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There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.
Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…
Velculescu D. et al. (2004) Fertility Declines and Youth Dependency: Implications for the Global Economy. Retrieved October 25, 2008, at http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2004/09globaleconomics_bryant.aspx
Natality is defined as: "The birthrate, which is the ratio of total live births to total population in a particular area over a specified period of time; expressed as childbirths per 1000 people (or population) per year, ( http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Natality )
Fertility in the 20th century
Fertility Case StudyAbstractThis case study focuses on ethical consequences of the scenario. It also assesses the risks involved and attempts to offer a solution to the problem in the scenario. Without the knowledge of his patients, a doctor in a fertility clinic uses his own sperm during his procedures to inseminate the said patients. It would also be prudent to note that he violates an employees obligation to legal and ethical justice by issuing threats to her. To a large extent, the parties involved in such cases are subjected to years of pain and trauma. The scenario has specific focus on patients who are deprived of their rights in such clinical settings. As a consequence of the doctors actions, children are likely to be exposed to health conditions that would have been avoided. Milunsky (n. d) points out that family history is important in screening and prevention of a disease.…
Madeira, J. (2019). Uncommon Misconceptions: Holding Physicians Accountable for Insemination Fraud. Law & Inequality, 37(1), 45–74.
Madeira, J. (2020). Understanding illicit insemination and fertility fraud, from patient experience to legal reform. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 39(1), 110–.
Marcus, P. (2011). The Adoption: Trauma and Recovery. The Southern Review (Baton Rouge), 47(3), 388–.
Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)
The financial section of this strategic operations plan will take into consideration both projected revenues and expenses and will try to anticipate these based on the existing business model. For that, it will look at pricing strategies, essential in the impact these can have on business demand and projected revenue. It will also look at best practices required to maintain profitability and the general financial health of the fertility clinic.
In its very basic form, the basic budget will include the revenue and the expenses. The revenue will be primarily formed from the fees that customers pay for the clinic's services. Other forms of revenue could result from cooperating with different scientists in order to try new procedures at the clinic. With all the components of an infertility treatment, the average cost for such a treatment is likely to be around $7,500. To…
1. Gittings, Christopher (2002). The Advertising Handbook. New York: Routledge
2. Colby, Everett, (N.a.). Fraud and internal controls, Part 3: Internal fraud schemes. Professional Development Network. On the Internet at http://www.cga-pdnet.org/Non_VerifiableProducts/ArticlePublication/FraudInternalControls/FraudInternalControls_p3.pdf . Last retrieved on March 20, 2014
3. Gregson, Andrew (2008). Pricing Strategies for Small Business Self Counsel Press
4. Nagle, Thomas, Holden, Reed, (2002). The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing. Prentice Hall
Education and Fertility ates
Fertility and Educational Attainment
Women around the world are starting to become more empowered through higher education attainment levels. Millions of women are now finding more educational opportunities at their fingertips, which empower them as well as the economic capacity of their respective nations. Yet, education also has an impact on fertility rates; as education levels rise, fertility rates tend to decrease. Nations with higher education expectations thus tend to have women with decreased fertility rates and who tend to have children at much older age groups than in nations where there are less educational opportunities for women.
Education is a major factor of improving a woman's quality of life. At the same time, education also impacts the rate at which women give birth. The research suggests that "educational attainment has long been considered the most important measure of socioeconomic status in describing fertility differentials" (Center…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment: United States, 1994. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 45(10). Web. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/mvsr/supp/mv45_10s.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). The World Factbook. Web. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2127.html
Gupta, Deepti & Gupta, Navneet. (2012). Higher education in India: Structure, statistics, and challenges. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(2), 17-26.
International Human Development Indicators. (2013). Chad: Country profile. Countries. Web. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/TCD.html
Somehow, Nuada, the former ruler of the Tuatha De Danann, had his hand lost in battle replaced with a living flesh and blood hand and soon after managed to have res exiled.
Not long after, res "rallied the Fomorians to battle" in the Second attle of Magh Tuireadh, but when they were defeated, res was captured. Although the punishment for treason and treachery in ancient Ireland was usually death, res' life was spared "when he promised to instruct the Tuatha De in the art of agriculture" (Lindemans, Internet), thus making him a fertility god, due to bringing fertility and bounty to the lands of the Tuatha De Danann in the form of foodstuffs.
