similarity to international buying patterns. In essence, the global consumer in Shanghai will have tastes and characteristics that relate more to other global consumers in Vancouver, London or Mumbai than to the people of the local Shanghai market.
Global consumers have emerged as the result of two key trends, identified in Czinkota and onkainen (2013).…
Andersson, S. & Servais, P. (2010). Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management. European Business Review. Vol. 22 (1) 64-81.
Balabanis, G. & Diamatopoulos, A. (2004). Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects and consumer ethnocentrism: A multidimensional unfolding approach. Academy of Marketing Science Journal. Vol. 32 (1) 80-95.
Cleveland, M. & Laroche, M. (2007). Acculturation to the global consumer culture: Scale development and research paradigm. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 60 (3) 249-259.
Czinkota, M. & Ronkainen, I. (2013). International Marketing. South-Western College Publishing.
ooley and Mead's theories on the process of socialization as opposed to that of Freud
harles ooley and George Herbert Mead are proponents of a similar theory of socialization. ooley uses the metaphor of the looking glass to explain how a child uses others' perception of himself to understand himself and develop an identity. According to ooley, each of us closely monitors how others react to us and adjust our behavior to get the most desirable response -- like looking at ourselves in a mirror and adjusting our posture or expression.
Mead also explains the process of socialization in a similar manner by theorizing that children internalize the feelings of others while developing the "Self." He says that children imitate the behavior of others by role-playing in the Play Stage (ages 3-4), which helps them to define themselves. In the Game Stage (school going age) they are exposed to…
Conrad Kottack quoted in "Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism" available online at http://www2.eou.edu/~kdahl/ethnodef.html
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology." Available online at http://cas-courses.buffalo.edu/classes/apy/anab/apy106/handouts/relativism.htm
IS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF KNOLEDGE PRIVILEGED IN AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY?
The Australian society is very complex and it is important for a person to look at it from a series of perspective in order to gain a better understanding of why it promotes particular attitudes. Many Australians are likely to put across feelings related to relaxation, even in the face of danger, and this is why the community has experienced success throughout history. In spite of this relaxation, Australia promotes values related to hard-working and determination, as it is generally focused on encouraging forward-moving attitudes, regardless of the situation. hile it would seem that such thinking is unlikely to cause any damage, the truth is that it tends to bring on ignorance at times as society only focuses on assisting particular groups. Australia's cultural diversity plays an important role in generating information concerning knowledge-related matters.
Knowledge as seen from an…
Armitage, Andrew, "Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand," (UBC Press, 01.01.2011)
Garas, Dimitri, and Godinho, Sally, "Configuring of Masculinity in an Ethnocentric Community School," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Australia ECU University Website: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1417&context=ajte
Harrington, Marilyn, "Australian Government funding for schools explained," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: http://aphnew.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/bn/sp/schoolsfunding.pdf
Reld, Ian, "WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE AUSTRALIA A KNOWLEDGE-DRIVEN AND LEARNING-DRIVEN SOCIETY?," Retrieved February 22, 2013, from the Business/Higher Education Round Table Website: http://www.bhert.com/publications/position-papers/B-HERTPositionPaper05.pdf
But most people he socialized with were for him members of a secondary group. My friend socialized with them for the purpose of getting used to a new social environment, practice his English, and find new friends. But his relationship with most people in the neighborhood and at school was not based on the kind of social intimacy that characterized his relationship with other Kurdish refugees in the neighborhood. My friend told me often that he was thankful to the United States for welcoming him in this country and that people were generally very friendly. But he also told stories about his school life and some people's treatment which were based on ethnocentrism. Some of his peers looked down upon him because of his foreignness, Kurdish accent while speaking English, and his inability to fully practice dominant American culture. For example, his peers at school sometimes would not allow him…
Like many traditional societies in Hofstede's typology, PNG is also called a 'feminine' society, in the emphasis it places upon relationships. The nation would be characterized very much as a 'high context' culture, one in which relational status is very important when conveying meaning. How information is conveyed is more important than the actual wording of the message. Nonverbal language is very important in high context cultures, and it can be very difficult for cultural outsiders to translate the dominant cultural script into their own terms. The culture is very change resistant in PNG, and this is exacerbated by logistical difficulties, such as the lack of highly qualified IT and business professionals to teach current undergraduates to pass on information about new ways of doing business.
