Female Circumcision Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Female Ways of Identity Shaping

Words: 7109 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78553240

" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.

The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Derrickson, Teresa. "Class, Culture, and the Colonial Context: the Status of Women in Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. International Fiction Review 29.12 (2002):

40-51.

Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.

Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Santa Barbara,
View Full Essay

Infant Male Circumcision Male Infant

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96734284

According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits such as the reduction of sexually transmitted infections such as the human pailloma virus, chancroid and syphilis. She also cites studies that indicated a reduced risk of HIV infection in males who have been circumcised.

Indeed, there are quite humane ways to circumcise infants with the minimal amount of stress and pain today. Furthermore, cultural and religious reasons for performing the ritual cannot be discarded. Particularly when done under the correct and most humane possible circumstances, cultural practices should not be prohibited.

Having said this, and considering the issue from all viewpoints, however, the fact remains that infant male circumcision is the removal of part of the human body without the consent of its owner, the child. It carries significant risks, especially…… [Read More]

References

Bering, J. (2010, Apr. 23). Is male circumcision a humanitarian act? Scientific American: Bering in Mind. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=is-male-circumcision-a-humanitarian-2010-04-23

Hinchley, G. And Patrick, K. (2007, Dec 8). Is Infant Male Circumcision an Abuse of the Rights of the Child? Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071207120817.htm

Manimale, N. (2010, Mar 15). CDC should not recommend infant male circumcision. The Oracle Online. Retrieved from http://www.usforacle.com/cdc-should-not-recommend-infant-male-circumcision-1.2191240
View Full Essay

Custom in Somalia The Circumcision

Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78737783

omen can be affected by experiencing several other misfortunes, from becoming sterile to other horrible medical problems.

The health complications of female genital mutilation are both immediate and delayed and are referred to as the "three feminine sorrows": the sorrows on the day of mutilation or circumcision, the wedding night when the opening must be cut and the birth of the baby when the opening must be enlarged." (Fourcroy)

Most Somali women suffer throughout their lives and they abstain from protesting against circumcision because they believe that it is a vital part of their lives and of Somali tradition.

The women that are circumcised from an early age don't go through physical pains only. One of the most horrible parts of the practice of circumcision is that their own families harm them. Across their lives the women are traumatized by the event and they feel that their relatives had deceived…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diriye, Mohamed. "Culture and Customs of Somalia." Greenwood Press, 2001.

Fourcroy, L. Jean. (1999). "Curbside Consultation." Retrieved March 2, 2009 from American Academy of Family Physicians Web site: http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/curbside.html

Goodwin, Jo-Ann & Jones, David. "Barbarity Y in Our Midst." The Daily Mail (London, England), January 3, 2008.

Pecot, Zipporah. (2008). "Female Circumcision Is NOT Islamic." Retrieved March 2, 2009, from Conversant Life Web site: http://www.conversantlife.com/social-issues/female-circumcision-is-not-islamic
View Full Essay

Female Perspective on Sexual Acts

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37454240

The culminating act of the novel also clearly illustrates this principle. During the second time Tita and Pedro make love -- and the only time they do so with complete abandonment, without fear of getting caught, the world reacts in a manner typical of magical realism, with the massive fluttering sound of a thousand doves wings: "Tita was aware of none of this, she was experiencing a climax so intense that her closed eyes glowed, and a brilliant tunnel appeared before her" (Esquivel, 220). This tunnel leads to the afterlife, and means death. Tita is able to keep herself back from this light, resisting the temptation in order to enjoy her newfound world of pleasure with Pedro. Pedro, however, crosses over into the light; the act of uninhibited sexual intercourse is too powerful for him, and he is consumed by it. Though the book's central conflict is the denial of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Esquivel, Laura. Like Water for Chocolate. New York: Anchor, 1995.

Saadawi, Nawal El. Woman at Point Zero. London: Zed Books, 1990.
View Full Essay

Female Friendships

Words: 3298 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35037873

ed Tent

Anita Diamant's fiction, "The ed Tent (1997)," is her interpretation of the activities in the red tent, where the Canaanite wives of the first patriarchs dwelt and celebrated the facets of womanhood, such as menstruation and childbirth. There, they were shielded from their men's outside affairs and cares. These patriarchs were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and the wives were Sara, ebecca, Leah, achel and their maids Zilphah and Bilhah. It assumes that these women were priestesses of goddess-worshipping tribes of the Canaan region who practiced and perpetuated rituals, traditions and habits until obliterated by their only daughter, Dinah, because of her violation by an Amorite and the murder of the Amorites by two of her 12 brothers (Diamant)

The novel is told from the first person viewpoint of Dinah, the only daughter and last child of Jacob and Leah and the last in the maternal line that should…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. American Bible Society. Good News Bible, 1982

2. Biblical History Timeline. Jewish Patriarchy. http://www.biblicalhistorytimeline.com/a953to1400BC.htm

3. Day, Paula. The Red Tent by Anita Diamant, 2003

4. Diamant, Anita. The Red Tent. Paperback. St. Martins/Picador, 1997
View Full Essay

Analyzing Female Gender Mutilation

Words: 2208 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90870605

Female Gender Mutilation

Female Genital Mutilation

The procedures that constitute the removal of the external genitalia of the females, whether in part or wholly, is referred to as female genital mutilation or briefly as FGM. It also constitutes other forms of injury to such organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is usually carried out by traditional circumcisers who are recognized individuals in communities, and are often present at important functions such as child births. There are instances when health care providers carry out the procedures under the false assumption that it is safe to do it in controlled medical facilities (UNICEF 87). However, the world Health organization requests all medical professionals to refrain from carrying out such procedures. The practice has been recognized all over the world as a violation of the rights of women. It is a sign of major inequalities between males and females of the human species,…… [Read More]

References

Diallo, Khadi. "Taking the Dress." UNESCO Courier july 2001: 40.

Dorkenoo, Efua. Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation: The Practice and Its Prevention. London: Minority Rights Publishers, 1995.

England, Joseph. "Circumcision in America." The Objective Standard 10.1 (2015).

Kern, Soeren. UK: The Crisis of Female Genital Mutilation. 9 may 2013. 18 February 2016 .
View Full Essay

Routine Infant Male Circumcision

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45783774

Routine Infant Male Circumcision

While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, 'Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision', American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.

