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Currently, in the health care setting, patients are protected from involuntary acts of eugenics through laws that require doctor's to get the patient's full consent for all procedures done. Further, if a doctor fails to get such consent, they can be held liable under the malpractice laws of torts.
Eugenics and Immigration
Eugenics has also played a historical role in immigration and immigration reform during the twentieth century. Staring with the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenics was called on to play a central role in the congressional policy debate as to the allegedly "inferior stock" of immigrants coming from eastern and southern Europe.
Typically, eugenics as it applies to immigration reform deals with placing limits on the number of immigrants allowed from certain races, ethnicities or geographic locations. This practice is considered to be eugenics as it is used to systematically control or eliminate a specific population…
Downes, Lawrence. "What Part of Illegal Don't You Understand?" New York Times.
Engs, Ruth C. (2005): The Eugenics Movement: An Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Glad, John. (2007): Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century. Hermitage Publishers.
Kevles, Daniel. (1985): In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. New York: Knopf.
Genetic Enhancement and Eugenics
The word "eugenics" was coined in 1883 by the English scientist Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin. He intended it to denote the "science" of improving the human stock by giving "the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable." Since Galton's day, "eugenics" has become a word of ugly connotations -- and deservedly. Eugenic aims merged with misinterpretations of the new science of genetics to help produce cruelly oppressive and in the era of the Nazis barbarous social results. Nonetheless, eugenics continues to figure in social discourse in some proposals for human genetic engineering.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1: Daniel Kelves, In the Name of Eugenics, p. xiii.]
Philip Kitcher, in The Lives to Come, describes laissez faire eugenics as the eugenics yet to come in this era of prenatal testing and genetic counseling. It is a form…
The Forced Sterilization of Romani omen in Slovakia and the Czech Republic
Eugenics is the belief that the human gene pool should be kept as clean as possible by eliminating disease and other genetic defects from the population. In some cases, such as with the Nazi's and U.S. government with America Indian tribes, this has meant an ethnic or racial cleansing, but that does not have to be the case. Many times throughout history cleansing has been used to sterilize people who were deemed hereditarily poor or they had family history of mental illness or retardation. In modern history, it would seem that such practices would have ended because people seem more enlightened now. Unfortunately, the practice has not ended, and in some cases it has been amplified. Some of the worst examples of modern eugenics programs have been those which forced people to be sterilized. In the Czech…
Anca-Strauss, Andreea. "Challenging Coercive Sterilizations of Romani Women in the Czech Republic." European Roma Rights Center, 2005. Web.
Kinoti, Kathambi. "Forced Sterilization of Roma Women." Association of Women's
Rights in Development, 2003. Web.
Stojaspal, Jan. "Against Their Will." Time Magazine, 2003, 2 February. Web.
Some eugenicists also support "limits on immigration from non-European countries, a restriction on welfare benefits to poor families and bans on inter-racial marriage" or miscegenation. As an example of the radical thinking of some supporters of eugenics, Platt refers to Mr. Charles M. Goethe, the founder and sponsor of the Eugenics Society of Northern California and the Human etterment Foundation, as stating in 1929 that Mexicans are "eugenically as low-powered as the Negro" and that Mexicans "do not understand health rules. eing a superstitious savage, he resists them" ("The Frightening Agenda," Internet), a viewpoint that is obviously based on racial prejudice and utter ignorance of the true facts.
Thus, today's eugenics movement is riding a rather high wave of influence and power, due in part to the financial contributions of many very wealthy individuals, institutions and corporations within and outside the United States. As shown in the article "Funding the…
Funding the Eugenics Movement." Internet. Retrieved at http://www.eugenics-watch.com/roots/chap12.html .
Platt, Tony. "The Frightening Agenda of the American Eugenics Movement." History News
Network. Internet. 2003. Retrieved at http://www.hnn.us/articles/1551.html .
Genetic screening will generate more prejudice against the invalid, the disabled, and the poor and a permanent genetic as well as social and economic class will be created.
This will fundamentally change the relationship between parents and children, as children will feel responsible for their creation as entire selves from their parents. The parents of children will not simply be the alpha, the beginnings of their children, but also the omega, or end of their child's existence, as they attempt to determine where their children will end up in life, how intelligent their children will become, even what they will look like as adults as well as children, their future careers, and their future hobbies and desires.
How different, one might be tempted to ask, is this today, when more and more children are receiving plastic surgery at younger and younger ages? This desire might originate from the child as…
Silver, Lee. "The Virtual Child." From Writing from Sources. Sixth Edition. Edited by Brenda Spatt.
Rogow states that "it is noteworthy that the pattern of corruption of schools and destruction of Christian schools were far less successful in rural districts where people knew and trusted one another." (Samuels and Thompson, 1949; as cited in Rogow, nd)
This lesson in history is clear and should clearly grasped within the legal, medical and educational professions with an acknowledgement among these individuals that it is they, and their profession which hold greatest power within a society to either be complicit, or to stand against the abuses of government which murdered so very many children. For the truth is that Hitler, and his Nazi rulers could not have, without the cooperation of professionals in these three sectors of society, institutionalized and murdered 250,000 children whose lives are a testament to this truth and the true power held by those filling these roles in society in every country throughout…
Vermaat, Emerson J.A. (nd) Euthanasia in the Third Reich: Lessons for Today. Ethics and Medicine Vol. 18 Issue 1. Online available at http://www.ethicsandmedicine.com/18/1/18-1-vermaat.htm.
