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Instructional Design I
For Exceptional Children
Instructional Designs I for Exceptional Children
This Portfolio Narrative will present my combined ten years of field work as an educator of special needs and special education students in an inclusion setting. I have had the privilege of acquiring all these experiences in a private school, as opposed to a public or pre-school, setting. The private school experience has furnished me with a plethora of unique and delightfully interesting insights into the educational process while also providing me with an outlet for what I truly love. I appreciate the fact that over the past ten years I have worked side by side with individuals that truly love what they do.
The shared vigor for molding young minds in a positive way has allowed me to make great long-lasting friendships but has also provided me with a chance to gain new knowledge from other…
Cranton, Patricia A. (2000). Exploring the Scholarship of Teaching. Journal of Higher Education, July 1.
Murray, Bonnie (2002). The New Teacher's Complete Sourcebook. New York: Scholastic Inc.
Williamson, Bonnie, & Thornton, Sandy (1998). A First-Year Teacher's Guidebook (2nd Ed.). New York: Catalogue In Publication.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…
Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.
Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..
Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
One teaching model that seems to be very effective within the portfolio framework is the "Process Model."
The process model is, at its most simple, a method of writing in which the "process" of writing and revision is emphasized. Perhaps one of the easiest ways to express its essence is that it is the method of using progressive "drafts" to arrive at a final product. Of course, this model can do much to alleviate the motivation and morale issues previously addressed, simply because it alleviates much of the "performance anxiety" that plagues many exceptional learners. Further, key supportive activities on the part of the instructor, including "conferencing, prompting, modeling, and dialoguing," serve to create a "writing environment designed to encourage the creative process and to reduce the fear that students often associate with writing (Newcomer, Nodine, Barenbaum, 1988)."
Of course, this process model is in direct opposition to the "product"…
Alber, Sheila. (1999). I don't' like to write, but I love to get published. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Oct-Dec 1999, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p. 355.
Hansen, C. Bobbi. (1998). Using portfolios as a tool to teach writing to students with learning disabilities. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Jul-Sep 1998, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p307.
Karge, Belinda. (1998). Knowing what to teach: Using authentic assessment to improve classroom instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Jul-Sep 1998, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p319.
Newcomer, Phillis. Nodine, Barbara. Barenbaum, Edna. (1988).Teaching Writing to Exceptional Children. Exceptional Children, April 1988 Vol. 54 No. 6 p559.
Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.
Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…
Fritz, Jean. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: Putnam Juvenile, 2002.
Lester, Julius. John Henry. New York: Puffin, 1999.
Osborn, Mary Pope. American Tall Tales. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991.
Students who are gifted need to be challenged in their area of giftedness and their social and emotional needs must also be addressed.
One of the most important management skills a teacher can have when it comes to a gifted student is to encourage higher level thinking ability and divergent thinking patterns.
In addition the teacher can provide the gifted student with enrichment work as opposed to more busy work so that the child's mind is challenged and exercised.
A teacher who encourages the gifted child to challenge him or herself will provide the student with a strong educational environment while at the same time conveying to the student that his or her abilities and desires are valued.
Gifted children often face opposition and have a difficult time fitting in socially at school. The teacher of a gifted child should work to include and incorporate the child into activities with…
Bea, H.L., Barnard, K.E., Eyres, S.J., Gray, C.A., Hamond, M.A., Spietz, a.L., Snyder, C., & Clark, B. (1982). Prediction of IQ and language skill from perinatal stimulus, child performance, family characteristics and mother-infant interaction. Child Development, 53, 1134-1156.
Christian, Linda G. (1999) Parenting the Young Gifted Child: Supportive Behaviors.
Landau, Erika (1993) Characteristics of families with no, one, or more than one gifted child. The Journal of Psychology
A to increase academic engagement and achievement in math, reading, and spelling for general education and at-risk students;
to increase spelling achievement for general education elementary students and for students with mild disabilities in self-contained classrooms;
to increase social studies comprehension for junior high students with mild disabilities in a resource room setting;
and to increase reading achievement for high-functioning students with autism and their typical peers in an inclusive, general education classroom
Advantages and Disadvantages of Peer Tutoring
ased from the effects of peer tutoring that have been mentioned in the previous section, and from the number of studies conducted on peer tutoring, it is apparent that this teaching method for students with disabilities and special needs are beneficial and can support the improvement of their learning process and acquisition of knowledge and skills. Following is a summary of the advantages from peer tutoring.
Allows the student to participate.…
Ryan, J. et. al, (2004). Peer-mediated intervention studies on academic achievement for students with EBD: a review. (Emotional and Behavior Disorders)
Remedial and Special Education, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp 330-341.
Hunt, P., et. al. (2004). Collaborative teaming to support preschoolers with severe disabilities who are placed in general education early childhood programs.
A ics in Early Childhood Special Education, Vol. 24, Issue 3, pp 123-142.
African-American Children in Special Education Programs
The large amount of minority children, specifically African-American children, who have ended up in special education programs for students who have learning disabilities, behavioral disabilities, emotional disabilities, or mental disabilities, has remained a very strong reality even though it has been recognized for more than 20 years (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). After looking at many of these patterns and how often they recur, it is important to look at the assumptions, beliefs, worldviews, and epistemologies that are often used by many who work in special education in order to determine what is causing the disproportionate amount of these individuals in special education programs throughout the country (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996).
This problem, being extremely persistent, is affecting large groups of African-American individuals and their families in a negative way (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). It also affects society in…
Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York: Routledge.
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H.A. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture, and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Artiles, A.J., & Trent, S.C. (1994). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. The Journal of Special Education, 22, 410-436.