Bhattacharjee, P 2008, 'Male circumcision: an overview', African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.

Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, 'Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes', ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.

Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, 'Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children', European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
View Full Essay

Universality of the Western Interpretation

Words: 5955 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61470439

Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.

The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…… [Read More]

References

Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.

Princeton: Princeton University Press.

An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A

Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
View Full Essay

Gender in the Mediterranean

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50758608

Gender

Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…… [Read More]

References

Ahmed, Leila, 1992. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University.

Bass, Laura R. And Wunder, Amanda, 2009. The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima. Hispanic Review, Vol. 77, No. 1, Re-Envisioning Early Modern Iberia: Visuality, Materiality, History (Winter, 2009), pp. 97-144.

Berkey, Jonathan P. 1996. Circumcision Circumscribed: Female Excision and Cultural Accommodation in the Medieval near East. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 19-38.

Martin Riesebrodt. Review of Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate by Leila Ahmed. The Journal of Religion, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 453-454.
View Full Essay

Islam Gender and Family Within

Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82232230



adud 10)

Female Circumcision:

Female circumcision, has been a point of contention for many years with regard to Islam, as Islam or more specifically the Quran and "secret" texts of it have often been used as the sited foundation of the practice. hat is abundantly clear is that this practice in its mildest to most extreme forms predates the Quran and the Prophet Mohamed. Once again this may be an example of a situation where Mohamed observed something that he believed was hurting women and he attempted to control the practice. Though there is also evidence that this is not something Mohamed would ever have observed, as it was a secluded practice, performed by women on women and that it was not prolific within the region, where he lived and traveled.

Gollaher 44)

Leonard 168) the Quranic evidence associated with circumcision is limited to two passages. One Hadeeth discusses circumcision…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abu-Hamdiyyah, Mohammad. The Qur'an: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2000.

Badawi, Jamal. "Gender Equity in Islam" webpage at http://www.soundvision.com/info/gender/femalecircumcision.asp,2007.

Cook, Michael a. The Koran: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cragg, Kenneth. The Mind of the Quran: Chapters in Reflection. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
View Full Essay

Morality Then and Now

Words: 1210 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615227

.....versus that of a general more one, it is without a doubt that the different cultures and societies of the world have evolved a great deal over the millennia. The Christians are a good example. The Christians of the Crusades or Christians of the Church of England are far from being the Christians of today. Similarly, the Muslims of the Crusades or the Muslims that have fought for 1,400 years (and counting) over the successor of Muhammad have in many ways shifted since the day of the prophet, even if many others are still fighting (Hall). One might suggest that this is a natural evolution and that there has been a development of the moral standard over time. However, there is more than one idea to suggest that this could not and should not be the case. First, the fact that women are subjugated, limited and oppressed cannot be dismissed…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sudanese Life in the United States

Words: 784 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17609626

people of Sudan, commonly known as the Sudanese, bring with them numerous traditions and cultural mainstays when they enter the United States. Their history, culture, medical practices and traditions provide them with a sense of home, and allow them to continue to preserve their past while allowing them to lead better lives. However, while their traditions and culture are vital to this preservation, their new positions in the United States often lead to struggles and conflict. This paper will outline the culture of the Sudanese, and will examine how that culture has altered in response to life in the United States.

One of the main differences in culture and medical practices lies in the circumcision of females in Sudan and in the female perspective overall. Female circumcision is a common practice in Sudan, since it is believed to ensure the virginity of young Sudanese women. In Sudan, circumcision is required…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Mark. "Sudanese Refugees Lack Skill to Negotiate U.S. Culture." Lincoln Journal Star, 19 May 2004, C13.

Eastburn, Kathryn. "Circle of Refuge." Colorado Springs Independent, 23 January 2003, 1-2.

Halim, Abdel. Honorable Daughters: The Lived Experience of Circumcised Sudanese Women in The United States. June, 2003. Retrieved from Ohio Library and Information Network database. 5 October 2005. http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi-acc_num=ohiou1061240934.

Matre, Lynn Van. "DuPage Agency to Aid Refugees from Sudan." Chicago Tribune, 14 February 2001, 15.
View Full Essay

Social Psychology of Gender-Based Sex

Words: 2019 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42182877



Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:

Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).

Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).

Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.

Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus

Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.

Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
View Full Essay

Health and Social Justice Issue in Saharan Country

Words: 1859 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97281082

Health and Social Justice Issue in Saharan Country

Mali occupies the fourth position among the poorest nations of the world. Mali is still plagued by a multitude of financial tribulations with an economy in shambles, the country's liability approximately equivalent to its GDP, at the mercy of the international donor groups, insufficient revenues of the state exchequer and pressure from various coterie groups voicing their demands. (Mali Human ights Practices: U.S. Department of State, 1994) However, at the same time it a nation that boasts of a rich and hoary tradition. It is popular as a country marked by its multihued varied populace and harmonic tunes. Currently, it is confronted with a massive menace like AIDS, Noma and a host of tropical diseases. Mali has the world's lowest adult literacy rate of less than 25%. The country's education system is inadequately formed, especially at the primary stage. A United Nations…… [Read More]

References

Condom Vending Machine. (March 01, 2004) "Mali, AIDS and Condoms" Initial Research Report. Retrieved at http://dtm.media.mit.edu/dtm/dtm04/projects/condom/archives/000145.html. Accessed on 11 July, 2004

Dao, S. (Jan 7-8, 2004) "HIV Treatment in Mali, PNLS/GAIA" AIDS Vaccine Conference, Bamako, Mali.

Johnston, Timothy; Faure, Sheila Dohoo; Raney, Laura. (June 1998) "The World Bank and the Health Sector in Mali" Report No. 18112.

Mahe A; Prual A; Konate M; Bobin P. (Sep-Oct, 1995) "Skin Diseases of Children in Mali: A Public Health Problem" Tropical Medical Hygiene. Volume: 89: No: 5; pp: 467-70
View Full Essay

Women's Rights in Ethiopia A

Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29170556

Although she sent her son to school, Zenebu kept her eldest daughter at home to help with her housework, and planned to circumcise all of her daughters, as she was circumcised as a child. (Female circumcision is not only more painful than male circumcision; it can cause life-threatening health complications throughout the circumcised woman's life).

