69+ documents containing “female circumcision”.
Because of the private nature of the tradition and because the methods can range so greatly, it is difficult to adequately assess the details of female genital cutting in Africa.
The history of the tradition goes back thousands of years and is often (incorrectly) associated with religious dictates (von der Osten-Sacken & Uwer, 2007). It has long been associated with Islam, though there has been active opposition from many Islamic groups to prove otherwise; the procedure is not mentioned or sanctioned by the Quran (Abdelmagied, Salah, ElTahir, NurEldin, & Shareef, 2005; Abusharaf, 2001). However, it is mentioned in the Hadith, the oral tradition of Muhammad used by the Sunnah Muslim traditions; even here it does not advise for or against the procedure (von der Osten-Sacken & Uwer, 2007).
Still, many groups use religion as a way to explain female genital cutting. Dellenborg (2004) reports that clitoridectomy has been spreading as part….
Abdelmagied, a., Salah, W., ElTahir, N., NurEldin, T., and Shareef, S. (2005). Perception and attitudes of religious groups towards female genital mutilation. Ahfad Journal, 22(2), pp. 53-63.
Abusharaf, R.M. (2001). Virtuous cuts: Female genital circumcision in an African ontology. Differences, 12, pp. 112-140.
Boddy, J. (2006). Barbaric custom and colonial science. Ahfad Journal, 23(2), pp. 81-106.
Dellenborg, L. (2004). A reflection on the cultural meanings of female circumcision. In Signe Arnfred (Ed.), Re-thinking sexualities in Africa (pp. 79-96). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell Tryckeri.
Female Circumcision and Ethics
The female circumcision practices are found to be followed by a number of regions and tribes in the world where this practice is considered to purify and provide health benefits to the females of that particular society. However, this practice is considered to be immoral and unethical by the ethical feminist and clinical experts who imply that female circumcision practices violate the autonomy of an individual and, cause mental and physical trauma in the early childhood and generates negative health related concerns in females.
Advantages of Female Circumcision
Disadvantages of Female Circumcision
Perspective of Society That Follows the Circumcision
Perspective of Ethical Feminists
Application of Ethical Theories
Practical Implications and ecommendations
The feminist ethical concerns arise when the female members of the society are abused with the mutual consent of their families and members of the society (Vaughn, 2013). Female circumcision, as a matter of fact prevails in the society in which traditional surgical….
Galeotti, A.E. (2007). Relativism, universalism, and applied ethics: the case of female circumcision. Constellations, 14(1), 91-111.
Lane, S.D., & Rubinstein, R.A. (1996).Judging the other: responding to traditional female genital surgeries.Hastings Center Report, 26(3), 31-40.
Slade, S., & Prinsloo, P. (2013).Learning analytics ethical issues and dilemmas. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(10), 1510-1529
Ruderman, R. (2013). Female Circumcision: The Ethics of Harm Reduction Policies. Michigan Journal of Public Affairs, 95(10), 95-107.
What is the role of the family in the continuing process of female circumcisions?
One of the difficulties in trying to stop the practice of female circumcisions is the central role of the family, particularly women, in perpetuating the practice. Because the girls' mothers have had the procedure performed upon themselves, they assume it is normal, and feel that their girls should have to endure what they endured. Also, even if a family might not want their daughters to suffer a circumcision, the family may go along with it, for fear of damaging her marriage prospects or the reputation of the family. They use the excuse that for the girl to function in her society, 'normally' they must obey this societal convention, regardless of its morality. This is compounded by a fear of unchecked, young female sexuality in general..
Female genital mutilation should be stopped Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual in….
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.
The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of anyone….
Derrickson, Teresa. "Class, Culture, and the Colonial Context: the Status of Women in Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. International Fiction Review 29.12 (2002):
Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.
Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Santa Barbara,
According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits such as the reduction of sexually transmitted infections such as the human pailloma virus, chancroid and syphilis. She also cites studies that indicated a reduced risk of HIV infection in males who have been circumcised.
Indeed, there are quite humane ways to circumcise infants with the minimal amount of stress and pain today. Furthermore, cultural and religious reasons for performing the ritual cannot be discarded. Particularly when done under the correct and most humane possible circumstances, cultural practices should not be prohibited.
Having said this, and considering the issue from all viewpoints, however, the fact remains that infant male circumcision is the removal of part of the human body without the consent of its owner, the child. It carries significant risks, especially in….
