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Unfortunately, when one hears the word "feminist," it is frequently in a derogatory context. From the ultra-derogatory use of the epitaph "feminazi" to describe working women, to those men and women who, while declaring feminist ideals, protest the use of that label to describe themselves, there is a taint associated with the word feminist that makes one querulous about self-identifying as a feminist (Crown). However, I understand that the reasons that the word feminist is considered tainted are the very same reasons that it is important for any person concerned with universal civil rights and liberties to be a feminist. Therefore, I proudly consider myself a feminist.
Declaring myself a feminist, begs the question, "ell, what is a feminist?" Ironically, that is a difficult question to answer and depends whom is being asked the question. To those that fear a disruption in power and family relationships will result from…
Crown, Ali. "Choice is the Power of Feminism." Feminism and Women's Studies. 2005.
Eserver. 7 Nov. 2005 http://feminism.eserver.org/theory/feminist/Crown-Choice-is-Power.html.
Christina Hoff Sommers. Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
Wikipedia. "Feminism." Wikipedia.org. 2005. Wiki Media. 7 Nov. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminist .
In an attempt to counter the male dominated body prejudice Elizabeth Blackwell began a discourse on using a one-body image, this time female, to analyse and understand the physiology of the body. Blackwell, was one of the founding feminists, an abolitionist and the first female to become a doctor in the United States. As a doctor she may most assuredly also be viewed as a feminist physiologist and one of the first feminist sociologist and began to analyse the sociology of the body as it relates to the cultural and individual perception of women in the early twentieth century.
The tendency to use the male form as the baseline for anatomical or physiological comparison has more to do with the social meanings attached to the sexed body and to the gender politics of anatomy than with the physical structures involved. In many respects, the changes in technologies of…
Armstrong, Karen.1996. 'A God for both sexes.' Economist 341: 65-70.
Bennetts, Leslie, Gerard, Emily, and Liebman, Jeremy. 2008. 'The f-word.' Cosmo Girl, 10: 102-105.
Bullington, Sam. 2004. 'Transgendered Feminist Body Issues.' Off Our Backs 34: 34-36.
Edwards, Susan S.M. 1993. "Chapter 6 Selling the Body, Keeping the Soul: Sexuality, Power, the Theories and Realities of Prostitution." pp. 89-null979104 in Body Matters: Essays on the Sociology of the Body, edited by Scott, Sue and David Morgan. London: Falmer Press.
feminists book ISLAND OF THE SEQUINED LOVE NUN Christopher Moore. To, general trend feminism
Beyond Conventional Feminism
There are a number of reasons why contemporary feminists would find fault with Island of the Sequined Love Nun, a novel published in 1997 by author Christopher Moore which may be considered an example of postmodern literature due to the variety of subjects, cultures, and sexual orientations it deals with (Powell 1). The book is largely told through the male perspective of a fairly certified womanizer, Tucker Case. Subsequently, women are consistently objectified throughout this work, mostly in the author's attempt to be humorous. Yet the central notion that would more than likely present a problem for feminists who are reviewing this novel would be the conception of beauty as it applies to women that the author portrays throughout the text. Most contemporary feminists would strongly object to the notion that a woman…
Botting, Eileen H, Houser, Sarah L., '"Drawing the Line of Equality": Hannah Mather Crocker on Women's Rights' in American Political Science Review. 2006, 100: 265-278. Print.
Cornell, Drucilla. At the Heart of Freedom: Feminism, Sex, and Equality. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1998. Print.
Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. 1989. Print.
Hochschild, Arlie Russell; Machung, Anne. The Second Shift. New York: Penguin Books. 2003. Print.
The Young Lords suffered social seclusion within the society until they engaged in fighting for their own right. As exemplified from the text, they collected and hipped it in the middle of the street, and after the garbage spilled all over the streets, the department of health collected and since then paid great tribute to the young lords.
For a very long time, the Young Lords struggled to attain a public sphere, but they remained unrecognized until they acted. This means that there is more than concentrating on the Rhetoric of the streets, there is a need to embrace more complete image of social movement. The idea of the Enclave in the counter-public sphere theory is more than a protected space generated from necessity, intended to protect a group and shun away from unnecessary publicity. Indeed, it is certain that enclaves play a protective function in forming coalitions in addition…
(Frazer 8) to this end she develops the categories of "affirmation" and "transformation." In understanding Frazer's view it is imperative to bear in mind that older regimes of theory cannot achieve the synthesis that she is looking for and that new and more creative modes of political and social theory are necessary.
In essence what Fraser suggests is that in order to overcome this antimony between redistribution and recognition and to avoid the various reductive theories that have previously been put forward, she suggests a synthesis of various aspect of both critical theory as well as post -structural and deconstructive theory. In her view this would serve to overcome the false separation of these two central political and social elements.
In the final analysis Frazer's theory is based on a number of interrelated views. The first is that, " the redistribution - recognition dilemma is real" (Fraser 13). Secondly, Frazer…
Crowley H. Women and the Domestic Sphere. (full reference not provided)
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. 1903
Fraser N. From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a "Post
Socialist' Age. New Left review 1/212. 1995
1960's sociological theory was dominated by male experts, professors, students and professors. This did not extend only to individual experts in the field. Most persons involved with professional organizations and associations regarding were also predominantly male. During the 1960's the movement known as the "second wave" of feminism began to challenge this paradigm, with considerable success in terms of increased female memberships in organizations. The leadership roles of women however, while increasing in number, were also disappointing. Whereas the first wave of feminism focused mainly on emancipating women from slavery and blatant exploitation, the second wave was then more subtle. It was focused on greater equality for women in the social, political and economic spheres. The first wave of feminism ended with the right of women to vote. This and other forms of blatant oppression ended with legislation. However, the danger of falling back into the biological determination of sexes…
Cowling, Mark. 2005. "Feminism, Socialism and Patriarchy."
French, Marilyn. 1989. "Feminist Criminology, Female Crime, and Integrated Theory. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect14.htm
Minogue, Kenneth. 2002. "Radical Feminism: How Civilizations Fall." http://www.newcriterion.com/archive/19/apr01/minogue.htm
Pollert, A. 1996. "Gender and Class Revisited; or, the Poverty of 'Patriarchy'." Sociology, Vol. 30, No. 4, BSA Publications Ltd.
Chicana Feminists: How the Historical Debate Surrounding Them Came into eing
Gender roles in America have undergone a dramatic change since the Women's Movement began with women like etty Friedan and Gloria Steinhem leading the way. Friedan, for instance, was an avid activist and strong supporter of equal rights for women whose The Feminine Mystique literally sparked the gender roles revolution. In her book she stated "that she came to political consciousness out of a disillusionment with her life as a suburban housewife," and out of that consciousness grew the activity that would see women establish themselves in roles previously held and dominated by men.[footnoteRef:1] Likewise, Steinhem founded Ms. Magazine and called for women's liberation in 1969 when she penned an article about how admitting to having had an abortion had empowered her.[footnoteRef:2] Yet, the gender roles revolution in America also drew a great deal of support from Chicana feminists…
Garcia, A.M. "The Development of Chicana Feminist Discourse, 1970-1980." Gender
and Society, vol. 3, no. 2 (1989): 217-238.
