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It causes females to compromise their health by taking up very restrictive diets to be model thin (which could lead to other psychological health issues, such as anorexia or bulimia). Being overweight (which in many cases is one of the only measures applied to determine healthiness) is thought by many women to be a case of "eating too much food and/or not doing enough exercise" (p. 711).
Males face similar problems to females, but in a different way. If a man is not active and physically fit, he is not "healthy." hile he does not have to have the restrictive diet of a female, he is still judged on his moral character by his level of health. Non-conforming signals that he is lazy and does not care about himself as much as someone who does conform. Being healthy is part of a conforming male's identity because it is synonymous with…… [Read More]
These stereotypes are communicated to a higher number of people, and because it is the perceived correct manifestation of womanhood and manhood, people will just start embodying these characteristics in their lives. Thus, women who believe they are expected by society to act submissive and domesticated would behave the same way to be socially accepted. However, a woman who does not believe in these stereotypes might not be empowered to uphold her true feminine characteristics because her actions, behavior, and beliefs are negated by the highly influential popular/mass media.
Another concept relevant to the discussion of sexuality is heteronormativity, which characterizes heterosexuality as the "natural" gender identity (Weiss, 2001:132). Heteronormativity divides the gender identity spectrum into the 'normal' and 'not normal' sexual orientations: individuals who sexually prefer the opposite sex are considered normative, otherwise the individual does not have the normal sexual preference (not normal in terms of sexual orientation).…… [Read More]
In his book Culture and Everyday Life, Andy Bennett provides a definition of fashion that highlights the fact that fashion has a particular utilitarian function wholly apart from that of clothing, and though a simple observation, this fact forces one to reconsider how men's fashion has been regarded for at least the last eighty years. In his book, Bennett writes that "fashion provides one of the most ready means through which individuals can make expressive visual statements about their identities," a claim most people would readily agree with (Bennett 2000, p. 96). However, this claim has not been taken to its logical conclusion in the many major academic texts regarding fashion, and particularly men's fashion, due to the erroneous belief that at some point in the nineteenth century, men "renounced" fashion, deeming it feminine and thus outside the sphere of male activity. In reality, the so-called "Great Masculine…… [Read More]
Constructions of 'the nice girl' -- teenage female sexual definition and identity in Seventeenth Summer and Forever
"Sybil Davidson," begins Judy Blume's classic novel of teen sexuality, specifically teen feminine sexuality, entitled Forever, "has a genius I.Q. And has been laid by at least six different guys." (Blume, 9) The implications are obvious -- Sybil is equally brilliant and beautiful. Sybil is sexually precocious and yet mature in mind as well in body -- and bodily experience, at least according to the teenage rumor mill. Regardless, this assertion shows how in Blume's world, the antiquated associations of brains and chastity, of sexual openness and being a loose, bad girl, are being challenged in a confronting fashion by the narrator Catherine's less experienced, yet still-authoritative voice. The narrator seems to want to assure the reader that although she may not have been "laid by at least six different guys," like the…… [Read More]
Perkins gives us the reason one must never go back: sanity. These characters have issues in their lives but they certainly cannot sit still and wait for things to happen around them. The power of femininity did not advance because women remained timid; it gained momentum because women realized they were separate individuals capable of living full lives without the domineering presence of men. At the same time, they understood the importance of relationships and what they bring to life. They know both can exist without one overpowering the other. hile this does not sound like much of a revelation in today's world, it was a remarkable revelation around one hundred years ago when women were expected to be happy being mothers and wives.
Allen, Brooke. "The accomplishment of Edith harton." New Criterion, Sept 2001. Gale
Resource Database. Site Accessed April 13, 2011.