Burleigh, M. (1994) Death and Deliverance: Euthanasia in Germany 1900-1945.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
Friedlander, H. (1994) the Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the final solution, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina
Eugenics eflection on Past and Current Activities
The negative feelings and perceptions many have about eugenics have been founded on previous evidence where the practice was found to have been used to limit the growth of some races. The racial prejudices are shocking in their ferocity. The initial step towards evil is the ridicule or vilification of the victim. Many individuals have been objectified and described as waste or animals, making it thinkable or possible for the public to accept the discrimination or denial of rights to certain races, first through segregation and institutionalization and then through involuntary sterilization or even downright genocide as the case was in Nazi Germany. Even though the racism, bigotry, discrimination and pseudoscience, which was associated with eugenics is rightly deserved, these ills do not in themselves show reason why eugenics ought to be avoided in the future. Much negativity has been attributed to the…
Allen, G. (2005). Eugenics. Retrieved March 18, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3424300258.html
Chapter Two: eugenics and its shadow. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/courses/bioethics/Papers/GeneBook/CH2.html
Lombardo, P. A. (2001). The American breed: Nazi eugenics and the origins of the Pioneer Fund. Alb. L. Rev., 65, 743.
McCabe, L. L., & McCabe, E. R. (2011). Down syndrome: coercion and eugenics. Genetics in Medicine, 13(8), 708-710.
Organized Psychology’s Involvement in the Eugenics Movement
The eugenics movement that began in the United States during the 1920s reached a brutal extreme with the Nazis’ experimentation with improving the racial stock of human beings through controlled breeding, and this movement would have significant implications well into the 21st century (Sutton, 2015). Many practitioners today, though, may be unaware of organized psychology’s role in contributing to the eugenics movement during the 20th century (Newhouse, 2016). To gain some new insights into this issue, this paper reviews the relevant primary and secondary literature concerning organized psychology’s long involvement in the eugenics movement and how this involvement provided the scientific basis for the selective breeding and extermination of human beings. Finally, a recapitulation of the main findings from the primary and secondary literature concerning these issues and the lessons learned are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
The origins of eugenics…
There are too many factors that cannot be controlled. Children may develop inferiority feelings regarding their own specialness due to the choices of their parents. Many people who may be able to make contributions to society will more than likely be aborted. There is also the possibility that just because someone has a genetic trait for a malady, they may not even manifest such a condition. Additionally, the lack of clear boundaries in this field leaves the potential for catastrophes, such as that which happened during orld ar II.
Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.
Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.
Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.…
Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.
Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.
Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.
King, David S. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the 'New' Eugenics." Journal of Medical Ethics, 25, 1999, 176 -- ?182
att Ridley's opinions that the practice of personal eugenics should not be discouraged and is not dangerous are correct. As Ridley states, personal eugenics is a private matter. odern eugenics is about individuals applying private criteria to improve their own offspring by screening their genes.
others can prevent a child from suffering by aborting fetuses that would be born with Down syndrome or inherited disorders. And, people who carry the Tay- Sachs mutation can avoid marrying each other through blood testing. The use of personal eugenics if for a cosmetic purpose is perhaps more controversial, but once again it's really the parent's decision. As Ridley points out, women can choose to abort their child if they want to, so why shouldn't they be allowed to have the kind of child that they want?
Eugenics' bad rap stems from societal genetics. any of its advocates were socialists, who saw eugenics…
Mothers can prevent a child from suffering by aborting fetuses that would be born with Down syndrome or inherited disorders. And, people who carry the Tay- Sachs mutation can avoid marrying each other through blood testing. The use of personal eugenics if for a cosmetic purpose is perhaps more controversial, but once again it's really the parent's decision. As Ridley points out, women can choose to abort their child if they want to, so why shouldn't they be allowed to have the kind of child that they want?
Eugenics' bad rap stems from societal genetics. Many of its advocates were socialists, who saw eugenics as a means to achieve state planning of reproduction. But, unfortunately, policies turned into a human-rights catastrophe: the rejection of many immigrants, the sterilization of many people whose only crime was to have below-average intelligence, and eventually, in Germany, the extermination of millions of people. Societal genetics are impossible to prevent because of the social norms and harsh governments that exist in many countries. Ridley appears to be too optimistic on this topic, stating that China is the only country that still preaches eugenics for the good of society. However, as population levels swell, poor and desperate countries could easily be inclined to turn to societal eugenics as a solution. Other countries can exert only so much influence on foreign governments and it's easy to imagine the unconstrained increase in societal eugenics, particularly as technology advances make it easier to implement.
Ridley, Matt. "The New Eugenics: Better Than the Old." National Review 31 July 2000.