In discussing the mythological lore surrounding the life of res, his relationship with rigid his wife must be mentioned, due to its importance and influence on many other Celtic/Irish myths. As the daughter of Dagda, rigid is…
Brezina, Corona. Celtic Mythology. Berlin: Rosen Publishing Group, 2007. Accessed fromCalifornia State University -- San Bernardino online library (http://www.lib.csusb.
Cymres, Winter. "Brigid: The Survival of a Goddess." 1995. Internet. Accessed June 17,
2009 from http://www.druidry.org/obod/deities/brigid.html .
2. Sociocultural needs. The study by Gibson and Myers examined the relationships among social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress in 83 women who participated in fertility treatments at urban medical clinics. The findings of their study suggest that both social coping resources and growth-fostering relationships contribute significantly to the variance in infertility stress, with infertility stress decreasing as social coping resources increase; these findings are congruent with the findings of earlier research on the positive effects of social coping on emotional health, particularly as they concern infertile women. In addition, Gibson and Myers found that partner support and family support contribute significantly to the prediction of the variance in infertility stress. "Based on these results," they say, "it is clear that family and partner supports are very important coping resources for women coping with infertility stress" (emphasis added) (p. 69).
3. Biological needs. While the psychosocial and sociocultural…
Atwood, J.D., & Dobkin, S. (1992). Storm clouds are coming: Ways to help reconstruct the crisis of infertility. Contemporary Family Therapy, 14, 385-403.
Daniluk, J.C. (2001). Reconstructing Their Lives: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Analysis of the Transition to Biological Childlessness for Infertile Couples. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 439.
Gibson, D.M., & Myers, J.E. (2002). The Effect of Social Coping Resources and Growth- Fostering Relationships on Infertility Stress in Women. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 68.
Men and Women React Differently. (1993). USA Today, 122(2581), 14.
However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.
Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…
Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html
General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1
Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
Infertility is not only recognized as one of the most stressful experiences for women but it's also regarded as a major challenge in the health care field. Despite being a major challenge, there is little scientific knowledge in the medical field about issues confronting infertile women. However, in the past few years, researchers in the medical field have attempted to identify themes that are significant to infertile women in order to determine their potential link with mental health levels. In attempts to accomplish these objectives, researchers have used various research methods and designs such as qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research methods. The use of different research approaches is attributed to the fact that none of these designs is appropriate for all research questions. For instance, while quantitative designs have been commonly used to examine various issues in healthcare, they are not suitable for all research questions like examining patients' response…
Hammerli, K., Znoj, H. & Berger, T. (2010, July). What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach. The Qualitative Report, 15(4), 766-782. Retrieved July 12, 2013, from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR15-4/hammerli.pdf
"Research Methods in Psychology." (2010). Exploring Psychology Study and Revision Guide for AS Level. Retrieved July 12, 2013, from http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/oxed/secondary/psychology/explore_ch_3
On the other hand, it is quite likely moreover that these statues were fertility statues for given the circumstances of the times when due to policies uncertainties as well as situations of health and socio-economic difficulties, death of women during childbirth was rampant, as well as miscarriage and other pre and post natal incidents common. Primitive people, before the days of scientific and empirical resigning, turned to nature as their explanatory factor. The word was unpredictable and frightening; the forces of nature, in the shape of gods and other powerful figures, all-omnipotent and the precursors of positive and negative events. Possibly, as means to escape from their fears and uncertainties and as instruments of achieving their desires, humans sculpted their supplications in tangible form, and abstract wishes, therefore, took the form of carvings.
It is in this way that the word 'fetish' comes from the Latin word 'factitious' meaning 'not…
Gardner, Art through the Ages, 1991
Stokstad, M. Art History
Although named after La Gravette in the Dordogne in France, the Gravettian culture was largely focused in Central Europe (Lysianassa). The Gravettian culture probably migrated there from the Middle East, Anatolia, and the Balkans ("History of Europe" 2). The Gravettian culture is generally believed to be a subset of the larger group called the Aurignacian, and portable items like figurines and tools figured prominently among the people. Their frequent and large-scale migratory patterns show that portable figurines like the Venus of Dolni Vestonice were important objects to the Gravettian culture.
In general, the Gravettian culture "represents subsistence innovations, burial customs, landscape organization, the beginnings of art, projectile technology and other non-utilitarian elements of human behavior, (Lysianassa). In addition to small ceramic objects like the Venus of Dolni Vestonice, the Gravettian people produced cave paintings and other decorative arts. Lienard notes that the Gravettian people were "seriously producing art objects,"…
De Laet, Sigfried J. History of Humanity: Prehistory and the Beginnings of Civilization. Taylor & Francis, 1994.