Behaviors, ethnocentrism, self-reference criteria
However, while it has been called 'feminine' in terms of its valuation of relationships, an observer should know that for…
Cultural differences between Australia and Papua New Guinea. (2010). Convict Creations.
Retrieved November 8, 2010 at http://www.convictcreations.com/culture/papuanewguinea.html
Kelegai, Limbie & Michael Middleton. (2002). Information technology education in Papua New
Guinea: Cultural, economic and political influences. Journal of Information Technology
Second example: High School Prejudice
In 2003, the Oprah infrey Show profiled a racially divided high school, where racism and prejudice were evident in the student body. Students allied themselves with 'like' persons much as in the above work situation, where only adults were concerned. As in the above-cited example, certain members of the community, although not all, wished to create a more cohesive social organization. Rather than engage in informal broaching of social norms, a more formal approach was used. This reflects the fact in high school, even more so than in the work place, that allying one's self with a particular group of one's friends is extremely important.
The high school instituted what it called a Challenge Day. At first, the students were resistant to the idea. The day began with a series of team-related activities that forced students from different cliques and ethnic groups to engage with…
Breaking Down Barriers." (2003) The Oprah Winfrey Show. Retrieved 11 Nov 2006 at http://www2.oprah.com/tows/slide/200611/20061109/slide_20061109_284_101.jhtml
Interview with team member. (2006) Personal Interview with Team Member on 10 Nov
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia
Liteatue Review Desciption
A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…
references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.
Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Business Dictionary. [online] available: http://www.business dictionary.com/definition/lifestyle.html.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Dictionary.com. [online] available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/lifestyle .
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Merriam-Webster. [online] available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lifestyle .
Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by eliminating cause we can not guarantee that we are eliminating effect (Rich, 169). Perhaps Hume is more flexible on this point than Buddhism.
According to your understanding of Kuhn's writings, would an acceptance of an Eastern worldview in nursing constitute a paradigm shift by the profession? Explain.
A strict interpretation of Kuhn might lead one to believe that the incorporation of Eastern philosophy would indicate a revolution that would cause a paradigm shift in nursing. But because nursing already has elements of Eastern philosophy, it would be difficult to say a shift will occur, and perhaps more appropriate to say it already has occurred. The empathetic nature of nursing, and the role of nurse as educator, are not new. In fact,…
Naef, Rahel (2006). "Bearing witness: a moral way of engaging in the nurse-person relationship." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
Rich, Karen (2003). "Critical Response to Rodgers and Yen's Article: Rethinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 4.
Rodgers, Beth L. And Yen, Wen-Jiuan (2002). "Re-thinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
There are many symptoms that further support this contention, aligned by a rising level of ethnocentrism which is further blinding the company from its outside environment. Second, the lack of congruency of planning to leadership (Guay, 2013) and lack of organizing with delegation (Sengul, Gimeno, Dial, 2012) is leading to employees searching for other positions to further their careers.
In defining the plan for turning around the company, two objectives have been defined using the SMAT method. These objectives are:
1. To complete an audit of managerial and leadership effectiveness of the South African expansion operations including employee satisfaction surveys and 360-degree feedback of leadership strategies.
2. To define minimum performance levels of management and leadership at Australian headquarters in terms of alignment with and strategies to overcome significant differences in Hofstede Cultural Dimension attributes.
Bass, B.M. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly,…
Bass, B.M. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181-217.
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
Guay, R.P. (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(1), 55-73.
Hofstede, G. 1998, "Think Locally, Act Globally: Cultural Constraints in Personnel Management," Management International Review, vol. 38, pp. 7-26.
Almost every major counterinsurgency in the 20th century failed, according to van Creveld, a historian at Hebrew University, due not to ethnocentrism to unfamiliarity with guerrilla warfare. Ethnocentrism and belief in the nation's superiority over the other might have been present, but it may have been evinced only later due to frustration, or was a secondary factor (Pilkins, 2005). American failure in the Iraqi conflict is complex. Arrogance certainly present, unfamiliarity with guerrilla warfare may also play a significant part leading to American frustration and exacerbating their condescension and superciliousness.
Using two examples -- that of one of America's first battles at the start of its history and the ongoing Iraqi conflict, this essay demonstrates how U.S. military failure can be reduced to two possibly related factors: political corruption that creeps into the army and interferes with positions and posts, consequently destructing the moral and functioning of the…
Ambrose, S. (1964). Upton and the Army, Baton Rouge: Louisiana
State University Press, 24 -- 38; 54 -- 70.