History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care
Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…
Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724
Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm
Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…
Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British
Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com .
Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.
Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au .
Buck vs. Bell
Lee M. Silver's Remaking Eden and Dr. Leon R. Kass' Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity provide differing perspectives on the applicability of the issue of the case of Buck vs. Bell to today's society. In Buck vs. Bell, eugenics and Social Darwinism spurred a Supreme Court decision that allowed forced sterilization. In Remaking Eden, the perspective of Silver effectively argues that the case of Buck vs. Bell is not at all applicable to genetic issues today. Silver's optimistic stance on genetic engineering seems to indicate that human innovativeness and ingenuity will allow humans to successfully use genetic technologies to improve the world. In contrast, Kass' perspective suggests that the case of Buck vs. Bell is highly applicable to genetic issues today. Kass notes that even well-meaning and benevolent applications of technology can have devastating impacts on human dignity, echoing a theme found in the violation…
Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.
Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden. Perennial.
Syracuse University, Personal Home Pages. Buck Vs. Bell. http://web.syr.edu/~slbignes
Gender of a Baby:
The issue on whether parents should be allowed to choose the sex of their baby has been a major controversial issue in the recent past that has attracted huge debates between proponents and opponents of such practice. This issue has received huge attention because of long-term use of Assisted eproductive Technology (AT) to help pregnant women in the United States and across the globe. This technology basically involves the transfer of fertilized human embryos into a woman's uterus through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Advances in Assisted eproductive Technology have contributed to various innovations such as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, which enables parents to choose prenatally the sex of their offspring (Bumgarner, 2007, p.1289). This technology enables parents to select the sex of their babies through the use of medical techniques. While it is considered as a major breakthrough in reproductive health, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been surrounded…
Bumgarner, A. (2007, June 18). A Right to Choose? Sex Selection in the International Context.
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 14(1289), 1289-1309. Retrieved from http://c-fam.org/docLib/20100421_SSAdukelaw.pdf
Bhatia, R. (2010). Constructing Gender from the Inside Out: Sex-Selection Practice in the United
States. Feminist Studies, 36(2), 260-291.
Technology & CSR
Technological growth is fueled by a number of factors. The most important is changing conditions in the external environment. As new challenges arise, new technologies must be developed to meet those challenges. Another factor is competition. In many industries, business is so competitive that new technology is required to give companies competitive advantage, so they develop it. Another factor is increasing wealth in the world. Nations are contributing to the growth of technology that have not been able to make contributions in the past. All of this has an impact on corporate social responsibility. However you define CSR and whatever types of new technologies are created, companies must always keep in mind that they need to be ethical and remember their responsibilities to society.
Any number of corporate social responsibility issues can arise out of the use of technology and scientific research, since all three terms are…
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
Volden, C. & Wiseman, A. (2009). A theory of government regulation and self-regulation with the specter of nonmarket threats. Ohio State University. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://polisci.osu.edu/faculty/cvolden/VW_nonmarkets.pdf
The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…
educational theories in the light of political context. Hence the paper provides a springboard for insight into some essential interconnections between educational approaches and movements, motivational goals of the researchers and the varied opinions of the educationists and experts, through presenting alternative arguments. The orks Cited three sources in MLA format.
The Political Context of Educational Theory: Alternative Arguments
here all believe in the significance of education for the development of personality and for the welfare of the nation, many support the various important and blatant theories and educational movements. However, there is still a decent number that presents alternative arguments in their effort to prove that educational research (and related public funding) world-over is being used not only as a tool to inculcate sense of discipline and responsibility but also to gain political ends.
Following passages of the research paper will present arguments from various educationists and researchers thereby…
Stone J.E. Comment on "An Open Letter to Reid Lyon." Volume 30, October 2001. Pages: 31-32. Available at http://aera.net/pubs/er/index.html (October 20, 2002)
Strauss S.L. "Methodology, Medical Metaphors and Mental Health: A Reply to J.E.
Stone." Volume 30, October 2001. Pages: 32-33. Available at
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
establishment of the People's Democratic Republic in China in the late 1940's, the Chinese Communist Party actively re-engineered society to curb birthrates and bring the country's population down to manageable levels. Part of this idea was a process that would re-imagine the family, a concept first found in the work of Plato. However, this invention of an 'ideal family' as being a paradigmatic national goal of social reformers that has its origins in British Malthusianism and gave birth to the practice of eugenics in the United States. It complemented a long tradition of periodic moral reforms and religious revivals that have existed in the United States since the Great Awakening.
The modern American concept of 'family values' owes its existence to the progressives of the late 19th century, whose principal manifestation was in organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Society for the Prevention of Vice. The…
Labin, Suzanne. The Anthill The Human Condition in Communist China. Praeger, 1960
Robb, George. The Way of All Flesh: Degeneration, Eugenics, and the Gospel of Free Love. University of Texas Press, 1996.
Smith, Christopher J. China: People and Places in the Land of One Billion. Westview Press, 1991
Galton's prediction of what would happen if person took a standardized college exam twice. There are three references used for this paper.