Haynes, Gary. The Early Settlement of North America. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
"History of Europe." Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved online: http://books.google.com/books?id=Kiug84qYTaYC&pg=PA2&dq=gravettian+culture&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nDuHT7akBI-s8QTms9S0CA&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=gravettian%20culture&f=false
Lienard, John H. "The Dolni Vestonice Ceramics." Engines of Our Ingenuity. Retrieved online: http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi359.htm
Beauty of Youth
The fact that physical beauty is so obviously appaent that we might neve eally bothe to think about why that is tue, o what it is about youth, exactly, that coesponds to physical beauty. It manifests itself diectly in many ways, including the age-dependent diffeences in physique, body composition, skin, hai, nails, and teeth. Youth also coesponds to chaacteistic functional diffeences in eyesight, heaing, and vocal tone that affect othes' peceptions about ou physical attactiveness indiectly.
Duing adolescence and ealy adulthood, we expeience a temendous incease in ou secetion of the sex homones: testosteone fo males and estogen fo females. Those homones tigge muscle gowth and othe seconday sex chaacteistics in males and accentuate the cuves on the female physique in conjunction with the othe seconday sex chaacteistics in females, espectively. Anothe aspect of sex-homone influence manifests itself in the chaacteistic diffeences in vocal tone between males…
references for those traits resulted in more of us populating society than individuals who are more attracted to the physical characteristics of advancing age instead of to those associated with youth.
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…
Bullfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. New York: Random House Publishing. 1979.
Hesiod. Theogony. Perseus Digital Online Library. Information Retrieved August 7, 2009.
un.org)." However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…
Country at a Glance. Brazil: Health. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.un.org/).
D'allegro, Joseph. "Brazil Attracting U.S. Insurers' Interest." National Underwriter Life & Health-Financial Services Edition. (1999): 25 October.
Encyclopedia: Demographics of Brazil. (accessed 22 April 2005). http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Demographics-of-Brazil ).
Migration and Urbanization. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/brazil/29.html).
Heneman and Judge (2005) define staffing as "the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organization's effectiveness." When it comes to the fertility clinic that is the object of this planning paper, creating and deploying the required workforce is particularly important, given the specificity of the activity.
Three categories of human resource needed at the clinic can be identified: specialized medical personnel (primarily fertility physicians), auxiliary personnel (including management and administrative) and additional specialists, such as psychologists. The first part of this paper will aim to briefly define some of the most important positions in the organizational chart.
Since this is a fertility clinic, the medical staff is an essential component of the workforce, and as research showed, the laboratory part is fundamental. The embryology and andrology department will be led by a scientific director, with at…
1. Heneman III, Herbert.; Judge, Timothy A (2005). Staffing Organizations. USA: McGraw-Hill
2. Pugh, D.S., ed. (1990).Organization Theory: Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin
3. Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review 50 (4): 370 -- 39
S. Vital Statistics - Births (1931-1968) - Interactive Index)(esident Births and Deaths, 1942-2004). (Texas Population Projections Program).
Texas has steadily grown in population due to the lure of the economic opportunities in the state, religious affiliations at a socio-cultural level, and general cultural phenomena of individuality, which is a theme embraced by citizens of the state. Additionally, border issues with Mexico have regularly been an issue with illegal border migration into the state, with populations disseminating into other areas of the state. If one compares the total population data with the total fertility rate (births minus deaths), then it becomes clear that Texas has and is experiencing population growth, much from migration, but also a robust total fertility rate. North Texas, which is also called Northeast Texas, is home to the biggest cities, the largest corporations, the greatest economic growth, and the greatest population centers overall. This trend would…
Enchanted Learning - Texas. March 2010. 2010 .
"Projected Population by Area, 2010." 2010. Texas Department of State Health Services. March 2010 .
Ramos, Mary G. "Oil and Texas: A Cultural History." 2000-2001. Texas Almanac. March 2010 .
"Resident Births and Deaths, 1942-2004." 2004. Texas Department of State Health Services. March 2010 .
ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.
Autonomy -- .
Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…
International Journal of Health Services, 20, 373 -- 392
What Are the Ethical Concerns Regarding Egg Donation? http://www.stanford.edu/class/siw198q/websites/reprotech/New%20Ways%20of%20Making%20Babies/eggethic.htm
Perloe, M. (nd) Eight is Enough: Balancing the risks of advanced fertility treatment. Georgia Reproductive Specialists. http://www.ivf.com/eightenough.html )
Fertile Crescent could be addressed as both a geographical location and as symbolic terminology. Ultimately, both options unite to refer to the region in the Middle East also identified as the cradle of civilization. Stretching in the shape of an arc from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates, the region encompasses an ancient fertile land which is said to have stood at the basis of man's evolution. Nature's contribution to the evolutionary steps of humanity was rendered indefinite which is why ancient rites sought to prevent and otherwise control the unpredictable forces. Personifying natural phenomenon enabled mankind's link to the divine forces. For the Sumerians, fertility was not ensured by one single god or goddess, rather it came about as a cooperative result of all the forces of nature. Fertility rites often encompassed sexual rituals which were sought to bring about fertility of the land. Sexuality thus was religiously…
The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Andrew George (London, New York, Victoria, Toronto, New Delhi, Auckland, Johannesburg: Penguin Books, 1999).
As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…
Lewis, M. (2013). Population bomb? So wrong. Retrieved online: http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/conservation-and-development/population-bomb-so-wrong/
Mukherjee, S. (2013). South India lags behind national fertility rate, slows population boom. The Times of India. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/South-India-lags-behind-national-fertility-rate-slows-population-boom/articleshow/19249154.cms
Rai, S. (2012). How outsourcing is boosting prospects for Indian women. CNET. Retrieved online: http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-57428450-235/how-outsourcing-is-boosting-prospects-for-indian-women/
Yasmin, S. (2013). Outsourcing to India: How call centers improve local economies. Elan. Retrieved online: http://www.elanthemag.com/outsourcing-to-india-how-call-centers-improve-local-economies/
2. Discuss the green light in The Great Gatsby and the rain in A Farewell to Arms as symbols of fertility and death.
In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, the green light represents hope, renewal, and (since Gatsby associates the green light with Daisy) Gatsby's desire for her, as well as (in Gatsby's mind) Daisy's fecundity and fertility. In nature, green is the color of life: trees, grass, and other living things. As such, the green light symbolizes Gatsby's own hopes and wishes for the future, which revolve around Daisy. Since Gatsby associates the green light so much with Daisy, it also represents for him a sort of beacon leading him toward her.
Although within The Great Gatsby the green light symbolizes hope, life, fecundity, and fertility, in Ernest Hemingway's novel A Farewell to Arms, rain, which occurs often, symbolizes the opposite: impermanence, dissolution, and death, thus foreshadowing…
Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)
In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…
Adewumi, A., Etti, E., Tayo, A., Rabiyu, K., Akindele, R., Ottun, T., & Akinlusi, F. (2012). Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country. International Journal of Women's Health, 5, 365-372. doi: Pubmed
Bauer, U. (2011, Nov). 2009 assisted reproductive technology. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/art/ART2009/PDF/ART_2009_Full.pdf
Echols, D.W. (2010, Feburary 19). The effects of oklahoma city law on surrogate motherhood and child custody. Retrieved from http://family-law.lawyers.com/child-custody/blogs/archives/3994-The-Effects-of-Oklahoma-City-Law-on-Surrogate-Motherhood-and-Child-Custody.html
Goldberg, J.M., Falcone, T., & Attran, M. (2007). In vitro fertilization update. Cleaveland Journal of Medicine, 74(5), 329-338. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.74.5.329
Nimeiri also made Islamic law part of the penal code, which included public beatings for consuming alcohol and cutting off hands of people convicted of stealing. All Sudanese nationals, even non-Muslims were subject to this law. Nimeiri was eventually overthrown in a coup, but the Southern-Northern tensions remained, as the government continued to be dominated by Islamic supporters.