Family planning is not talked about socially in traditional Ethiopian culture, except at local health clinics, and even there the emphasis is on the relatively ineffective rhythm method. Catholic health organizations will not discuss family planning or other means of birth control, and many men still consider a large brood of children both to be a sign of masculinity as well as a necessary source of income and labor. Yet prohibitively large families often become an economic burden upon women and men, and quite often it is the daughters of large families who suffer the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Implementing the Ethiopian Policy for Women: Institutional and Regulatory Issues, 1998. the

Women's Affairs Office, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the World Bank.

October 14, 2009.  http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm 

Ofcansky, Thomas P. & LaVerle Berry, editors. Ethiopia: A Country Study. Washington: GPO
View Full Essay

Families in a Global Context

Words: 2322 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44926949

d., pg. 67). Thus, the definition of the British family is almost wholly contained within a woman's decision. Women who have children and enter the workforce create new trends in British family life, such as the fact that children are cared for primarily by professionals working in the home, at nursery schools, or grandparents (Kathleen, n.d., "Family Life," 2009). The redefining of family relationships to give equality to both the husband and wife and the problem of finding childcare while both parents work is a result of women's entry into the workforce and modern conceptions of family life.

While these characteristics apply to the primary types of families in the United Kingdom, it is important to recognize that this state is diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Cloud (2008) discusses the difficulties in conducting research for one often not-discussed portion of society -- homosexuals. Cloud (2008)…… [Read More]

References

Cline, A. (2009). Sudan: Women and Family. Retrieved July, 18, 2009, from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/countries/bl_SudanWomen.htm

Cloud, J. (2008, January 17). Are Gay Relationships Different? Retrieved July 18, 2009,

from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1704660-2,00.html

"Family Life in the United States and United Kingdom." Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://articles.famouswhy.com/family_life_in_united_states_and_united_kingdom
View Full Essay

Myth and Africa Ousmene Sembene's

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13580654

) the author's claim that the women are not heroes because they act in their own self-interests ignores the fact that cinematic narration is predicated around a central hero who invariably acts toward the fulfillments of their goals. When someone watches a Hollywood film, the protagonist is not deprived of hero status when they realize their dreams, so the women in Moolade should not be examined differently. Moreover, the author contradicts herself by first stating that the women act in their individual best interests and then that they work collectively to improve the plight of future generations. To be sure, the women do transition from conflict to cooperation (Colle and Amasatou clash most strongly); however, their initial dissention does not represent legitimate grounds for denigration. It is also confusing that she reads the radios as an embodiment of male power ("a symbol of technology the men have") when the film…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Spread of HIV AIDS

Words: 2485 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18313481

In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.

Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.

The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Culture on Health Disparities and Health Related Practices

Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50848154

Culture and Health Care |

A eview of Culture on Health Disparities, Health elated Practices and Healthcare Outcomes

Social Status

The social status of an individual refers to the rank one holds within a group or community; and requires conformance to such rights, lifestyle, and duties as understood by prestige and social hierarchy (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). Status may be attained or ascribed in different ways. One, for instance may inherit such status at birth as it happens in monarchies and Kingships. This kind of status climb has nothing to do with one's innate abilities or skills. Ascribed status is based on such factors as age, family relations, lineage, birth, sex, and similar considerations while acquired status is earned. It may be based on such factors as the level of education, marital status, occupation and similar factors that come with accomplishment of certain feats that required some practical effort.

Status is…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Asu, O. T., Gever, I. D., & Joshua, N. P. (2013). African Cultural Practices and Health Implications for Nigeria. International Review of Management and Business Research, Vol 2, Issue 1, 176-183. Retrieved from  http://irmbrjournal.com/papers/1367572222.pdf 

Artiga, S. (2016, August 12). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Five Key Questions and Answers. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from Kaiser Family Foundation: http://kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/disparities-in-health-and-health-care-five-key-questions-and-answers/

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016). Social Status. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from Encyclopedia Britannica:  https://www.britannica.com/topic/social-status 

Mhame, P. P., Busia, K., & Kasilo, O. M. J. (2010). Clinical practices of African traditional medicine. African Health Monitor, Vol 13. Retrieved from African Health Observatory: https://www.aho.afro.who.int/en/ahm/issue/13/reports/clinical-practices-african-traditional-medicine
View Full Essay

Sociology - Sex & AIDS

Words: 1710 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51173182

In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.

eferences

Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…… [Read More]

References

Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
View Full Essay

Sudan Nation at War With

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 899949

Nimeiri also made Islamic law part of the penal code, which included public beatings for consuming alcohol and cutting off hands of people convicted of stealing. All Sudanese nationals, even non-Muslims were subject to this law. Nimeiri was eventually overthrown in a coup, but the Southern-Northern tensions remained, as the government continued to be dominated by Islamic supporters.

Full-fledged civil conflict erupted again, and did not end until July 2002, when the Northern and Islamic-dominated government and the rebel confederation of Southern Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army SPLM/a reached a historic agreement on the role of state and religion and the right of Southern Sudanese tribes to self-determination in a federal system ("Background Note: Sudan," 2007, Bureau of African Affairs).

omen and Development

Because of the violence and war in Sudanese society, coupled with highly traditional fundamentalist and indigenous beliefs about the role of women in society, humiliating women is often…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvy, Lisa. (4 Dec 2004)." Violence against women in Sudan reveals common weapon of war." The National Organization of Women (NOW). Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.now.org/issues/global/120304sudan.html

Background Note: Sudan." (Mar 2007). Bureau of African Affairs. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5424.htm 

The Sudan." (2007). World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/su.html

Sudan Fact Sheet: Status of women." (2007). WomenforWomen International. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.womenforwomen.org/swsudan.htm
View Full Essay

Is Justice for All Possible

Words: 1773 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57960684

justice as it applies to ethics. Specifically, it will reflect about whether or not justice is obtainable for women in war torn areas of Africa. Justice is often highly elusive, and it seems that the women of Africa are extreme examples of how justice can often overlook segments of the population, especially in countries that face political and social upheaval, and are traditionally led by men.