Bering, J. (2010, Apr. 23). Is male circumcision a humanitarian act? Scientific American: Bering in Mind. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=is-male-circumcision-a-humanitarian-2010-04-23
Hinchley, G. And Patrick, K. (2007, Dec 8). Is Infant Male Circumcision an Abuse of the Rights of the Child? Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071207120817.htm
Manimale, N. (2010, Mar 15). CDC should not recommend infant male circumcision. The Oracle Online. Retrieved from http://www.usforacle.com/cdc-should-not-recommend-infant-male-circumcision-1.2191240
omen can be affected by experiencing several other misfortunes, from becoming sterile to other horrible medical problems.
The health complications of female genital mutilation are both immediate and delayed and are referred to as the "three feminine sorrows": the sorrows on the day of mutilation or circumcision, the wedding night when the opening must be cut and the birth of the baby when the opening must be enlarged." (Fourcroy)
Most Somali women suffer throughout their lives and they abstain from protesting against circumcision because they believe that it is a vital part of their lives and of Somali tradition.
The women that are circumcised from an early age don't go through physical pains only. One of the most horrible parts of the practice of circumcision is that their own families harm them. Across their lives the women are traumatized by the event and they feel that their relatives had deceived them.
Diriye, Mohamed. "Culture and Customs of Somalia." Greenwood Press, 2001.
Fourcroy, L. Jean. (1999). "Curbside Consultation." Retrieved March 2, 2009 from American Academy of Family Physicians Web site: http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/curbside.html
Goodwin, Jo-Ann & Jones, David. "Barbarity Y in Our Midst." The Daily Mail (London, England), January 3, 2008.
Pecot, Zipporah. (2008). "Female Circumcision Is NOT Islamic." Retrieved March 2, 2009, from Conversant Life Web site: http://www.conversantlife.com/social-issues/female-circumcision-is-not-islamic
The culminating act of the novel also clearly illustrates this principle. During the second time Tita and Pedro make love -- and the only time they do so with complete abandonment, without fear of getting caught, the world reacts in a manner typical of magical realism, with the massive fluttering sound of a thousand doves wings: "Tita was aware of none of this, she was experiencing a climax so intense that her closed eyes glowed, and a brilliant tunnel appeared before her" (Esquivel, 220). This tunnel leads to the afterlife, and means death. Tita is able to keep herself back from this light, resisting the temptation in order to enjoy her newfound world of pleasure with Pedro. Pedro, however, crosses over into the light; the act of uninhibited sexual intercourse is too powerful for him, and he is consumed by it. Though the book's central conflict is the denial….
Anita Diamant's fiction, "The ed Tent (1997)," is her interpretation of the activities in the red tent, where the Canaanite wives of the first patriarchs dwelt and celebrated the facets of womanhood, such as menstruation and childbirth. There, they were shielded from their men's outside affairs and cares. These patriarchs were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and the wives were Sara, ebecca, Leah, achel and their maids Zilphah and Bilhah. It assumes that these women were priestesses of goddess-worshipping tribes of the Canaan region who practiced and perpetuated rituals, traditions and habits until obliterated by their only daughter, Dinah, because of her violation by an Amorite and the murder of the Amorites by two of her 12 brothers (Diamant)
The novel is told from the first person viewpoint of Dinah, the only daughter and last child of Jacob and Leah and the last in the maternal line that should have sustained….
1. American Bible Society. Good News Bible, 1982
2. Biblical History Timeline. Jewish Patriarchy. http://www.biblicalhistorytimeline.com/a953to1400BC.htm
3. Day, Paula. The Red Tent by Anita Diamant, 2003
4. Diamant, Anita. The Red Tent. Paperback. St. Martins/Picador, 1997
Routine Infant Male Circumcision
While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with tachycardia….
Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, 'Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision', American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Bhattacharjee, P 2008, 'Male circumcision: an overview', African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, 'Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes', ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.
Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, 'Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children', European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective….
Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A
Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and historical….
Ahmed, Leila, 1992. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University.
Bass, Laura R. And Wunder, Amanda, 2009. The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima. Hispanic Review, Vol. 77, No. 1, Re-Envisioning Early Modern Iberia: Visuality, Materiality, History (Winter, 2009), pp. 97-144.
Berkey, Jonathan P. 1996. Circumcision Circumscribed: Female Excision and Cultural Accommodation in the Medieval near East. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 19-38.
Martin Riesebrodt. Review of Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate by Leila Ahmed. The Journal of Religion, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 453-454.