Chopin, Kate. "Regreat." American Literature…… [Read More]
Portrayal of Gothic Femininities in "The Monk"
Written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796, "The Monk" is a classic novel that is from Gothic literature. Female figures are used as symbols in many parts of the story, and the idea "gothic femininity" can be seen several times throughout the story. The setting fits with the Gothic theme as the story's beginning takes place in a mysterious church in Madrid, and the two main characters are both women. Leonella and her niece Antonia have come to the church to hear a great priest named Ambrosio speak, and what follows becomes both a romance and a tragedy. While waiting for Ambrosio to speak the two women tell their stories to a pair of men, Don Lorenzo and Don Christoval, and this conversation starts a chain of reactions that changes many lives. Lorenzo falls in love with Antonia, but she desires the priest…… [Read More]
Communication -- Gender and Communication
The parameters of gender have undergone a dramatic expansion through the efforts of Science and enlightened feminists such as Nancy Mairs. Their contributions allow a multitude of genders and new definitions that account for the richness of human sexuality. As a result, femininity can be defined in the broadest and richest terms as a set of psychological traits unconstrained by classically masculine and feminine boundaries.
"Femininity" is best defined as sensitivity and awareness, a firm set of psychological traits that is not reflected in behavior. Actions are not masculine or feminine, but approaches to them are masculine or feminine. The classically oppressive confinement of "normal" gender to male and female is no longer viable, for humanity exists in a far greater array of sexual characteristics than genitals can distinguish or dictate. Anne Fausto-Sterling offers many examples of Science's growing acceptance of broad gender range, reaching…… [Read More]
Masculinity & Femininity
Femininities and masculinities dictate more behavioral expectations for us in society. After reading through/watching the material for this week, comment on what you view as the state of masculinity/femininity discourses. How are these discourses useful? Can masculinity/femininity be a positive thing? Or should they always be critiqued for their reinforcement of strict gendered expectations? Explain.
It is always helpful to critique any social norms, especially those as pervasive and rigid as gender norms. Critiquing gender norms helps to increase media literacy, pierce through stereotypes, and hopefully also overcome structural inequities. As Allan points out in "Hazing and Gender," "gender norms are typically cast in ways that privilege masculinity over femininity." Masculinity is normalized, made the hidden and assumed default condition of humanity. The same conditions that cause white privilege to be a potent social and psychological reality are those that cause male privilege to be a…… [Read More]
" Otherwise, Nora's interest in who is employed at the bank -- Krogstad or Mrs. Lind -- would wholly ruin Torvald's carefully constructed social reality. This, essentially, is the only way in which a woman playing the feminine role is able to bend the rules; Nora can exert her influence, but only by emphasizing her helplessness.
Throughout A Doll's House there is an interesting relationship between parents and their children. Recurrently, we are told that both Nora and Torvald believe that a vast number of traits can be passed down to children through their parents. Foremost among these traits are those dealing with money. Torvald suggests that Nora's capacity as a spendthrift comes from her father: "Still, one must take you as you are. It is in the blood; for indeed it is true that you can inherit these things, Nora." (Ibsen, 4). Yet overall, the characteristics that Nora and…… [Read More]
When Unraveling Is the Best Approach
Everything is connected. Pull one thread as gently as possible in any attempt to explain the fundamentals of any society and this is abundantly clear, for in trying to unravel any of the important concepts or practices upon which society and culture are built and one finds that everything else begins to unravel as well. While "unraveling" might initially seem to be something that one would not want to do, in fact in terms of sociological analysis it is highly advisable. Especially when one is attempting to understand one's own culture, where familiarity with structures and norms can sometimes make it difficult to see clearly, one has often to take things apart in order to understand the dynamics of how the social world works.
Not only is everything connected to everything else, but analyzing one part of a system tends to cause changes…… [Read More]
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…… [Read More]
Even during the golden years of the beauty contest between the wars there were unresolved problems with the nature and purpose of such competitions:
There remained elements of discomfort and tension, only superficially palliated by the scientific discourse, patriotic rhetoric and philanthropic gestures of the contest's organisers. These tensions would be released again in the 1970s when a new generation of feminists added discrimination on the grounds of race and disability, together with a more unequivocal rejection of standardised and homogenised ideals of the body and beauty, to the critique of their forebears.