Full-fledged civil conflict erupted again, and did not end until July 2002, when the Northern and Islamic-dominated government and the rebel confederation of Southern Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army SPLM/a reached a historic agreement on the role of state and religion and the right of Southern Sudanese tribes to self-determination in a federal system ("Background Note: Sudan," 2007, Bureau of African Affairs).
omen and Development
Because of the violence and war in Sudanese society, coupled with highly traditional fundamentalist and indigenous beliefs about the role of women in society, humiliating women is often…
Alvy, Lisa. (4 Dec 2004)." Violence against women in Sudan reveals common weapon of war." The National Organization of Women (NOW). Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.now.org/issues/global/120304sudan.html
Background Note: Sudan." (Mar 2007). Bureau of African Affairs. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5424.htm
The Sudan." (2007). World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/su.html
Sudan Fact Sheet: Status of women." (2007). WomenforWomen International. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.womenforwomen.org/swsudan.htm
Legba the Voodoo Spirit in estern and African Art
Voodoo is a religious practice with followers throughout the Caribbean region, particularly in Haiti and in parts of Africa where the religion spread through the introduction of the slave trade to the continent. Those who practice Haitian voodoo are called vodouists. They believe in a polytheistic system wherein each spirit, or loa sometimes spelled lwa, is responsible for one aspect of human experience (Holmes). Human beings cultivate a personal relationship with the loa and choose one particular spirit as the guiding force of their life. This is true except for the highest gods who were too busy to deign to give their attentions to mere mortals (Deren 55). Sometimes they are even granted conversation and communication with the gods if they are fortunate enough to receive permission to do so. Those who practiced Haitian voodoo did so with an unwavering devotion…
Brewster, Robert. "Papa Legba, Head of the Gods in Voodoo." Yahoo. Yahoo! Inc., 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. .
Davies, Carole Elizabeth. Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
Deren, Maya. Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti. New Paltz, NY: McPherson, 1983.
Nutrition, Rituals, Spirituality, And Health Care Practices of the Samurai Culture, As Depicted ithin the Movie The Last Samurai
According to Tom Stovall and Dustin Granger, "The ancient Samurai, Miyamoto Musashi wrote in his "Book of Five Rings,": "It will be difficult for you to succeed unless you look at things on a large scale'" (PharmaCafe). Similarly, within the movie The Last Samurai (2003), director Edward Zwick shows various ways in which the Japanese Samurai of the late 19th century looked at and holistically practice nutrition; prayer, war, and death rituals; spirituality, and health care practices, all on a scale with nature. These holistic practices, in turn, promoted the Samurai's own inner harmony: mentally, physically, and spiritually. For example, The Last Samurai depicted various nutritional practices, prayer, pre-war, death and other rituals; attitudes about spirituality and the meaning of life, and medicinal philosophies and practices within the Samurai culture. All…
The Last Samurai. With Tom Cruise and Ken Watanabe. Dir. Edward Zwick.
Warner Brothers. 2003.
Stovall, Tom, and Dustin Grainger. PharmaCafe. Retrieved May 24, 2005,
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
Tehran's geography makes air pollution worse: the Alborz Mountains at its north side trap the increasing volume of pollutants and lead these to remain and hover over Tehran when the wind is not strong enough to blow them away. Furthermore, Tehran's high altitude makes fuel combustion inefficient and adds to the problem. Its altitude is between 3, 300 and 5,000 feet and it is in this space that the pollutants are trapped since the destruction of orchards and other vegetation especially in northern Tehran in the past decades by rapid development and human activity pressures. These natural and man-made factors together have made Tehran one of the most polluted cities in the world. Air pollution reached critical level in December 1999 when high levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants filled Tehran for many weeks. Deaths, diseases and skin conditions are attributed to extreme air pollution. Records say that more…
Energy Information Administration. (2002). Iran: Environmental Issues. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/iranenv.html
2005). Iran. Country Analysis Briefs.
Rock art does not have a singular function in the physical images or meaning of the object -- it may be religious or historically commemorative, or use extraordinary or ordinary symbols, depending on how the tribe wishes to make its mark upon the surface of nature, and the type of transfer of tribal power that is being conducted in the specific circumstances.
The main unifying theme in all of the various potential acts of rock art, is that the act of leaving the tribe's mark upon the rock is in itself a rite performed, and adds additional significance to the meaning of the images, whatever that meaning may be for the tribe. Although rock art can provide a variety of symbolic, commemorative, and spiritual functions, and it may involve symbolic images very particular to a tribe or region (like the Mexican rain dog or like suns or spirals in the…
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…
Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.
Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.
Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
Some factors that can decline the crude birth rate (CB) and crude death rate (CD) in epidemiological and fertility phases include the following. There are improved medical facilities in this phase of transition which helps in bringing down the crude death rate (CD). The advanced methods of remedies can cure different types of diseases that were known to be hazardous to life. The other probable reasons can be a vast web of transportation that can relief many problems which lead to death.