Pilkins, D. (Oct 23, 2005). The fall of the Warrior King, New York Times Magazine, ProQuest National Newspapers Premier
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.
A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…
Deviance. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Deviance.php
Ethnocentrism. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Ethnocentrism.php
Urban sociological theory. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-sociological-theories.php
slavery and citizenship in Aristotle's Politic:
Aristotle believes that most people in the world can be enslaved devoid of injustice as they are born to be slaves. At the same time some are born to be free and dominate as masters. Most modern critics have smeared these concepts of Aristotle. In this paper the writer evaluates the concepts of citizenship and slavery in light of Aristotle's politic to reveal not only Aristotle's thinking but also how his views are inferred by contemporary philosophers.
One is forced to do the disagreeable task of reading Aristotle's account of slavery because of such divergence in the opinions of the expert scholars. If one takes a look onat Aristotle's account of slavery, he/she will notice that on one hand; his opinion about slavery is that the enslavement of someone can't be proved as acceptable merely based on weak arguments and on the other hand;…
Ambler, Wayne. 1987. "Aristotle on Nature and Politics: The Case of Slavery." Political Theory 15:390-410.
Annas, Julia. 1996. "Aristotle on Human Nature and Political Virtue." The Review of Metaphysics 49: 731-53.
Arendt, Hannah. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Arendt, Hannah. 1961. Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Viking.
This has often made it very difficult for black individuals to become high educational and social achievers. Racists then twist the reasons behind this lack of achievement and use it as evidence that members of the group are inferior (Gimlin, 2005). Racism and discrimination are both common threads in prejudiced activity toward black women, and this works to perpetuate the problems that they have faced in the past and that they are still facing in society today.
There is little that can be done to eliminate biological differences between the ethnic groups, but society can change differences that have been created by its own political and economic systems. Some psychologists even argue that racism should be treated like a mental health issue. Racism, therefore, becomes a double-edged sword and both the oppressors and the oppressed suffer from and for it. The oppressors have guilt, shame, and remorse, while the…
Collins, Patricia Hill (1998) "Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images, black feminist thought" New York: Routledge
Espiritu, Yen Le (2007) "Chapter five: Ideological racism and cultural resistance." In Asian-American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Hook, Bell (1998) "Selling Hot Pussy: Representations of Black Female Sexuality in the Cultural Market" in: R. Weitz (ed) The Politics Of Women's Bodies: Sexuality Appearance and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gimlin, Debra. (2005). "Cosmetic Surgery: Paying for Your Beauty." In L. Richardson, V. Taylor and N. Whittier (ed), Feminist Frontiers, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…
Hult, G. Tomas M.; Cavusgil, S. Tamer; Deligonul, Seyda; Kiyak, Tunga; & Lagerstrom,
Katarina. (2007) What Drives Performance in Globally Focused Marketing Organizations? A Three-Country Study. Journal of International Marketing, 15(2), 58-85.
Keeley, Timothy Dean. 2001, International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms: Their Greatest Challenge, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kim, Youngok, Gray, Sidney J. 2005, 'Strategic factors influencing international human resource management practices: an empirical study of Australian multinational corporations', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 809-830.
Electricity being out for three weeks nearly forces an elevator sale to nearly be cancelled, no suitable drainage from massive rains floods his family's apartment, and the Indian value of bartering and customizing is diametrically opposed to the strict discipline of a low-end product strategy where no variation in standard products is allowed.
Mr. Napoli's experiences culminate in one year elapsing before a single elevator is sold, and that one sale is made when he's out of the country and his Indian sales managers compromise and sell a customized unit. Mr. Napoli, upon hearing this while in Italy for the birth of a child, becomes angry and feels betrayed. While Mr. Napoli did have several excellent tactical victories, he lost the cultural war in his first year of working in India. No matter how strong-willed and stubborn, Mr. Napoli could not make even a small part of the Indian culture…
Case Study Analysis (2005) - From the research and advisory firm LWC Research. Orange, CA. Accessed from the Internet on November 21, 2006:
Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990) - Dr. Michael Porter. Article from Harvard Business Review. Boston, MA. March - April 1990. Pages 73-91.