Yet this phenomenon can be seen as consistent with the change in the status of the beauty contest, from a celebration of values that were of universal appeal (even reflecting ideals of national identity) to a tawdry matter of selling sex. y the 1980s and 1990s such contests were experiencing a decline in entrants, with young women…… [Read More]
" The rest of the poem deals with the seeming artificiality of life in light of the spiritual death that led man out of the Garden and into the world of Nature to begin with.
4) How does "To His Coy Mistress" compare to Herrick's "Upon Julia's Clothes"? What theme(s) and images do the two poems share? How is the treatment of women similar? Both of these poems use contrast to show the true beauty of the subject -- or at least to convince the subject that the speaker sees such beauty. They both share images of men (in both instances the speaker) being fascinated to the point of distraction by women (the subject of Herrick's and addressee of Marvell's). The hyperbole employed by both poets serves to hyper-objectify women.
5) What is the lesson of "The Garden"? How is this lesson a matter of ethics or morality? The lesson…… [Read More]
Geert Hofstede: Cultural Dimensions
Please define Power Distance in one sentence and summarize the differences (if any) in Power Distance among France, Italy, Arab World and Indonesia.
People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification, but in societies with low power distance, people strive to equalize the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. France, Indonesia and the Arab World all score high on the Power Distance scale compared to Italy, which makes them more authoritarian societies.
With a score of 68, France scores high on the scale of the PDI, compared to Italy which has a score of 53. It is therefore a society in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible. Power is highly centralized…… [Read More]
Based on those responses, the BSRI assigns a characterization of either "sex- typed" or "androgynous" depending on how much subjects identify only with adjectives considered desirable of their gender or with desirable traits of both genders, respectively.
The PAQ uses similar methodology to generate results that link identification with adjectives considered desirable in both genders with high self-esteem in subjects of either gender.
Generally, both instruments have been criticized because it is virtually impossible to ignore the influence of social learning on the degree to which individuals identify with gender-specific attributes. In effect, a diagnostic questionnaire may answer little else besides the identification of particular attributes associated positively with masculinity or femininity in the social culture in which subjects were socialized. More specifically, the PAQ has been criticized for equating identification with desirable male attributes with high self-esteem in "androgynous" females without considering the greater degree to which society reinforces…… [Read More]
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…… [Read More]
Surrealism During 1930s
Surrealism is a way of expressing the true function of thought, without consideration of the entire lies and logic outside any moral or normal interpretation of life. For a long time surrealism has been widely enjoyed. Due to its sense of playfulness as well as spontaneity, it brings mystery and fantasy within art pieces. It has most fascinating aspect such as the numerous ideas and questions surrounding it making it a widely inspiring modern. The analysis will include surrealists work in the 1930s and how they commented on the art, fashion and notion of femininity.