Gordon, E.W., Miller, F., & Rollock, D. (1990). Coping with communicentric bias in knowledge production in the social sciences. Educational Researcher, 19(3), 14-19.
These generally viewed race in terms of superior or inferior throughout history.
The time frame family studies explored involved biological and pathology theories dating from the 1899 through the twentieth century. Interestingly, these researchers found that in early history, race was more likely to negatively impact child education than socio-economic status, especially during times in history when most people were at a disadvantage economically (as in during the depression). As researchers moved into the twentieth century however, there seems to be a trend in research leaning toward less emphasis on race and minority status, with many researchers turning away from terms like "morons" or "inferior" or "degenerates" and more focusing on terms like "poverty" and "poor" or "welfare status" (Block, Balcazar & Keys, 2001, p. 18). Historical data gathering included a review of researchers and psychologist reports and collection as described in a comparison table which the researcher then reviewed…
Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Block, P., Balcazar, F. & Keys, C. (2001). From pathology to power: Rethinking race, poverty and disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1): 18.
Deyhle, D., Parker, L. & Villenas, S. (1999). Race is - Race isn't: Critical race theory and qualitative studies in education. Boulder: Westview Press.
Special Education Classrooom
Observations of Special Education Classroom
The paper is a description of an observation conducted at a center that provides special education services to children and teens. The observation duration was three hours in a secondary education classroom. I was invited to participate as little or as much as I wanted during the observation. The students were at grade levels 9 -- 11.
Observations of Special Education Classroom
For the purposes of this paper, I gained permission to observe a secondary school-aged classroom at the Association for Metro Area Autistic Children. Children as young as two years old to students aged twenty-one attend the center. There are also adult services provided, at the center and at the private residence. The school is in session from 8am -- 2:30pm, Monday through Friday. I asked to attend on a day and during a timeblock where the students would…
Forness, S.R., & Esveldt, K.C. (1975) Classroom Observation of Children with Learning and Behavior Problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(6), 382 -- 385.
Lam, S.F. (2001) Educators opinions on classroom observation as a practice of staff development and appraisal. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 161 -- 173.
Martin, J.E., Van Dycke, J.L., Greene, B.A., Gardner, J.E., Christensen, W.R., Woods, L.L., & Lovett, D.L. (2006) Direct Observation of Teacher-Directed IEP Meetings: Establishing the Need for Student IEP Meeting Instruction. Exceptional Children, 72(2), 187 -- 200.
Additionally, it is apparent that the nature of the phenomenon makes it amiable to a qualitative approach. The literature did identify notable exceptions to the qualitative approach that were useful interrogators of the theoretical basis for practice.
Throughout the literature presented in this work, there is a tacit acceptance of the transition age. The researchers have not challenged this position though many of them did allude to the variation that exists within the population of special education students. This variation is a factor in many of the challenges that special education students experience, so that the past failure to give attention to this factor presents an opportunity for present research to fill this void.
As a proxy for age, Abbot & Heslop (2009) identified timing as an essential factor in the success of the transition program. While in their research timing was connected to multiple concepts, within the framework alluded…
Abbott, D., & Heslop, P. (2009). Out of sight, out of mind? Transition for young people with learning difficulties in out-of-area residential special schools and colleges. British Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 45-56.
Carter, E.W., Lane, K.L., Pierson, M.R., & Stang, K.K. (2008). Promoting self-determination for transition-age youth: Views of high school general and special educators. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31(2), 115-125.
Guy, B.A., Sitlington, P.L., Larsen, M, D., & Frank, a.R. (2009). What are high schools offering as preparation for employment? Career Development for Exceptional
Individuals, 32(1), 30-41.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
Enfant is a children's clothing boutique in Park Slope, Brooklyn. The business model is to bring in unique lines of children's clothing, sourced from around the world if need be. Unique items, coupled with a focus on customer relationship management and social media promotion form the differentiation strategy. The target market is fairly wealthy, educated and stylish. They are willing to spend on their children's clothing as they see their children as reflections of their own style.
The shop will lose some money in the first year, but will be profitable in subsequent years, and be able to pay the proprietor a salary. The proprietor is 30% owner, with the uncle as a silent partner who contributes all of the capital in exchange for a 70% cut.
The clothing will be high end, not made in sweatshops, stylish in design and unique to the store in most cases.…
NetMBA (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/
Statista (2015). Leading U.S. retail stores by segment in 2012, based on highest sales per square foot. Statista. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.statista.com/statistics/247319/us-retail-stores-by-segment-based-on-highest-sales-per-square-foot/
Property Shark.com (2010). Retail space on Flatbush Avenue in Brooklyn. PropertyShark.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.propertyshark.com/mason/text/infopages/Retail-Space-Flatbush-Avenue-Brooklyn.html
Investopedia (2015). Restrictive covenant. Investopedia. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/restrictive-covenant.asp
1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)
II. EFFECTS on LIFE of FAMILY in NORMAL ACTIVITIES
In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…
Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10118
Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth
Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/Autism.html
Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163
Lost Boy: A Foster Child's Search for the Love of a Family
David J. Pelzer is a child-abuse survivor who has shared his experiences as a public speaker and an author. He tells his own story in a series of three books. Pelzer is the son of an alcoholic and extremely abusive mother and he lived his life moving frequently in and out of foster homes. Pelzer is a strong advocate against child abuse and his personal accounts help to bring awareness to many. Pelzer was married and had one child. He is divorced from his first wife, but has remarried.
Pelzer's second book, The Lost Boy: A Foster Child's Search for the Love of a Family, covers Pelzer's turmoil during his teen years and is the sequel to the first of a trilogy titled, A Child Called It. It is the true story of a child who suffered abuse…
Pelzer, David. The Lost Boy: A Foster Child's Search for the Love of a Family. Health Communications, 1997.
