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Business Law: False Advertising
It is ethically and legally important to remain truthful in advertising. Companies are not allowed to attract customers with false advertisement. Legally speaking, a company can come under attack for promising something it doesn't mean to deliver or changing the terms of delivery of those promises when customer makes a demand. But several times, businesses especially small business owners might use bait and switch advertising tactic to attract customer and this can give rise to legal issues. Bait and switch advertisement is seriously forbidden by law and consumers are protected against such actions through various FTC guidelines. The terms of the advertisement are binding according to FTC rules and guidelines. FTC clearly states that when a product is advertised, it must be present at all mentioned outlets at the price mentioned in the advertisement. A person would be accused of false advertising if the product is…
FTC GUIDELINES AND LAW: Accessed online on Aug 7th 2011 from http://business.ftc.gov/documents/bus35-advertising-faqs-guide-small-business
FTC, Bait & switch advertising. Accessed online on Aug 7th 2011 from http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/guides/baitads-gd.htm#2
Singer, N. A Birth Control Pill That Promised Too Much, February 10, 2009, New York Times.
" Another member of these matchmaking sites argued that it is illogical for any of these companies to spend several hour of their employee's time to lure someone into paying $30 membership fee [Santo, 2005].
It is indeed a sorry state of affair because false advertising does more than just rob people of their money; it also gives unfair advantage over competitors and simply betrays the trust of millions of people who naively bought the product or service. ut it seems that there is really no end to this problem. Everyday tens of hundreds of ads run on cable television and they make variety of claims such as "fastest 3G network," "Faster DSL service," "Lowest prices for cable channels" etc. ut who can ever verify all these claims. How do we know that Comcast is actually offering speedier DSL than telephone companies, or if Vonage voice quality is as crystal…
1. Pratkanis, a. (2001) Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion Aronson Holt Paperbacks; illustrated edition
2. Coleman, J.W. (2001) the Criminal Elite: Understanding White Collar Crime. Worth Publishers. Fifth Edition .
3. Singer, N. A Birth Control Pill That Promised Too Much, February 10, 2009, New York Times.
4. Advertising, Mortgage Lending Compliance with Federal and State Guidance, 2001, retrieved from Internet, http://www.allfundinfo.com/4-1.doc
Some misleading advertisements I’ve received in the mail have been offers to have met debt consolidated, with letters saying I am pre-approved for a large personal loan at a very low interest rate. It always looks too good to be true and after a quick inspection online, I find that others have received the same junk mail and down at the very bottom on the letter in fine print are words telling you that you are not really pre-approved and that the letter is just an offer from a third-party business that will shop your debt around to actual lenders to see if any of them are interested in giving you a loan. Unless you know what you are looking for, you’re not likely to even notice this fine print and so the junk mail is actually very misleading in the sense that it makes you think you are already…
Direct to Consumer Advertising
According to a report by the United States General Accounting Office, "spending on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has tripled in recent years," (Collins et al. p. 4). Consequently, spending on prescription drugs has also risen. Although the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the content of prescription drug advertisements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), many critics of direct-to-consumer (DTC) promotion of prescription drugs contend that the advertisements can be misleading or even dangerous. Spending on DTC drug ads can also cut into costs that could be channeled into research and development, which is another reason why many consumer groups express concern over the proliferation of DTC ads for pharmaceuticals. The FDA changed their stance somewhat regarding DTC ads for prescription drugs in 1999, which is why DTC ads for pharmaceuticals have become commonplace, most notably on television (Palumbo and…
'A Brief History of Drug Advertising." NOW Science and Health on PBS.org. 7 Jan 2005. .
Collins, Susan, et. al. "Prescription Drugs: FDA Oversight of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Has Limitations." United States General Accounting Office. Oct 2002. .
Deselle, Shane P. "Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising and Pharmacy Practice." Pharmaceutical Education. 27 July 2004. .
'Direct to Consumer Advertising for Prescription Drugs." American College of Physicians. 9 Oct 1998. .
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).
The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.
2. Decision Making Process Theories
Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.
Normative models of decision making,…
'Advertising, Public Relations' N.d. < http://courses.umass.edu/bmat352/lectures_and_readings/KA_16.pdf > [25 May 2009].
Bahaudin, M & Jue, A 2005. 'Deceptive and Subliminal Advertising in Corporate America: Value Adder or Value Destroyer?', Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. Nova Southeastern University Wayne Huizenga Graduate School of Business. HighBeam Research. Available from: < http://www.highbeam.com > [20 May 2009].
Barnard, N & Ehrenberg, A 1997. 'Advertising: Strongly Persuasive or Nudging',
Journal of Advertising Research - January/February 1997.
Although some memories remain veritable and intact from the original experience, many memories are inextricably mixed up with post-analysis and interpretation. Furthermore, the authors examine psychological literature for information on memory processing, noting that false memories and actual reproductive memories activate the same brain regions and are therefore processed similarly. However, research shows that when people recognize the falseness of the memory at the time of encoding, they will process the cues differently. The researchers designed the present study based on these prior researches. Furthermore, the current study hearkens to advertising literature in general, which investigates the impact of ads on consumer behavior. The authors note that the retroactive impact of advertising has been studied far less than the proactive impact of advertising and therefore the present study can fill gaps in the literature and offer impetus for conducting future studies.
2. The psychological concepts discussed center on memory: both…
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Integrated marketing communications programs (IMC) use sales promotions as a major factor in their programs today. Marketers have realized that effective marketing is a combination of promotion and advertising. For effective communications programs, marketers have realized they have to rely on promotional sales, direct marketing, personal sales, convectional advertising campaigns and public relations. Sales promotions along with marketing make advertising more effective and, and the effectiveness can be increased by communication to increase awareness. IMC is a communication strategic tool, and it combines promotional mix to deliver maximum communication influence that target the audience. IMC can have the greatest persuasive effect because customers are in contact with brands. Different communicating tools are combined bringing a synergetic effect in resulting communication.
Since the inception of IMC, there have been many changes due to the changing relationship between marketers and consumers. There have also been shifts because of technology and direct communication…
Kitchen, P.J. And Schultz, D.E. (2009). New Horizon/False dawn for a marketplace in turmoil? Journal of Marketing Communications.
Lisa, S.T. (2011). Inhibition of Brand Integration. Journal of Marketing Communications.
Studies, A.O. (2012). Impact of Iintergrated Marketing Communication on Consumers. International Journal for Marketing Studies.
Timothy, N.S. (2008). Three-stage Model of Integrated Marketing. Journal of Marketing Communications.
History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.
Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.
Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…
Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University
Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising
Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
prohibition is a moribund idea, a strong, well-organized anti-alcohol movement marches on. Its strength lies in dozens of church, health, consumer, and citizens' groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving," or MADD. MADD was founded in 1980 to combat problems related to drunk driving. Since its founding, MADD has expanded its mission and vision to include issues like underage drinking and drugged driving. MADD has been instrumental in influencing state governments to raise the legal drinking age to 21 in almost all parts of the United States, and to lowering the legal blood alcohol content for driving and operating equipment. Moreover, MADD believes that advertising alcohol should be banned and their reasoning is founded on four core ideas. Because alcohol advertising targets the most vulnerable populations such as underage drinkers, encourages greater consumption of the product, and sells false beliefs, lawmakers could consider curtailing the entire practice of alcohol advertising.…
Advertising Standards Authority (2015). Alcohol advertising.
"Alcohol Advertising," (n.d.). Document.