The most significant surrealist misogyny from the early 1930s was Hans Bellmer's photographs of distorted as well as deformed dolls. Surrealist artists and writers could show their manipulated and objectified femininity within their work using their violently erotic reorganization of female body parts in to awkward wholes. Based on the manipulation…… [Read More]
Fostering Awareness through Cross-Cultural Comparison
Business -- Crossing Cultures
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Geert Hofstede is most known for his cultural dimensions theory. There is a system and a method of assessment that stems from this theory. The world of the 21st century is increasingly both local and global. In these times, there is more international and intercultural communication, business, and travel. For those who conduct international business affairs, differentiation and awareness of cultural behaviors is essential. One cannot conduct successful business transactions and retain a superficial understanding of another culture. Lack of cultural awareness makes for miscommunications and decreased likelihood of sustained business (or other) relationships. In these ways, we may comprehend the necessity and utility of Hofstede's theories. The paper will focus upon Japan, Brazil, Iceland, and India for the comparative and analytical purposes of the exercise. The paper will…… [Read More]
Women un Fotune 500 companies and men may become 'stay-at-home' dads. Howeve, despite the fact that a woman has made a cedible bid fo the pesidency in ecent memoy, and the geate success of women in pofessional life, it is likely that 'soft-spoken' is still viewed as a moe desiable attibute fo a female. Attibutes such as 'athletic' may have become moe gende-neutal, given the geate pemeation of women in spots and some of the most limiting steeotypes, that women ae moe 'shy' might have deceased to some degee. The list of positive female and male attibutes would likely have moe convegence today, and thus thee would be moe gende-neutal values. Howeve, some taits would likely still be seen as moe desiable fo men and women along the lines of the oiginal list, although to a lesse degee -- leadeship skills might be seen as moe impotant fo males to…… [Read More]
The very fact that the magazine openly admires men like Ray Liotta, who show depth beyond the typical alpha male and women like Christina Aguilera, who has chosen to use her sexuality rather than being used by her sexuality, demonstrates that the magazine does not even seriously believe that anyone should become the ideal male. On the contrary, the magazines use of stereotype-heavy advertising and writing suggests that the editors believe that men and women should try to incorporate some of the elements of these traditional stereotypes, while retaining their own individualized personalities. Such a position only becomes problematic when a consumer is not sophisticated enough to recognize that there is a distinction between writing about a stereotype and supporting all aspects of that stereotype. For example, violence against women has long been considered acceptable in sexual stereotyping. Maxim does not have articles, advertisements, or photos that glorify violence against…… [Read More]
For the health promotion to be successful, they must look at the broad spectrum facing both men and women when they become sexually active and the context in which young people conduct their sexual lives should be analyzed. These limitations on both men and women work to limit the powers of the gender in relation to various situational areas. For instance, the methods advocated for safe sex are usually out of reach for many people maybe due to the cost or their availability.
'A woman is limited in making influential and important decisions and so is the man.' (Tannen, 1996) For instance, the man cannot sometime make a decision on how many children they will have especially if they both do not make the decision together. This particular discourse around gender is mainly in the developing countries where safe sex is still being introduced and efforts are at their peak…… [Read More]
'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"
illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)
Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…… [Read More]
grrrl -- here me roar! We've come a long way since the bra-burning days of yore. Feminists in the 1960s and 1970s helped break down significant barriers for grrrls, and helped us to reclaim that fun-filled word. However, that "second wave" of feminism is long gone. We're back to struttin' our stuff, high heels, lipstick, and all. Now 20-somethings don't have to demand to be called a "woman" to assert feminine strength; grrrl is just fine. In fact, the term reeks of fun and frolic, of grrrl power. As Angela Mcobbie states in her book Postmodernism and Popular Culture, "far from having to relinquish their femininity to achieve 'equality, these girls have demanded their right to hold onto it intact, even excessively," (166). Welcome to the Third Wave of Feminism, grrrls!
Ironically, it took hairy legs and armpits to achieve this linguistic transformation and ride this third wave. We had…… [Read More]
It seems as though she is withholding judgment so that people who read what she has to say can pay clear attention to the actual details, allowing them to draw their own conclusions and make their own judgments.
3. Russell (pg. 60) has a love affair with food that would not be considered healthy, and he does point out the problems that are being seen today with unhealthy eating habits and obesity in this nation. His is not a scathing commentary, though, but rather a look back at his childhood and his grandmother. How he sees food is not so much about its calorie count, but more about a hearty helping of nostalgia (Russell, pg. 63). He knows it is bad for him when it comes to things like cholesterol, but the food is good for his soul and his peace and his memories, and sometimes those things must take…… [Read More]
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…… [Read More]
This has been represented through both advertisement campaigns highlighting individual beauty and greater media attention to those who do not bear resemblance to traditional images of beauty. In "sex, lies and advertising," it is evident that the use of magazines and other advertising mediums are the direct correlation to why so many women feel that they need to change themselves. These images however all false in nature since they do not accurate depict what the feminine form and beauty is. There is no strong conflict of interest between women's magazines and beauty products because the idea of beauty is now so deeply entrenched in social and cultural frameworks those magazines will not shake the desire of women to want to be beautiful. Furthermore, the prevalence of women's magazines only makes the problem appear more subliminal and give people the false sense of acceptance that is not in fact present.