Female circumcision, has been a point of contention for many years with regard to Islam, as Islam or more specifically the Quran and "secret" texts of it have often been used as the sited foundation of the practice. hat is abundantly clear is that this practice in its mildest to most extreme forms predates the Quran and the Prophet Mohamed. Once again this may be an example of a situation where Mohamed observed something that he believed was hurting women and he attempted to control the practice. Though there is also evidence that this is not something Mohamed would ever have observed, as it was a secluded practice, performed by women on women and that it was not prolific within the region, where he lived and traveled.
Leonard 168) the Quranic evidence associated with circumcision is limited to two passages. One Hadeeth discusses circumcision in this manner. "Circumcision….
Abu-Hamdiyyah, Mohammad. The Qur'an: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2000.
Badawi, Jamal. "Gender Equity in Islam" webpage at http://www.soundvision.com/info/gender/femalecircumcision.asp,2007 .
Cook, Michael a. The Koran: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Cragg, Kenneth. The Mind of the Quran: Chapters in Reflection. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
.....versus that of a general more one, it is without a doubt that the different cultures and societies of the world have evolved a great deal over the millennia. The Christians are a good example. The Christians of the Crusades or Christians of the Church of England are far from being the Christians of today. Similarly, the Muslims of the Crusades or the Muslims that have fought for 1,400 years (and counting) over the successor of Muhammad have in many ways shifted since the day of the prophet, even if many others are still fighting (Hall). One might suggest that this is a natural evolution and that there has been a development of the moral standard over time. However, there is more than one idea to suggest that this could not and should not be the case. First, the fact that women are subjugated, limited and oppressed cannot be dismissed….
people of Sudan, commonly known as the Sudanese, bring with them numerous traditions and cultural mainstays when they enter the United States. Their history, culture, medical practices and traditions provide them with a sense of home, and allow them to continue to preserve their past while allowing them to lead better lives. However, while their traditions and culture are vital to this preservation, their new positions in the United States often lead to struggles and conflict. This paper will outline the culture of the Sudanese, and will examine how that culture has altered in response to life in the United States.
One of the main differences in culture and medical practices lies in the circumcision of females in Sudan and in the female perspective overall. Female circumcision is a common practice in Sudan, since it is believed to ensure the virginity of young Sudanese women. In Sudan, circumcision is required….
Anderson, Mark. "Sudanese Refugees Lack Skill to Negotiate U.S. Culture." Lincoln Journal Star, 19 May 2004, C13.
Eastburn, Kathryn. "Circle of Refuge." Colorado Springs Independent, 23 January 2003, 1-2.
Halim, Abdel. Honorable Daughters: The Lived Experience of Circumcised Sudanese Women in The United States. June, 2003. Retrieved from Ohio Library and Information Network database. 5 October 2005. http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi-acc_num=ohiou1061240934 .
Matre, Lynn Van. "DuPage Agency to Aid Refugees from Sudan." Chicago Tribune, 14 February 2001, 15.
Sports - Women
Because of the private nature of the tradition and because the methods can range so greatly, it is difficult to adequately assess the details of female genital cutting…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Female Circumcision and Ethics The female circumcision practices are found to be followed by a number of regions and tribes in the world where this practice is considered to purify…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
What is the role of the family in the continuing process of female circumcisions? One of the difficulties in trying to stop the practice of female circumcisions is the central…Read Full Paper ❯
Female genital mutilation should be stopped Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries…Read Full Paper ❯
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled,…Read Full Paper ❯
According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
omen can be affected by experiencing several other misfortunes, from becoming sterile to other horrible medical problems. The health complications of female genital mutilation are both immediate and delayed…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
The culminating act of the novel also clearly illustrates this principle. During the second time Tita and Pedro make love -- and the only time they do so…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
ed Tent Anita Diamant's fiction, "The ed Tent (1997)," is her interpretation of the activities in the red tent, where the Canaanite wives of the first patriarchs dwelt and celebrated…Read Full Paper ❯
Routine Infant Male Circumcision While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia:…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Gender Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
adud 10) Female Circumcision: Female circumcision, has been a point of contention for many years with regard to Islam, as Islam or more specifically the Quran and "secret" texts of it…Read Full Paper ❯
.....versus that of a general more one, it is without a doubt that the different cultures and societies of the world have evolved a great deal over the millennia.…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African
people of Sudan, commonly known as the Sudanese, bring with them numerous traditions and cultural mainstays when they enter the United States. Their history, culture, medical practices and…Read Full Paper ❯