Being sure that their book is current on all distribution sites, in addition to on the self-publishers' site is critically important.
Leading Self-Publishing Companies Globally
Of the over 60 self-publishers or print-on-demand publishers in existence globally only a handful are considered world-class in their operations, from editing to production and distribution. The vast majority of self-publishers do not offer manuscript screening, hardcover binding, color printing or support for ISBN and Library of Congress (LIC) submission of books. The self-publishing companies who dominate this industry are Amazon.com CreateSpace, Authorhouse, Lulu.com, iUniverse, and Xlibris. Of these companies two are world leaders in children's book publishing with Lulu.com producing a total of 15,240 children's books to date (as of April, 2010) and iUniverse producing 1,020. Lulu.com has produced orders of magnitude more children's books as a result of their expertise in on-demand color printing and production. One of their ancillary businesses is the…
"Business: Just press print; The boom in printing on demand. " The Economist 27 Feb. 2010:
Diane Cole. "Bind it Yourself; Print on demand can make you an author. " U.S. News & World Report 13 Mar. 2006
"Business: Just press print; The boom in printing on demand. " The Economist 27 Feb. 2010
Ann Haugland. "Opening the Gates: Print On-Demand Publishing as Cultural Production. " Publishing Research Quarterly 22.3 (2006): 3.
IEP for Autistic Child
Although a lot of the work needed to be done will occur in the classroom and at school, it is crucial that Cody's parents remain engaged in the process so that they can continue working with Cody on developing the skills he is learning at school. Empirical research has shown how much more successful strategies are for autistic children when their parents are involved in the process. Thus, Cody's parents need to collaborate with school officials and work in close consort with one another in order to provide the most fruitful atmosphere for Cody's improvement.
First, Cody's family needs to be actively engaged in developing functional skills, including social, behavioral, and language skills. Thus, Cody's parents will be invited to meet the language pathologist, counselor, and special needs assistant that will be working with Cody in the classroom. Each week, the staff's plans for Cody's development…
Reeder, exceptional students don't always fit into the system. In many if not most cases, no amount of well-meaning programs, classroom exercises, or academic work can change at-risk or disabled students: They are the ones "for which no class or workshop can prepare us." Therefore, it is the teacher's responsibility to be "exceptional." Reeder's article can help young educators grapple with the most challenging teaching situations, the ones involving behavioral problems. Exceptional students, from those who have severe physical impairments to those who come to school drunk, require extra concern, energy, and attention, but they need not overwhelm young teachers. Reeder advises her readers to cultivate acceptance and to "prepare for anything."
Teachers, many of whom begin their careers with starry-eyed idealism, believe that they can make a difference in every student's life. They might feel that they alone can transform a bad attitude into a good one, failing grades…
strong sense of external community correlate with exceptional company performance?
Large multinationals are well-known for their involvement in supporting the community they work in and also for their support for sports, humanitarian and social causes. The profitability and high visibility of these companies in external community activities certainly makes one believe that external community involvement and exceptional company performance go hand in hand.
A closer analysis of the community relation exercise shows that in many cases such involvement is an extension of business activities. The multi-billion dollar profits, of course give the exceptional performers the ability to buy the goodwill of political parties, news media, and the community in general to look after their present and future interests.
Whatever the motives, external community involvement shows that the company is performing well and has greater ambitions. External community involvement is also a result of increased social awareness and there are cases…
1. 'Corruption and Bribery', a Business for Social Responsibility Report, retrieved from Internet on 26 May 2005, http://www.bsr.org/CSRResources/IssueBriefDetail.cfm?DocumentID=49621
2. CEO Forum, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.ceoforum.com.au/CEO Dialogue.htm
3. China: The Ancient Road to Communism, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/prcancient.htm
4. Donnelly, S., Gamble, A., Jackson, G., Parkinson, J. (2000). The public interest and the company in Britain and Germany. London, England: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Retrieved September 17, 2005, http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=The+Community+Interest+Company& ; ie=UTF-8& oe
Interview With a Child
Bill is a 12-year-old child, Caucasian, ethnicity unknown. He is the only son of Sandra and Dave, who are divorced. They separated when Bill was 9. He currently lives with Sandra in their home. Dave moved to a different city and is rarely seen by Bill.
Sandra is very protective of Bill. She homeschooled him for two years after she and Dave separated, but now she feels that Bill may need some sort of outside stimulation. He is often withdrawn and uncommunicative and she fears he may be depressed or suffering from autism.
Bill has always been sensitive to sounds and to touch. He did not begin speaking until he was almost 3 years old and then he had to take speech lessons. When he was 10, he told his psychiatrist that he hated his parents because they fought all the time and that they hated…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 225(3): 236-246.
Rogers, C. (2012). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. NY: Houghton Mifflin.
The pain was unbearable. I hardly slept that night. Regardless of the fact that I had earlier on ingested two pain killers, the toothache refused to fade away. To this day, this particular night remains the longest I have ever had. Anyone out there who has experienced the agony of a toothache perfectly understands what I mean. For the entire night, the toothache kept subsiding and then coming back in full force. I was actually forced to weak up at 5AM and wait for daybreak so that I could have my parents accompany me to the dentist. To cut the long story short, the offending tooth was eventually extracted at the dentist's office later that morning. To me, it appeared as if the dentist was God sent. In fact, at that moment, he was the only person that really mattered to me. He possessed the 'power' to 'blow away'…
I asked them what is done for obby at school, and they said that inclusion has been very beneficial for him (Nelson, 2001). With a paraprofessional he has been able to stay in his home school, and importantly, continue to attend the school his friend attends. They said that the school had to work hard to learn about almost all aspects of obby's needs: they didn't know much about Asperger's, or working with a paraprofessional, but they feel that for the most part the school staff understand his unique needs. They have seen huge improvement, and so can see that they should continue to cooperate with the accommodations obby needs.