Herrera, Cristina. Contemporary Chicana Literature: Rewriting the Maternal Script.
Amherst: Cambria Press, 2014.
" In other words, that art springs from within, rather than must be supported from without.
The author places the blame for female artists to be culturally central squarely upon culture itself, specifically Western culture's failure to create systems of educational nurturing for females. "The fault lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles, or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education -- education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs, and signals." She prompts the reader, when asked, 'why have there been no great women artists?' To deal with it, as she states in her introduction to her work, as a "meaningful question" for our time, rather than a merely convenient or self-generated response on the part of feminists, to restate or reverse old cultural shibboleths about femininity, greatness, and what…
Being a feminist is the radical idea that about half of all politicians at any given time should be women. Feminism is also the radical idea that a woman can serve in the hite House: a situation that still seems farfetched in the 21st century.
Men can proudly call themselves feminist if they find it appalling that women only received the constitutional right to vote less than a century ago, that dowry and other marriage customs are still practiced worldwide, and that women should be allowed to choose whether or not they want to carry a child to term. How a woman dresses, or whether or not she opts for breast enlargement surgery, are ancillary issues to the true values of the feminist movement, which simply advocates the radical notion that women are people.
Gwynne, Peter. "omen in Science: Shattering the Glass Ceiling." Retrieved Nov. 9, 2005 at…
Gwynne, Peter. "Women in Science: Shattering the Glass Ceiling." Retrieved Nov. 9, 2005 at http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/feature/advice/foc_02_07_03.shl
Hagenbaugh, Barbara. "Women's pay suffers setback." USA Today. 26 Oct. 2004. Retrieved Nov. 9, 2005 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2004-08-26-women_x.htm
Women in Office." Emily's List. Retrieved Nov. 9, 2005 at http://www.emilyslist.org/newsroom/referenceguide.html
Feminism today is especially being guided by the Feminists of old, prominent leaders of the past who continue to forge the path ahead for the modern women's movement: these are leaders like uth Bader Ginsburg of the Supreme Court and Gloria Steinhem of Women's Media Center. Many other prominent figures represent Feminism today and are actively working towards the advocacy of women's rights in social, political, economic, and religious spectrums. This paper will discuss the movement and individuals who make up the movement as it exists in today's day and age.
To understand Feminism today and the way its advocates represent it, it is important to understand how Feminism came into being and how it has evolved.
Betty Friedan had been shaped by much of what went on in early twentieth century America. An avid activist and strong supporter of equal rights for women, Friedan took the opportunity on the…
Rosen, J. (2014). Ruth Bader Ginsburg is an American Hero. New Republic. Retrieved from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/119578/ruth-bader-ginsburg-interview-retirement-feminists-jazzercise
Steinem, G. (1984). Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions. NY: Henry Holt.
Tomkins, C. (2000). Profiles: Her Secret Identities. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2000/05/15/2000_05_15_074_TNY_LIBRY_000020838
As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.
A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. 1899. University of Virginia E-Text Center. Accessed 28 May 2012. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ChoAwak.html
Hammer, Colleen. To Be Equal or Not to Be Equal: The Struggle for Women's Rights as Argued by Mary Wollstonecraft and Christina Rossetti. UCC [working paper].
Heilmann, Ann. The Awakening and New Woman cition.
Horner, Avril. Kate Chopin, choice and modernism.
Feminist Art as Evolution Rather Than as a Movement
Feminist art as a named movement evolved in the context of the late 1960's early 1970's political climate. The movement contextually cannot be separated from larger civil rights movements and specifically those relating to women; like the sexual revolution, the women's liberation movement, and the formation and growth of groups like the National Organization for omen. Strictly speaking there can be no real separation of the feminist art movement from the civil rights movements in its context because so much of art of the era acted as the voice and vision of the messages of the movements as a whole. Though there are of coarse exceptions to this rule art as a whole during this period was a demonstrative agent for social change.
In this analysis of both feminist art and its contextual school of thought, during the civil rights era…
Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard eds., The Power of Feminist Art, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1994)
Lucy R. Lippard, The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Feminist Essays on Art, (New York: The New Press, 1995)
Ana Mendieta "Siluetta" 1976 series Photograph by artist of site specific work in Mexico seen in Lucy R. Lippard, The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Feminist Essays on Art, (New York: The New Press, 1995) 56.
Cindy Nemser, Art Talk: Conversations with 15 Women Artists, Revised ed. (New York: IconEditions, 1995).
Aristotle believed that human flourishing (NE: 12) is the definition of good. The mere presence of women in Congress suggests that voters rejected a man, but it is better to look at this not as the rejection of one (male or not), but as the result of human flourishing. This increased competition of more women pursuing what they feel is their own responsibility will result in more unemployment for men, a notion bolstered by Mill's belief that, "hoever succeeds in an overcrowded profession or in a competitive examination…reaps benefits from the loss of others" (Mill; Hirshman p. 239). This could be viewed as human flourishing, which is good, but it connotes competition and struggle and doesn't make the pursuit seem virtuous. Aristotle, if following his own ethics in the world today, would have to believe that women are where they are because of human flourishing and their pursuit of what…
Curzer, Howard J. "Aristotle: Founder of the Ethics of Care." The Journal of Value Inquiry.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women, Militarism, and War: Essays in History, Politics, and Social
Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 1990.
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…
Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)
Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Understanding esearch & esearch Methods in Social Work
Feminist evaluation: An evaluation of the conceptual framework
According to ebecca M. Beardsley and Michelle Hughes Miller's 2002 article "evisioning the process: A case study in feminist program evaluation," feminist program evaluations are based upon three core principles. The first principle is cooperation, namely that all relevant stakeholders must be considered when setting the standards for evaluation, not simply the program designers. The second is one of a lack of hierarchy -- the evaluation team members are all regarded as equal partners. Thirdly, the program must be evaluated from the ideological perspective of feminism. Although this final standard might seem unrealistic to use in program evaluation in anything buy a woman-oriented program, such as the program targeting females in the article, Beardsley and Miller point out that the majority of consumers of social services are female. The authors believe that…
Beardsley, Rebecca M. & Michelle Hughes Miller. (2002). Revisioning the process: A case study in feminist program evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation. 96: 57.
Hood, Denice Ward & Denice A. Cassaro. (2002). Feminist evaluation and the inclusion of difference: Revisioning the process: A case study in feminist program evaluation.
New Directions for Evaluation. 96: 27.
Sielbeck-Bowen, Kathryn A. Sharon Brisolara, Denise Seigart, Camille Tischler, Elizabeth
Adultery and any sort of infidelity turns out to be a different story for men as Rosenthal stresses: "prohibition against adultery is not about property, pregnancy, misdirected male desire, or bloodlines, as one might have thought, but about the prevention of female comparison" (Rosenthal, 2008) as sharing men would be established by the size of their sexual organs.