Justice is something that many Americans may take for granted, but in many other areas of the world, it is fleeting at best. This is quite apparent in Africa, especially in countries torn by war, such as Nigeria, and now the Ivory Coast. Justice for anyone may be difficult to find, but justice when it comes to women and women's rights is even more difficult to find. This stems from a variety of reasons, from societies that encourage subservience in women, to societies that…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. " Economic Justice Program for Eastern Africa." Churchworldservice.org. 23 Sept. 2004. 12 Nov. 2004.

< http://www.churchworldservice.org/Development/project_description/descriptions/92.html

Editors. "Who we Are." Niger Delta Women for Justice. 6 April 2004. 12 Nov. 2004.

< http://www.ndwj.kabissa.org/PrgommeActivities/prgommeactivities.html
View Full Essay

Opponents to Multiculturalism Argue That

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48071103



In a very different issue, Bunch (1990) argues that women's rights are ignored by the general human rights movements, argues that consideration of women must be added to human rights definitions in order that better account should be taken of women's lives and that they be accorded the treatment and notice that they so clearly deserve. Destructive myths and violence should be eradicated. To that end, Bunch (1990) presents four different approaches that would link women's rights to human rights in order to address the issue in a concrete manner. The human rights community, she concludes, need not see the gender issue as conflicting with other significant issues that need to be addressed. On the contrary, other issues should not be abandoned. Rather, human rights activists should cease to 'gate-keep and guard prerogatives' and conceptualize human rights issues as legitimate according to their own narrow standards.

I found both essays…… [Read More]

Sources

Bunch, C. (1990). Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 4, 486-498

Xanthaki, a. (2010) Multiculturalism and International Law Discussing Universal Standards. Human Rights Quarterly, 1, pp. 21-48
View Full Essay

Business - Ethics Business Ethics

Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20662646



Whereas I try to respect the requirements of formal rules and procedures, I would prefer to violate those rules where their application would lead to an unintended result or undermine the effort to achieve the greatest benefit. In this respect, I would violate the requirements of rule utilitarianism where isolated violations provide a benefit without necessarily resulting in any diminution of the greatest possible good. For example, our office building prohibits coworkers from using their access passes to allow other employees to enter the facility without their own access cards. I recognize that, in the aggregate, the purpose of this rule is designed to preserve the safety of all of us by reducing the likelihood of access by unauthorized personnel. However, in the isolated circumstance where a coworker known to me forgets his credentials at home, I will violate the rule for the purpose of the good of that individual.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)

Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hursthouse, R. (1999) on Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Tone of This Question Uncomfortable

Words: 1257 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11186061

On a much lower level, Jose needs practice in composition writing to improve his writing skills. Ivan's speaking ability might be helped if he could give more presentations on simple subjects in class, to allow him to grow more comfortable speaking.

Nikolas is clearly a talented student, but he suffers the difficulty of not being fluent in the language of instruction. His primary challenge may be that he understands the material, but his English cannot convey this to others. Because their comprehension and academic background is not as strong, the other two boys need added aid in language instruction and understanding basic science concepts in English, unlike Nikolas.

Nikolas is funny, charming, intelligent, and has much to offer intellectually, provided people take time to listen to him. Jose and Ivan add important cultural enrichment to the classroom, and students themselves may be able to better understand the material, if Ms.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Organizations Compare and Contrast

Words: 900 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5363363

However, although the institutionalist perspective may marginally be the more persuasive, it too has a flaw in the sense that it does not allow for sufficient diversity of interests that may transcend borders and impede international cooperation -- a Jewish supporter of Israel in the U.S. may not support his or her nation's attempt to facilitate economic and political cooperation with Saudi Arabia, and an unemployed American factory worker may support protectionism, even though many Americans may want to buy cheaper cars from Japan, and Japanese manufactures may be eager to meet this demand.

Are you convinced by the argument that states have lost a significant measure of their sovereignty to supranational institutions like the TO, the UN or the IMF?

The answer to this question is likely dependant upon what state you are a member of -- a nation opposed to the U.S. invasion of Iraq might state that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Theories of IR." PowerPoint Lecture. PSC 124. Syracuse University. 10 May 2007. http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/hpschmitz/PSC124/PSC124Institutionalism.ppt#347,8,Rationalcooperation
View Full Essay

Diversity as Someone Born to an Arab

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12840745

DVERSTY

As someone born to an Arab Saudi father and an African Sudanese mother from the Darfur region, my life has always been heavily influenced by major issues of diversity. Arabs do not respect Africans; they denigrate them and treat them like second-class citizens. Frankly, do not have any early memories that do not include encounters with racism, classicism and the tremendous social differences associated with relative poverty and wealth. My father, who was a wealthy man, divorced my mother when was three, forcing her to leave home to train as midwife to support her four young children. During that time, was cared for by various different relatives until the age of seven but it was a difficult experience for me because their attention was less than what had received from my mother. t taught me that needed to learn how to fend for myself in life.

nitially, rejoiced at…… [Read More]

In Sudan, I was beaten and arrested more times than I can count by the police and security forces for organizing and participating in nonviolent demonstrations against the dictatorial regime.

When the American Embassy in Sudan turned down my application to pursue my postgraduate studies in the U.S. In 1989, the British Embassy granted me a visa. I enrolled in Manchester University in the Master of Economics program, eventually spending 12 years in the U.K. For a girl who had been raised in an oppressive dictatorial society, it was an incredible experience just to be able to make autonomous decisions without continual fear of punishment and official condemnation. In my opinion, it is difficult to appreciate what freedom means when one has never been deprived of it. In Manchester, I worked part time while attending the university and I roomed with a lesbian couple. Obviously, that alone was an incredible experience a young Muslim girl raised with the fear of God's punishment and initially I feared God's wrath just for living with my roommates.