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (2015). Alcohol beverage advertising. TTB.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.ttb.gov/advertising/alcohol-beverage.shtml
Federal Trade Commission (FCC, 2013). Alcohol adverting. Retrieved online: http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0391-alcohol-advertising
This phenomenon objectifies women by suggesting (at least implicitly) that only the opinions and sensibilities of the most attactive females, such as the models featued in advetisements, ae wothwhile. The mee absence of females of aveage and less-than-aveage elative physical attactiveness fom commecial advetising conditions eveyone in society to ignoe women unless they ae paticulaly sexually attactive. Besides being unfai to women who happen not to look like the models in commecial advetising, this also devalues any legitimate talents and the intelligence and meaningful contibutions of women who do happen to be elatively attactive. It ceates the natual infeence that attactive women who ae successful achieved thei success by vitue of thei physical appeaance instead of thei othe attibutes.
In addition to objectifying women as though they ae nothing moe than thei elative level of physical attactiveness, the ovewhelming focus on sexuality and female attactiveness in commecial advetising also denigates…
references and euphemisms for "penis" such as "special part of male anatomy" in an apparent attempt to comply with the letter if not the spirit of laws that prohibit dishonest statements in advertising. Likewise, they include very obscure printed language at the bottom of the screen advising that the product is designed "for entertainment purposes only."
Second, the ExtenZe commercials purposely create the false impression that the production is a talk show called "Sex Talk" rather than a paid hour-long advertisement. Third, the commercials feature attractive young female models and actresses who are paid for their participation and dressed in sexually provocative attire to capture male attention and suggest that these are the types of women to whom users of the product will become more attractive and desirable. Fourth, the advertisement series also denigrates women by suggesting that all they want from men is a large penis. In that regard, the main topic of the scripted dialogue among the female models pertains to their specific preference for men who are "bigger and wider." One of the women complains that she waited her entire life for a man with a large and wide enough penis to satisfy her and recounts her disappointment at having begun a relationship only to discover that her man failed to "measure up." The obvious intent of the commercials (and the entire commercial venture) is obviously to exploit females while simultaneously exploiting the common male insecurity about relative penis size. In so doing, the commercials manage to insult the worth of females, the self-esteem of males, and the value of their relationships.
The second article concerns another aspect of click fraud - the people who perpetrate it. One example is a man who attempted to blackmail online giant Google because he had developed a software program that could supposedly bilk them out of millions of dollars with fraudulent clicks on their GoogleAds Web sites. The author of this article notes, "Click fraud is perpetrated in both automated and human ways. The most common method is the use of online robots, or 'bots,' programmed to click on advertisers' links that are displayed on Web sites or listed in search queries" (Olsen 2004). The author notes that several of the largest Web sites, like Google and Yahoo, employ teams of "fraud squads" who actively look for illegal advertising activity such as click fraud, in an attempt to deal with the problem. However, since so many of the fraudulent activities are based in foreign countries,…
Greenberg, Andy. "Google Faces The Slickest Click Fraud Yet." Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com /2010/01/12/google-click-fraud-tech-security-trafficsolar.html.
Grow, Brian and Elgin, Ben. "Click Fraud: The Dark Side of Online Advertising." Business Week. 14-19.
Olsen, Stefanie. "Exposing Click Fraud." CNET News. http://news.cnet.com/Exposing-click-fraud/2100-1024_3-5273078.html .
Sexism and the Media
There are numerous examples of sexism in advertising: from Britney Spears’ advertisements for her perfume Curious, in which she strips down to her underwear for the camera, to Victoria’s Secret’s models like Chrissy Teigen undergoing both plastic surgery and photoshopping (because stripping down to her underwear doesn’t do enough to convey the right body image) for the company’s lingerie ads, women are routinely objectified for the “male gaze,” as Laura Mulvey put it (Turow, 2009, p. 195). While sexism can take many forms—such as the stereotype of women as homemakers ever ready to please their husbands that was promoted in mid-20th century advertisements—in advertising today, sexism is most readily displayed by way of objectification, as seen in Go Daddy ads, Victoria’s Secrtet ads, beer commercials, and so on, where women’s bodies are like commodities.
Feminism challenged the notion of this objectification of women for a time,…
" (Lucian: translated by Harmon, 1925:p. 185, 8) in general, humans can be made to believe just about anything. Even today, historical zealots in religions like Christianity are as easily manipulated by the church. A modern day example could be the outdated oman Catholic philosophies on birth control and safe sex which clearly affects millions. Birth control and the associated beliefs and sanctions by the oman Catholic church may have been instituted as religious law so the spouses of priests a few hundred of years ago could not inherit the lands or fortunes when the priests died -- the church manipulated 'hopes and fears' of millions so they instead could inherit what rightfully belonged to the wives and children of dead priests.
Alexander used an Oracle to usurp power from his followers. "Even if the oracle was obscure, ambiguous, or unintelligible, they respected it." (Lucian: translated by Harmon, 1925: p.…
Lucian: translated by Harmon, a.M. (1925). Alexander the False Prophet. Newport: Yale University.
Clow, K, & Black, Integrated Advertising, Promotion, Marketing Communication, 5th Edition (Global), Pearson Publishing (2012). ISBN 978-0-273-75328-5 Case: - Fast Food War Singapore I a paper case
Write a brief description of the organization you selected and the ethical issue it faces. Using the classical concepts of ethics and responsibility, explain why this is an ethical issue and how it could be addressed by the organization.
Public and nonprofit organizations are provided with guidelines for acceptable behavior by business ethics. Such guidelines are employed in strategy formulation and the regular business operations. Enacting an ethics program helps business organizations avoid and prevent employee misconduct coupled with tarnished company reputation. Business organizations are bound to moral responsibilities to its stake holders including customers, employees, vendors, loyal customers and the community at large. Self-interest is an independent concept for many business organizations though it still calls for adherence to the law and…
Discrimination involves illicitly distinguishing of people basing on prejudice or other invidious or morally disgraceful attitude which could otherwise be done basing on individual merit (Velasquez, 2006, p. 307). Both the profit and nonprofit organizations should eliminate discrimination in the work place by the development of an Affirmative Action plan (Terry L. Cooper 2012). This type of program helps organizations comply with procedures against discrimination. It is designed to help in promotion of minorities respective to the available workforce. The Kantian Theory states that human should be treated as ends and should never be used as mere means. The concept in this is that individuals have the moral duty to treat each other as free persons and with equality (Velasquez, 2006, p. 321).
Marketing is essential to every business organization. The fact that everyone is a consumer in the market, we frequently interact with the business directly (Boatright, 2009, p. 272). Common ethical problems in marketing concerns three major concepts: fairness, freedom and well-being (Boatright, 2009, p. 274). The business' consumers should rightfully content of what they are buying and other necessary information that should be contained in the product label. Product pricing should reflect real goods' value to avoid actions driving against ethics.
It is the customers' right to be informed on what they are buying. All the necessary product information should be included on the label. Pricing of the product to reflect the real value of goods is essential to avoid unethical actions against ethics (price discrimination). The organization should eliminate price discrimination and promote fairness by offering the same costs for every customer. The use of deceptive advertisements, as well as marketing practices, is a form of customer discrimination. This involves the use of false or misleading
Naked Juice Company started by Jimmy osenberg in Santa Monica in 1983. The company began as an operation out of a house, where the juice was made, and it was sold on the beach to sunbathers. The company's products were popular, and it began to professionalize. The first step was to secure distribution in California. Over the past 21 years, however, Naked Juice has become a much larger brand. Distribution now spans all 50 states, Canada and the UK (NakedJuice.com, 2014).