All…… [Read More]
The 1964 film Dr. Strangelove uses the context of Cold ar brinksmanship in order to uncover a more fundamental problem with patriarchy and the maintenance of a destructive masculinity. This masculinity is under threat as a result of sexual frustration, and the characters of Ripper, Turgidson, and Kong embody three different kinds of this frustration. Ripper's sexual frustration is the most explicit, and leads to the most overtly violent reaction. Turgidson's sexual frustration is not the result of a physiological problem but rather due to pent-up energy, and thus his reaction is to cheer on the violence perpetrated by Ripper, even if he cannot engage in it himself. Finally, Kong, who is denied the kind of sexual immediacy granted Turgidson, nonetheless is able to overcome the frustration experienced by the other two men when he finally succeeds in dropping a nuclear bomb. Thus, the film suggests that the true threat…… [Read More]
Even more interesting is how oseanne was treated as if she were somehow an anti-feminist because she wished to push her own agenda on the show, creating conflict with one of the producers. Interestingly enough, Barr observed, "I made the mistake of thinking Marcy was a powerful woman in her own right. I've come to learn that there are none in TV. There aren't powerful men, for that matter, either- unless they work for an ad company or a market-study group. Those are the people who decide what gets on the air and what doesn't" (Barr, 2011). What her comment makes clear is that, even while perceived as social commentary by others, oseanne perceives her show as commercial, leading one to wonder if it is possible to have a truly feminist television series in a society that struggles for post-feminism and worships capitalism.
Barr, . (2011, May 15). "And…… [Read More]
As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.
A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and…… [Read More]
Thus the concentration is not on basketball, the sport he is supposed to love, but on sex. The picture in the book is clear about the happenings when the over-sexed teenagers reach college. Within a day of her arrival in college, Charlotte is "sexiled." This means that she was compelled to leave her room when her roommate brought a young man in for sex. The contest among the freshmen in fraternities is to find out how fast they can get fresh faces for sex. The least amount of time given in that book was seven minutes. (Bonfire of the sexuality)
egarding the view of women in media, one of the professors said that the American society is becoming a society of predators. The stage has come when 1.3 women are raped every minute and a large proportion of one in three women will be raped in her lifetime. This is…… [Read More]
Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions
This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.
For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…… [Read More]
Bonnie G. Smith begins book announcing: "This book inserts term 'gender' account historiography West
In many ways, one can read Bonnie G. Smith's book The Gender of History, as merely stating the obvious. That she does so in an abu7ndance of detail and varying perspectives while stratifying some of the fundamental concepts that make up historiography makes her conclusion none the less obvious. One can simply deconstruct the term history and see that there are inherent gender implications -- professional and scholastic history is, for the most part, the account of some man or men (typically Caucasian) rendering an 'official' accounting of events past. As such, that accounting is going to be written from the perspective of this universal male symbol of authority and address those things that he wants addressed, while favoring those things he believes posterity will need to regard as important. The author's assertion (1998), then that…… [Read More]
The following table covers the websites:
National Women's Law Center
This org works to make changes in the legal environment concerning women and girls.