In 2001, I finally made it to the United States. In the meantime, I had been married, become the mother of two boys, divorced my husband, and remarried. Unfortunately, almost immediately after settling in the country, my new husband became manipulative and abusive. When I threatened to call the police, he locked my boys and me out of his apartment and refused to give us our passports or any of our belongings. With no knowledge of my rights in the country, I became homeless with my two boys less than 4 months into my life in the U.S. We ended up in a domestic violence/homeless shelter. with the boys with no document or money, but also with no body
View Full Essay

Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and

Words: 2274 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72047580

Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and Body

Throughout human history, philosophers, doctors, and most recently, psychologists, have attempted to understand the relationship between the mind and body and how it results in human beings' awareness and perception of reality. At least since the golden age of Greek philosophy, thinkers have been aware of an ostensible distinction between the mind and body, a distinction that nonetheless allows for some intermingling such that physical issues affect the mental state just as mental issues may result in physical symptoms. Thus, if one desires to truly understand how contemporary estern psychologists and philosophers consider the nature of consciousness via the interaction between mind and body, one must trace the history of these concepts starting with the Greek philosophers, moving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and on to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when psychology first began to develop as a formal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bunge, M. (2010). The mind-body problem. Matter and Mind, 287(2), 143-157.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (Ed.). (2009). An introduction to the history of psychology. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.

Kendell, R.E. (2001). The distinction between mental and physical illness. British Journal of Psychiatry,178, 490-493.
View Full Essay

Physicians Today Is it a Profession or Craft

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36164580

Physicians today - is it a profession or craft?

Dating back to the era of Hippocrates, who is also known as the father of medicine, a physician's advice was followed without question. Hippocrates, born in 460 B.C, fought with the superstitious beliefs of that time, and observed that fresh air, good diet, cleanliness and most importantly, plenty of rest, helped in fast recovery. Through history, we come to learn that the oath physicians undertake today, before their medical practice, was formulated during that time, reflecting their sincerity and humbleness towards the noble profession. Naturally, therefore, a physician of that era was viewed in a paternalistic manner and the prevailing culture was definitely one of passive and submissive acceptance. (Oath and Law of Hippocrates, 1910)

Through time, there has been a considerable mutation of the image society has towards doctors. There are several reasons that attribute to reason this change. In…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

General Medical Council, . (2001). Good medical practice. Retrieved from  http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/a_z_guidance.asp 

F. Allen, David. (1976, Feburary 13). The ethical responsibility of the physician. The Yale Journal Of Biology And Medicine, 49, 447-454.

Collier, P.F., Oath and Law of Hippocrates (1910). Harvard Classics Volume 38 (Online) gopher..//ftp.std.com//00/obi/book/Hippocrates/Hippocratic.Oath (June 25, 2011).

Illich. I, "Medical Namesis" 45 pp. Pantheon Books, Random House, New York, 1976.
View Full Essay

Multiculturalism and Feminism

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18108256

Feminism and colonialism

Gayatri Spivak's essay "Can the subaltern speak?" is a complex and sometimes elliptical essay which can be summed up in a very simple answer: "no." Spivak poignantly illustrates the reality of many Indian women's lives throughout history by providing an overview of how the treatment of native women was regarded during the period of Indian colonial rule. The British, in their effort to present themselves as civilizing the uncouth and barbarian Indians, decried what they saw as negative, male-dominant aspects of Indian culture. Many Indian men defended this ideology as a source of national cultural pride and as a source of resistance to colonialism. Of course, the voices of the women were lost in this discourse: to speak out against patriarchy meant to ally themselves with the British who did not have their interests or their country's interests at heart. To condone Indian patriarchy meant to sublimate…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Universalism and Relativism in Human Rights

Words: 3628 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42525475

Human ights

The closest thing to a universally-accepted definition of human rights comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human ights (OHCH). That body's definition is founded on the principle that human rights are inalienable and universal. That is, they apply to all human beings and that all are entitled to these rights without discrimination. The UN definition also holds that human rights are "interrelated, interdependent and indivisible" (OHCH, 2016). The OHCH cites such rights as the right to work, the right to self-determination, to social security and education, to equality before the law and to freedom of expression (OHCH, 2016). How these broad concepts are to be operationalized is not specified by the OHCH. Indeed, there are some inherent contradictions immediately apparent between the definition set forth by the OHCH and the Universal Declaration of Human ights, the foundational document for the modern neoliberal concept. As an example,…… [Read More]

References

Abu-Lughod, L. (2011). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. Ethics Forum: September 11 and Ethnographic Responsibility. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://internationalhumanrightslaw.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Do-Muslim-Women-Really-Need-Saving-Anthropological-Reflections-on-Cultural-Relativism-and-Its-Others.pdf

Baghramanian, M. & Carter, J. (2015). Relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#CoVarDef

Basnet, G. & Albalooshi, M. (2012). Human rights debate: Universalism versus relativism. Eurasia Review. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.eurasiareview.com/27062012-human-rights-debate-universalism-versus-relativism-oped/

Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
View Full Essay

Breast Ironing in Cameroon Sexual

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84670624

In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.

Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:

The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…… [Read More]

From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.

On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.

There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
View Full Essay

Cultural Schema Hypothesis on Aboriginals

Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20294139

Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…… [Read More]

References

Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict: The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8 (2), 65-75.

Holmes, L.D., & Holmes, E.R. (1992) Samoan Village (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardudjara aborigines: Living the dream in Australia's desert. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Gender
View Full Essay

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews

Words: 23454 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67540801

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
View Full Essay

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews

Words: 23424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99740327

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
View Full Essay

Drinking With Younger Jews

Words: 24280 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42632920

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Ross

Maste of Science, Mental Health Counseling, College, Januay, 2008

Clinical Psychology

Anticipated; Decembe, 2016

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study will be to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
View Full Essay

Gender Identity Disorder the Site

Words: 4708 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6525014



3. Where did you find it? (Book, article, URL, etc.)

The information was found at http://www.religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Sx/S_5.htm, and it was actually presented in a very sensitive and informative way.

4. Further thoughts:

The understanding of human sexuality has perhaps served to bring a dimension of maturity to my own thinking about human sexuality. Often times these things are taken for granted, but when we begin exploring them at an academic level, we find that we probably were not so well informed as we might have at first believed ourselves to be. It is incredibly interesting to me that the brain and the skin are two of the most significantly involved organs in the sexual act, and yet they have so much to do with the pleasure derived from intimacy that it almost makes one feel kind of silly to have overlooked it, or to have let it go without great thought.…… [Read More]

A Massachusetts woman was raped by her boyfriend's brother, but because she thought she was having sex with her boyfriend, the brother could not be charged with rape because the Hampton County woman had consensual sex, and was not forced to have sex with the man. The details of the case are this: the woman and boyfriend lived in the boyfriend's family home, in the basement. While her boyfriend was at work, the brother entered the basement bedroom that the couple shared, naked, and when the woman called to him by name, the man did not respond, but got into bed with her, undressed her and engaged in sex. When the act was completed, the man got out of bed to leave the room and when he opened the door, the woman was able to see that it was not her boyfriend.