Previously the children were considered as an asset as they can help their families financially and make their economic position better. But in the new modern era, children cannot help their families due to some legislation and the awareness of literacy. Due to the increasing inflation small families are considered to be a symbol of happiness. As the cost of bringing children up has become so high, parents…
Montgomery, K. (n.d). The demographic transition. Retrieved (07/04/2013), from Marathon.uwc.edu website:
Demographic transition. Retrieved (07/042013), from Hofstra.edu website:
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…
Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://126.96.36.199/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6
Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.
Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.
Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
......paraphilias & fetishes; (Do not engage in any contact or activity that would be considered inappropriate!) In your reflection discuss: What was the site? To whom did it apply? What were the sexuality issues? Specifics? Include the content & resources found there.
Salirophilia is defined as a "parphilic" sexual fetish in which individuals sexual arosal is obtained by basically getting really dirty -- in the literal sense. Individuals will use dirt, mud, or other soiling techniques to make the other person look dirty. This paraphilias does not involve any physical harm however, rather the only harm is done to the person's appearances. There are some reports where some deviations include the use of bodily fluids in some deviations. Treatment is only sought when this practice becomes problematic in some manner.
1) Watch and reflect on a movie containing material related to class topics: alternative sexual behaviors as…
This basically means that the aticle is only able to apply to those specialized in the field, which is athe unfotunate, given the inteesting natue of the aticle.
The ultimate limitation howeve is given by the fact that the two authos eveal a stong belief in thei esults; this constitutes a limitation due to the fact that the wok petends to have clealy answeed so fa unansweed questions, and leaves it at this. Nevetheless, a stong eseach wok is expected to aise additional questions, which would constitute the stating point of futue woks. All in all though, the eseach conducted by Hutton and Matin is a valuable and inteesting addition to the specialized liteatue due to its ability to pesent a new appoach to the issue of declining fetility ates.
Bollen, K.A., Glanville, J.L., Stecklov, G., 2001, Socioeconomic Status and Class in Studies of Fetility and Health in Developing…
references, Population Studies, Vol. 57, No. 3
Caldwell, J.C., Schindlmayr, T., 2003, Explanations of the Fertility Crisis in Modern Societies: A Research for Commonalities, Population Studies, Vol. 57, No. 3
Hutton, T.J., Martin, R.M., 2009, Fertility Decline and the Heights of Children in Britain, 1886-1938, Discussion Paper Series, IZA DP No. 4306
Moultrie, T.A., Timaeus, I.M., 2003, The South African Fertility Decline: Evidence from Two Censuses and a Demographic and Health Survey, Vol. 57, No. 3
Samaras, T.T., Elrick, H., 2002, Height, Body Size and Longevity: Is Smaller Better for the Human Body? Western Journal of Medicine, Vol. 176, No. 3
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
If we look at one of the absolutes, such as abortion in cultures in which choice is at least generally available about reproductive options abortion is at least relatively unstigmatized and access to it is legal and there are no significant economic barriers, a woman may still have religious or ethical or emotional reasons why she would perceive abortion negatively.
A woman, for example, who has suffered through a number of miscarriages of wanted pregnancies may find herself for various reasons unable or unwilling to carry a pregnancy to term. In such a case, having an abortion may be the right choice for that woman but may still be very painful.
In general, the ways in which sexuality and fertility shapes a woman's relationship with self -- as well as with family and the larger community -- is largely determined by the degree of choice that she has over having…
Hooks, B. (2000). Feminist theory: From margin to center (2nd ed.). Brooklyn, NY: South End Press.
Kesselman, a., McNair, L.D., & Schniedewind, N. (2008). Women images and realities: A multicultural anthology (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Demographic Transition: England 1700-2000
The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of demographic transition in England for the time period beginning in 1700 and ending in 2000.
Population total of an area is reported as the balance between "two forces of change" and this includes increases that are natural and those due to migration. Natural increase is described as the balance between "birth rates and death rates." (Slideshare, 2014, p. 4) The following chart shows the annual average growth rate for the entire global population.