At the heart of the Naked Juice concept is that the products are all-natural, where the sweetness and richness of flavor is derived from the natural sugars in the fruit juice. The natural fruit juices are also intended to have a high level of nutrients, and are free from preservatives as well (Lifestyle Direct, 2014). It is on these principles that the brand was built, and gained a following…
Lifestyle Direct. (2014). Naked Juice & Smoothies. The Nibble. Retrieved March 16, 2014 from http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/beverages/juices/naked-juice.asp
NakedJuice.com. (2014). How we got here. Naked Juice Company. Retrieved March 16, 2014 from http://www.nakedjuice.com/our-purpose
Tepper, R. (2013). Naked Juice class action lawsuit settlement over health claims means 49 million for consumers. Huffington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2014 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/28/naked-juice-class-action-lawsuit_n_3830437.html
Kim, S. (2013). Naked Juice class action settlement offers up to $75 per customer. ABC News. Retrieved March 16, 2014 from http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/business/2013/08/naked-juice-class-action-settlement-offers-up-to-75-per-consumer/
One Size Fits All?
There is no such thing as one size fits all - at least when it comes to shoes. For those of us blessed with unusual shoes sizes, the search for shoes can be difficult and time consuming. That process is made more difficult by retailers who claim to offer sizes but do not actually have them in stock. I wear a size 2 1/2 -3 children's shoe, which converts to an adult size 4. I receive plenty of catalogs encouraging me to visit specialty stores that offer shoes in my size. However, when I arrive at these stores, which supposedly specialize in small shoe sizes, there appears to be a very limited quality. Truth in advertising seems to mean little to these shops.
In the King of Prussia Mall, there are two stores that specialize in hard-to-find shoe sizes. I am a frequent shopper in…
Bait and Switch
Betty drove three hours in one-hundred degree heat. Explain if this fact has any bearing on whether or not the dealer must perform in accordance with the publisher advertisement
The fact that Betty drove three hours in one-hundred degree heat is in no way a fact that can compel the dealer in performing the contract. The choice to dive was Betty's and the advertisement was merely an offer that could have been technically withdrawn any time before Betty claimed the contract. The dealer was bound to sell a car as per the advertisement which has a small print that says "Just one at this price, number 121567." ("Video 48: Advertising and Communication Law: Bait and Switch," n. d)
Whether that is enforceable or not is another issue. But the fact that the advertisement was answered to by Betty by traveling three hours in hot climate has no…
Beatty, Jeffrey F; Samuelson, Susan S. (2006) "Business Law and the Legal Environment"
Beatty, Jeffrey F; Samuelson, Susan S. (2007) "Essentials of Business Law"
It remains important, however, that the company does not violate any of the prevailing laws with respect to marketing. Laws concerning false advertising and intellectual property (especially trademark) violations must be paid due attention when developing the marketing strategy. At present, BCC seems to be well clear of any laws on these subjects, but they are worth acquiring knowledge of nevertheless.
Bathurst Carbon Cutters cannot reject the idea of marketing outright, for two reasons. The first is that the notion of marketing as destructive is false, especially given that the underlying theory of the business appears to be that convincing more Bathurst residents to utilize bicycles will ultimately benefit the environment. If this is the case, then the business is faced with an ethical dilemma should it proceed, not only because marketing activity is inevitable but because the name of the company conveys to the consumer the idea of…
Silk, A. (2006). What is marketing? Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Investopedia. (2010). Perfect competition. Investopedia. Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp
QuickMBA. (2007). The marketing mix. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/mix/
No author. (2010). A brief history of marketing. Bournemouth University. Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://media3.bmth.ac.uk/marketing/02defining/01history.html
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a hreat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA oday, Volume 130, Issue 2678, 62.
he author discusses different types of advertising and promotion and finds ethical problems in the way many are handled, especially with reference to advertising and promoting goods and services to children. He cites the use of focus groups for toy companies and the ethical implications of improving advertising to kids.
Cohn, E. (2000, January 31). Marketwatch: Consuming Kids. he American Prospect, Volume 11, Issue 6, 13.
he author questions the promotion of certain products to children and finds marketers hiring psychologists to shape the message so as to reach children. Other psychologists have denounced such actions and have called for an emendation of the ethics code to govern this sort of promotion in the future.
Ethics in Pricing
This author also considers the ethics of distribution in terms of the distribution of goods to foreign markets and also uses the Nestle case of the distribution of baby formula as the primary example. He also offers a review of literature on the subject of cross-cultural marketing.
Pinstrup-Andersen, P. (2005, December 1). Ethics and economic policy for the food system. American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
The author notes that economists usually do not address ethical issues but that he will do so in terms of questions about the food system and how ethical considerations affect the way food is distributed.
Even consumers who shied away from purchasing contacts because of worries about infections or the dangers of cleaning them can enjoy the convenience and greater sanitation provided by CIBA's disposable lenses.
CIBA's success as a company is at least partially dependent upon its ability to patent new and innovative products. Although it has shown itself to be an innovative company by pioneering some of the developments within the contact lens industry, including as soft lenses, disposable lenses, and lenses for hard-to-fit clients, most of its competitors have produced similar products, and thus consumers have a wide range of products to choose from. CIBA must continue to be innovative and patent new products.
There continues to be a great deal of contentious legal dispute between CIBA and one of its main rivals, Bausch & Lomb. ecently, CIBA was forced to terminate an advertising campaign that claimed its contact lens solutions…
Bausch & Lomb: Limited voluntary recall. (2007). Bausch & Lomb Official Website.
Retrieved May 21, 2011 at http://www.bauschandlomb.com/en_US/corporate/corpcomm/news/10_030607_BOL_Initiates_Limited.aspx
Bausch & Lomb CIBA rival forced to halt ad campaign. (2011, May 11). Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved May 22, 2011 at http://www.democratandchronicle.com/article/20110423/Business/104230332/1001/business/B-L-rival-Ciba-Vision-halt-ad-campaign
Chavers, Gabrielle & Melissa Mota. (2010). Alcon and Novartis complete merger and form new
Cardware's new line of cardigans is aimed to influence both children and parents to express interest in the company's products. These respective cardigans make it possible for children to identify with their dolls and to thus feel that it would be in their best interest for both to wear the same types of clothes. However, the fact that they have buttons meant to look like cakes means that they are a serious health hazard. Considering Kendra's situation, it would be safe to say that a 4-year-old has trouble differentiating between things she should eat and things she should not eat -- especially when the latter are designed to look like they are edible.
If I were to sue Cardware, I would choose to do so by addressing the idea of strict liability: the company should have considered the likeliness that a child would be confused as a result of seeing…
The high competition rate in the industry necessitates fast and numerous new developments. Nextel Communications Inc. can much more valuable spend its time and money by investing in new ideas. Court cases take time and energy, while also being highly detrimental to the creative process. In this way, losses are incurred not only in terms of legal fees and work hours, but also in terms of creativity and new products within the company.
In addition, law suits could have a detrimental effect on a company's reputation. If Nextel were for example to lose the case, Verizon receives the right to continue with their product. Potentially, Nextel's reputation could be harmed by its involvement in an apparently petty attempt to corner the market on their product. Even if the company wins, the result could be equally damaging in terms of lost hours as well as creativity and reputation damages.