Selling Into India: Lessons Learned From Silvio Napoli (2005) - Article from CRM Buyer Magazine. Louis Columbus. April 22, 2005
West Side Story is a film about two rival gangs, the Jets and the Sharks. The Jets are American and the Sharks are of Puerto ican descent. The movie has a omeo and Juliet storyline -- however, in West Side Story the two lovers, Tony and Maria, are from two different ethnic groups as opposed to two sparring families in omeo and Juliet. It is ethnocentrism that stands in the way of Tony and Maria's love.
Ethnocentrism is defined by Spector (2009, 12) as the "belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group" and/or and "overriding concern with race." This is exactly what the problem is in West Side Story. The film is rife with concerns about ethnicity and where it places on in society. The film is about a fight over territory as it shows how immigrants from Puerto ico come to New York and, in a sense,…
Spector, RE. (2009). Cultural diversity in health and illness. Prentice Hall; 7th edition.
Sandoval-Sanchez, A. (1994). 'West Side Story: A Puerto Rican reading of America.' Jump
Cut,39, pp. 59-66. Accessed on February 20, 2011:
Racial differences and prejudice: the role of intercultural communication competence in strengthening group cohesion in "Remember the Titans"
Popular media such as films are most effective ways to convey specific messages to the audience that are socially-relevant to them. Through audio-visual media, people are able to put into the right perspective or context issues that would otherwise have been discussed without clarity and understanding. ecause of the effectiveness of audio-visual media as communicator of socially-relevant messages, movies and films are often used to illustrate an individual or group's point-of-view or opinion about an important and controversial social issue.
The movie "Remember the Titans" exemplifies the preceding discussion: it is a film that discusses how racial prejudice and discrimination was a prevalent attitude and behavior during the 1970s in American society. Set in the state of Virginia, the "Titans" chronicles the true life of the football team of T.C. Williams…
Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: the process of interpersonal communication. CA: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Remember the Titans. Dir. Boaz Yakin. Prod. Jerry Burckheimer. Walt Disney, 2000.
If you don't do them well, you can't compete, but doing them better than anyone else provides limited benefit. Companies should carefully examine these tasks for outsourcing opportunities, keeping in mind that they may require the outsourced resources to have specialized or more developed skills.
Activities that are necessary, but a commodity level of service is sufficient - Commodity tasks are necessary for keeping a company functioning, but they do not require specialized skills. Performing these tasks at a level higher than the industry norm provides the company no value.
According to industry estimates that for most companies, only 20% of their activities provide strategic advantage, 50% of their activities are critical, and 30% are at the commodity level. However, most companies outsource few critical tasks, though outsourcing critical tasks represents a large opportunity. Several Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) that have outsourced development have found that about 20% of their…
Missionary Conquest: A critical analysis
It is often said that there is nothing so dangerous as a convert or a missionary. Although many take this idea as a kind of "tongue in cheek" characterization of the excesses of those "blinded by faith," there remains a sinister truth in the statement. George Tinker's book, Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide, clearly illustrates the dark side of missionary work, and the damage that can, and has been done to Native American cultures and peoples as a result of the inherent coupling of colonialism/ethnocentrism and religion -- what he calls, "religion in the service of evil." However, although Tinker does a wonderful job in pointing out the unfortunate "Anglo-centrism" of the missionaries he discusses, as well as the horrible price Native Americans would pay as a result of their efforts, he does not acknowledge the difficulty his position as a…
Tinker, George. Missionary Conquest. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Origins and Demise of the Concept of ace by Charles Hirschman
In modern times, the reality of race is indisputable, especially for American eyes. acial discrimination is not just skin deep and based on skin color, features and hair texture, but it has rather existed since ancient times to date, with age-old exploitation and discrimination. Through this essay, Hirschman discusses the theory of racism history, in relation to social science. He concludes that this concept of race and racism is not a primordial or ancestral belief rather it has developed with modernity over the past 40 decades and reached its pinnacle in the early twentieth century (385).
Since ancient times, cultural diversity evolved naturally as people learned to survive and settle in different climatic zones and their physical features like skin color and hair varied according to climatic conditions. Different outcomes were recorded as they interacted; some were accommodated calmly…
Hirschman, Charles. "The Origins and Demise of the Concept of Race by Charles Hirschman." Population and Development Review.30.3 (2004): 385-415. Web. 15 May 2016.