The one area they expressed lingering frustration with was with obby's earlier education. They said that preschools really didn't know how to deal with children who had special needs (ricker, 2000). They would try to talk him out of being…
Bricker, Diane. 2000. "Inclusion: How the scene has changed." Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, April.
Diamond, Karen E. 1999. "Parents who have a child with a disability." Childhood Education, March 22.
DiPipi-Hoy, Caroline, and Jitendra, Asha. 2004. "A Parent-Delivered Intervention to Teach Purchasing Skills to Young Adults with Disabilities." Journal of Special Education 38:3, p. 144, October.
Graham, Steve. 2003. "Self-determination for students with disabilities: views of parents and teachers." Exceptional Children, Sept. 22.
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Nina is an eight-year-old girl who lives in my neighborhood. She is a good friend of mine daughter, who I have known since birth. She is the first of two children and was born premature at six months. She is now about four and a half feet tall and very thin, she weighs about seventy pounds. She lives with her mother who is 39 years old and her father who is 40 years old. Her mother graduated high school and father has an Associate's degree. Her mother is a stay at home mom and father works in the mortgage industry. The family lives in an urban community, where they own their own home. Nina is musically talented and plays the piano well.
Nina was very tiny when she was younger. She was a premature baby and it took her a while to catch up with her peers.…
When a parent, sibling, loved one, a friend, a teacher, a neighbor, or just a casual acquaintance of a person with Asperger's syndrome wants to know more about the specifics of this health problem, one of the most often quoted and referenced authorities to turn to is Dr. Tony Attwood. That's because Attwood is the author of several books on the subject - notably the high respected book, Asperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professions - and is a practicing clinical psychologist with more than 25 years' experience treating individuals with Asperger's syndrome. Attwood also works with families of persons with Asperger's (also called Asperger) syndrome, and, importantly, also presents strategies for dealing with the problem and its manifestations.
What is Asperger's Syndrome (AS)?
Hans Asperger of Austria began to recognize this disability in 1944, but it did not become an item of medical interest in the…
Asperger Syndrome Coalition of the U.S. (2003). Asperger Syndrome: Some Common
Attwood, Tony (1998). Asperger's Syndrome: a Guide for Parents and Professionals.
London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Dunlap breaks down adaptive abilities in children into three primary categories: motivation, socio-emotional skills, and self-care or self-help skills. All of these skills are necessary for healthy and all around development in children. For children with special needs, developing these skills and maintaining them at moderate levels can be challenging, depending on the nature of the conditions that hamper their learning. This paper will consider these skills outlined by Dunlap with respect to problems children with special needs have and to suggest approaches to intervene with such difficulties.
Motivation, as Dunlap (2009) explains it, includes a number of activities. These activities may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Motivational activities include self-regulation with respect to behavior and choices. It also includes behaviors that demonstrate movement toward autonomy. One very fundamental objective of child rearing and education is to develop children who grow into self-reliant, independent, functioning adults. Therefore…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Chapter 11: Adaptive Abilities.
Torreno, S. (2012). What are Adaptive Skills in Special Ed? Bright Hub Education, Web, Available from: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-learning-disorders/73324-improving-adaptives-skills-in-students-with-intellectual-disabilities/ . 2012 November 20.
Similarly, the staff who conducted the interviews were neither psychologists nor psychiatrists, again leaving room for error. ithin the scope of the study's goals, however, the researchers controlled for the majority of the potential drawbacks.
This study provides educators with a rough series of guidelines for evaluating at-risk students. It can be used to create a checklist of behaviors and circumstance that can point to children which are at higher risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems, and give some objective measures which can be applied to any student, with less risk of personal bias on the part of the educator. However, there is also a possibility of using these findings to pigeonhole students that these findings may indicate are at risk, even if those students have other influencing factors that mediate their risks. Students that display the behaviors noted are not guaranteed to develop disorders, but the guidelines are…
Achenbach, T.M. (2001). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and 2001 profile.
Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Nelson, J., Stage, S., Dupong-Hurly, K., Syhorst L., and Epstein, M. (2007). Risk Factors
Predictive of the Problem Behaviors of Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral
Educators and other professionals in related fields have responded to the increasing prevalence of the condition by developing and implementing appropriate strategies and interventions even without sufficient understanding of the disorder. Teachers, counselors, school psychologists and others who render related services are encouraged to be familiar with the DSMIV-TR. They are also advised to acquire a working knowledge of the school-related characteristics of students with as so that they can deal with these students' learning needs. These children or learners exhibit typical social, behavioral or emotional, intellectual or cognitive, academic, sensory and motor characteristics. Many teachers remain incognizant of the special academic needs of as learners because these learners give the false impression that they comprehend the lesson. Their repetitive learning style and high-level of comprehension cover the deficits, which will otherwise reveal the disorder (Myles and Simpson).
These interventions and strategies are social and behavioral supports, academic planning and…
Atwood, T. (2006). Asperger's Syndrome. 12 pages. Tizard Learning Disability Review: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
Bower, B. (2006). Outside Looking in: Researchers Open New Windows on Asperger's Syndrome and Related Disorders. 6 pages. Science News: Science Service, Inc.