Unethical Practices in Marketing: Deceptive Marketing
Business ethics requires that business organizations should act in a manner that is morally and ethically upright. One of the areas where ethical behavior is crucial is marketing. Marketing is one of the major functions within an organization. It is basically concerned with communicating and reaching out to customers in an attempt to promote products, services, and/or brands. Nonetheless, unethical behavior in marketing is not a rare phenomenon. There are often instances of misleading or deceptive advertising, exaggerated claims, using fear tactics, spamming, exploitation, and other practices that fit the unethical tag. If not addressed, these practices can in the long run affect an organization's reputation. Deceptive marketing is one of the common forms of unethical behavior within the marketing realm. This paper discusses this practice. Following a definition of deceptive marketing, the paper pays attention to regulations for deceptive marketing and…
Competition Bureau. (2015). False or misleading representations and deceptive marketing practices. Retrieved from http://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb - bc.nsf/eng/03133.html
DeMers, J. (2017, May 17). 5 common unethical marketing practices: are you guilty. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2017/05/17/5-common- unethical-marketing-practices-are-you-guilty/#385ba03c2f27
Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (n.d.). Truth in advertising. Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/media-resources/truth-advertising
Ferrell, O., & Hartline, M. (2014). Marketing strategy: text and cases. 6th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class
Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.
Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?
Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…
Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.
Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.
Alaska Journal of Commerce.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
.....ethical plan and strategy is integral to an organization's overall commitment to social responsibility. In "Marketing Ethics and Social Responsibility," Marinova (2013) first discusses the general importance of ethics as a general marketing strategy, in order to promote the brand as one that is socially responsible and thereby position the organization not just ethically but also strategically within the marketplace. Next, Marinova (2013) defines terms related to ethics and corporate social responsibility to help organizations to identify their weaknesses in these areas and make strong commitments to change and revising their ethical policies, particular in marketing. Moreover, the author offers some of the direct marketing solutions related to specific issues like false advertising and the sale of potentially harmful products from toys containing lead paint to food products containing items known to cause obesity or other diseases. The tremendous strengths of the Marinova (2013) article are only partially offset by…
ExxonMobil Chemical Corp: CS Plan / CS plan for ExxonMobil
Economic Status andExxonMobil Chemical
Political Status and ExxonMobil Chemical
Civil Society and ExxonMobil Chemical
Environmental status and ExxonMobil Chemical
Media Campaign for ExxonMobil
Located in Irving, Texas the Exxon Mobil Chemical is a U.S. company specializing in the production of gas and oil. The company was formed from the merger of Exxon and Mobil in November of 1999. Both companies had been part of the Standard Oil Company formed by John D. ockefeller. Exxon had been the branch of Standard Oil Company in New Jersey while Mobil had been the New York branch. The company serves the plastics industry by making use of the materials from its chemical plants and refineries to produce chemical building blocks (ExxonMobil, 2015d).
Company Vision and Value Statement
Part of the company vision is to be the "world's premier petrochemical company." In order to achieve…
Best practices. (2013). Vision, Mission & Values -- ExxonMobil -- Top 10 most profitable corporations and businesses. Retrieved from http://itsbestpractices.com/2013/11/08/vision-mission-values-ExxonMobil-top-10-profitable-corporations-businesses on 17th November, 2015.
Browning, D. (2012). What You Should Know about Exxon Mobil's Latest Ad Campaign Time Inc. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://ideas.time.com/2012/04/13/what-you-should-know-about-exxon-mobils-latest-ad-campaign on 17th November, 2015.
Carr, T. (2013). Exxon Mobil: False advertising on environmentally friendly (5/14/07). Business Ethic Case Analyses. Retrieved from http://businessethicscases.blogspot.in/2013/02/exxon-mobil-false-advertising-on.html?m=1 on 17th November, 2015.
Cohen, K. (2015). Key Sustainability and challenges. Retrieved from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/corporate-citizenship-report /stakeholders/key-sustainability-issues-and-challenges' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=
Hy Cite Corp. Vs. Badbusinessbureau
The court case Hy Cite Corp v Badbusinessbureau.com is about a consumer protection firm that ran several websites (i.e. The IP off eport and Bad Business Bureau). They would post negative reviews about those companies who did not meet the expectations of their customers. This was accomplished through monitoring an excessive amount of reports they received. On one occasion, they posted an advisory about oyal Prestige Cookware. ("Hy Cite Corp v Badbusinessbureau.com," 2005)
The parent company (Hy Cite Corp.) contacted the firm and asked them to cease with their activities. As the claims that they made about: the product and company were completely false. In response, the defendant offered to help the plaintiff solve these and future disputes for a fee of $50 thousand per month along with a $1,500.00 retainer. In response, Hy Cite Corp. sued claiming that the firm was in violation of…
Hy Cite Corp v Badbusinessbureau.com. (2005). Finnegan.com. Retrieved from: http://www.finnegan.com/HyCiteCorpvbadbusinessbureaucomLLC/
Mass Media Influences
It has long been known that the media has a strong influence on the public, and when television and other media presents strong messages on any particular topic, like smoking for example, society is impacted. This paper presents quality references in order to cover important aspects of the media, the issues it promotes, its history, it tactics, and its impacts.
Technological Transitions and Digital Technologies Influence Society
Author Paul Boyer explains that through "mediated communicative processes" individuals help to shape society. In those communicative processes there are to be found "complex interactions of human agency, social institutions," along with the various media-driven communicative processes that are the foundations of society (Boyer, 2012). The media that people use -- including today's Internet, television, print media, and radio -- shape both "national political conversations" and a number of aspects of social relationships (Boyer, 213).
And since the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Estimates of Current Tobacco Use
Among Youth. Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Digital Preservation Management. (2014). Timeline: Digital Technology and Preservation.
Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.dpworkshop.org.
Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology
All psychologists are required to follow the ethical guidelines found in the 2002 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), commonly known as the Ethics Code. Other important ethical guidelines are found in the 2007 Competing Development Achievement Levels (DALs) of the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP) and the Assessment of Competing Benchmarks Work Group of the APA. These ethics codes cover compliance, privacy and confidentiality, assessment, therapy, research and publications, and there are also special guidelines for dealing with children, minorities, culturally diverse populations, forensic psychology and gay and lesbian clients. Both the Ethics Code and state laws require psychologists to maintain the confidentiality of clients and their records, apart from legal requirements to report verified or suspected child abuse or clients who are a danger to others. Psychologists can only provide…
Arnaut, G.L.Y. And D.A. Hill (2010), "Ethical and Legal Issues," in J.C. Thomas and M. Hersen (eds). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies. Springer, pp. 73-94.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Wulach, James S. And David L. Shapiro (2005), "Ethical and Legal Considerations in Child Custody Evaluations," in Gunsberg and Hymowitz (Eds.), A Handbook of Divorce and Custody Forensic Development and Clinical Perspectives. New Jersey: The Analytic Press pp. 45-56.
Pricing Strategies and Decisions
Pricing Strategy Management
Pricing Policies, Processes and Methods
Policies used to manage Tesla’s pricing strategy. Currently Tesla is not only benefiting by but is actually relying on government subsidies to sell its cars. Subsidies come from electric vehicle (EV) tax credits that purchasers are able to obtain whenever they buy a Tesla. The problem is that these credits are only given to consumers for a set duration. Once the government ends the subsidy, sales drop drastically, as has been in the case in Hong Kong where tax incentives basically were the whole of Tesla’s pricing strategy—and once the tax incentives ended, sales were decimated. Currently in Norway, which is Tesla’s biggest European market, consumers pay no import tax or any of the purchase taxes that apply to non-EV cars—which is a big incentive (Tesla 10-K, 2018, p. 22). In the Netherlands, sales are soaring this year…
Class actions represent a consolidation of power by plaintiffs and alleged victims in a case, allowing groups of plaintiffs to consolidate their cases and seek a single judgment for collective damages. Though this is primarily a way of strengthening each plaintiff's case and their cases as a whole, it has certain benefits to defendants as well. By dealing with the Vioxx cases as a class action and coming to an out-of-court resolution with the class action, Merck avoided incurring additional legal costs in resolving or bringing to trial each of the individual cases that it was faced with. This is one way of managing the legal risks of the company; given a different set of circumstances, it might have been advantageous to try each case separately and many cases might have been dismissed due to lack of merit; in this case; the harm caused was fairly evident and materially the…
They may be sold to another owner after they arrive, and since most agreements are verbal, they are easily broken. Another startling fact in human trafficking is how many victims enter the trade willingly, because of the need to provide income for their families. esearchers Cwikel and Hoban note this is especially true in ussia, where many former Soviet Union countries have privatized education and health care facilities. ussian women often enter the sex trade via trafficking as a way to earn wages for education and health care expenses for the rest of their family. Often, victims come from poor, third-world countries. esearcher Miller states, "Desperate and gullible populations, especially in developing and transitioning countries, are susceptible to the promises made by recruiters (including family members) of a better life in another place, especially promises of paid work, marriage, or domestic service" (Miller). Thus, the practice preys on the most…
Cwikel, Julie, and Elizabeth Hoban. "Contentious Issues in Research on Trafficked Women Working in the Sex Industry: Study Design, Ethics, and Methodology." The Journal of Sex Research 42.4 (2005): 306+.