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Deaf culture has become fairly well established in academia and to a lesser degree in mainstream public consciousness. However, Holly Elliot offers a unique perspective on Deaf culture and identity in Teach Me To Love Myself. Elliot begins her narrative by sharing her experience as a bicultural person: someone who had straddled the worlds of the hearing and of the Deaf. Her biculturalism allows Elliot to build bridges instead of barriers, engendering cross-cultural communication. As such, Teach Me to Love Myself offers a tremendously valuable contribution to the evolving and nuanced discourse on Deaf culture.
Elliot had been both hearing and Deaf, but made a conscious decision to “move from the hearing to the Deaf world,” (Kindle Edition). The very notion that Elliot could “move” suggests the notion of the liminal in Deaf identity as well as a conflict between the different worlds in which a Deaf individual resides. Elliot’s…
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…
Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bender, T. (2006). A Nation among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang:
Cabral, A. (1973). National Liberation and Culture. In Return to the Source: Selected Speeches of Amilcar Cabral. New York: Monthly Review Press: 39-56.
McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge.
There is no market for Internet sales.
The promotion function is complicated by the nation's demographics. Promotion must be conducted in multiple languages. Promotions in Russian -- which is understood by all -- will not be respected by either the Kyrgyz or the Uzbeks. Ads strictly in Kyrgyz, on the other hand, will not attract the Russian audience as they will not understand them.
Promotions should feature either nationalist or ethnocentric motifs in order to gain the strongest consumer response. Emotion-centered promotion can be successful, rather than appeals featuring intellectual arguments.
There are limited media outlets, but those that do exist command a healthy market share. There are competing media from Russia and surrounding Central Asian states as well. Newspapers are popular, as is television. There is a radio presence. The online advertising market is in its infancy. Because of the limited size of the advertising industry, promotional budgets…
CIA World Factbook. (2009). Kyrgyzstan. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html
Ardichvili, A. & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal. Vol. 22,2,62-69.
Khamidov, A. (2009). Kyrgyzstan: New agreement on Kumtor divides Kyrgyz elites. Ferghana.ru. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://enews.ferghana.ru/article.php?id=2529
Kaynak, Erdener, Kara, Ali. (2001). An examination of the relationship among consumer lifestyles, ethnocentrism, knowledge structures and behavioral tendencies: A comparative study in two CIS states. International Journal of Advertising.
Arabs who commit terrorist organizations toward Western targets may do so because they feel a unification with their nation or ethnicity, and see the West as a threat to that nationalism and ethnicity. Thus, while political motivations certainly threaten terrorism, nationalism and ethnocentrism compound these motivations, threatening terrorism against the safety of the world.
Finally, religious fanaticism, sometimes a component of nationalism and ethnocentrism, often causes terrorism. This can be most clearly seen in the recent September 11, 2001 attacks and the prominence of Al Queda at a worldwide terrorist organization. According to Walker (2001) the September 11 attacks were fueled by Muslim fanatics who were told that their actions were religiously correct. They were following a religious concept of Holy War of Jihad, a concept that "comes right from the heart of extremist Muslims" (para. 6). Still, some argue that Jihad is not necessarily a terrorist concept, but religious…
"Causes of Terrorism." (2005). Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.meteck.org/causesTerrorism.html
Walker, J. (2001). The Cause of Terrorism. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.nobeliefs.com/terrorism.htm
Zalman, A. (2009). The Cause of Terrorism. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://terrorism.about.com/od/causes/a/causes_terror.htm
However the text was also written to promote both the New World colonies and Smith himself, and these strains often appear stronger than the push towards historical objectivity. It could be said, then, that the real purpose behind the writing of the General History was to advance Smith's own career and image back in England, rather than to provide other people of his day an accurate description of life in the New World. It could also have been motivated as a defense of colonial efforts, as there are several mentions of bettering certain "savages" by exposing them to English culture and Christianity, as well as other feature of European society that Smith sees as superior (Smith, 328).
Because of these ulterior motives, this text cannot be entirely trusted. Its basic depiction of life in the New World and the specific events mentioned can generally be regarded as reflecting the truth,…
This shows up most poignantly in her relationship with her granddaughter, the "mixed" child who causes the comment at the start of the story and who basically drives the plot of the story forward. The narrator has difficulty understanding her granddaughter Sophie's behavior, but only partially blames this on the way she is raised. Instead, the grandmother sees this mainly as a function of Sophie's mixed ethnic identity, saying that by the age of three "already I see her nice Chinese side swallowed up by her wild Shea side." The narrator tends to associate everything negative about her daughter and granddaughter with the Irish and American influences, while claiming that if they acted more Chinese things would get better. This shows that racism is not an issue related solely to this country, but that -- ironically -- it is actually a universal aspect of all cultures; a commonality that all…
If it isn't demons, idols, and black magic, it's sex -- the most repressed impulse in the estern-Christian tradition.