Frey, R. (2003). Asperger's Syndrome. 2 pages. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Gale Group
Huffman, G.B. (2001). Autism: Detection, Evaluation and Interventions. 2 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians
unmet macro/social need. The author of this report works at MBrace Counseling Services as an intern. The internship is a pathway towards a master's degree in social work. The underlying need that has been identified is for children not getting the proper psycho-educational exposure. This tactic could be used to help children learn to self-regulate their emotions rather than letting them loose with no hesitation. There is a litany of evidence proving how much this could benefit the children involved and what could happen if it is not extended. The poorer Americans will end up even worse off than others and the author of this report sees a lot of this due to the Medicaid services seen during the author's internship.
The subject at hand could absolutely be looked at from a micro standpoint as well as a macro one. However, the latter of those two will be the…
Berge, J.M., Law, D.D., Johnson, J., & Wells, M.G. (2010). Effectiveness of a psychoeducational parenting group on child, parent, and family behavior: A pilot study in a family practice clinic with an underserved population. Families,
Systems, & Health, 28(3), 224-235. doi:10.1037/a0020907
Brendtro, L.K., & Van Bockern, S. (1994). Courage for the discouraged: A
psychoeducational approach to troubled and troubling children. Focus On
35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.
Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).
For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2).…
Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved
January 26, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/ .
Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
CEC Website Review
Founded in 1922, Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is an organization which works for the education of children with special needs. The professionals at CEC consist of a team of individuals who have devoted themselves to betterment of the lives of children with special gifts or disabilities. The website provides educational services and the organization itself conducts a host of webinars to for its cause. In addition to the aforementioned services, the CEC team also offers professional development and training courses to train individuals in order to ensure they are up to the tasks that lie ahead of them.
efore proceeding on with the main review, let's consider the usability features of the web site due to the fact that the primary audience includes people with special needs or disabilities. The main page loads at moderate speed. The interface view is suitable for mass audience,…
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) (n.d.). Special Edition Topics.
Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Council for Exceptional Children web site: http://www.cec.sped.org/Special-Ed-Topics
Chrysan (2012, May 7). How to Review A Website.
Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Hub pages web site: http://chrysan.hubpages.com/hub/How-to-Review-a-Website
All the same, the use of assistive technology comes with a cost of time and demands however, benefits are greater than the shortcomings and when assistive technology is implemented properly in to academic work, the young scholars becomes more productive, independent, and successful (Axistive, 2007).
With regard to the above research, assistive technology remains a great motivator for tutors/teachers to give authority to children. It helps young children especially those with disabilities to have interest to achieve more and feel as able members of the society, just like other normal children. For this to be successful, educational learning standards that involve individual learning differences (CEC 3) calls for educators to ensure they have the required skills in strategizes for both short- and long-term benefits. The instructional strategies (CEC 4) should have procedures that understand the child completely. All these are for an expected beneficial outcome that uses a well-organized structure…
Axistive. (2007, June 21). Assistive technology for students with physical disabilities.
Axistive.com. Retrieved from http://www.axistive.com/assistive-technology-for-students-with-physical-disabilities.html
Council of Exceptional Children (2010, April 10). CEC standards for all beginning special education teachers of early childhood students. cec.sped.org. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/ProfessionalDevelopment/Professiona
eaching Exceptional Children 41(5),
Article #2: Early Childhood Education -- eachers and their Assistants
he author points out that the use of paraprofessionals in early childhood special education is increasing because of the steadily increasing numbers of children need services and the lack of sufficient qualified teachers. Some teachers experience difficulty, for a variety of reasons, developing positive working relationships with the paraprofessionals in their classrooms. he nature of the work requires a spirit of true collaboration.
Some of the issues with paraprofessionals cited in the literature include lack of formal education in child development, reluctance to discuss uncomfortable topics with families, views on parenting and early childhood education that differ from their programs best practices, difficulty dealing with stress and time management, and unprofessional behaviors and work ethics. eachers may see the problems clearly but be unsure what to do about them. Research shows that many teachers…
Teacher education programs cannot prepare one for all possible scenarios with paraeducators. The writer plans to do further independent research on strategies for working effectively with paraeducators. While it is not possible to anticipate every situation, the literature seems to suggest that there are common themes to the issues teachers face. Review of the literature and possible role-plays with colleagues could help prepare one to deal with situations as they arise in the real world.
Appl, D. (2006). Early childhood education teachers and their assistants: "Teaching along with her." Teaching Exceptional Children 38(6), pp. 34-40.
A simpler form of this would be a word box, where the student generates possible vocabulary as a list.
Various forms of visualization can be used. The fingers of one hand can be assigned to the concepts of "who, what, where, when and why" to help students remember to include all those elements when writing to report. Karge (1988) encourages other supportive imagery, such as that of a hamburger, with the top bun the topic sentence, the hamburger, pickle, ketchup, lettuce, etc. As supporting details, and the bottom bun a closing sentence.
These articles demonstrate that it is possible to think clearly and precisely about how to teach writing to students who struggle with that skill, and that it is possible to provide them with the tools to evaluate and improve their writing themselves.
Alber, Sheila R. 1999. "I don't like to write, but I love to get published':…
Alber, Sheila R. 1999. "I don't like to write, but I love to get published': Using a classroom newspaper to motivate reluctant writers." Reading & Writing Quarterly 15:4, 6p.
Hansen, C. Bobbi. 1998. "Using reflective portfolios as a tool to teach writing to students with learning disabilities." Reading & Writing Quarterly 14:3, 11p.
Karge, Belinda. 1988. "Knowing what to teach: Using authentic assessment to improve classroom instruction." Reading & Writing Quarterly 14:3, 13p.
Newcomer, Phyllis; Nodine, Barbara; and Barenbaum, Edna. 1988. "Teaching writing to exceptional children: reaction and recommendations." Exceptional Children 54:6 (April), 6p.