A recurrent theme in the play from a gender perspective relates to the fact that the play is generally a patriarchal type of play in which paternal figures are predominant and the evolution of the other characters is a direct result of this way of using power. The women in this play, especially Doralice and Melantha are victimized as women had lesser rights to speak their minds or act according to their decisions. The paternalistic environment is also observed in the way Palamede and Rhodophil behave, as all four of them find…
Denman, J. (2008) "Too hasty to stay": Erotic and Political Timing in Marriage a la Mode. Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660-1700, Volume 32, Number 2, pp. 1-23
Dryden, J. (1981) Marriage a la Mode. University of Nebraska Press
Frank, M. (2002) Gender, Theatre, and the Origins of Criticism: From Dryden to Manley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hansen, C. (1993) Woman as Individual in English Renaissance Drama: A Defiance of the Masculine Code. New York: Peter Lang
In the 1986 Demme-directed film, Lulu/Audrey captures and upsets the mundane life of Charlie Driggs, bringing madcap spontaneity through her female dizziness. But in Ridley Scott's female road epic, Thelma must escape the madcap, silly housewife persona that leads her into a bad situation during the opening cowboy dance scene that nearly results in a rape. Thelma becomes toughed for the better by the proximity of the character of Louise and gaining a new outlook on female empowerment.
Audrey was also married, like Thelma, to a violent man named Ray. Her chosen protector Charlie finds the ray of his own manhood by saving Audrey, after she has playfully abducted this uptight yuppie from his rote, miserable job and dull daily existence. This suggests that men can rescue women from the tyrannies of patriarchy in exchange for female lightness and delights. But both the personas of Thelma and Louise suggest in…
Easy Rider." Directed by Dennis Hopper. 1969.
Feminism." WordReference.com Dictionary. 11 Dec 2004 http://www.wordreference.com/definition/feminism
Thelma and Louise. Directed by Ridley Scott. 1991.
Road to Bali. 1949.
Bristor, J.. & Fischer, E. (1993). Feminist thought: Implications for consumer research. The journal of consumer research,19(4), 518-536.
Bristor and Fischer (1993) suggest that consumer research has long misrepresented women and that, because of the distortion of thoughts, it is up to feminist theorists to reorganize and critique consumer research in order to make sense of the way that it has been gendered. By attempting to reappraise and revise, a difficult task given that many perspectives that are biased are unconscious, a newfound sensitivity and fairness can be applied to consumer research theory in regards to the representation of women. The article, in shedding light on the issue, summarizes some of the major areas of feminist thought and then uses that information in order to locate biases that live deep within the major understandings of science.
ethodology: Bristor and Fischer (1993) apply three unique feminist perspectives to assess…
Methodology: Catterall, Maclaran and Stevens (2005) engage in a brief overview of research on gender and consumer behavior. They then discuss how postmodern and postfeminist perspectives have weakened feminism as a critique of gendered consumption. The authors then set forth a case for why a return to "materialist feminism" (2005) would set the stage for original -- and more significant -- examinations of gendered consumption.
Key findings: Catterall, Maclaran and Stevens (2005) find that while feminist perspectives on consumer behavior played an important part in feminist perspectives on consumer behavior in the 1990s, those same critical perspectives appear to be lessening. The authors identify several topics that have been neglected when it comes to production, reproduction and consumption within consumer research. All of these areas would benefit by taking a more critical feminist approach to the topics.
Contributions: The authors note that critique from many different critical perspectives is necessary in our culture of consumption because there needs to be more challenging of basic assumptions and theories -- especially related to gender/sex -- when it comes to consumer research.
Feminist Reading of Austen's Persuasion
"I Will Not Allow ooks to Prove Anything":
Women Reading and Women Writing in Austen's Persuasion
Feminist criticism is equally concerned with female authorship and with female readership and in the case of Jane Austen, both issues must be addressed. Frantz in 2009 noted that on one level Austen's influence on female readership has been immense: she claims that "readers and authors of contemporary romance claim Jane Austen as the fountainhead of all romance novels," a genre which constituted the "largest share of the consumer market in 2008" but which is assumed to have an exclusively female readership. Yet feminist criticism of the early novel overall has begun to focus specifically on the rationale offered for novel-reading in the eighteenth century, when the printer's apprentice Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela in imitation of what Jenny Davidson describes as "conduct manuals," or books of etiquette for female…
Austen, Henry. "A Memoir of Jane Austen." A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections. Ed. Kathryn Sutherland. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 147-154. Print.
Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park. New Jersey: Gramercy Books, 1981. Print.
Austen, Jane. Persuasion. Project Gutenberg. Web.
Davidson, Jenny. Hypocrisy and the Politics of Politeness: Manners and Morals from Locke to Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
I said my uncle was a respected
Sheikh, well versed in the teaching of religion, and he, therefore, could not possibly be in the habit of beating his wife. She replied that it was precisely men well versed in their religion that beat their wives. The precepts of religion permitted such punishment. A virtuous woman was not supposed to complain about her husband. Her duty was perfect obedience. [emphasis added]
Then Firdaus is escorted from her uncle's house back home to her husband's house, before even being served lunch. Sheikh Mahmoud's only welcome is first, to give Firdaus the silent treatment; and second, to remind her that she ought actually to consider herself lucky to have married him, since he alone, he reminds her, "can put up with you, and...is prepared to feed you" ("Read an Extract from oman at Point Zero (first published 1975), 2007)." After that Sheikh Mahmoud's…
El Saadawi, Nawal. Woman at Point Zero. Sherif Hetata (Trans.).
Zed Books Ltd., 1998.
Esposito, John, and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad. Islam, Gender, and Social
e. women) (Millay 1611, lines 4, 2). But although the first and most commonly used definition of zest is "keen relish; hearty enjoyment; gusto," the word can also refer to "liveliness or energy; animating spirit" (dictionary.com). Taken this way, the seemingly passive and accepting sexuality seen in the beginning of he poem is disingenuous and even coy. This interpretation is borne out by another structural details of the poem -- the repeated use of so-called feminine endings in the closing six lines (or sestet). In adding an eleventh unstressed syllable to the end of a line of iambic pentameter, Millay is not simply marking the sonnet's structure as her own, but she is doing so in a way that coyly hints at the changing tide of feminine perspective -- the feminine endings in lines 9, 11, and 13 make the sonnet a feminine sonnet, just at the point where the…
Works Cited dictionary.com. "zest." Accessed 22 May 2009. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/zest
Norton anthology of American Literature, Volume D. Nina Baym, ed. New York W.W. Norton & Co., 2003.
Interestingly, the Politics of Passion proves that just the opposite is true. Women who reject traditional paradigms also reject Western idealisms about sexuality, marriage, families, desire and identity. Through their sexual activities, the mati women described by Wekker embody each of these elements, and liberate themselves sexuality, which in turn leads to greater power, greater autonomy and greater independence. Women are encouraged in this environment to rely on their own instincts, knowledge and expertise to do what they feel is best for them. They are encouraged, contrary to what most women experience, to do what makes them feel good. In this way they escape the chains that bind and subordinate many women living in other cultures who are brought up to believe gender distinctions exist and women have certain responsibilities and places.
If one were to adopt the mati perspective and apply it to their life, they would find that…
Beagan, Brenda. (2001). Micro inequities and everyday inequalities: "Race," gender, sexuality and class in medical school. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 26(4): 583.
Wekker, Gloria. (2006). Politics of Passion. New York: Columbia University Press.
Power of Passion
Shante represented herself (falsely) as Dr. Roxanne Shanteb, a psychologist with a graduate degree from Cornell University. In reality, she attended only a portion of one semester at Marymount Manhattan College. She had claimed to have attended Cornell under a different name because of a domestic violence situation but never provided any evidence to suggest that she actually attended the university.