During and after his time in the court of Kubla Khan, one notices an increased tone of rationality in the narrative. Less exoticized details of the life of people in the Orient begin to emerge, such as food and clothing habit, but the earlier sensationalism is not lost entirely -- perhaps cannot be, as it is such an engrained part of the estern perspective when viewing the sights of Asia. He travels to a region he identifies as "Bengala," which according to Latham is likely Bengal but could possibly be Pegu, which was in the process of being conquered during the time of the Great Khan's court (Latham, 189). Though this passage also contains a brief and simple message about the main sources of sustenance for the people in this region,…
Polo, Marco (attributed). The Travels of Marco Polo, Ronald Latham. New York: Penguin, 1958.
A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.
Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.
In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.
What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…
Patrick Burnson (2002, December). Amsterdam's key role in Starbucks' global strategy. World Trade, 15(12), 40-41. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 241805271).
Deutsche Bank (2006) - Starbucks Overview. Deutsche Bank Securities Research. New York, NY. 10 July 2006.
Geoffrey a. Fowler (2003, July 14). Starbucks' Road to China; Prime Locations Are the Key, but So Is Using Snob Appeal to Lure Nation of Tea Drinkers. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 369860271).
Jeffrey S. Harrison, Eun-Young Chang, Carina Gauthier, Todd Joerchel, et al. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia: Starbucks in China. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 832085141).
For any expatriate manager to be effective they must
immerse themselves at a very visceral level, and become fully integrated
into the new environment. This is also especially true for the managers'
family, with his wife needing to find a role for herself yet also connect
with the other women in ther8i neighborhood. The societal norms and values
are more easily learned by spouses however, as they intermingle with other
wives and mothers who are busy teaching these values to their children as
well. Women find it generally easier to become polycentric as they are
more apt to ask for assistance and less apt to feel their authority is
somehow undermined by asking for assistance. The critical point of all
this is that any new expatriate assignment needs to be taken on within a
sense of duty to the staff there and a willingness to move quickly out of
The United Kenya Club was founded in 1946 and was the first multi-racial social organization in Kenya; the organization sponsored concerts and cultural events open to all ethnicities (if you could afford a ticket price). The liberal paternalists pressed for programs that would introduce "profit-making crafts to landless laborers," would "encourage the growth of a prosperous rural elite" and also would encourage progressive agricultural practices among poor peasants. Moreover, the liberal paternalists (Kennedy 248) wished to "instill estern principles of hygiene and child care" among African women and their daughters.
Missionaries were traditionally among the liberal paternalists, Kennedy points out, and when Sir Philip Mitchell became governor of Kenya, he "sought to invigorate the peasant agricultural sector" in order to build a more diversified economy (Kennedy 249). Mitchell also believed "with some justification" that a few of the white leaders among the British settlers "could be persuaded to cooperate in…
Clough, Marshall S. 1998. Mau Mau Memoirs: History, Memory, and Politics. Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Edgerton, Robert B. 1989. Mau Mau: An African Crucible. New York: The Free Press.
Elkins, Caroline. 2005. Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya.
Constructive attitudes towards work, leisure, time and change, set apart organizational models of attainment and enthusiasm, individualism as well as realization of self, and being humanistic as well as helpful that result in constructive culture that urges communications with individuals and strategies to assignments which will allow the employees to fulfill satisfaction needs of a higher plane and would bring about changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006)
As opposed to this, defensive attitudes to work, leisure and time are typified by looking for support and unanimity, being traditional and compliant, and being reliable and submissive that result in defensive culture. Defensive cultures support or completely need communication with individuals in manners that will not endanger individual safety and will not lead to changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006) Further, family, social mobility and religion are especially more vibrant that show conventional model of ancestry following and notions of family structure, as also modifications ushered…
Aarons, Gregory a; Sawitzky, Angelina C. (February, 2006) "Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Practice" Psychological Services. Vol. 3, no. 1, pp: 61-72.