Massachusetts law (see http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/265-22.htm) says that an act of rape is one that is accomplished by force; it does not have a clause for rape by "fraud." Even though the man is alleged to have allowed the woman to believe he was someone he was not, he did not use force to accomplish the sexual act. Therefore, at that time, there was no statute under Massachusetts State law by which to prosecute the defendant, and he was released.

In 2006 when this event occurred, the jury that heard the case ended with a hung jury, no verdict. The defendant maintains that he did not pose as his brother, and that the sexual act was consensual. Massachusetts lawmakers said they planned to update the law, but as of this date, it remains unchanged via internet search.
View Full Essay

Pauline Letter Paul's Letter to

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69359025

"Now I, Paul, say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you. I testify again to every man who receives circumcision that he is bound to keep the whole law. You are severed from Christ, you who would be justified by the law; you have fallen away from grace. For through the Spirit, by faith, we wait for the hope of righteousness. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision is of any avail, but faith working through love" (Galatians 5:2-6). Those who become circumcised because they believe that this brings them closer to the true faith are profoundly in error; they do not understand the purpose and true intent of Christ's spiritual teaching and Christ's abhorrence of 'following the rules' rather than the heart as a source of spiritual grace.

Blessing/Praise

Paul's Letter to the Galatians places a great deal of responsibility…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Paul's Letter to the Galatians. (1998). PBS. Retrieved August 29, 2011 at  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/maps/primary/galatians.html
View Full Essay

Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest the

Words: 2795 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78428505

Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest

The Mbuti pygmies are a nomadic tribe who inhabit the southern and central portions of the Ituri forest, in the epublic of Congo. They are an ethnocentric and homogenous society whose traditions, gender relations, kinship, social organization have remained unchanged until the last fifty years. The Mbuti tribe is divided into two sub-groups, the Efe and the Mbuti. Currently there are between 20,000 and 50,000 Mbuti people in the Congo (Ojo, 1996). The Mbuti pygmies are hunter-gatherers and have practiced hunting and foraging for thousands of years. Many of the foods they find in hunting and foraging expeditions, especially meat and wild honey, are used as trade items with neighboring tribes like the Bila or Bira people. The Mbuti pygmies are primarily net hunters while the Efe sub-groups of the Mbuti tribe use the bow and arrow. According to Denslow and Padoch (1988) in…… [Read More]

References

(Bayrock E 20110517 Comparison of kinship systems) Bayrock, E. (n.d.). Comparison of kinship systems. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from  http://www.2cyberwhelm.org/archive/diversity/commun/htm/compare.htm 

(Denslow J. Padoch C. 1988 People of the tropical rainforest) Denslow, J., & Padoch, C. (Eds.). (1988). People of the tropical rainforest. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

(Ichikawa M. 1999 Mbuti of northern congo) Ichikawa, M. (1999). The Mbuti of northern Congo. In R.Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge enclyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 201-215). Cmbridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

(Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures 1999 Effe and Mbuti) Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures. (1999). Effe and Mbuti. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://find.galegroup.com/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=alamco_main
View Full Essay

Mbuti Unmovable The Mbuti of the Ituri

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58776139

Mbuti

Unmovable: The Mbuti of the Ituri Forest

For more than 2,000 years, the world has been aware of the Mbuti (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers that reside in the Ituri Forest of northern Zaire. References have been made to Pygmies that date as far back as Ancient Egypt, with mentions made by Herodotus, Aristotle and Homer (McDonald, 2004). Little however, was known about the daily lives of the Mbuti Pygmies until the 1950's. In an effort to find the values of goodness in the world post World War II, the public became interested in an isolated people who seemed far freer and more egalitarian than most self described "civilized societies (McDonald, 2004).The Mbuti are part of a larger group of forest dwellers referred to as the ambuti. According to the most recent statistics, there are reportedly less than 20,000 pure blood ambuti remaining in the world (Turnbull, 1998).

The Mbuti are described…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adovasio, J., Soffer, O., & Klima, b. (1996). Upper Paleolithic fibre technology: Interlaced

Woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago, Antiquity 70,

526-534.

Driver, J. (1990). Meat in due season: The timing of communal hunts. In L. Davis, and M. Reeves, (Eds.), Hunters of the recent past. London: Unwin Hyman.
View Full Essay

Religious Ritual Practices Regardless of

Words: 2195 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23376978

This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.

One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.

Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical

Research Society, 2003.

Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
View Full Essay

Orthodox Jew

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28968605

Orthodox Judaism

There is great variation in the ways orthodox Jews practice their religion, and in what they believe. Many of the variations depend on cultural factors, as Jews are scattered all over the world. However, the basic tenets of the religion are all rooted in monotheism (belief in only one supreme God). The principles of the religion also include a firm belief in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) as being the word of God. This means interpreting the Torah in a manner that impacts daily life choices and lifestyle, including the observance of Kosher dietary habits and the Sabbath day. The practice of Orthodox Judaism emphasizes ritual and tradition, family and community life.

Life is sacred, but there are no hard rules about when life begins. egarding abortion, "even among Orthodox Jews it may be construed as 'a personal matter," ("What do Orthodox Jews think about abortion and why?" 2000).…… [Read More]

References

Baeke, G., Wils, J.P. & Broeckaert, B. (2011). There is a time to be born and a time to die. Journal of Religious Health 50(4): 778-795.

Donin, H.H. (1991). To Be a Jew. Basic.