Lauren Hill provides a much more positive and legitimate image of urban motherhood and community consciousness. She has been actively involved in charitable organizations and causes and is a recipient of a 1996 award by Essence magazine for her involvement in various initiatives such as founding the Refugee Project, for supporting voter registration efforts in Harlem, and for helping to build clean water wells in Kenya and Uganda. Ultimately, all four of these female artists have contributed to the empowerment of females with respect to overcoming male…
Other female Hip Hop artists besides Queen Latifah have also presented conflicting personal contributions toward the cause of female empowerment, mainly because they chose to do so in a fraudulent manner instead of honestly. For example,
Shante represented herself (falsely) as Dr. Roxanne Shanteb, a psychologist with a graduate degree from Cornell University. In reality, she attended only a portion of one semester at Marymount Manhattan College. She had claimed to have attended Cornell under a different name because of a domestic violence situation but never provided any evidence to suggest that she actually attended the university.
Lauren Hill provides a much more positive and legitimate image of urban motherhood and community consciousness. She has been actively involved in charitable organizations and causes and is a recipient of a 1996 award by Essence magazine for her involvement in various initiatives such as founding the Refugee Project, for supporting voter registration efforts in Harlem, and for helping to build clean water wells in Kenya and Uganda. Ultimately, all four of these female artists have contributed to the empowerment of females with respect to overcoming male subjugation in the Hip Hop genre as well as in the reality of urban communities. For this, they all deserve commendation regardless of their own troubles and imperfections.
FEMINIST THEMES IN ITI IHIMAERA'S HALE RIDER
The paper will present arguments to show the relative importance of the book "hale Rider" by Ihimaera. Its importance and possible impact on young girls will be discussed in the paper with special reference to the story of the book. After reading the book and after analyzing the story, the reader would know that the author wrote the book for his daughters. The paper will be technical and argumentative in nature. The paper will also provide a conclusion based on the findings and information.
Prolific Maori writer iti Ihimaera's early works were written with the intention of helping convey Maori heritage and legend to young urban Maori. Much of his fiction is based on fact and has autobiographical elements, exploring what it is to be Maori in New Zealand society. The hale Rider (1987), a mythical work about a young girl whose relationship…
As retrieved from Whale Rider
http://www.computersupply-reviews.com/amazon/cheap-B0000CABBW.html. On May 2nd, 2004
As retrieved from The Whale Rider Witi Ihimaera Harcourt Paperback 168 pages May 2003 http://www.curledup.com/whalerid.htm . On May 2nd, 2004
As retrieved from The Whale Rider
feminist rhetorical theory. omen have been historically minimized and isolated by the domination of the patriarchal majority. Although women have been able to make a degree of progress, finally achieving positions of social and political power, the number of women in these high offices is still far less than the roles that are filled by man. Modern women, far removed from the "angels in the house" of the Victorian age, are nonetheless still impacted by the sociological oppression of women which was reinforced during that era, according to the rhetorical theory of feminism. Given that this is the case, men and women need to be aware of these underlying gender biases so that they can both combat them and make sure that they themselves do not fall prey to them. People who deny that this subjugation of women may be enlightened by closer examination of the power dynamics which exists…
Cixous, H., Cohen, K, & Cohen, P. (1976). The laugh of the Medusa. Signs. 1(4). The University
of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 875-93.
Foss, S. & Griffin, C. (2003). Beyond persuasion: a proposal for an invitational rhetoric.
Communications Monographs. 2-18.
" Cultural and social differences, then, between men and women are not so much reflections of differing social roles and expectations as they are reflections of basic genetic differences between men and women..." (Groenhout 51)
3.1. The family
To understand this criticism of feminism and the reaction to the attack on female domesticity, one has to know something about the background that initiated this reaction. This refers especially to the view of the family as a valued institution central to the structure of society that is in decline throughout the world.
A number or critics note how the feminist view and the "new" role of women in society has negatively affected the family. This has resulted as well in many feminists turning against the more radical views of feminism as they feel that they endanger the integrity of the family and family life. As one critic notes, "From the early…
Abrams, Kathryn. "From Autonomy to Agency: Feminist Perspectives on Self-Direction." William and Mary Law Review 40.3 (1999): 805. Questia. 14 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001258482 .
Kozol W. Fracturing Domesticity: Media, Nationalism, and the Question of Feminist Influence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 20, no. 3, 1995.
Benedict, Helen. "Fear of Feminism." The Nation 11 May 1998: 10. Questia. 14 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002286596 .
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…
Feminist Epistemology Are Consistent Within the Values of My Professional Discipline
Education as a profession is intensely self-reflective. There is a constant need to ask 'what is the purpose of learning' and 'what makes an individual educated in our society.' Currently, the nation is wrestling with this question in the era of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Schools are being judged as 'successes' and failures based upon predetermined standards. But this is not a new debate. Ever since Plato people have debated what individuals are teachable and the role of the state in educating young people. Critical theory helps to contextualize the debate about the nature of human intelligence and what constitutes an acceptable canon of knowledge. For example, during the 19th century for upper-class boys, knowing Greek and Latin rather than technical disciplines was prized. Today, the sciences are given priority in judging educational excellence, such as the sciences…
Anderson, Elizabeth. (2000). Feminist epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved May 23, 2011 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-epistemology/
Contemporary Feminist Advocacy
Although there is not absolute consensus, popular writings about feminism suggest that there have been three waves of feminism: (1) The first wave of feminism is said to have occurred in the 18th through the 20th centuries and was characterized by a focus on suffrage; (2) The decades spanning 1960 to 1990 are said to encompass the second wave of feminism, to which a concern with cultural and legal gender inequality is attributed; and (3) The third wave of feminism began in the early 1990s partly in response to the conservative backlash the second wave engendered, and partly in recognition of the unrealized goals of the second wave of feminism up to that time ("NOW," 2009). This third wave of feminism made salient a more subjective voice that pointed at the intersection of race and gender with greater resolve than would have been possible when…
Coffey, L.T. (2011, October 11). Girl Project' reveals what teens are really thinking. Today People. Retrieved http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/44846267/ns/today-today_people/t/girl-project-reveals-what-teens-are-really-thinking/
Dow, B.J. (2003). Feminism, Miss America, and media mythology. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6 (1), 127 -- 150.
Faludi, Susan, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (Three Rivers Press, 2006)
Feminist Majority Foundation, Choices Campus Leadership Program. (2011). Retrieved http://feministcampus.org/default.asp
Interviewers possess a certain power because they have both taken and been given authority to ask questions (and to expect answers) that most people do not get to ask the subject. The subject can claim or reclaim power by refusing to answer questions, or by lying. The researcher can reclaim some of that power by the fact that getting to serve as an expert can be deeply rewarding to the subject, who will not want to relinquish the role of expert.
The interviewer tends to have the power of a prestigious institution such as a university behind her or him, which can shift power to the interviewer, especially in research projects in which there is already a power social or economic differential between researcher and subject. However, sometimes the power that the interviewer holds because of her or his association with an institution can be countered by the power of…
Denzin (2001) takes an even more radical assessment of the ways in which interviewer and subject interact (or can interact) with each other. Moving beyond looking at interviews as a collaborative process (albeit one in which the two sides may have different levels of power and commitment to the process) to looking at interviewing as a form of performance.