Galton created theories on what determined a person's mental capabilities.
By examining the man, an idea can be formed of what his predictions would be concerning retaking a standardized college exam.
The man, his theories and those who were influenced by him will be explored to warrant this prediction.
What Galton Would Predict
Galton believed intelligence is inherited and people are predisposed to only achieving so much on test. Therefore, he would predict a person taking a standardize college entrance exam twice would have similar scores on each test. He would feel that no matter how many times the test was administered, the chance of having any significant improvement on the test would be doubtful due to the person's genetics.
The Man and his Theory
Sir Francis Galton…
References eugenics (accessed 10-07-2002) ( http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/index.html ).
2002, 01 January). SIR FRANCIS GALTON. The Columbia Encyclopedia.
Garland, Allen E. (1996, 18 August). Science misapplied: the eugenics age revisited. (Cover
Story). Vol. 99. Technology Review, pp.22 (10).
The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…
Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.
PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
It must be considered, as well, that genetic testing is a somewhat newer thing and the results can be skewed; so even if a doctor did do a test and results came up negative, there is a chance something could have been positive. Is the doctor responsible for the fact that the test didn't find any genetic problems? It would be absolutely nonsensical to think that the doctor should be punished for not detecting problems. It is also incredibly unfair.
When two people decide to have children, they are basically assuming all responsibilities and they should be aware that giving birth to a child means knowing that there are certain risks involved. There is this question to be considered: If an aborted child cannot sue for wrongful death, how can anyone sue for wrongful life?
What will happen, if we aren't careful, is that doctors will become very wary of…
Bayles, Michael D. (1975). Harm to the unconceived. Kalamazoo College -- Western
Michigan University Conference in Philosophy of Law.
Doerr, Adam. (2009). The 'wrongful life' debate. Genonomics Law Report. Retrieved on September 1, 2010, from the Website:
As for those who believe it is never all right to abort babies under any circumstances, these people are blinded by good intentions. It is true that killing innocent children without reason is immoral, but there are actually situations that call for abortion as the only moral choice there is. We, as an advanced society, have the power to guide the development of our world, and in order for us to provide the best world possible for our children and the next generations, we must ensure that it is populated with the most fit people, rather than those who are less fit and will be a burden on society. Not allowing any abortion will prevent those who willingly wish to improve the future of humankind from doing so. There is no reason for a healthy woman to have to sacrifice herself, be that through death or through a lifetime of…
The foremost contentious concern lately has been the issue of granting legal status to the right to die with dignity, or euthanasia. Similar to the issue of death sentence or suicide, euthanasia is contentious as it entails killing an individual through a conscious decision. (The right to a dignified death - need for debate) "Euthanasia" derived from the Greek term implying "good death" is some activity we perform or otherwise which results in, or is planned to result in death, to liberate a person from pain. This is occasionally known as "mercy killing." (Reflections on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide) Giving a legal sanction to euthanasia is a vital referendum upon the social standing of those incapacitated in America nowadays. (Euthanasia: The Disability Perspective on the Right to Die Movement) Euthanasia can be attained either though an intentional process, or by refraining to take an action intentionally. In any one…
Abergavenny, Roger Dobson. (22 February, 2003) "Society should accept that euthanasia is a personal decision, report says." British Medical Journal. 326:416. Retrieved from http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/326/7386/416/d Accessed on 4 May, 2005
"Arguments against Euthanasia: Euthanasia is against the word and will of God." Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/sanctity_life/euthagod.shtml Accessed on 3 May, 2005
"Arguments against Euthanasia" Retrieved from http://www.euthanasia.com/argumentsagainsteuthanasia.html Accessed on 3 May, 2005
'Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cmed.section.17469 Accessed on 3 May, 2005
Anti-Miscegnation Statutes in the United States
Anti-Miscegenation Statutes in the United States
Previous to Loving v. Virginia, there were several cases on the subject of miscegenation. In Pace v. Alabama (1883), the Supreme Court made a ruling that the conviction of an Alabama couple for interracial sex, confirmed on the plea by the Alabama Supreme Court, did not disrupt the Fourteenth Amendment. Interracial marital sex was considered a felony, whereas adulterous sex ("infidelity or fornication") was just a misdemeanor. On plea, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that the illegalization of interracial sex was not a defilement of the equal protection clause since whites and non-whites were penalized in equivalent amount for the wrongdoing of involving in interracial sex. The court did not see the need to sustain the constitutionality of the prohibition on interracial marriage that was likewise part of Alabama's anti-miscegenation law. After Pace v. Alabama,…
For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.
Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.
This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…
Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.
Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.
Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Religion and Birth Control at the Supreme Court" by The Editorial Board (2016) of The New York Times is written from a leftist perspective, which is immediately evident in the first line of the article, which states that the Senate Republicans are inflicting "harm" on the nation "by refusing to consider filling the Supreme Court vacancy" which Obama wants to fill with his nomination. The piece is an anti-religion op-ed that condemns those who object to policies that impinge on their religious principles and integrity because their doing so "places burdens on others" (Editorial Board, 2016). In other words, it is okay to burden the consciences of religious objectors, but it is not okay to burden others, i.e., liberals who believe that everyone should have the right to choose as they want except for those who disagree with them on what is right and wrong, moral and immoral, ethical and…
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."