Human ights Campaign
LGBT rights org. Civil rights org, raises awareness, launches campaigns, highlights issues
Fighting for LGBT rights, especially at the legal level
The status of women in the United States for most of its history has been quite poor, with respect to rights and opportunity. For most of the country's history, women were excluded from participation in the democratic process. To this day, no woman has ever held the highest office, while even repressive countries like Pakistan have had female leaders. For women, the fight for rights and equality is an ongoing battle. After being granted the right to vote, the next major advancements for the rights of women came in the 1960s with things like the…… [Read More]
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…… [Read More]
olf did not choose this word arbitrarily. She is well aware of it portents and the fact that it is loaded with meaning for women, albeit unconsciously for many. It is guilt she is attempting to highlight for them, and guilt that she attempting to free them from by pointing out that its source is both external and patriarchal. Ironically, she adds yet another layer of guilt whilst doing so - Are you doing enough to be free of the patriarchal clutches? Have you realised that the world is yours for the taking? The sleight-of-hand of her prose is as illuminating as it is frustrating; olf wants women to free themselves from media-inspired guilt by loading themselves down with the guilt of not reacting enough against what she claims are aggressors and inhibitors of strength, peace and health. That she was successful in this endeavour is self-evident; the book's sales…… [Read More]
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…… [Read More]
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…… [Read More]
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]
In other words, hitman is seeking to illustrate why the personal identity of the woman or himself is unimportant regarding the events of the poem. hile it may have seemed important in the beginning of the events that the woman was the woman and hitman was hitman, by the end of this progression, these distinctions are meaningless. This is one of the fundamental obstacles to defining personal identity: sameness with one's self at any given instant fails to necessarily imply sameness at another point and time. It may be possible to argue that man's body carries something singular with itself through time, but this may have no relation to mental identity. This is the reason why the problem of identity finds itself at the crossroads of epistemology and metaphysics, or of thought and physicality. hitman position is that this individuality is indeed transient, and it lacks any real meaning from…… [Read More]
Nairn sees these Barbies as being tortured to destroy the doll's perfection, but the same children (I have noticed from observing female relatives) may demand a new Barbie, even after treating the old one carelessly.
Additionally, not all Barbies are disposed of. In fact, there is a thriving industry of adults who collect Barbies. These Barbies embody characters from famous old films, new films, or characters from around the world. Even some Barbies marketed at younger girls that are reasonably priced like those of the Twilight series of Barbies, are clearly not disposable. Barbies run the gamut from the cheap to the beautifully coiffured, yet all of them suggest a model of femininity that is similar: adult and girlish at the same time. Even as early as the 1960s, according to the website "Barbie's Career History," Barbie was used to embody 'acceptable' female occupations for young women, including that of…… [Read More]
The example Xuela sees of womanhood, and the one she later repeats, is one of jealousy and spite. At one point, this step-mother even tries to kill Xuela with a necklace, piece of jewelry. This is another example of femininity -- this time in the form of a feminine object, the necklace -- being used in a destructive way. Xuela so identifies with this picture of women that she repeats the behavior without even understanding why, such as when she seduces her step-sister's lover or sleeps with other women's husbands.
Eventually, Xuela marries a rich white man who loves her, and she uses this love to make fun of him and control her world. This is the only way she has been taught to be a woman. She has almost all of the traditional negative "feminine" traits, such as jealousy, manipulation, and selfishness, but none of the good qualities. She…… [Read More]
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…… [Read More]
'Take a look at the kids' section of your local video store," Katha Pollitt writes. "You'll find that features starring boys, and usually aimed at them, account for 9 out of 10 offerings," (299). Pollitt deplores not only the quantity of children's entertainment devoted to females and to female heroines; the author also suggests that the qualitative implications of this mostly unacknowledged bias "deforms both boys and girls," (300). Pollitt continues to note that she cannot think of "a single network cartoon or puppet show starring a female" and that the arner Brother's delightful lineup starring Bugs Bunny and crew is entirely male (299). Masculinity rules, even in preschool.
In her article "The Smurfette Principle," Pollitt describes the legions of children's educational and entertainment materials that cater to a society fascinated with masculinity. Femininity, on the other hand, is portrayed in one of two ways: as an ancillary aspect…… [Read More]
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]
Today, the term "designer" is too often associated with people who churn out clothing lines every season. In this sense, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel stands as a breed apart. Fashion analysts today attribute the birth of modern fashion to Coco Chanel. She is viewed as a woman and an artist ahead of her time. Her clothing influenced not only the way women dress, but the way women define femininity. In this sense, Chanel is very much a part of the modern artistic movement, along with the likes of Pablo Picasso and Jean Cocteau.