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…
Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm
Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
Bible gateway. (2011). Retrieved July 7, 2011 http://www.biblegateway. / Fisher, Mary & Anne Ocepka. (2011). We' . Teacher Education pecial
Autism spectrum disorders affect millions of people every year, preventing them from hearing, seeing, and sensing normally. In addition to affecting patients, the disorder also affects their families and society as a whole. People suffering from autism experience difficulty creating social relationships, communicating with other individuals, and putting across normal behavior. The brain no longer functions ordinary because it is affected on a neurological level. Autism is a particularly complex disorder and can be seen in patients in diverse combinations and in the company of many other disabilities. Depending on patients and on the seriousness of the disorder autism can either have little effect on an individual's intelligence level or it can severely affect the patient, preventing him or her from being able to deal with the malady. It…
Solomon, Marjorie, Nirit Buaminger & Sally J. Rogers. (2011). Abstract reasoning and friendship in high-functioning preadolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 41 (7): 32-43.
Rutter, M. (2011). Progress in understanding autism: 2007-2010. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 41 (7).
"Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2003," Retrieved August 9, 2011, from the Government of Alberta Website: http://education.alberta.ca/admin/special/resources/autism.aspx
CRISS- Annotated Bibliography
Philip Levin, Ph.D, Director, The Help Group/UCLA Neuropsychology Program
Overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) that went into effect July 1, 2005. Included changes to the assessment of learning disability which improves early remediation for those children at risk in reading as early as Kindergarten. Language Development, Behavioral Development and Pre-Academic Skills Development are the key components discussed.
(Yell, 2006, pp. 1 -- 24)
The subjects of article are: the educators, special needs students they are working with and administrators. (Yell, 2006, pp. 1 -- 24)
The location of study is all of the different public schools across the entire United States. That must follow the various provisions of Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and IDEA Regulations for 2006. (Yell, 2006, pp. 1 -- 24)
The demographic information includes: those students who are considered to be special needs individuals and the various standards that must be applied to them by educators. (Yell, 2006, pp. 1 -- 24)
As a result, there are several different findings of the article to include: how teachers / administrators understand the various provisions of these regulations, making sure that special education teachers are using research-based procedures, confirming that educators know how to collect /…
Yell, M. (2006). Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and IDEA Regulations of 2006: Implications for Educators, Administrators, and Teacher Trainers. Focus on Exceptional Children, 39(1), 1-24.
Suter, J., & M. Giangreco. 2009). Numbers that count: Exploring special education and paraprofessional service delivery in inclusion-oriented schools. The Journal of Special
Education, 432), 81-93. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Research Library.
Document ID: 1785064241).
This study of paraprofessionals in special education programs notes how paraprofessionals often provide the bulk of student services, given the overburdened nature of the special education system. The authors raise their concerns that paraprofessionals are not fully qualified to give a comprehensive education to students with disabilities. There is a lack of certified teachers in the discipline of special education. This remains problematic, even though paraprofessionals often do interact with their students on a one-to-one basis.
Koralek, D. 2009). Supporting all kinds of learners. YC Young Children, 642), 10-11.
Retrieved September 3, 2009, from ProQuest Education Journals. Document ID: 1673585101).
The author suggests that before a student with special needs joins a mainstream…
(Document ID: 939465421).
This article advocates the mainstreaming of special needs students. It stresses how children without disabilities in an elementary school setting can act as peer counselors and support special need students in a way that facilitates the education of both types of pupils.
Rix, J., K. Hall, M. Nind, K. Sheehy & J. Wearmouth. (2009). What pedagogical approaches can
CEC Professional Ethical Principles
In the United States, education has become a highly involved and complicated process, not least because of the diverse nature and needs that teachers are faced with every day. Not only are there highly diverse students in terms of ethnicity and language in each classroom, there are also different cognitive abilities and needs. This is so not only in each grade, but also in each classroom. This means that ethical guidelines and standards have emerged to help teachers understand how to handle these differences. At the core of these principles is that each teacher should be focused upon helping children achieve the best they can, and that each student should be challenged to develop his or her abilities to the highest possible level. For the exceptional learner category, the Council for Exceptional Children has provided 12 ethical principles that teachers need to adhere to in order…
CEC Board of Directors (2004, April). The Council for Exceptional Children Definition of a Well-Prepared Special Education Teacher. Retrieved from: http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/ProfessionalDevelopment/Professiona lStandards/well-prepared-final.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
esponse to Intervention
esponse to Intervention (TI)
Over the past decade, rapid changes have occurred in general educational practice to increase the focus on early identification of and intervention for students considered at risk. The aptly named response-to-intervention (TI) model of service delivery is generally described as a multi-tiered model whereby students receive interventions of increasing intensity, with movement from one level to another based on demonstrated performance and rate of progress (Gresham, 2007). This sizable paradigm shift has been influenced in part by recent special education legislation, which allows the practice of TI as an alternative to the traditional "IQ- achievement discrepancy" model of learning disability identification and allows 15% of federal special education funding to be allocated toward early intervening services (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004). Moreover, TI has gained favor in light of mounting evidence suggesting that intensive intervention during the primary grades is…
Aikens, N.L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 235 -- 251.
Barnett, D.W.,VanDerHeyden, A.M.,&Witt, J.C. (2007).Achieving science-based practice through response to intervention: What it might look like in preschools. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 17, 31 -- 54.
Berkeley, S., Bender, W.N., Peaster, L.G., & Saunders, L. (2009). Implementation of response to intervention: A snapshot of progress. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 85 -- 95.
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2005). Response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 485 -- 486.
Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.
Findings & Conclusion
In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.
Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…
Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).
Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
Amato & Baca (1989) note that throughout history bilingual education has shifted multiple times, from "nonbiased native-language assessments" to specific services directly related to a student's special needs and bilingual ability (168). Many consider the field of bilingual special education one that is emerging and growing. Baca & Cervantes (1989) note a need for a bilingual special education "interface" exists that incorporates training for special education students and teachers (168). Amato & Baca (1989) observe that certain teacher competencies are clearly necessary for bilingual special education teachers, competencies that must be more clearly defined. Neuman & oskos (1997) and other researchers including Gonzalez-Bueno (2003) suggest promoting literacy among bilingual special education students should be a primary concern for educators. They suggest use of a bilingual alphabet will help facilitate this process.
Jackson-Maldonado (1999) suggests that multiple factors may impact bilingual special education student's ability to excel including student's socio-economic status…
Amato, C. & Baca, L. 1989. Bilingual Special Education: Training Issues. Exceptional Children, 56.2, 168.
Correa, V.I., Figueroa, R.A. & Fradd, S.H. 1989. Bilingual special education and this special issue. Exceptional Children, 56.2, 174+
Gonzalez-Bueno. 2003. Literacy activities for Spanish-English bilingual children. The Reading Teacher, 57(2); 180
Jackson-Maldonado. 1999. Early language assessment for Spanish-speaking children.
country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…
Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.
Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
In addition to the highly qualified mandates of NCLB there are also requirements to use research-based education practices over effective-based education practices.
The different levels of ability combined with the various qualifiers of special education students present a difficulty in determining the best course of research-based learning. In addition the ability to track and report such learning becomes difficult at best, impossible at worst.
Given the wide spectrum of students that qualify for special education services there is a demonstrable difference in the services they are provided.
The students in special education today, receive a combination of education instruction. When they are able to appropriately benefit and learn in a mainstream environment the federal government dictates that they do. If their particular disability provides the need for accommodations to that mainstream education, such as oral testing, or un-timed lessons the school has provided that as well through…
____(2005) Special Education Teachers Up in Arms Over NCLB Certification Requirements Atlanta Journal
Chambless, D.L., & Hollon, S.D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, a., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researchers, 32(1), 9-13.
Davies, P. (1999). What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47, 108-121
The author used the "North Caroling Alternative Assessment Protocol" (NCAAP) for her research. Research of course is conducted some time before it is published, so it seems likely that the NCAAP has been modified since this research to include academic areas, but Courtade-Little's research may be of little help to teachers concerned with demonstrating academic achievement in alternative ways.
The third article looked at ways to evaluate academic gains in alternative ways, particularly by the use of "running records." Olsen (1999) notes that "Students who will participate in alternate assessments typically are not working toward a regular high school diploma...." This statement might be of great concern, since students with dyslexia who have had great difficulty reading have been able, with the right supports, to complete a high school diploma and even college. The idea that only very severe disabilities interfere with good performance on group achievements may not be…
Courtade-Little, Ginevra. 2005. "The impact of teacher training on state alternate assessment scores." Exceptional Children, March.
Delzell, Lynn Ahlgrim; Algozzine, Robert; Browder, Dianne M.; flowers, Claudia; Karvonen, Meagan; and Spooner, Fred. 2003. "What We Know and Need to Know about Alternate Assessment." Exceptional Children, January.
Olsen, Ken. 1999. "Putting Alternate Assessments Into Practice: What to Measure and Possible Sources of Data." Exceptional Children, December.
Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)
This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…
Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).
Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html .
Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.
Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).
The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…
Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in Education. Children with Disabiliity Australia.
Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism. Council for Exceptional Children.
Evers, T. (2011). Common Core State Standards for Literacy in all subjects. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Intrusion.
FDDC. (2012). What is Inclusion? Florida: Florida State Univeristy Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy.
And L. (1997). "Parents' Perspective on Gifted Education." Peabody Journal of Education. 72 (1): 244+
Parents are often very insecure about their GT child, oftentimes because the child has already surpassed their level of education or training. This article offers ways to cope and provides a broader-based study on the issues that parents of the GT endure.
Rogers, K.B. (1991). The relationship of grouping practices to the education of the gifted and talented learner (RBDM 9102). Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.
Argues that the GT population is actually at risk without clustering, and clustering is really only the minimal need for this special population.
Rogers, K.B (2002). "Grouping the Gifted and Talented: Questions and Answers." The Roper Review. 24 (3): 103.
ays to more effectively use grouping in core subject areas to maximize learning potential for the GT.
einbrener, S. And…
Weber, P., & Battaglia, C. (1982). Identi-form system for gifted programs. Buffalo, NY: D.O.K.
Weinbrener, S. And B. Devlin. (1998). "Cluster Grouping of Gifted Students: How to Provide Full-Time Services on a Part-Time Budget." Teaching Exceptional Children. 30 (3): 62.
Seeking support before a program is put into place is crucial, as it is this network of support that will serve to assist in solving the problems that will
The second common roadblock is inadequate planning and scheduling for inclusion. Planning and scheduling should not only occur at the local level, but at the district level as well (orrell 53). Often, the entire organizational structure of a district needs to be examined and revamped for an inclusion program to succeed (Stainback 144). Making certain that there is not an "overload" of special education students within one general education classroom takes much planning and effort on the part of teachers and counselors. Planning also includes making certain that special education students are provided with all appropriate services that they would have received had they not been placed in the inclusion classroom setting (orrell 53). This not only includes…
Anderson, David W. "Inclusion and Interdependence: Students with Special Needs in the Regular Classroom." Journal of Education & Christian Belief 10.1 (2006): 43-59. Print.
Carr, Margaret N. "A Mother's Thoughts on Inclusion." Journal of Learning Disabilities 26.9 (1993): 590-592. Print.