Such a dramaturgical analysis hearkens back to Erving Goffman, but Denzin extends this analysis by adding in elements of postmodern theory. He argues that both people involved in an interview have a far greater degree of control over how the other person sees them than they realize. Even more than this, each person involved in the interview has a far greater degree of control over the nature of their own reality than they tend to realize.
An ethnographic interview thus, according to Denzin, is a set of parallel performances in which each person is actively arranging their experiences to make their own world meaningful to themselves within the context of their social and cultural world even as they also try to mold the other person's behavior and assessment of self. Seen in this respect, each interview has clear agonistic features to it that, carefully and insightfully managed, can allow for deeply insightful and rigorous research.
The Central Question
How important is it that IR (International Relations) scholars reflect on the relationship between power and knowledge? From a feminist theory perspective, it is critical for IR scholars to highlight the relationship between power and knowledge in order to uncover the gender dynamics of power and knowledge in an IR setting. Feminism is more than simply a theory about women—it also provides a framework for understanding gender and gender constructs and how these constructs impact international relations.[footnoteRef:2] In order for IR scholars to excel in their work and more fully understand the parameters of IR, they have to be attentive to the socio-political implications of the political structures within which they work. [2: Christine Sylvester, “The Contributions of Feminist Theory to International Relations,” International Theory: positivism and beyond (1996), 254.]
Feminist IR theory proceeds from Critical theory, which is based on past fundamentally disruptive theories…
Children's Literature Research
The Changing Representation of Female Characters and Feminist Heroines in Children's Literature from Baum to Montgomery
Once children can read, they are cast into the literature world – characters, themes, settings, and plots. Children's literature brings concepts like friendship, nature, education, discovery, religion, and the structure and operation of society so that the child feels connected to the material. Some have argued that children's literature only comes to existence when it can portray child or child-like characters or appeal to the child's point of view (Grenby, 2007, p.277). children's literature has a long, global history that originates in the traditional and folk oral tales. In Britain, children's books can be traced back to the eighteenth century, with such classics as John Newbery's A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744). In the nineteenth century, children's books formed a distinguishable genre within the literary world. Expansion of children's literature to…
Alcott, L.M. (1869). Little Women. Little, Brown, and Company.
Baum, L. F. (1900). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. EBook. Project Gutenberg.
Becker, B. (2013). A feminist analysis of Lyman Frank Baum\\\\'s the wonderful wizard of Oz, Lucy Maud Montgomery\\\\'s Anne of Green Gables and Frances Hodgson Burnett\\\\'s the secret garden (Doctoral dissertation, University of Fort Hare).
Bender, C. (2017). Gender Stereotyping in Little Women: \\\\"Let Us Be Elegant or Die!\\\\". MJUR, Issue 8, 140-153.
Bienert, M. (2009). Imagining Anne: The Island Scrapbooks of LM Montgomery. The Lion and the Unicorn, 33(1), 115-116.
Grenby, M. O. (2007). Chapbooks, children, and children\\\\'s literature. Library, 8(3), 277-303.
Montgomery, L. M. (2004). Anne of Green Gables. Broadview Press.
Rogers, K. M. (2002). L. Frank Baum: Creator of Oz: A Biography. Macmillan.
Three ethical virtues that are elicited by a feminist ethical philosophy include caring, empathy, and collaboration. Gilligan (1982) and especially Noddings (2010) traces the evolution of these three virtues to biology, claiming that their maternal instinct predisposes females of any species to exhibit traits that promote the behaviors that sustain families. Caring, empathy, and collaboration promote family cohesion and communitarian lifestyles, which are conducive to child rearing. Contrast these three classically “feminine” virtues with traditionally male ethical ideals like individualism, cunning, and power and it is clear how political, social, and economic institutions come to be presided over by men. If men create the normative culture of the public sphere, then the public sphere will be naturally dominated by men—or at least persons who fit the ideal framework for success in those realms. On the contrary, the private sphere continues to be dominated by women who establish the normative culture…
"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.
Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice…
Chappell, Marcia. (2000). Feminist therapy code of ethics. Feminist Therapy Institute.
Retrieved August 14, 2009 at http://www.feminist-therapy-institute.org/ethics.htm
Reality therapy. (2008). International Journal of Reality Therapy.
Retrieved August 14, 2009 at http://www.journalofrealitytherapy.com/realitytherapy.htm
Feminist Third ave publications: Reflection
One of the most striking aspects of Bitch Magazine is the plethora of topics it addresses. 'omen's issues' are clearly no longer confined to concerns narrowly pertaining to sexuality and gender. Somewhat 'expected' topics such as lesbianism on Glee are also paired with thoughtful articles on women and film and a positive article about how romance is presented in the culture on Valentine's Day. Rather than simply condemning the popular media, Bitch is interested in how it can be appropriated and used to express feminist ends. Or, conversely, how apparently feminist aspects of popular culture many not be as clearly manifest as one might suspect.
Diversity is clearly the watchword of modern feminism. There is no longer a feminist orthodoxy of behavior and belief. Rather than focusing on politics alone, questions of how identity is manifested are of equal concern. There is a…
Bust. Official website. [15 Feb 2012] http://www.bust.com/
Narby, Caroline. (2012). Double rainbow: Navigating autism, gender, and sexuality.
Bitch. 3 Jan 2012. [15 Feb 2012]
Half the Sky from a Feminist Perspective
In the last sixty years, women in estern countries and to a lesser extent the rest of the world have become outspoken about women's rights, demanding equal rights in political, economic, cultural, social, and domestic spheres. Their struggles and activism, generally known as feminist movements, helped to elevate the status of women in many countries. Yet, as Nicholas D. Kristoff and Sheryl udunn document in their book Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for omen orldwide, the struggle for gender equality is far from over. Kristoff and udunn demonstrate the deeply troubling picture of gender relations around the world where women and girls are systematically subjected to brutality, mistreatment, and discrimination. In their attempt to expose gender inequality in the world, Kristoff and udunn are largely successful, but their analysis is not well-grounded in feminist scholarship, which weakens their argumentation.
Einstein, Zillah. Global Obscenities: Patriarchy, Capitalism, and the Lure of Cyberfantasy. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Healing, Raven. "White Stockings and Black Widows: Women in Chechnya -- Myths and Realities." Off Our Backs 35.3/4 (2005): 44-47. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. JSTOR.
Kristoff, D. Nicholas, and Sheryl Wudunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Knopf, 2009. Print.
Because society compromises the value of the woman, it is allowed the life of domesticity and life. The speaker however remains forever beyond this because she chooses self-realization instead.
In Heaney's "Punishment," feminism can be seen from the male viewpoint, as it were. The corpse of a bog girl, an adulteress, educates the narrator regarding issues of gender and politics. The narrator, far from the conventional male reaction of disgust, instead becomes infatuated with her. It is as if he is the male representative of the feminist viewpoint; that women offer value and education rather than objects of sex or symbols of domesticity. The intimacy between the speakers involve no blame. Instead of man and woman, they are equals, in strong contrast with the society that would condemn them both for their actions and their association.
Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You."…
Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You." 2007. http://www.poets.org/page.php/prmID/310
Tagle, Stephen. The Bog Girl Re-sexualized: An Analysis of Seamus Heaney's "Punishment." 13 April, 2005. http://www.stanford.edu/~stagle/ESSAYS/SPR%20ENG160%20E01%20Punishment.htm
Solitude Feminist Crit
The Power of the Feminine in Garcia Marquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude
Gabriel Garcia Marquez in his work One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) spins a tale of postcolonial Columbia that will likely forever be thought of as a classic work of fiction, brought to light during what many think of a serious high point in Latin American Literature. The work is translated to many languages and even today sells a great many copies. (King) The development of the tale is that of the founding of a city by a single couple and all the ways in which this couple and their various offspring relate to the world, from within the scope of their town. The many generational tale encompasses a century and begins with the development of a core relationship, that between Jose Arcadio Buendia and his wife and cousin Ursula. This work will first…
Bellow Watson, Barbara, "On Power and the Literary Text" Signs, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Autumn, 1975), pp. 111-118.
Bloom, Harold, "Gabriel Garcia Marquez's 'One Hundred Years of Solitude'" Broomall, PA: Chelsea House, 2003.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel "One Hundred Years of Solitude" New York:, NY, Harper and Rowe, 1970.
Hamilton, Carole. "Overview of 'One Hundred Years of Solitude'." Literature of Developing Nations for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Literature of Developing Nations. Ed. Elizabeth Bellalouna, Michael L. LaBlanc, and Ira Mark Milne. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale Group, 2000. Literature Resource Center. Web. 3 Dec. 2011.
In "On Feminist Epistemology," Uma Narayan states, "Feminist epistemology is a particular manifestation of the general insight that the nature of women's experiences ... have been systematically ignored or misrepresented," (247-248). Women have, for instance, been barred from participating in certain key areas of discourse, such as politics and law. When women participate in certain key social activities, such as subsistence work like agriculture or cooking, their experiences are deemed unworthy, according to Narayan. Therefore, epistemology has traditionally been a male-centered area from which women have been purposefully excluded. Adding women's perspectives to any or all epistemological debates can result in massive paradigm shifts and much broader perspectives. Narayan asserts that a feminist epistemology, one that includes the voices and experiences of women as fundamental, will "change the very nature" of all the sciences as well as the nature of "self-understanding," (248). Among the most powerful paradigms to be…
Collins cites participation in the abolitionist movement, anti-lynching campaigns of the early 20th century, and recent civil rights work in the South, where Black women have not only worked on behalf of themselves but for all African-Americans (Collins, p. 218). The overarching theme, however is the belief that teaching people how to be self-reliant fosters empowerment. Collins cites Angela Davis (1989), who wrote that activism was designed to empower everyone: "We must climb in such a way as to guarantee that all our sisters, regardless of social class, and indeed all of our brothers climb with us" (Collins, p. 219).
Collins writes "epistemology points to the ways in which power relations shape who is believed and why" (Collins, p. 251). She charges that many Black women are not viewed as credible witnesses for their own experiences (Collins, p. 254) and that the ideas of a relatively select few are safe…
Collins, P.H. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness & the Politics of Empowerment.
Eschle, C. (2001). Book review: Black Feminist Thought. International Feminist Journal of Politics 3 (3), 484-486.
Inniss, L.B. (1991). Book review: Black Feminist Thought. Social Science Quarterly (University
of Texas Press) 72 (3), 625-626.
Although it is difficult to know exactly how audiences watching Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House felt about the content of the play when it was first performed, it is difficult for us reading or watching it in the 21st century to see it as anything but a strongly feminist statement.
hat is especially striking about the powerful feminism of the play - other than the year in which it was written - is the fact that Ibsen himself always claimed to be resolutely apolitical. And yet for a man who claimed in no way to be either a feminist or more generally an advocate for social change, his exploration of the ways in which women were continually infantilized by society in fact seems highly political to us, and in fact is one of the reasons that the play remains so compelling to us more than a century after…
Davies, A. Neville. "A Doll's House is Inconclusive" in Hayley Mitchell (ed.). Readings on a Doll's House. New York: Greenhaven, 1999.
Eubank, Inga. "Ibsen and the Language of Women" in Hayley Mitchell (ed.). Readings on a Doll's House. New York: Greenhaven, 1999. http://nauvoo.byu.edu/TheArts/Theater/studypackets/lesson01/context.html http://www.owlnet.rice.edu http://www.ssn.flinders.edu.au/scanlink/nornotes/vol2/articles/hurrell.htm
Ibsen, Henrik. Four Major Plays: A Doll House, the Wild Duck, Hedda Gabler, the Master Builder. New York: New American Library, 1992.
Kauffmann, Stanley. Ibsen and Shaw: Back to the future. Salmagundi 128/129, Fall 2000, 275-280.
Most people who knew ebecca knew that she was beautiful, charming, and wealthy. Most people did not know her feelings of self-loathing, anger, and wishing for death. Maxim de Winter accommodates her by supplying her a decadent lifestyle, by catering to her every whim, even by murdering her -- she tempts and pushes him to fulfill her wishes: to end her life. She has terminal cancer and numerous affairs. Mrs. Danvers honors and accommodates ebecca with convergence with every breath; she accommodates the second Mrs. de Winter with divergence between her and ebecca. Mrs. de Winter spends the novel obsessed with ebecca -- who she was, and desires very much to be just like her. The only action taken that does not accommodate ebecca and is severely divergent, is the burning of the mansion, Manderley, and the de Winters fleeing after the fire. As for the future communication behaviors of…
du Maurier, D. (1938) Rebecca. Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York, New York.
" Patriarchy perpetuates its crimes through "denial, tokenism, obfuscation and reversal" and traps its victims (particularly the women) in the semantic web of lies which, in the words of Daly, "constitutes the reality of the Foreground, and obscures ultimate reality, which is the Background." She advises women to take a leap of faith to break free from the necrophilic embrace of patriarchy to dis-cover their true human potential and "reclaim their primordial power, their gynergy, in order to spin new, gynocentric and biophilic realities."
Utopian Society of the Future:
Another controversial theory advanced by Daly in her book, Quintessence, describes a utopian society of the future, on a continent populated entirely by women, where procreation occurs through parthenogenesis, without the participation of men. She further asserts, "If life is to survive on this planet, there must be a decontamination of the Earth. I think this will be accompanied by an…
Biography of Mary Daly." (n.d.) Radical Elemental Feminist. Retrieved on August 25, 2007 at http://www.marydaly.net/biography.html
Bridle, Susan. (1998). "No Man's Land." An Interview with Mary Daly: Enlightened Magazine. Retrieved on August 25, 2007 at http://www.wie.org/j16/daly.asp
Daly, Mary. (1985). Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women's Liberation. Beacon Press: Boston, 1985
1968). The Church and the Second Sex. Beacon Press: Boston, 1968.