Matthews, Stacey. "International Trafficking in Children: Will New U.S. Legislation Provide an Ending to the Story?." Houston Journal of International Law 27.3 (2005): 649+.
Miller, John R. "Slave Trade: Combating Human Trafficking." Harvard International Review 27.4 (2006): 70+.
tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.
The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)
For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…
Clean Air Act Summary. (2013). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-air-act
Environmental Protections Rules and Regulations. (2012). Federal Register, 77 (32), 9304 -- 9513.
EPA To Set Modest Pace. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6424ac1caa800aab85257359003f5337/d2f038e9daed78de8525780200568bec!OpenDocument
New Source Litigation. (2013). Southern Company. Retrieved from: http://www.southerncompany.com/about-us/suppliers/fuel-services/environmental.cshtml
The communication with readers can be instituted in the form of responsive remarks from visitors. More specifically, the blog sites can be instituted for free of cost. While the webmasters carryout unethical optimization of a client's website, it could have enduring negative business costs for that client that cannot be mended smoothly. The results that apparently are at first glance be negligible. People are becoming shrewder online. They are initiating to visualize the e-business false advertising that is upon us. It is therefore, required to be more cautious, since it is just a matter of time until we are aware of more stories and legal measures to be enforced. (Internet-Marketing Ethics)
Anil, Samtani; Tan, Harry SK. "Legal, egulatory and Policy Issues of E-Commerce in Asia." Asia-Pacific Development Information Program: United Nations Development Program. etrieved at http://www.apdip.net/projects/2003/asian-forum/docs/papers/session7.pdf. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
E-business Definitions (B2C, B2B etc.)" etrieved at http://www.cheshirehenbury.com/ebusiness/ebdefinitions.html.…
Anil, Samtani; Tan, Harry SK. "Legal, Regulatory and Policy Issues of E-Commerce in Asia." Asia-Pacific Development Information Program: United Nations Development Program. Retrieved at http://www.apdip.net/projects/2003/asian-forum/docs/papers/session7.pdf . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
E-business Definitions (B2C, B2B etc.)" Retrieved at http://www.cheshirehenbury.com/ebusiness/ebdefinitions.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Harris, Lisa; Spence, Laura. J. (2002) "The Ethics of E-Banking" Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol: 3; No: 2. Retrieved at http://www.csulb.edu/web/journals/jecr/issues/20022/paper5.pdf . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Internet-Marketing Ethics" Retrieved at http://pwebs.net/marketing/ethics/articles/internetethics.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Privileging the rights and needs of people with financial stakes in the American auto industry runs counter to American ideals of equality and Rawlsian justice.
Should we try to restrain, in this and other product liability situations, the litigiousness that seems to characterize American life? How might we do this?
Litigation that is blatantly foolish against corporations, such as a recent lawsuit against Quaker Oats for false advertising because Crunchberry cereal did not contain real fruit, usually fails, or is reversed upon appeal (inter 2009). The appeals process is the constitutional 'check' to juror's tendency to award too much to aggrieved plaintiffs. ithout the ability to sue corporations, the corporate lack of concern at Ford for the safety of the Pinto can occur once again. Litigation can be a powerful tool of consumers against large corporations.
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, .H. &…
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
Winter, Michael. (2009, June 8). Judge kills suit claiming crunchberries aren't real fruit.
Perhaps they're put off by the cracked floor tiles or the cobwebs on the headless, foam-rubber mannequins. Whatever the reason, the store's rock-bottom prices and helpful service clearly aren't pulling in many shoppers" (Fairlamb and Cohn, 2003).
After nearly a decade of trying to penetrate the German market, Wal-Mart counted its losses and exited Germany. A Wal-Mart spokesman argued that, despite the million dollar losses, the experience was a positive one as it represented a turning point and a lesson for the future. The lesson was that in spite of its national success, Wal-Mart is vulnerable in the international context (Lander and Barbaro, 2006). Similar situations are also encountered in Asia, and the question that is being posed here refers to the future strategies Wal-Mart could implement in order to reduce its vulnerability and increase its position in the global context.
Two recommendations are of vital importance when…
Fairlamb, D., Cohn, L., October 6, 2003, a Bumpy Ride in Europe, Business Week
Featherstone, L., December 16, 2002, Wal-Mart Values: Selling Women Short, the Nation, Vol. 275
Featherstone, L., June 28, 2004, Rollback Wages! Will Labor Take the Wal-Mart Challenge? The Nation, Vol. 278
Greenwald, R., (Director), 2005, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price
INTENET'S IMPACT ON HEALTH CAE INFOMATION
The Internet's Impact on Health Care Information
The Internet's Impact on Health Care Information
This paper explores some of the best and well-known cites and sites around the world for information and health care. Early in the 21st century, the World Health Organization made its first attempt to rank the quality of health care in approximately 200 countries. (NYT, 2007) The WHO ranked the countries' health care based on factors such as fairness, quality, access, insurance coverage, patient satisfaction, and use of information technology among other factors. (NYT, 2007) According to this research, some of countries in the world that provide the best health care overall are France, Italy, Malta, Japan, and Monaco, among others. (NYT, 2007) As much as the United States of America boasts at being the best in the world at nearly everything, United States health care was not in…
Global Health Council. (2012). Health Linkages. Web, Available from: http://www.globalhealth.org/Health_Linkages.html . 2012 August 26.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Research and Education. (2012). Mayo Clinic. Web, Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/ . 2012 August 26.
National Institutes of Health. (2012). Health Information. Web, Available from: http://health.nih.gov/ . 2012 August 26.
No listed author. (2007). Editorial -- World's best health care? The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/12/opinion/12sun1.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 August 26.
Selling (to) Kids: Advertising, Children, Youth and Commercial Culture
Advertising for children and youth has always had a special appeal. Gen X’ers remember the Toys ‘R’ Us song, “I don’t want to grow up, I’m a Toys ‘R’ Us kid,” and link it to their childhood—even if they never went to a single Toys ‘R’ Us store. They invariably saw the commercials multiple times if they had a TV in their home. The commercials showed children blissfully happy because they had toys galore—and the aim of the ad campaign was to get kids interested in consumerism. On the surface, it seems like a harmless engagement. However, from the standpoint of critical theory, turning kids into consumers perpetuates the power structure of the capitalist system in the U.S.—that is how the Frankfurt School would argue it. This paper will use critical theory—the idea of the Frankfurt School that media can be…
against Jane claiming to be Hispanic-American in her ads.