Al-Nakeeb, Basil. (18 August, 2003) "Political Stability and Iraq's Privatization Strategy"
Middle East Economic Survey. Vol. XLVI, no. 33, pp: 17-20
Culture and Non-Verbal Communication" (n.d.) Retrieved 4 February, 2007 at http://www.cba.uni.edu/buscomm/nonverbal/Culture.htm
Is genocide innate? Look at primate behavior
What is the genetic/biological understanding of this?
Study the pre-historic and early historic tribes
How are societies formed? Is this innate behavior a precipitous to this formation?
Can societies be re-formed without genocide and bloodshed?
Is it true as Louis Dumont points out that man is incapable of recognizing hierarchy?
Why have governments such as the Communists and Fascists murdered so many people?
Some say that democracy ends genocide. Is that true?
Does government further promote ethnocentrism and fear/hate of others?
This paper will question the theory that genocide is innate and, if so, what this means to mankind in general. Is there a way of eradicating this genetic tendency? How? If not, what can be done to continue as a whole human race or -- homo sapiens?
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
Prejudice in Individuals:
Prejudice is the rigid irrational attitudes and opinions possessed by individuals or members of a specific group about another individual or group. onsequently, being prejudiced is defined as having preconceived beliefs regarding some people groups or cultural practices. In addition to being preconceived and difficult to change, prejudices can be positive or negative. While is possible to be prejudiced and fail to act upon the beliefs or attitudes, negative prejudices can result in discrimination. This negative form of prejudice is practiced in order to guard opportunities through denying access to groups of people. There is an urgent need to lessen prejudice because of the changing social structure, demographics, work place settings, and education settings. However, many efforts to reduce prejudices in these various settings have been legal and have failed to confront the dynamics of the disorder.
There are two prejudicial processes that operate differently…
Cole, J. (n.d.). Understanding Prejudice Behavior. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.beyondprejudice.com/under_stand.html
"Prejudice and Discrimination." (n.d.). Cliff Notes. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Prejudice-and-Discrimination.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
Schamotta, J. (n.d.). The Development of Prejudice. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8547880_development-prejudice.html
bias based on gender, race, or ethnicity considered unacceptable, in some instances, like employment or pay status, it can be illegal. Our nation does not condone discrimination on factors like these, and for many years we have, as a whole, enforced laws and policies that make racist or biased behavior difficult to institute. This attention to equality, however, does not mean that racism, gender bias, or other biases do not occur. In studying the existence of these biases, I examined my own community of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Grand Rapids is a town of about 200,000. As of the 2000 census, the racial demographics of Grand Rapids were 67.30% white, 20.41% African-American, 0.74% Native American, 1.62% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 6.63% from other races, and 3.19% from two or more races. 13.05% of the population are of Hispanic or Latino heritage from any racial background (Grand Rapids, 2005). All in all,…
Elected and Appointed Officials, at city of Grand Rapids website, http://www.ci.grand-rapids.mi.us/index.pl-page_id=42
'Grand Rapids, Michigan," Wikipedia, online reference for Grand Rapids. Accessed online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Rapids,_Michigan#Entertainment_and_media
Healey, Joseph, 2003. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class, 3rd. Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
"Survey Examines Excesses and Improvements in Local TV Newscasts Across the U.S.," Rocky Mountain Media Watch, 1998. Accessed online at http://www.bigmedia.org/texts5.html .
Wal Mart Case Continuation
WalMart in China
Annotated Outline of Final Project
WalMart Globally: Why a Fast-Fail Mentality Pays
Failures in Germany & South Korea a esult of Strong Ethnocentrism
Both failures show the WalMart corporate culture had a very strong bias towards ethnocentrism (Ming-Ling, Donegan, Ganon, Kan, 2011) including a believe in their distribution and supply chain systems being so advanced that they could transcend cultural boundaries (Taylor, 2003).
Failures Showed Weaknesses In Managing Governments And Ignorance Of Their oles As Stakeholders
German government sues WalMart for violation of worker rights, specifically in the area of hours they attempted to push workers to be on the job (WalMart Investor elations, 2013).
Chinese government courted as a key stakeholder and full disclosure given over how satellite uplinks are used (Ming-Ling, Donegan, Ganon, Kan, 2011) and the WalMart executive management team starts thinking with the same Long-Term orientation (LTO) as exemplified…
Ming-Ling, C., Donegan, J.J., Ganon, M.W. & Kan, W. 2011, "Walmart and Carrefour experiences in China: resolving the structural paradox," Cross Cultural Management, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 443-463.
Porter, M.E. 1986, "Changing Patterns of International Competition," California management review, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 9-9.