In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).
It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.
There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…
Lewy, G. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News Network, 2004. Web. http://www.hnn.us/articles/7302.html
Stannard, D. American Holocaust USA: Oxford University Press, 1993
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
and, through the scientific study of modern, cognitive science, the idea that 'I' am doing the thinking in a way that is separate from my body and that this can be rationally deducted, simply by thinking and without scientific experimentation would be confounded.
However, those using empiricism as their main philosophical view of the world have also been able to twist the empiricism to use science's supposed rationalism and objectivity to justify tyranny of 'the best,' as in the case of eugenics, and the notion of 'survival of the fittest,' which suggests that the 'best' (morally, racially, and ethically) thrive and should be allowed to triumph over the 'weak.' In reality, Darwin's actual theory merely supports the idea that those best suited to an environment survive, not that survivors are innately better or superior creatures (a mutated moth that can blend in with a coal-blackened environment is not 'better' than…
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
rise of fascist states in Germany and Italy during the post World War I era was accompanied by similar movements in nations across the world; but most of these never achieved the same prominence. Great Britain saw the emergence of the British Union of Fascists, which gained thousands of supporters, but the organization never came to power. Largely this was for economic reasons: Britain did not suffer as severe an economic downturn after the First World War as many other nations did. Another explanation is the general rejection of the violent methodology employed by the British Fascists. It is tempting to argue that fascism was fundamentally opposed to the overall democratic nature of the British populous, but it is more likely that the failure of the fascist movement in Great Britain had economic origins.
There had never been a war quite like World War I. In its aftermath it was…
Mental Health Drugs as Panacea
A culture is made up of people who have developed the same language (or at least dialect of a larger language), art forms, religion, and other means of distinguishing one group from another. It can be said that all groups have a certain culture that they have established by which they are constrained. For example, a company develops a culture that is specific to it, and that culture governs everyone who works at, or is affiliated with, that company. In ethnic terms, a culture will define the ways in which one ethnic grouping is different from another. Although certain groupings may have similar languages, religions and ways of doing things, they will also have differences which distinguish them. In the same way that different species of birds are characterized by slight differences in appearance or location, people are grouped by the culture from…
Cottone, R.R. (2007). Paradigms of counseling and psychotherapy, revisited: Is social constructionism a paradigm? Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 189- 199.
Haylock, B. (2004). Resilience education and drug information. Australian Screen Education, 38, 142-144.
Sharav, V.H. (2005). Screening for mental illness: The merger of eugenics and the drug industry. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(2), 111-121.
WebMD. (2005). Major depression (clinical depression). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/major-depression
Declaration of Independence was written and put into effect in the late 1700's. That is a bit of time ago but the work of Plato and Aristotle came a long, long time before that. Even with the major time disparities involved, there are some common themes and ideas that exist among both of the philosophers and the author of the Declaration of Independence. Even while keeping the focus on the Declaration of Independence very narrow, there are some obvious commonalities between the Declaration and the two classic philosophers. While many ideas and viewpoints change and shift over time, there are others that are much more enduring and prone to remain strong and many of those ideas are seen in the works analyzed within this report.
Much of what Plato had to say was very much in line with the Declaration of Independence. It is stated in The epublic that…
Aristotle. (1998). The Nicomachean ethics. Oxford (Oxfordshire): Oxford University Press.
Plato. The republic. Champaign, Ill.: Project Gutenberg.
Nature vs. Nurture
The nature vs. nurture argument is one that has been around for many years—especially since the behavioral sciences emerged in the 20th century with the experiments of Skinner and Bandura. It was Bandura’s (1977) theory of social learning that viewed all behavior as learned from one’s environment. Skinner (1957) likewise postulated that it was the “nurturing” side of one’s experience that shaped human activity, thought and expression. Galton (1883) on the other hand felt differently. He predated both Skinner and Bandura and was himself a student of Darwin. He thus postulated that “nature” was responsible for the development of human behavior—that some people were simply born with greater gifts, such as intellectual ability, than others. Galton was a 19th century philosopher and scientist and his views aligned with ideas like the Great Man Theory, which articulated the position that great leaders are born, not made. This paper…
ystems of income and financial position would superimpose standards of normalization upon everyone within the firm. Accounting, thereby, had achieved Foucault's definition of knowledge as power over people per excellence. By the 1950s, however, person as decision-maker replaced this vision of person as machine, and accounting still has power in our society, but a different sort of power. Likewise, accounting still possesses its constructivism (i.e. manner of perceiving a certain stranglehold on reality by emphasizing certain construct and demoting others), although its constructivist paradigm may have differed from that of, say, a century ago. Individuals are viewed, measured, and criticized within programmatic frameworks, and Miller and O'Leary (1987) suggest that accounting today can still be viewed as part of the heritage and structure (albeit slightly changed) of the traditional mode of power that it was in the early decades of this century. In other words, the slanted domination of accounting…
Armstrong, P. 2002, "Management, Image and Management Accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 13, pp. 281-295
Bryer, R. 2006, "Accounting and control of the labour process" Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 17, pp 551-598.