Octavia Butler's novel Parable of the Sower depicts an America that has crumbled into complete chaos and disarray. ithin the dystopia of 2024, Lauren Olamina reflects on her family background and her past in order to help create a more ideal future for humanity. The key to the future is liberation, both personal and political. Therefore, the message of Parable of the Sower is revolutionary. Lauren does not just need to be a true leader; she needs to change what it means to be human. Butler reportedly said about the potential for female heroines to create a utopian society out of the ashes of the patriarchal dystopia: "I don't believe that imperfect humans can form a perfect society," (Zaki 239). Butler does not expect Lauren and the Earthseed community to become a Utopia because no matter how revolutionary and idealistic she might be, Lauren remains constrained by her past and…
Barr, Marleen. Lost in Space. UNC Press, 1993.
Butler, Octavia. Parable of the Sower. New York: Warner, 2000.
Miller, Gavin. "Octavia Butler's Parable of the Sower." In Hoagland and Sarwal (Eds.) Science Fiction, Imperialism, and the Third World. McFarland, 2010, pp. 202-213.
Salvaggio, Ruth. "Octavia Butler and the Black Science Fiction Heroine." Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1984, pp. 78-81.
Theory -- Approach Linkage
Human trafficking in Vietnam: Article critique
Although no region of the world is immune to the problem of human trafficking, in certain areas the crime is particularly acute. In Asia, the ratio of trafficked persons relative to the rest of the population is even higher than it is worldwide, with 3 victims per every 1,000 inhabitants, and that is only of the persons who are known to be trafficked (uong 2012: 48). There are also a likely very high percentage of trafficked persons who are not detected by any legal agencies at all. "The exact number of victims of human trafficking, therefore, is likely to be much higher" (uong 2012: 49). The majority are likely thought to be women, specifically women in the sex trade. With this in mind, uong (2012) offers a gender-based analysis of trafficking, with a focus upon Vietnam. Vietnam is often called…
Despite these weaknesses, the evidence presented by Duong (2012) is unique and valuable simply because it takes a case study approach. Few articles which deal with trafficking do so; most discuss the phenomenon in a generalized fashion that does not take into consideration regional differentiation. As pervasive as the problem of trafficking may be, it is important not to present the issue without regards to national and regional cultural differences and to take into consideration how different populations are affected in its various manifestations.
Duong, K.A. (2012). Human trafficking in a globalized world: Gender aspects of the issue and anti-trafficking politics. Journal of Research in Gender Studies, 2(1), 48-65.
Social Construction of Gender
Media creates meanings about gender by portraying gender in specific terms. Under the guidance of Edward Bernays, the "father of advertising" according to Jones (2000), advertising took on a "male-gaze" perspective that resulted in a particular depiction of gender from a "phallic-centric" point-of-view (Butler, 1990, p. 30). As Boundless (2014) asserts, "gender is a social identity that needs to be contextualized," and insofar as traditional media is concerned, the emphasis on the definition of gender as an object of the "male gaze" reinforces the concept of Mulvey (1975) that the male gaze "projects its fantasy" onto the object in question (p. 6).
This is manifested in our everyday lives: advertisements constantly sexualize gender using the Bernays formula of sex as a means to attract -- but this also serves to define gender in ways that are problematic because sex and gender are different and can identify…
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN:
St. Augustine's Press.
Catherine Keller's On the mystery: Discerning divinity in progress envisions the creation as a living, dynamic thing rather than something that is static and unchanging. The central metaphor which governs Chapter 3 of her book is that of the fish: a fish is constantly moving with the ebbs and flows of the waters around him and instead of drowning or being swallowed up by the waters of change like a human being, the fish is able to move forward. The fish also supports Keller's ecological view of the universe. Keller stresses the need for human beings to see themselves as part of the universe, rather than dominators of it. Keller finds particular inspiration in the ambiguous "bi-gendered" vision of the divine in the first creation myth of Genesis, versus the second myth which portrays a more anthropocentric God and a more rigid gender hierarchy.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Catherine Keller, On the mystery:…
Keller, Catherine. On the mystery: Discerning divinity in progress. Minneapolis: Fortress Press,
Feminist Criminology and Victimization Theory
Feminist criminology theory proposes that social and ethnic structures that lead to gender oppression will increase the prevalence of criminality among the oppressed (Bernard, 2013). In most cultures, including the west, there exists a history of subjugation of women at all levels of society. The feminist movement in the United States and elsewhere accordingly sought to reduce or eliminate the power of these social, legal, and religious sanctions that relegated women to second class citizenship. This was the driving force behind the emergence of the feminist criminology model.
In support of the feminist criminology model, Bernard (2013) points out that some women within society have a higher risk of incarceration. In the U.S., this high-risk demographic is non-white, young, living in poverty, under-educated, and unmarried with children. There also tends to be a multi-generational history of drug/alcohol problems and domestic violence. This demographic…
Bernard, April. (2013). The intersectional alternative: Explaining female criminality. Feminist Criminology, 8(1), 3-19.
McCollister, Kathryn E., French, Michael T., and Fang, Hai. (2010). The cost of crime to society: New crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 108(1-2), 98-109.
Simpson, Sally S., Yahner, Jennifer L., and Dugan, Laura. (2008). Understanding women's pathways to jail: Analysing the lives of incarcerated women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 41(1), 84-108.
Wilcox, Pamela. (2010). Victimization, theories of. In Bonnie S. Fisher and Steven P. Lab (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
From a feminist perspective, the foundations of contemporary psychology and therapy are a scandal. The origins of the contemporary therapeutic relationship are based on Freud's "talking cure" for "hysteria" -- and it is worth noting that "hysteria" was, one hundred years ago, a mysterious mental illness that mainly affected women, simply because they were women. The word "hysteria" itself derives from the Greek word for "uterus"! The illness that Freud began his career by examining -- and which he thought he could cure simply by talking with the patient -- was treated like it was simply a pathological form of womanhood.
As an African-American woman, myself am aware that we must bear witness to the past, and we must learn from the past, in order that we do not repeat it. So when we approach a feminist critique of contemporary therapeutic practices, think it is important to recognize…
In 1851, a white medical doctor in Louisiana (Dr. Samuel Cartwright) published an article in a medical journal in New Orleans discussing a new form of mental illness called "Drapetomania" -- this mental illness only affected enslaved African-Americans, and its chief symptom was that it made them attempt to run away from plantations. In other words, a real medical journal published an article which claimed that the Underground Railroad was a form of mental illness. Now it is important to note (in fairness to the medical profession) that most doctors did not agree with Dr. Cartwright's racist suggestion -- in fact, he was generally mocked for publishing the article.
This story is important today for showing the way in which the general power dynamics of society can be reflected within the medical profession. We know today that slavery is evil, and that women are allowed to vote -- nobody in 2014 thinks that a slave who flees from a plantation or a woman who suggests that women should have the right to vote is suffering from mental illness. But it is important to understand the history of these issues to show that the assumptions made by therapists can frequently reflect the power dynamics of society in the worst ways.
We should also note that, just as our ideas of justice can change over time with history, so too can the definition of psychological problems change over time. To return to the starting example of "hysteria" -- the mysterious female psychological condition which Sigmund Freud began his career by investigating -- we should observe that the actual symptoms that Freud was examining do not exist anymore. Female hysterics of the late nineteenth century were placed under medical care because they had the sudden paralysis of an arm or a leg, and had not suffered a stroke or any other physiological cause that would explain the paralysis. Instead the paralysis was understood to be psychological in origin. In 2014, we would have to look for a long time to find anyone with symptoms like this, even though the symptoms were common enough 125 years ago that psychiatrists could examine multiple patients displaying different versions of these symptoms. So where did this disease go? The simple fact is that symptoms may in fact be a reflection of the society in which patients find themselves. The crucial thing is to know that therapist and patient are both part of historical processes they did not cause.