Taylor, R. 2003, "China's Consumer Revolution: Distribution Reform, Foreign Investment and the Impact of the WTO," Asian Business & Management, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 187-187.
WalMart Investor Relations, 2013. Investor Relations. Retrieved May 8, 2013, from Wal-Mart Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC:
Cultural Sensitivity Language Based Amoja Three ivers' "Cultural Etiquette," Lynette Clemetson's "The acial Politics Speaking Well," observations experience, write a draft essay dealing issues cultural sensitivity language.
Prejudices and the politics of 'speaking well'
"Ethnocentrism," as defined in Amoja Three ivers' essay "Cultural Etiquette" is "a tendency to view alien groups or cultures in terms of one's own" and "the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own group and culture, accompanied by a feeling of contempt for other groups and cultures." Because how we speak feels so natural to us, there is a tendency to assume that people who cannot speak our language must be less intelligent -- or people who look differently from us cannot be masters of English. This is a common form of linguistic ethnocentrism. We assume that a recent immigrant is not intelligent because he or she is just learning the language -- even though…
Clemetson, Lynette. (2007). On the politics of speaking well. The New York Times.
Rivers, Amoja Three. (1996). Cultural etiquette. Communities. Retrieved:
CARS WERE BANNED IN U.S.
Physical mobility is perhaps one of the most-crucial components in sociology; it defines what happens when people of a different culture interacts. In ideal circumstances, our personal movement is limited, and the scope of interaction will be limited to our community thanks to the discovery of automobiles. In the wake of modern automobiles, people from all walks of lives have interacted at higher and lower level; the result has been an incredible national cohesion and social acceptance. In addition, the governance, commerce and other spheres of lives have been facilitated by the diverse modes of transport. It would be unimaginable to live without automobiles; their absence will have profound effects on social, cultural and economic aspects of life.
Firstly, without automobiles, social interaction will be greatly hampered, multicultural interaction, and sociological progress of U.S. society will remain behind. Certainly, transport is a crucial tool for…
Classroom Behavior Management
Developing a classroom that takes cultural diversity into account begins with understanding one's own ethnocentrism, that a lot of what we take for granted pertains specifically to our own cultural upbringing. Children who come from other cultures -- and their parents -- may well have different ideas and ideals. It is important to learn about the different cultures that are present in my classroom, as a starting point for understanding. A lot of developing an inclusive classroom involves listening to students and parents, so as to understand their cultures better, and how that pertains to the classroom. My plan would have specific Tier 1 rules, governing the basics of classroom behavior that are not subject to question on the basis of culture. But there will also need to be more of an individualized (Tier 2) approach, where some students from other cultures might receive special attention, or…
Wake Up; Take a Shower; Take Breakfast With Other Family Members
Arrive at the bank; pick a waiting ticket; interaction with service staff; a member of staff in the next counter is having a difficult time with a customer
9:00 am: Arrive at my girlfriend's house; help her with laundry and other household chores; watch a movie together
12:30 pm: Having lunch with my girlfriend in a restaurant; in an adjacent table three women are talking about their dating experiences with men in different cultures
2:00 pm: At the parking lot a beggar stops me; he tells me he has no home or family
7:00 pm: Watching evening news -- robbery at a local store and unnecessary shooting of an innocent Black man by a White police officer
Sociology demonstrates that people's daily lives are shaped and constrained by the society (Dillon, 2010). By interacting with and/or watching other…
Dillon, M. (2010). Introduction to sociological theory: theorists, concepts, and their applicability to the twenty-first century. UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Hurst, C., Gibbon, H., & Nurse, A. (2016). Social inequality: forms, causes and consequences. 9th ed. New York: Routledge.
Williams, C. (2003). Sky demands: the demands of emotional labour in the airline industry. Gender, Work & Organisation, 10(5), 513-550.
Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).
Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. acism is totally embedded in the social structures…
Hier, Sean E. And Walby, Kevin 2006. "Competing Analytical Paradigms in the Sociological Study of Racism in Canada." Canadian Ethnic Studies. 38(1), p83-104.
La Parra Casado, Daniel and Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo 2007, "Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups. 2007." Language & Intercultural Communication. 7(2), p152-162.
Paradies, Yin 2005, "Anti-Racism and Indigenous Australians." Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy. 5(1), p1-28.
"Racism." 2010. Viewed 1 April 2010,
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…
Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A
Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.