Chwastiak, M. & Young, J.J. 2005, "Silences in Annual Reports, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 14, 533- 552
Ezzamel, M., Lilley, S. & Willmott, H. 2004, "Accounting representation and the road to commercial salvation." Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29, pp. 783- 813.
Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented at the World's Fair.
In 1951, the categorization changed again, with a major section of special education called the 'slow learner' what today we refer to as 'learning disability'. Even here, this term has split into countless subcategories such as 'ADD', 'ADHD', 'Asperger's', 'learning deficiency', 'special needs', 'borderline line special needs', and so forth.
The 'take home' points for inclusion in the classroom would be primarily the endeavor to respect each and every student as an individual and to look past the labels. I believe that the use of diagnostic labels are potentially stigmatizing to students locking student in an, oftentimes, undeserved categorization that impedes the teacher from seeing him as a complex, remarkably rounded individual who has tremendous potential. The label…
Bateman, Barbara D. (1994). Who, How, and Where: Special Education's Issues in Perpetuity. The Journal of Special Education 27, 509-520.
Dorn, S., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (1996). A Historical Perspective on Special Education Reform. Theory into Practice 35, 12-19.
Kauffman, J.M. (1981). Historical Trends and Contemporary Issues in Special Education in the United States. In Handbook of Special Education, ed. James M. Kauffman and Daniel P. Hallahan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Winzer, Margaret a. (1993). History of Special Education from Isolation to Integration. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
However, the neuroimaging process would have to be performed exactly when the criminal performs a crime in order to understand more about his brain status, as mental states change and the criminal can think differently in diverse circumstances. In contrast to mental states, however, genes remain the same throughout one's life and authorities can actually understand if a criminal had a criminal mind or not by studying them (Gregoriou, 2003).
There have apparently been cases when criminals received less severe sentences on account of their nature, as psychiatrists determined that their genetics predisposed them to committing violent acts when they were provoked. "Abnormalities were found in five genes that have been linked to violent behavior. One of these genes encodes an enzyme called MAOA -- metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase a. Previous research has associated low levels of MAOA expression with aggression and criminal conduct in boys raised in abusive environments"…
Arnold, Paul. "NATURE vs NURTURE of a CRIMINAL MIND." Retrieved April 4, 2011, from the BrightHub Website: http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/55218.aspx
Brown, Teneille and Murphy Emily, "Through a Scanner Darkly: Functional Neuroimaging as Evidence of a Criminal Defendant's Past Mental States," Stanford Law Review 62.4 (2010)
Gondles, James a. "The Criminal Mind: A Challenge to Corrections,"Corrections Today Feb. 1999: 6
Gregoriou, Christiana "Criminally Minded: the Stylistics of Justification in Contemporary American Crime Fiction," Style 37.2 (2003)
5). He notes that "the skull is large and oval, and its anterior portion full and elevated." (Morton, p.5). His pro-white bias is very evident, as he states that that "this race is distinguished for the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments." (Morton, p.5). He also goes on to list the accomplishments he believes that Caucasians have attained, including populating the finest parts of the earth and having its best inhabitants. (Morton, p.6).
hen discussing Mongolians, Morton seems to find them to be second in intelligence to Caucasians. He describes Asians as being "characterized by a sallow or olive colored skin, which appears to be drawn tight over the bones of the face; long black straight hair, and thin beard. The nose is broad, and short; the eyes are small, black, and obliquely placed, and the eyebrows are arched and linear; the lips are turned, the cheek…
Facing History and Ourselves. "Samuel Morton." Race and Membership: The Eugenics
Movement. 2010. Facing History and Ourselves. 16 Feb. 2010. .
Morton, Samuel. Crania Americana; or, a Comparative View of the Skulls of Various
Aboriginal Nations of North and South America: To which is Prefixed an Essay on the Varieties of the Human Species. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 1839.
However, while it is tempting to claim genetic influences as superior to environmental ones, there is still a great debate over whether and individual can overcome their genetics setbacks or be enhanced by their genetic superiority. The former is often achievable as in the case of the addict who has recovered from their addiction, the latter brings us to the morally trepidatious ground of eugenics where by genetic engineering can enhance the good traits and limit the bad traits. The problem there is who decides which traits to keep or loose? Usually decisions left up to a higher authority.
Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.
Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key…
Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.
Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key to Public Health: Strides in Genetics Research Are Making a Difference in Public Health. State Legislatures, 29, 28.
Parens, E. (2004). Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 1-9.
While children should be the main targets of this approach, education can also reach other members of Australian society. Through their children, parents will be exposed to these new ideas. Seminars, plays, and other cultural events can also help open the minds of adults. In this circumstance, the unfashionable nature of racism in Australia will be beneficial; to keep up appearances, many will support and attend these events.