Connor, David J., and Beth a. Ferri. "The Conflict Within: Resistance to Inclusion and other Paradoxes in Special Education." Disability & Society 22.1 (2007): 63-77. Print.
Leyser, Yona, and Rea Kirk. "Evaluating Inclusion: An Examination of Parent Views and Factors Influencing their Perspectives." International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51.3 (2004): 271-285. Print.
The learning atmosphere in schools have changed drastically over the years and the schools which were once considered safe are becoming sites of bullying, violence and anti-social activities, Presently the school administration and also the teachers are under tremendous pressure for ensuring a safe, disciplined and effective learning environment, enabling students to acquire academic and social skills that would equip them in academic achievement and assist them in the overall development of the students. This recent increase in the pressure is greatly due to the increasing incidences of violence in the schools and played up by the media and the challenges faced by the teachers in deciding the most appropriate disciplinary measures to set the problem student back on the learning path. This brings to light the changing profiles of teachers, from that of good academicians to that of a versatile educator-cum-counsellor-disciplinarian, capable of guiding his students through…
Gresham, F.M. (1998). Social skills training: Should we raze, remodel, or rebuild? Behavioral Disorders, 24, 19-25.
Grusec, J.E. (1982). The socialisation of altruism. In N. Eisenberg (ed), The Development of Prosocial behavior, 135-57.New York: Academic Press
Hartup, W.W. (1996) The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67, 1-13.
Horner, R.H. & Sugai, G. (2002). Overview of Positive Behavior Support. Paper presented at the 2002 Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, New York.
immensely important for school leaders and most education professionals to understand the evidence base and theory behind educational practice. Their cognizance of such theory helps to provide a degree of continuity in the entire educational process -- the culmination of which is the quality of education a child receives. Pedagogues play a fundamental role in that process, as do a host of other factors including the facilities, parental involvement, instructional strategies, and evidence-based practices. When instructors familiarize themselves with the evidence that influences eminent government mandated and funded programs such as the No Child Left Behind Act, they can better understand the reasons for the theories developed from such data. That understanding can guide them in a number of ways of actually implementing that knowledge and deriving actionable insight from research, in addition to being compliant with federal policy (Kretlow and Blatz, 2011, p. 8).
This process of deriving actionable…
Kretlow, A.G., Blatz, S.L. (2011). The ABCs of evidence-based practice for teachers. Teaching Exceptional Children. 43(5) 8-19.
Markusic, M. (2012). The evidence-based practice in teaching gifted and exceptional students. Bright Hub Education. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-gifted-students/31414-issues-with-evidence-based-practice-in-teaching-the-gifted/
Calgary Public School Board
Models of Consultation and Collaboration
hat model of consultation and collaboration am I going to use -- and why? I am employing a combination of approaches to the issues confronting teachers when it comes to illiam Perry and Janna Small. The model devised by Idol, Nevin, Paolucci-hitcomb (INP) (referred to as the "Collaborative Consultation Model"), was specifically designed to help " . . . learners who may be at risk for school failure," learners in "remedial programs," learners who receive "supportive speech and language instruction" (Idol, et al., 1995). In particular, the INP model has proven to be successful for teachers who have "special needs students in their classrooms" (Idol, 348).
Also, I will use the two models employed by the Iowa Department of Education since 2009 -- co-teaching and collaborative consultation.
hat factors have I considered in my decision? As the model by INP puts…
Council for Exceptional Children. (2008). Ethical Principles and Professional Practice Standards
for Special Educators. Special Education Professional Ethical Principles. Retrieved February
16, 2017, from https://www.cec.sped.org .
Crowley, A.A., and Sabatelli, R. M. (2008). Collaborative Childcare Health Consultation: A
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
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Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
That means that educational theories and models need to change if we want to catch up and surpass these nations. It is also a well-known fact that Asian children often do better in school, and are more motivated than many other children. A look at the National Spelling Bee and other similar competitions tend to show a lot of Asian, homeschooled, and private school students, and perhaps this is where education should change in the future.
Schools should model themselves after private schools, which can sometimes be stricter and more geared to academics than public schools. Many people believe the quality of public education has declined, and while there are some that say this is not true, it seems at least in some areas, that education has declined, while teacher's salaries have increased and class sizes have been reduced. Clearly, something is not right, and America's children are playing for…
Teacher Assistance equired and Classroom Administration.
The teacher assistance to be provided would follow the guidance provided by Maria Montessori. According to Elliott, Gettinger and Kratochwill (1992), "Like Froebel, Montessori implemented an early education curriculum that was founded on a developmental theory, employed play as the instructional method, and sequentially introduced developmentally appropriate materials designed to facilitate sensory and cognitive skills" (p. 8). This technique is clearly appropriate for a preschool environment where there will likely be a highly diverse group of children at various developmental stages. In the Montessori-guided classroom, though, a careful balance must be made between helping young children too little and helping them too much. For instance, according to Wentworth (1999), "Helping children too much, or providing them with ready answers to problems, is a negative factor because it prevents the child from using its own resources for knowledge acquisition, and deprives the child of the…
Crocker, a.D., & Orr, R.R. (1996). Social behaviors of children with visual impairments enrolled in preschool programs. Exceptional Children, 62(5), 451.
Elliott, S.N., Gettinger, M., & Kratochwill, T.R. (1992). Preschool and early childhood treatment directions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Finn, K.V., Lopata, C., & Wallace, N.V. (2005). Comparison of academic achievement between Montessori and traditional education programs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20(1), 5.
Lunenburg, F.C. (2000). Early childhood education programs can make a difference in academic, economic and social arenas. Education, 120(3), 519.
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.