Moss, A. (n.d.). Organ donation. Chabad. Retrieved online:  http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/635401/jewish/Organ-Donation.htm 

Rich, T.R. (2011). Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife. Retrieved online:  http://www.jewfaq.org/olamhaba.htm
View Full Essay

Annabel by Kathleen Winter Many People Use

Words: 3346 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93401486

Annabel by Kathleen inter

Many people use the terms gender and sex interchangeably. Sociologists have made it clear that these are, in fact, two very different concepts. Sex is the physical difference between men and women. Gender is the sociological difference that society places on male and female based on attributes that have been historically applied to one sex over the other. There is a clear delineation between gender and sex. This distinction is the subject of the novel Annabel by Kathleen inter. A young person is born without a clear distinction over what his or her physical sex is and thus the physical cannot determine if the begin is man or woman. Therefore, the only way that the person is labeled with regard to these categories is by the gender imposition of his or her mother and father who are clearly physically and sociologically male and female. Annabel artistically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berger, Kathleen Stassen. (2009). The Developing Person. Worth "David Reimer: The Boy Who Lived as a Girl." (2004). CBC News.

Walker, Jesse. (2004). "The Death of David Reimer." Reason Magazine.

"What is Intersex" (2008). ISNA.  http://www.isna.org/faq/what_is_intersex 

Winter, Kathleen. (2011). Annabel. Randhom House: New York.
View Full Essay

Kangaroo Care Skin Contact Reduces

Words: 2023 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75691077

Pain, 56(1), 95-101.

Andrews, K., & Fitzgerald, M. (1999). Cutaneous flexion reflex in human neonates: a quantitative study of threshold and stimulus-response characteristics after single and repeated stimuli. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(10), 696-703.

Breau, L.M., McGrath, P.J., Stevens, B., Beyene, J., Camfield, C., Finley, G.A., Franck, K., Gibbins, S., Howlett, A., McKeever, P., O'Brien, K., & Ohlsson, A. (2006). Judgments of pain in the neonatal intensive care setting: a survey of direct care staffs' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. he Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(2), 122-129.

Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2005). Using the worldwide web to improve children's pain care. International Nursing Review, 52(3), 204-209.

Carbajal, R., Gall, O., & Annequin, D. (2004). Pain management in neonates. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 4(3), 491-505.

Chow, S.C., & Liu, J.P. (1998). Design and analysis of clinical trials: concept and methodologies. New York: John Wiley…… [Read More]

Taddio, A., Katz, J., Ilersich, A.L., & Koren, G. (1997). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, 349(9052), 599-603.

Taddio, A., Goldbach, M., Ipp, M., Stevens, B., & Koren, G. (1995). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet, 345(8945), 291-292.

Weaver, S.A., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Maternal separation leads to persistent reduction in pain sensitivity in female rats. The Journal of Pain, 8(12), 962-969.
View Full Essay

Moral Minima the Good Society

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11213861

By Goodman's analysis, the systematic murder of one million people motivated by the specific intention of genocide is morally worse than the systematic murder of one million and one people selected arbitrarily. The author does not explain why the motivation for unjustified murder is such an important distinction; it would seem that unjustified murder is always wrong and that the scale of victims is always a more accurate measure of that moral offense than the reason or intent behind unjustified murder of innocent people.

Polygamy, Rape, Incest, and Genital Mutilation

Professor Goodman's reasoning about polygamy, rape, incest, and genital mutilation represent his weakest line of reasoning. Specifically, his view of polygamy completely ignores the issue of gender inequality and suggests that polygamy is necessarily harmful to women. The obvious counterargument is that this is only true because of the extent to which women are already objectified and comparatively powerless in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Social Psychology of Boys Don't

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94074224

Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…… [Read More]

References

NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB

Website:  http://www.nndb.com/people/746/000047605/ 

Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.

Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website:  http://www.transsexual.org/What.html
View Full Essay

Christianity the Roman Way Rome Exerted Tremendous

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72036816

Christianity

THE ROMAN WAY

Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Conservative Orthodox and Conservative Judaism

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38643895

Jewish culture and practice has been heterogeneous since the diaspora, and remains so in the 21st century. In the United States, Jews generally classify themselves as being Orthodox, Conservative, or eform. This albeit overly simplified tripartite division began in the late 19th to early 20th century, as increasing numbers of Jews immigrated to the United States. The nature of Jewish thought, culture, and worship has changed significantly during the last hundred or so years even among the Orthodox, and there is great diversity and plurality in the world's Jewish communities.

Orthodox Judaism is, as the term suggests, fundamentalist in its approach to Jewish law and scripture. The Torah is believed to be the direct transmission of the word of God, including the oral Torah ("Movements of Judaism," n.d.). As such, the contents of the written and oral Torah are considered immutable. Orthodox Jews follow Jewish law and custom to a…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, B.J. (2015). Orthodox Jews, and Reform, Secular, and Conservative Jews. Retrieved online: http://www.world-religions-professor.com/orthodox-jews.html

"Movements of Judaism." (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/jewfaq/movement.htm
View Full Essay

Psychology of Gender

Words: 2477 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89556914

Psychology of Gender

In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.

Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berenbaum, S.A. (2006). Psychological Outcome in Children With Disorders of Sex Development: Implications for Treatment and Understanding Typical Development. Annual Review of Sex Research, 171. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Colapinto, J. (2000). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Crooks, R., & Baur, K. (2008). Our Sexuality 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Oltmanns, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal Psychology 6th ed. International. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Genital Surgery When Asked About

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38799679



Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures can enormously benefit those who suffered from involuntary genital mutilation. A euters press report details the experiences of women from Burkina Faso whose tribal traditions condoned genital mutilation. Far from the mainly benign effects of male circumcision, female genital mutilation can completely diminish the pleasure of sex to the point where intimate encounters may be thoroughly "painful," (Schwarz 2007). Genital mutilation is a form of surgery that diminishes pleasure, and the reconstructive version can help victims regain their interest in sex and renew appreciation for their bodies.

eferences

Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html

Freistag, A. Interview data.

Labiaplasty." etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/

Schwarz, N. (2007). BUKINA FASO: Genital Surgery…… [Read More]

References

Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html

Freistag, A. Interview data.

Labiaplasty." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at  http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/ 

Schwarz, N. (2007). BURKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://fgmnetwork.org/news/show_news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1187811902&archive=&template
View Full Essay

Hemophilia Is Not One but

Words: 1361 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69626859

Occurrence of inherited hemophilia is slightly more likely in Caucasians (1.3%) as opposed to African-Americans (1.1%) and Hispanic (1.2%). Asian populations appear to inherit the gene far less likely, about 1/4 of that of Caucasians. However, modern demographics result in marriage between ethnic types far greater than previous, and statistics show a blending to about 1% of most populations (Soucie, et.al., 1998.)