Thus, racism in Australia is a severe problem, impacting both individuals and the society. Most likely caused by Australia's racist past, the racist element in Australia is muted, but still quite pervasive, perhaps one of the more dangerous kinds of racism. Because of this, the best kind of response is in kind -- an educational approach. Although the situation in Australia is still tumultuous, an understanding of the kind of racism prevalent in Australia and the history of that racism is the…
Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation. (n.d.). Racism in Australia Facts.
Retrieved June 20, 2009, from the Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation web site. Web Site: http://www.antar.org.au/node/221
Haigh, B. (2009, Jun. 3). Racism in Australia. Retrieved June 20, 2009, from ABC Net.
Web Site: http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/stories/s2588104.htm
Prior to compulsory membership the belief was that membership would serve to advance them in the world around them which was quickly evolving and on a basis of "uniformity and solidarity." (Kater, 2004) Just as in American civic organizations for youth whom enjoyed wearing "spiffy uniforms" the same can be said of the German youth. As well the satisfaction in belonging to a safe community that was dominant in the world around them and that offered protection the participation in camping, marching, and communal singing in groups was appealing to these youth and the presence of the "omniscient and omnipotent father, Adolf Hitler, who provided immense guarantees of safety at a time shaken by continued economic depression and recurrent fears of war." (Kater, 2004)
V. und Deutscher Madel (MD) - the League of German Girls
Included in the Hitler Youth groups were the DM which was established in 1930 and…
Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM) the League of German Girls (2009) Jewish Virtual Library Online available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/BDM.html
Dearn, Alan and Sharp, Elizabeth (2006) the Hitler Youth 1933-45 Osprey Publishing, 2006. Google Books online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=EP54o1ERi9cC
Kater, Michael H. (2004) Hitler Youth. Harvard University Press, 2004. Google Books online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=v9xJPe0QchcC
This raises the question if the false ideal of the caveman is white, not black, as when non-white males embody the example of the caveman, they are condemned. McCaughey brings this to light, but her book focuses on gender in contemporary society more than race, even after her intriguing discussion of 19th century racial junk science in the form of Social Darwinism.
Perhaps the discourse of race and gender are not parallel examples of the misuse of science but are intertwined. The caveman myth is intent upon defending white male aggression, as white males are in power, but equally apt to be turned against non-whites. Male aggression becomes a weapon against the disenfranchised, even while it bolsters the right to aggression of the presumably white caveman. hen non-white males are viewed as 'essentially' primitive, this is seen, rightfully so, as prejudice and a way of undercutting their abilities, for white…
McCaughey, Martha. (2008). The caveman mystique: Pop- Darwinism and the debates over sex, violence, and science. New York and London: Routledge.
But he didn't tell me that my aunt would help them do it'" (Gaines, 79). Grant believes at this point that dignity is something he can only find -- and is supposed to find -- outside of his community and away from the relationships and ties that he has there, including his maternal bond to his aunt.
As the novel progresses, however, Grant begins to realize how necessary the community is to his own happiness, if not his very survival. This transformation is not complete by the end of the novel, but Grant has begun to change or at least question many of his beliefs, including his attitude towards God and religion, and certainly in his attitude, hopes, and feelings for Jefferson. Perhaps most telling in Grant's search for dignity and identity within his community is his relationship with Vivian. Though she is still married and the relationship is therefore…
Gaines, Ernest J. A Lesson Before Dying. New York: Random House, 1994
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.
Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.
Gosset determined what the properties would be for a small sample in relation to a larger sample.
Gosset applied his discoveries to his work for the brewery which raised the question of what his focus was in his work as he was a theorist to a certain extent, but also a practical man who applied the knowledge that he developed. Gosset must have recognized the importance of accurate statistical information to the process of brewing as he had a statistical assistant for many years in his lab and ran a statistics department as part of the brewery (O'Connor and Robertson).
After Gosset had worked for many years developing the practical application of his theory, he was involved in a terrible car accident in 1934 which left him incapacitated for many months. During this time, he had the opportunity to continue to work on his statistical work. He recovered enough after…
Calkins, Keith. "Another Distribution: The Student t." Andrews University. 12 May 2005. 10 December 2006. http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/webtexts/prod12.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And Robertson, E.F. "William Sealey Gosset." School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St. Andrews, Scotland. October 2003. 10 December 2006. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Gosset.html
Marrying Citizens! aced Subjects? e-thinking the Terrain of Equal Marriage Discourse," Suzanne Lenon attempts to parse the underlying racial assumptions present in the legal fight for marriage equality in Canada, and in doing so reveals that this topic is as much about racial identity as sexual identity. By examining Lemon's article alongside some other relevant research, one is able to see how notions of universal equality are complicated by the complex interactions of power as mediated by race and gender, and that to truly fight for genuine equality one must be aware of these underlying assumptions which may implicitly maintain certain forms of discrimination. Furthermore, one is able to see how those attempting to challenge assumptions regarding race and gender are not themselves free from certain assumptions, which ultimately serve to undermine any productive work done.
Lenon's essay challenges a number of assumptions regarding the language used in the fight…
Grekul, J. Sterilization in alberta, 1928-1972: gender matters. 84-97.