Many arguments have in the past been presented in support of, and against euthanasia -- with each point-of-view presenting seemingly valid arguments in support of either position. It is important to note that active euthanasia is not permitted in any of the states of the U.S. In basic terms, active euthanasia has got to do with "using certain death-causing means to bring about or cause the death of a person" (MacKinnon, 2012, p. 82). Passive euthanasia, on the other hand, as the author further points out, "refers to withholding or withdrawing certain treatment and letting a patient die" (MacKinnon, 2012, p. 81). The latter case of euthanasia is permitted in most states of the U.S. egarding baby John Doe's case, the most viable alternative would seem to be intentionally ending his life so as to ensure that he does not live an extremely difficult life due to his…
Butts, J.B. & Rich, K. (2005). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
DeWit, S.C. & O'Neill, P.A. (2013). Fundamental Concepts and Skills for Nursing (4th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Health Sciences.
MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
World Medical Association. (1983). International Code of Medical Ethics. Retrieved from http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/ICME.pdf
Feminist Blog Analysis: Feministing
While described in the assignment details as a blog, the website Feministing actually seems to go beyond the expectations of a mere blog. It considers itself an "online community run by and for young feminists,"[footnoteRef:1] and instead of offering just the social commentary one might expect going to a blog site, it actually offers a significant amount of reporting or, at least repackaging, of news, making it easily consumed by potential readers. Its stated goal is to provide an intersectional overview of feminist issues and to provide a way to connect emerging feminists with other activists and organizations. While the blog is not inappropriate for other people, its target audience is young feminists and one of its goals is clearly to help young people understand why feminism is still so critical to social equality, although this is not overtly stated in the blog's promotional materials. It…
Feminist Movement or Organization Challenging Globalization
What are the circumstances / background that gave rise to the movement or organization?
UN Women (UNW) was created in 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly, which also created the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UNEGEEW). Creation of these two bodies was intended to increase the rate at which the UN and its Member States were working towards empowerment of women and addressing gender equality, making this an historic step. The UN itself was undergoing change, with a reform agenda directed to unify mandates and resources in order to achieve a greater impact. The overall UN organization combined four separate older organizations to create UN Women. These were the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women…
Elmendorf, Edward. "UN Women." PEACE In Action. 25 Nov. 2010. Web. .
"Executive Board of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women." (2011): 2-25. Web. .
Huang. "Forms of Feminist Movement in Europe and China." Comparative Study in Cross-cultural and Political Perspective 2005, 1-6. Web.
The primary distinction between the perspectives of Patricia Hill Collins and Esther Chow on feminism and gender consciousness stems from their diverse interpretations of the influence of culture. Chow assumes a near apologist stance in her justifications for the slow uptake of feminist theory by Asian-American women. Chow cites the many barriers to the gender consciousness and ability to organize around women's issues, and suggests that they have been particularly difficult to overcome and were won't to locate feminism in the midst of larger, more generic issues that garnered the attention of Asian-American women. But Chow's argument is not persuasive, as the same issues are endemic to Collins' treatment of feminist thought, but are clarified by the construct of intersectionality, as posed by Kimberle Crenshaw (2004, and as cited in Collins, 1990).
Intersectionality is the study of the intersections that occur between various forms of oppression, and that…
Chow, E. (n.d.). Gender consciousness and women's groups. [lecture notes.]
Collins, P.H. (1990). Black Feminist thought. [lecture notes.]
Collins, P.H. (1990). Black feminist thought in the matrix of domination. In Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Though: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman, pp. 221-238.
Crenshaw, K. (2004). Intersectionality: The double bind of race and gender. Perspectives Magazine, p.2.
feminist implications of Maria Edgeworth's novel, Belinda. In many ways, Edgeworth's Belinda seems to flaunt the 19th century ideas about the proper behavior of women in society.
Yet the novel also indicates and does little to challenge many the accepted roles of women in society. The relative success of Jane Austin's novels in comparison to Edgeworth's may be related to our modern conception of an English lady as cultured and demure above all. All in all, Belinda is an important look at women's roles in 19th century Europe.
A chapter-by-chapter summary of the plot may be useful in putting the rest of the essay in context. Edgeworth's novel is made up of an impressive 31 chapters. Chapter I simply introduces the reader to the characters, and chapter II Masks continues a conversation between Belinda Portman and the Lady Delacour, after which they leave to the house of Lady Singleton for…
Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition, Copyright - 2003. Maria Edgeworth. 07 December 2003. Available online at http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/E/EdgewortM1.asp
Edgeworth, Maria. 1811. Belinda. A Celebration of Women Writers. Available online at http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/edgeworth/belinda/belinda.html
Le Faye, Deirdre. 1999. The British Library Writer's Lives. Jane Austen.
McCann, Andrew. 1996. Conjugal Love and the Enlightenment Subject: The Colonial Context of Non-Identity in Maria Edgeworth's Belinda. In: Novel: A Forum on Fiction, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 56-77.
She is in the stereotypical subservient housemaid role, and she does not divulge her sexual identity either.
Sexual knowledge is also intimately equated with death in Turn of the Screw. The title suggests at once the screws in a coffin but also the sexual act. The governess sees ghosts instead of fulfilling her desire to have sex with the father of the children she hawks over. hile the governess seems assertive at times, brave enough to look into the eyes of a stranger and a ghost, she is also too timid to directly confront the father of the children. His request that she never contact him seems ridiculous, given Flora and Miles are his children. The fact that the governess obeys the orders at all shows that she lacks the internal conviction and self-confidence to assert herself. Feminist theories of identity formation therefore lend a considerable amount of insight into…
James, Henry. Turn of the Screw. Biblios. 2010.
Norton, R. (1999). "Henry James's the Turn of the Screw," Gay History and Literature, 1971, 1999, updated 20 June 2008 .
Parkinson, E.J. "Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948." Chapter 3 in the Turn of the Screw: A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898-1979. Retrieved online: http://www.turnofthescrew.com/ch3.htm
women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.
Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…
Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.
2008. 24 May 2014. http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/Philosophical_Systems/Overview.htm
"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
Solidarity created via black feminist discourse is empowering. The acknowledgment of a collective black female identity can lead African-American women to value rather than shun their identities and to embrace the fullness of their culture. Psychological empowerment is a precursor to economic and political empowerment. Empowerment ultimately does not depend on conformity to the predominant social institutions. Another reason why it is important to sustain black feminist thought is that this alternative discourse is the only means by which the voices of the oppressed may be heard. In the same way that empowerment means not having to participate in or condone white male institutions, black feminist ideology defines its own methodological tools. Those tools cannot rely on scholastic sources or the scientific method. A European-masculinist academic institution imposes positivism on all discourse. This shuts down valid voices offering personal opinion, immediate experience, narrative, and other means by which black women…
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…
1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.
3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.
4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…
Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…