Abnormality -- as a genetic occurrence, hemophilia infects about 1 in 5,000 male births, but carried in another 5,000 female births. The disease is recessive in females (carried on X-chromosome). Thus, a carrier female has a 50% chance of passing on the defective X chromosome to her daughter, while a male who is affected will always pass on that defect to progeny.

Screening/Testing -- Genetic testing based on family history is the primary mechanism for discovering hemophilia, but certain other tests help quantify the assurance:

Pronounced bleeding at…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Agaliotis, D., et.al. (2009). "Hemophilia -- Overview." EMedicine. Cited in:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/210104-overview

Handin, R., et.al., eds. (2003). Blood Principles and Practice of Hemotology."

Thomas Stossel.
View Full Essay

Feminist Diversity and El Saadawi's

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38227755

I said my uncle was a respected

Sheikh, well versed in the teaching of religion, and he, therefore, could not possibly be in the habit of beating his wife. She replied that it was precisely men well versed in their religion that beat their wives. The precepts of religion permitted such punishment. A virtuous woman was not supposed to complain about her husband. Her duty was perfect obedience. [emphasis added]

Then Firdaus is escorted from her uncle's house back home to her husband's house, before even being served lunch. Sheikh Mahmoud's only welcome is first, to give Firdaus the silent treatment; and second, to remind her that she ought actually to consider herself lucky to have married him, since he alone, he reminds her, "can put up with you, and...is prepared to feed you" ("Read an Extract from oman at Point Zero (first published 1975), 2007)." After that Sheikh Mahmoud's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

El Saadawi, Nawal. Woman at Point Zero. Sherif Hetata (Trans.).

London:

Zed Books Ltd., 1998.

Esposito, John, and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad. Islam, Gender, and Social
View Full Essay

Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic

Words: 3476 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95055081

The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).

All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy

Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia

Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
View Full Essay

Relationship Between Race and Sexuality and or Gender in Coonardoo

Words: 2665 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90500680

Balance: The ntersection of Race, Sexuality, and Gender in Katharine Susannah Prichard's Coonardoo

Katherine Susannah Prichard, in her novel Coonardoo, portrays the relationship between an Aboriginal woman, Coonardoo, who resides on a pastoral property that is her traditional land, and her white master. Thought to be extremely liberal when first published in 1929[footnoteRef:1], the story seems to encompass Prichard's own view that whites have a duty to care for their Aborigines and treat them well, and she demonstrates what happens when whites abandon this duty.[footnoteRef:2] Prichard moves beyond this, however, as she plays with the intersection between race, gender, and sexuality to show not only white man's effect on the Aborigines and the land during this time, but also the effect of the untamed land on white man.[footnoteRef:3] The characters that thrive in the wild North-West of Australia during this time are the characters that allow their primal, passionate instincts…… [Read More]

In opposition to Hugh is Sam Geary, who thrives in the Bush because of his understanding of the need to intertwine and balance the white and the Aboriginal culture. Geary is loud about his preference for black women in the country. He states time and again that white women do not have the fortitude and wherewithal to survive in the Bush. He has a black woman Sheba, who takes care of him. He acts on his sexuality and impulses, and thrives. Despite being set up at the foil to Hugh, and set up as the villain, in a way, he actually is the most balanced of the characters, understanding what it takes to survive and thrive in the Bush.

IV. CONCLUSION

Prichard's Coonardoo is a social commentary on the need for balance in gender, race, and sexuality in Australia during the time. Her story not only depicts the changing conditions of the Aborigines, but also how white man changed from the land, and needed to find a balance between white culture and primitive impulses. She uses different characters, set off one another, to exemplify different scenarios between blacks and whites and men and women. Those characters that found a balance between their male and female traits and a balance between the wild and culture were the characters that were able to survive in the Bush. Those characters that either too strongly adhered to white culture or the Aboriginal culture were the ones that suffered and were unable to survive. Prichard's own view most closely aligns with Mrs. Bessie's, who believed that Aboriginal customs should be respected, though Aboriginals could be "spoken for" by their masters.[footnoteRef:21] [21: Delays Bird (ed). Katherine Susannah Prichard: Stories, Journalism and Essay. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 2000 at pg.xxi.]
View Full Essay

Kafr El Elow

Words: 2197 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19645233

Kafr El-Elow is based upon the novel Kafr El-Elow: Continuity and Change in an Egyptian community written by Hani Fakhouri. This paper takes into account two chapters from the novel and explains why both of them are absolutely essential in understanding the social structure of the village, Kafr El-Elow. The paper also highlights some very important traditions and customs followed by the villagers.

Kafr El-Elow

The writer of the novel, Kafr El-Elow chose the village of Kafr El-Elow for the ethnographic research not because of its close association with Cairo but because of its location in the middle of Egypt's colossal mercantile complex. According to the author, the small village of Kafr El-Elow is bound to experience a lot of changes due to its most central location, as it is the industrial complex of a country that experience advancement. The people of Kafr El-Elow as result of urbanization and industrialization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hani F. Kafr El-Elow. Wave Land Press. May 1987.
View Full Essay

Cultural Beliefs and Religious Values Related to HIV AIDS

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91057210

Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS

Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.

Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…… [Read More]

References

Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.

Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank

Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press

World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
View Full Essay

Paul Is Often Considered Second

Words: 1105 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86584436

exterior actions would have a profound effect on Christianity's worldview, which stressed outward asceticism and interior humbleness and spiritual cultivation. In Protestantism, the division between the exterior and interior self would also create a divide between the secular and sacred world. In the secular world a human being could engage in a mundane life, provided he or she still attended to the spiritual world of the church and Jesus. Thus, the commonly expressed cliche that it is 'inside that is what is important, not what is outside' could be said to have its roots in Pauline philosophy.

Jesus' expressed relationship with Judaism is far more ambiguous than Paul's. In fact, he praises Mosaic Law at times, particularly the commandments: "Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Fredriksen, Paula. "Was Jesus Jewish?" Frontline: From Jesus to Christ. April 1998

November 27, 2009.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/jesus/bornliveddied.html 

"Parallel translations: New International Version." Biblos. 1984. November 27, 2009.

http://bible.cc/matthew/5-19.htm