The main argument against Jane claiming to be Hispanic-American in her ads is that it is dishonest. Neither she nor most of her employees are Hispanic, and it appears that the ad would violate the concept of truth in advertising and expose her to liability. Likewise, at first blush, it seems as if there are no good arguments for Jane claiming to be Hispanic-American in her ads. However, Jane needs to increase sales to keep the business afloat. Hispanic-American customers may be more willing to buy products from a Hispanic-owned business. The issue becomes whether the fact that Jane is (or, rather, is not) Hispanic is a material fact. If Jane was running a Mexican restaurant, her ethnicity might be critical. However, unless there is something culturally significant about the clothing that depends on Jane's ethnicity, it seems unlikely that her…
Federal Trade Commission. (2001). Advertising FAQ's: a guide for small businesses.
Retrieved from http://business.ftc.gov/documents/bus35-advertising-faqs-guide-small-business
Federal Trade Commission. (Unk.). Advertising and marketing basics. Retrieved from:
If consumers robotically obeyed advertising messages, then 80% of all new products would not be destined for failure, despite the over 200 billion dollars (in 1997 figures) spent by producers to bombard the senses of the consumer through every possible venue, from television to the Internet. (45; 50)
Twitchell concludes that the presence of consumer culture paradoxically gives consumers the tools of empowerment by offering them new tools of self-fashioning. Through buying products and exercising individual choice, persons can remake themselves into new individuals, much like the rituals of the church provided similar tools of self-improvement and self-fashioning.
However, one must ask the question -- does the existence of consumerism replace other moral aspirations of humankind? For example, a person who believes the rhetoric of advertising might decide that personally buying an ecologically sound product is a replacement for actually writing his or her congressman as part of a widespread…
applying: safeguard protective clothing manufacturers bulletproof vests -- apply strategies • Definition marketing (U1 DB) • Introduction product/service (U1 DB) • Situation Analysis - marketing environment forces impacting product/service (U1 IP) • Marketing Strategy - target market(s) positioning (U2 DB & U2 IP) • Product/Service overview strategies (U3 DB) • Pricing Strategy (U4 DB) • Distribution Channels (U3 IP) You add Abstract, Introduction, Conclusion, Integrated Marketing Communications Mix, including: • Overview integrated marketing communications • Promotion Mix Strategy - explain a push pull strategy • Message Strategy - decide general message communicated target market promotional tools • Promotion Mix - choose (3) promotional tools (advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, public relations direct marketing).
Bulletproof Vests Plan
The objective of this paper relies on discussing the importance of marketing strategies. The following pages focus on developing a marketing plan for a company that produces bulletproof vests. The introductory section is…
1. Jain, S. (2008). Integrated Marketing Communication. Global India Publications. Retrieved August 17, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=4g3M61Oo38QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=integrated+marketing+communications&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=integrated%20marketing%20communications&f=false .
2. Porter, M. (1998). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Retrieved August 17, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=QN0kyeHXtJMC&pg=PA127&dq=push+pull+strategy&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=push%20pull%20strategy&f=false .
3. Dolak, D. (2010). The Marketing Communications or promotional Mix. Retrieved august 17, 2011 from http://www.davedolak.com/promix.htm.
McDonald's Integrated Marketing Campaign
This paper is divided into two distinct sections. The first chapter is based on literature reviews of various scholarly works that are related to the topic of integrated marketing campaign that are also relevant to the McDonald marketing campaign that was created to celebrate the inherent democracy of the McDonald's brand. The first chapter is further divided into three parts; the first section mainly focus on advertising in general and then specifically into fast food advertising. The second section in literature review is based on new media as a marketing communication tool and lastly, in the same chapter different aspects of marketing campaign will also be analyzed. The second chapter is a personal reflection on the experience and lessons learnt by the student while preparing the dissertation.
Table of Content
CHAPTE ONE: Literature review
Types of advertising
1.2.1 Digital advertising…
Ben H., (2005): "4udible revolution," The Guardian,
Berry, R. (2006). Will the iPod kill the radio star? Profiling podcasting as radio. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 12(2), 143.
Brownell, K.D., & Horgen, K.B. (2004); Food fight: The inside story of the food industry, America's obesity crisis, and what we can do about it. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Blanchard, O., (2008) Macroeconomics. Harlow: Pearson Education
advertisements for Harley Davidson both have the overall message that Harley Davidson's are for rebellious individuals and that societies rules do not apply to the Harley Davidson owner.
The text of the first ad, "in some circles, paisley and florals have yet to catch on" sets the tone for the ad and also conveys the meaning. Firstly, the text has an air of importance to it as well as an air of indifference. The "in some circles" is patronizing and suggests that these 'some' are not as good as the rest. The humor associated with 'paisley and florals' takes the edge of this patronizing feel, so that overall the text has a humor that means it is not to be taken too seriously. This creates a humorous and ironic tone to the ad. This text, without the picture, also captures the meaning of the ad. These 'circles' that haven't caught…
However, there are often no rules, or weak ones, and that can create an ethical dilemma on the part of marketers. They must decide for themselves what lines they want to cross, and set their own codes of ethics. here rules only provide guidelines, these can be open to interpretation. As we have seen with the area of marketing to children, however, the marketing industry has kept ahead of the regulators in how they approach the issue. The government has barely been able to ban Joe Camel, and has no answer for companies that reach children with child-oriented web content that blends.
In order to create a code of ethics where there are no laws to provide guidance, there are bodies that have taken the lead. A company should begin, for example, with a statement of ethical norms from the American Marketing Association (2012). There are three ethical…
Akaah, I. & Riordan, E. (1989). Judgments of marketing professionals about ethical issues in marketing research: A replication and extension. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 26 (1) 112-120
Shrubsole, G. (2012). Marketing and advertising that respects children's rights. The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/marketing-advertising-respect-childrens-rights
Horovitz, B. (2011). Marketing to kids gets more savvy with new technologies. USA Today. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2011-07-27-new-technolgies-for-marketing-to-kids_n.htm
Smart Consulting Group. (2009). Dishonest marketing in pharmaceuticals demands a big price to pay. SCG. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.smartconsultinggroup.com/2009/11/dishonest-marketing-in-pharmaceuticals-demands-a-big-price-to-pay/
A lot of companies are resorting to marketing one-to-one or concentrating on a narrow niche. For this reason, the respective corporations find it preferable to make use of direct communication with their clients who are typically a small targeted group that are considered after much thought. Direct communication helps the companies in obtaining a quick feedback from the clients that quickens the pace of their decision making. Over the years, the paradigm of direct communication has come a long way because of the dramatic evolutions in technologies and because of the introduction of new marketing media, particularly the usage of Internet.
Direct mailing and electronic catalogs, facilitated by Internet technologies have allowed for the implementation of models related to direct marketing (Jonker, Piersma, & Potharst, 2006; Liao & Chen, 2004; 2011). esearchers in the past have made use of direct communication as a model of complete business or…
Bolton, Ruth N., P.K. Kannan, and Matthew D. Bramlett (2000), Implications of Loyalty Program Membership and Service Experiences for Customer Retention and Value, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Winter), 95 -- 108.
Bowman, Douglas and Das Narayandas (2001), Managing Customer-Initiated Contacts with Manufacturers: The Impact on Share of Category Requirements and Word-of-Mouth Behavior, Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (August), 281 -- 97.
Coughlan, A.T., & Grayson, K. (1998). Network marketing organizations: Compensation plans, retail network growth, and profitability. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(5), 401 -- 426.
De Wulf, Kristof, Gaby Odekerken-Schroder, and Dawn Iacobucci (2001), Investments in Consumer Relationships: A CrossCountry and Cross-Industry Exploration, Journal of Marketing, 65 (October), 33 -- 50.