This paper examines the many facets of Coco Chanel's artistry. The first part of the paper looks at Chanel as a product of her social environment, discussing the factors that have contributed to the evolution of Chanel's style and clothing designs. The next part then looks at Chanel's designs and choice of fabrics. Chanel never defined…… [Read More]
Hip-hop and rap have often been criticized for depicting stereotypical depictions of women, particularly Black women, even while striving to offer a cultural counter-narrative of powerful black masculinity that is positive. Kanye West’s song “Gold Digger” famously criticizes women for being only interested in a man’s money, and the video crassly shows women in skimpy clothing gyrating in front of West, even being used as credit card dispensers. Although rap’s narrative may question a white world where the police are trustworthy and criminality is viewed as evil, versus a natural response to the environment, it often embraces a very negative view of women at its worst and at its best has depicted women more as sexualized objects than as fully dimensional human beings. On the other hand, as noted by Patricia Hill Collins in her essay “Get Your Freak On: Sex, Babies, and Images of Black Femininity,” many female artists…… [Read More]
"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).
Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…… [Read More]
Serena illiams, one of the most strong and prominent young female role models for athletic women today is shown as using her tennis prowess to 'slam' nature in the face in one recent advertisement. illiams' femininity and her athleticism are clearly interconnected: illiams wears eye-catching outfits and is one of the most accomplished tennis stars of her generation. But according to Kotex, this female athlete cannot work worth 'with' Mother Nature and still be successful.
Sanitary napkin advertisements are very public, and often embarrassing to watch (even for male and female friends watching television together, eyes often head to the floor when they come on). Although it is painfully obvious what the ads are about, and what products they are promoting, the advertisements stress the secrecy and discretion of the product, especially their odor-reducing potential and the smallness of the packaging. In one ad, showing a girl on a skateboard:…… [Read More]
Though it is impossible to connect biographical details to the circumstances and characters presented in her works of fiction with any certainty, these female figures certainly had an impact on Parker's life. It is even likely that the female concept of sexuality struck Parker as incredibly ridiculous, and the hat is one way that is used to mock the way women think about sex in "Here e Are."
The hat first and foremost is an article of clothing. That is to say, it is something that is used to cover the body. This might seem obvious, but it is also important. The woman's initial reluctance to remove the hat shows her embarrassment and modesty in the new and frightening situation she finds herself in. hen she does remove it, is a definite signal that she is loosening up and possibly even encouraging any advances. She puts it back on again…… [Read More]
On the other hand, they stressed the unique position of women as mothers. Revolutionary feminists claimed that women as mothers of the republic demanded that they have a special place in the public sphere, they were a group of individuals historically excluded now deserving of their time in the sun. But by basing claims to voting rights upon a role usually regarded as womanly and private their claims were tenuous. This doctrine of the uniqueness of women also reinforced the idea of the separate spheres, or that there was a so-called 'natural' division of labor based on sex.
In her companion sequel to her first book, Visualizing the Nation, Landes switches from the more textually-based earlier work to that of the image, which can, she believes, be even more persuasive in showing the paradoxes of female power and the feminization of the private sphere since artists, unlike writers, often feel…… [Read More]
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…… [Read More]
Moreover, because of the high levels of tourism, no one would be out of place in Miami. acism exists in North America, in the United States and in Miami; however, it is determined to be as pronounced in some other more conservative cities.
With race and ethnicity it is important to mindful of the history of America in relation to how immigrants have been treated in general, and to Latin immigrants specifically. There are a number of ethnic groups represented within the Latin immigrant population and there should not be blanket generalizations applied to the group as though they represent one culture or ethnic group.