Lenon, S. Marrying citizens! raced subjects? re-thinking the terrain of equal marriage discourse.
Webber, G., & Williams, C. Part-time work and the gender division of labor. 52-69.
The 1964 film Dr. Strangelove uses the context of Cold ar brinksmanship in order to uncover a more fundamental problem with patriarchy and the maintenance of a destructive masculinity. This masculinity is under threat as a result of sexual frustration, and the characters of Ripper, Turgidson, and Kong embody three different kinds of this frustration. Ripper's sexual frustration is the most explicit, and leads to the most overtly violent reaction. Turgidson's sexual frustration is not the result of a physiological problem but rather due to pent-up energy, and thus his reaction is to cheer on the violence perpetrated by Ripper, even if he cannot engage in it himself. Finally, Kong, who is denied the kind of sexual immediacy granted Turgidson, nonetheless is able to overcome the frustration experienced by the other two men when he finally succeeds in dropping a nuclear bomb. Thus, the film suggests that the true threat…
Bingham, Dennis. "I do Want to Live!": Female Voices, Male Discourse, and Hollywood
Biopics." Cinema Journal 38.3 (1999): 3,3-26
Cardullo, Bert. "Why we Fight, Or Men, War, the Movies, and Metaphor." The Midwest
Quarterly 52.3 (2011): 239,239-255.
In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.
The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.
In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…
Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.
What does the patient have the right to know?
What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).
Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?
Regarding the "Dwarfism…
Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.
Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.
Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
Susan B. Anthony
On February 15, 1820, Susan B. Anthony was born in Adams Massachusetts to Lucy and Daniel Anthony. Susan out of eight children was raised in a strict Quaker family. Her father, Daniel Anthony, was a very rigid man, a Quaker cotton manufacturer and abolitionist. He believed in making sure children were guided right, not targeting them. Her father did not let his kids experience the childish enjoyments of toys, games, and music, because all of those above were seen as distractions from the Inner Light. Instead her father imposed self-discipline.
At the age of three, Susan learned to read and write. In 1826, the Anthony's made a move from Massachusetts to Battensville, New York (McAllister, E.A.,2011). At his new place, Susan attended a district school, when the teacher had made a refusal to teach Susan long division, she was then pulled out of school and lectured in…
Susan B. Anthony list commemorates namesakes birthday; group honors suffragist's legacy by working to elect pro-life women. (2002, Feb 14). U.S.Newswire, pp. 1-1. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/450944217?accountid=34899
Garland, L. (2005). "Irrespective of race, color or sex:" Susan B. Anthony and the New York state constitutional convention of 1867. Magazine of History, 19(2), 61-64.
Hartmann, S.M. (2001). Not for ourselves alone: The story of Elizabeth cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Journal of Women's History, 13(2), 222-222.
Hassell, G. (2000, Mar 26). Sacagawea guides Americans back to dollar coin / Susan B. Anthony fiasco finally has been overcome. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-D.1.
, 2011). Instead, social control theories suggest that neighborhoods are somewhat informally self-regulating (Sampson et al., 2011). This lack of criminal self-regulation may stem from a feeling of being disenfranchised, as if the criminal laws have been created without reference to the needs of that community. In fact, in the United States, there is a definite cultural conflict regarding criminal codes (Sutherland & Cressey, 2011). Perhaps the most famous example of this conflict is the differential sentencing for crack and powder cocaine offenses.
The result of this disenfranchisement is that some communities may actually positively reinforce criminal behavior. Therefore individuals, particularly those individuals predisposed to criminal behavior may engage in criminal behavior "because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law" (Sutherland & Cressey, 2011). Moreover, it is important to realize that in violent communities criminality may not be maladaptive; in…
Anderson, E. (2011). The code of the street. In F.T. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds.), Criminological
theory: Past to present fourth edition. (pp.143-154). New York: Oxford University Press.
Caspi, a., Moffitt, T., Silva, P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R., & Schmutte, P. (2011).
Personality and crime: Are some people crime prone? In F.T. Cullen & R.
Picard: Like this hearing.
With this acknowledged, Maddox admits Data is intelligent, but lacks self-awareness and consciousness.
Picard: What about self-awareness? What does that mean? Why am I self-aware?
Maddox: Because you are conscious of your existence and actions. You are aware of your own self and your own ego.
Picard: Commander Data. What are you doing now?
Data: I am taking part in a legal hearing to determine my rights and status. Am I a person or am I property?
Picard: And what is at stake?
Data: My right to choose, perhaps my very life.
Really, then, we see that if Data has information about his own beliefs and can extrapolate those consequences, he must then be self-aware and therefore, closer to being human.
Picard: Now tell me Commander [Maddox], what is Data?
Maddox: I don't understand.
Picard: What is he?
Maddox: A machine.
Picard: Are you…
Star Trek: The Next Generation. "Measure of a Man."
Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PM1DidyG-I
Capek, K.R.U.R. Retrieved from:
Retrieved from: Http://wbooks.adelaide.edu.au/c/capek/karel/rur/