" And sales is one example of this type of professional culture, regardless of what product is being sold (McCarter, 1999). The personal image of Mary Kay may generate some loyalty in the hearts of her sales staff, because of her charismatic figure and rags-to-riches success story, but ultimately saleswomen are there to make extra income, to win bonuses, and they compete against one another for incentives.
In short, the article makes an astute point -- when assessing organizational culture, do not confuse the image the corporation presents to the public with the actual employee culture behind closed doors. An apparently pro-working class company like al-Mart may depend upon a low-wage staff to provide its perpetually low prices, and cosmetic sales are still a 'selling' profession. Mary Kay's success is based upon her saleswomen showing drive and taking the initiative, not upon the power of her eyeliner.
McNamara, Carter. (1997). "Organizational Culture." Management Help. Retrieved 5 Aug 2007 at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm
' Even if the brand has an indelible image, if tastes change, the company must vary its formula and change its brand associations. Because of the increased concern about obesity, which has come to outweigh concerns about convenience, McDonald's image as a family-forward, all-American company has become tarnished, and now the fast food giant features healthy options as well as its large portions. Its commercials proclaim the cheapness of its dollar menu rather than feature images of families eating under the golden arches. Instead of seeming hypocritical by stressing family values, McDonald's stresses the ability of consumers to save money by eating its food and makes a token nod to obesity concerns by offering salads.
However, equally dangerous as not varying the brand image to change with consumer tastes is expanding too quickly and diluting the successful image of one's brand, as some feel may have occurred when Starbucks began…
Islamic Maketing Stategy
As the population of Muslims is inceasing ove time, thee is also an inceased demand of the intoduction of Islamic pinciples in diffeent sectos. One of these sectos that have seen a geat deal of Islamization lately is the maketing secto. Muslims now want a maketing system that is in accodance with the laws of Shaiah. One of the most pojected examples of this is the intoduction of Islamic banking to povide altenate poducts and sevices to the Muslim customes. Many eseaches and studies have been caied out to see what the esponse of the Islamic maketing stategies has been ove the yeas. In this pape, we shall fist look at in detail what is actually meant by the Islamic maketing stategy and how the Islamic laws petaining to business diffe fom the conventional laws. We shall then look at how these stategies have been adopted by…
references In Jordan," International Journal Of Bank Marketing, Vol. 17 Iss: 3, Pp.135 -- 151.
Niazi, L.A.K. (1991). Islamic Law Of Contract. Lahore, Research Cell, Dyal Sing Trust Library.
Psychology: Research & Practice, 27, Pg.583-587.
Quran. (N.D.). Qura'an Majeed.
Shaw, M. (1996) Civil Society And Media In Global Crises, St. Martin Press, London.
CS and Green Marketing
Green Marketing and Corporate Social esponsibility
This essay examines green marketing and corporate social responsibility practices. In particular, the paper examines the practice of greenwashing, and discusses companies' willingness to exploit green marketing for competitive advantage. The essay also reviews the legitimate use of green marketing as a means of promoting responsible environmental stewardship.
Green marketing involves the promotion of products that are marketed as being environmentally safe or beneficial. The practice had its beginnings in Europe in the early 1980s when certain products were found to be harmful to the earth's atmosphere. As a result, new types of products were created, called green products, which were less damaging to the environment. The green product movement grew quickly in the United States and has continued growing steadily ever since (Green Marketing, 2011).
Also known as sustainable marketing, environmental marketing, and ecological marketing, green marketing consists of…
Economist's View, 2005. Why go Green? Product differentiation or Fox in the Henhouse? [Online] Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].
Environmental Leader, 2011. Americans Give Green Marketing Claims Too Much Credit, Study Finds. [Online] (Updated 2011) Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].
Green Marketing, 2011. [Online] (Updated 2011) Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].
GreenerDesign Staff, 2009. Companies Develop Green Products to Differentiate and Lead: Survey. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].
Fern and Brown (1984) claimed that the distinction between industrial and consumer marketing lacked any clear foundation, while more recently Vargo and Lusch (2011) argued that business-business markets underpin the most recent developments in marketing theory overall. In your opinion, is business- to-business marketing distinct from or, the same as consumer marketing?
Industrial and Consumer Marketing Distinctions
The issue regarding a distinction between business to business and consumer marketing is an important aspect that marketing specialists have tried to clear in the attempt of developing more efficient marketing theories. The importance of determining whether or not there is a distinction between these types of marketing relies on the fact that this information would contribute to developing efficient strategies for companies to use when addressing different markets. In order to develop efficient marketing strategies, companies must identify the principles that rule their type of industry. Therefore, it is important to understand…
1. Zimmerman, A. & Blythe, J. (2013). Business to Business Marketing Management: A Global Perspective. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=pqBag4CzgwwC&pg=PA65&dq=business+to+business+marketing+principles&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=4uhQU6XrLqSQ5ASUn4GAAQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=business%20to%20business%20marketing%20principles&f=false .
2. Hutt, M. & Speh, T. (2013). Business Marketing Management: B2B. Cengage Learning. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=8lMAWJXtf6QC&pg=PA14&dq=differences+in+business+to+business+and+consumer+marketing+principles&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=XDhRU6CiJMTiywOfmIHIDQ&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=differences%20in%20business%20to%20business%20and%20consumer%20marketing%20principles&f=false .
3. Donovan, R. & Henley, N. (2010). Principles and Practice of Social Marketing: An International Perspective. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=pM42Oqz8BuUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=marketing+principles&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=aUlRU42-JamCyQOj9oG4Cg&ved=0CEYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=marketing%20principles&f=false .
Encouraging the media to present more diverse and real images of people with more positive messages about health and self-esteem may not eliminate eating disorders entirely, but it would help reduce the pressures many people feel to make their bodies conform to one ideal, and in the process, reduce feelings of body dissatisfaction and ultimately decrease the potential for eating disorders (National Eating Disorders Association 2005). ut it should not stop there though because there are other related issues as to how the body image is projected by the media. There is an effect on people's behavior and attitudes whereby if they have the perfect body image, they could feel more superior than others. In changing the way the media perform their social duties and services by projecting real people in their advertisements, there will not be any negative outlook on how feel see themselves but rather a feeling of…
Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. The Business of Media: Corporate Media and the Public Interest. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 2006. Print.
Media Awareness Network. Beauty and Body Image in the Media. 2010. 18 Jul. 2011. .
National Eating Disorders Association. The Media, Body Image and Eating Disorders. 2005. 18 Jul. 2011. .
Thompson, J. Kevin, and Leslie J. Heinberg. "The Media's Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We've Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them?" Journal of Social Issues 55.2 (1999): 339 -- 353. 18 Jul. 2011.
Kodak decided to implement this initiative after conducting market research on the costs of printing at home. According to a study by InfoTrends, the greatest obstacle to printing at home is the cost of ink and supplies (Kodak, 2007). Another printer from the new line, the Kodak EasyShare 5300 offers a 3-inch color LCD display that enables photo viewing and cropping directly from the printer, with a memory card slot that provides an additional quick and simple way to print digital pictures without a PC. Other printers in the new line consist of printers geared toward home-office users. In this way Kodak maintained competitive with other photo companies offering the same products. Kodak's main marketing strategy is that the company is producing a less-expensive product with few frills that still fits its customers' needs. This allows Kodak to create a cheaper product that consumers love but competitors don't want to…
Ailawadi, K., Borin, N., Farris, P. (1995). Market Power and Performance: A Cross-Industry Analysis of Manufacturers and Retailers. Journal of Retailing,(71)(3): 211-248.