Ofttimes, nonverbal communication can be as significant as verbal communication. For those individuals of Latin descent, some of the more general associations with nonverbal communication are the importance of shaking hands in the introduction process. Culturally, there is purportedly the view that…… [Read More]
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…… [Read More]
This sudden tragedy occurs, no less, just as Ophelia is to happily crown the hanging boughs of the tree, which symbolically represents the happy instance that must have occurred just prior to the play's opening -- Hamlet's engagement to Ophelia. As on the bank of the brook, so too with Hamlet -- an "envious sliver broke"; the "rash" and "intruding" Polonius interjected himself and denied Ophelia what her nature so plainly made her for: to love. He teaches her, rather, to doubt and to suspect. Ophelia falls victim to the plague of Elsinore, which may be stated as the conflict between truth and falsehood.
The Man's Nature
Hamlet engages in this conflict in an altogether different manner, however. If Ophelia and Gertrude approach it from the direction of love, Hamlet approaches it from the direction of reason. Gertrude and Ophelia intuit; Hamlet rationalizes. Ophelia, for example, appreciates Hamlet's predicament immediately…… [Read More]
This brings us to the idea of ideal femininity. What is the ideal woman? What should we expect of the female gender in the new millennium? When comparing the two views above, I would say that Chan's ideal of the woman as one who is worthy of recognition for her efforts in any context is far more valid than that forwarded by Campbell, who creates an emotional victimhood for women. When combining these views, I would say the ideal woman is indeed emotional, but she is also capable of using her emotion to energize her efforts towards the life she desires. Emotion can translate into passion, and I believe that women have a possible advantage here. A woman's emotion for her family can create a passion for creating the perfect home. Her passion to contribute economically to her relationship with her partner or her family can lead to great excellence…… [Read More]
National Culture and elated Theories
This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the cultural diversity and its impact on the organizational performance and management practices. The paper includes a methodical analysis of the influence of culture on operational performance of an organization and the working patterns of individuals. A logical criticism has also been done on the relevant theories and concepts that are widely practiced in the business world.
Cultural diversity refers to the differences of cultural backgrounds, religious beliefs, social norms, races, and other dimensions among individuals. Cultural diversity is widely seen in large societies and multinational organizations. Due to its importance in today's challenging and complex business environment, organizations are giving more focus on managing cultural diversity in their workplaces. A number of research studies have been conducted which explain the importance, challenges, and issues of cultural diversity for business organizations. The most important studies are conducted in…… [Read More]
Azure Sky Tea needs to determine the best choice of a home base.
A number of factors must be taken into consideration including the cultural dimensions of the different potential host nations.
There are a number of countries that Azure Sky Tea can consider. The company can take into consideration when making this decision. Hofstede identified a number of different cultural dimensions that can be examined for each potential host country. These are individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity/femininity (Hofstede, 2013). Individualism reflects the importance of the individual in the culture, compared with collectivism which emphasizes a collective group. Uncertainty avoidance reflects "the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty." Power distance reflects power roles in a society, manifested mainly in the interactions between people in different positions within the company. Masculinity emphasizes competition, assertiveness and achievement, while femininity is seen…… [Read More]
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]
national cultue on poject contol: emiates poject manage in *xyz company case study
This wok addesses effects of national and intenational cultue upon business, using a copoate oganization in the UAE as an example. Theoetical aspects of cultue ae discussed and a detailed eseach pogam is outlined, with data fom a Pilot Study being pesented, as a basis to plan and delineate the best appoach to the oveall eseach potocols.
The goals of this manuscipt ae to evaluate the XYZ oganization in the UAE in tems of the effects of national and intenational cultue upon a business.
The vaious aspects of a given national cultue ae used to develop theoetical hypotheses concening the manne in which cultue influences copoate actions.
This wok offes a contibution to the field though data-povision and analysis focusing on common pesumptions that copoate actions ae modified accoding to the 'home county' cultual…… [Read More]