Blair, R. & LaFontaine, F. (2005). The Economics of Franchising. Cambridge Brandt, M. (2000). Introducing New Products. Retrieved November 12, 2007, at http://www.inc.com .
Cuneo, a. (2006). A Cingular Waste. Advertising Age. (May).
Christensen, C. & Anthony, S. (2007). Will Kodak's New Strategy Work?.
Is the Mazda Lorax ad good?
The Mazda CX- 5 SUV was advertised in 2012 with a tie-in to the Lorax movie. The advertisement promotes the SUV using Lorax themes. The Lorax is a Dr. Seuss book that is based around the concept of corporate greed creating environmental degradation, and the book has a strong environmentalist message. The ad seeks to improve the environmental perception of Mazda, loosely promoting the company's Skyactiv technology. This technology is not really explained other than it seeks to improve fuel efficiency without sacrificing performance. The CX -- 5/Lorax ad is not good, because it represents the concept of greenwashing. The cartoon Lorax character and its themes are used to present this vehicle as environmentally friendly, which is deceptive.
Greenwashing refers to the use of marketing techniques into to mislead customers into thinking that certain products or their production processes are environmentally friendly. Typically,…
Godelnik, Raz. "Lorax Tie-Ins Go Overboard: Is It Greenwashing?" Triple Pundit. Retrieved from http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/03/companies-lorax-greenwash/ . 2014.
Carty, Silke. "Greenwashed Car Ads Make People Feel Good about Polluting" The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/20/green-cars-ads-polluting_n_1440830.html . 2014.
Theefoe, it is impotant that people implementing the stategy ae able to adapt it to diffeent changes detemined by envionmental factos. And in cases whee the development of the maketing stategy is flawed, the implementation team can povide the necessay feedback in ode to impove it. This is why stategists and implementes should wok togethe and communicate duing the implementation pocess (Pide & Feell, 2010). In addition to this, the implementation team can povide efficient advice on the esults of the stategy's implementation in ode fo the stategy team to develop moe efficient maketing stategies.
The success of maketing stategies elies on developing them, but also on thei implementation. By offeing feedback between the development and implementation teams, the efficiency of stategies can be impoved. It is also helpful to develop flexible stategies that can adapt to the necessities detemined by envionmental factos.
4. In some aeas custome powe shifts…
references of customers.
Customer power shift is visible in certain industries, and it is determined by technology. But there are also other industries provide the impression of customer power shift, while suppliers form agreement in order to control the market. It is important to determine how this factor influences companies and their productivity.
1. Huber, A. (2011). Effective Strategy Implementation: Conceptualizing Firms' Strategy Implementation Capabilities and Assessing their Impact on Firm Performance. Retrieved May 4, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=oFaO6D07KysC&pg=PA13&dq=marketing+strategy+implementation+approach&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=LhBmU-G6IpLN7AaDmoCYBg&ved=0CDAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=marketing%20strategy%20implementation%20approach&f=false .
2. Hallett, T. (2014). What Is Native Advertising Anyway? The Guardian. Retrieved May 4, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/media-network-outbrain-partner-zone/native-advertising-quality-scalability .
From this perspective, luxury brands may be desired be many consumers, but the more affluent are clearly more readily capable of such acquisitions, making them a natural target for luxury brands marketers.
Although there is a growing body of contemporary knowledge concerning the influence of self-perception and self-image on luxury brand purchases, the study of these issues is certainly not new. In fact, as early as 1899, Thorstein Veblen developed a theory according to which consumers use product prices as a means of ostentatiously displaying their wealth (Veblen 1899). Based on the inextricable relationship between the level of consumers' income and the type of goods and services they may desire, it would be reasonable to posit that highly affluent consumers would be a natural market for luxury brand marketers; however, the choice of luxury brands over other brands is a highly complex decision that take into account a wide range…
Abrams Research (2009, May) 'Luxury brands survey & report.' [online] available:
%E2%80%93-Abrams-Research-%E2%80%93-May-2009 Viewed on 10
Communication and Super-Saturation of the Modern Sense of Self
"How does the design of information structure the information process? And how, on the other side of the equation, does the nature of audience engagement structure its reception?"
Communication by its very nature is a dialogue. One person or medium speaks. Another individual or an audience of individuals receives the word or the message being conveyed. As with any performance, particularly a live performance, the method of transmission of the message conveyed invariably affects the message itself.
This is demonstrated in its most raw form during an improvised performance piece such as that of a stand-up comic. The comic realizes that he or she is not getting a favorable reception from the audience.
They are yawning, or signaling to the waiter that they would like some new drinks. The comic takes stock of this information, realizing that he or she is…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Gergen, Kenneth. The Saturated Self. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
O'Barr, William. Culture and the Ad. Oxford: Westview Press, 1994.
marketing approach, marketing rhetoric reality businesses' (Drucker, 1973: 64). Critically evaluate extent marketing rhetoric reality organization.
Marketing in Organizations
The competitive business environment determines companies to increase their efforts in developing successful marketing activities. The statement made by Drucker regarding the fact that marketing is rhetoric rather than reality in many businesses has little application in the current market environment. This is because the theory and practice of marketing have significantly developed since Drucker made this statement.
There are several definitions of marketing. The American Marketing Association defines marketing as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers (Blythe, 006). Marketing is defined by Philip Kotler as the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value in order to satisfy the needs of targeted customer segments (Kotler & Armstrong, 009). Another definition of marketing refers to marketing as…
2. Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2009). Principles of Marketing. Pearson Education. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=ZW2u5LOmbs4C&pg=RA1-PA17&lpg=RA1-PA17&dq=marketing+definition&source=bl&ots=BX_nv82hxo&sig=WRKWD3inps2J8pQ8zdE2INKCIQs&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=0RZbUOXrBsn2sgby84DABA&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=marketing%20definition&f=false .
3. Blythe, J. (2006). Principles and Practice of Marketing. Thomson Learning. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=nSyZmgLkWD8C&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=marketing+definition&source=bl&ots=Tfc3Cpc00g&sig=q8uVRP4Dqn72pgttEAs6hMA9JMQ&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=4BdbUM_UDoXCswaFkoF4&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=marketing%20definition&f=false .
4. Hunt, S. (2010). Marketing Theory: Foundations, Controversy, Strategy, Resource Advantage Theory. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=MA5TniOfYwIC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=marketing+definition&source=bl&ots=fB1Dx5VDCv&sig=GaRQpuTu2OP8lYkGu2oPkLCQYIw&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=nhhbUOuWAcTssgaTyYDAAg&ved=0CFkQ6AEwBzgU#v=onepage&q=marketing%20definition&f=false .
exist two polarizing concepts that define the nature of economic life. These two opposing views, consumption and production, have formed the basis for debate for social scientists throughout the twentieth century and, as the world enters the second decade of the twenty-first century, the debate continues (Butler, 2001). The debate centers on how each of these views affects the economy and which plays a more important role in driving the economy.
The two viewpoints in question arose during different historical periods. The production theory dominated economic thought in the 19th century as the world was entering the industrial age. The theory was that through increased production man's need and desire for wealth would be satisfied. For proponents of the production approach to economics, consumption was not a concern.
The consumption approach to economics developed in the twentieth century and has dominated economic thought to the present day (McCracken, 1987). From…
Butler, M. (2001). Neoclassical Life-Cycle Consumption: A Textbook Example. Economic Theory, 209-221.
Longhorn, R.A. (2007). Geographic Information: Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
McCracken, G. (1987). The history of consumption: A literature review and consumer guide. Journal of Consumer Policy, 139-166.
Pollay, R.W. (1986). The Distorted Mirror: Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising. The Journal of Marketing, 18-36.