England Demographic Transition
It is reported that the Industrial evolution occurred in England from 1760 to 1800 and that this was characterized by a large population growth in England that occurred very quickly with the demographic transition pinpointed to the year 1890 meaning there was a 110 gap in between the Industrial evolution and the Demographic Transition in England. (Clark,…
Clark, G. (2010) Mathus to Modernity: England's First Fertility Transition, 1760-1800. Retrieved from: http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/papers/Demographic%20Transition%202010.pdf
Population Changes in England and Wales 1700-2000 (2014) Slideshare. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/reservoirgeogs/demographic-transition-presentation
Demographic Transition (nd) CCD Geography and History. Retrieved from: http://www.roebuckclasses.com/105/human/demography/demographictransition.htm
Lastly, the gender gap has meant that males need to engage in more intense competition for females. As a result, money has become a more important means of attracting females (ei, 2009). These different factors combined to push more rural Chinese into the cities in search of better work. This in turn kept the cost of labor down, fueling intense economic growth that kept the unemployment rate in urban areas down. Even with the recent economic downturn, official unemployment rates for urban China were at just 4.2% for the fourth quarter of 2008, up from 4.0% in the previous quarter (Xinhua, 2009). These official figures have never fluctuated too much, although they were significantly higher in the late 1970s when economic modernization began, between 5-6% (Giles et al., 2004). It should be noted that the official unemployment rates belie the reality of China's economy, which features tens of millions of…
Hesketh, Therese; Lu, Li & Xing, Zhu Wei. (2005). The Effect of China's One-Child Policy after 25 Years. New England Journal of Medicine. Volume 353, No. 11, pp.1171-1176. Retrieved July 19, 2009 from http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/353/11/1171
No author. (2009). Arguments-Trends. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). Retrieved July 19, 2009 from http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/argu/trends/trend_10.htm
CIA World Factbook: China. (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 19, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/CH.html
Fan, Shenggen; Zhang, Linxiu & Zhang, Xiabo. (2002). Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Rural China. Retrieved July 19, 2009 from http://books.google.de/books?id=_DQo-VBHQOsC&pg=PA1&lpg=PP1&dq=china+rural+economy&hl=en
Today, there is increasing pressure, not only on businesses and adults in the workplace, but also upon young people and children, to perform better. Indeed, schools have responded to the increasing pressures of the job market by focusing on specific subject fields in terms of raising their standards. According to Huffman (2014), for example, high school curricula place emphasis on the STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and math). The purpose of this emphasis is to create a population of graduates who are better equipped for job markets in need of labor force input.
On the reverse side, however, the emphasis on these subjects and increasingly high standards creates a situation in which students simply cannot keep up. This inability to handle the workload and complicated nature of the subject fields includes the danger of higher dropout rates. Hence, the good intentions of raising academic standards become thwarted with the…
Ballard, K. (2012, Feb. 14). America is being left behind in education by India, China. Retrieved from: http://patch.com/california/imperialbeach/america-is-being-left-behind-in-education-by-india-china
Goodyear, M. (2008). The effect on population structure of fertility, mortality and migration. Health Knowledge. Retrieved from: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/fertility-mortality-migration
Huffman, M. (2014, Aug. 19). Study: Tougher academic standards raising school drop-out rate. Consumer Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news/study-tougher-academic-standards-raising-school-drop-out-rate-081914.html
Shah, A. (2011, Sep. 22). Health Care Around the World. Global Issues. Retrieved from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/774/health-care-around-the-world
According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.
Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)
Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…
Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon. Originally created 1999. Last updated 2005. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/1080_Flora.html
Flora and Pomona." Ancient Roman Mythology. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://www.crystalinks.com/romemythology.html
Ovid. Fasti. Translated by a.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000.
Pliny. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1938.
Lusnia characterizes this concept as the persistence of signs that foretell of one's "imperial destiny." (517) Namely, this refers to the adoption of personal signs and symbols with some likely connection to historical imperial iconography and suggesting the principles of strength, virility, valor and divinity. hether present or not throughout the life of the figure in question -- Augustus in this case -- the recurrence of certain specific images such as the laurel, retained within recurrent thematic contexts such as the Octavian 'garden,' would truly be intended to insist upon the hereditary and theological entitlement of Augustus to a seat atop the Roman Empire.
That unification, rebirth and flourishing growth would be themes of the Augustan rule should suggest to us that the images contained in Roman life and in the visual depiction of Roman life were not chosen in idle vanity. Instead, the must be a core psychological imperative…
Caneva, G. & Bohuny, L. (2003). Botanic analysis of Livia's villa painted flora. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 4(2), 149-155.
Flory, M.B. (1989). Octavian and the Omen of the 'Gallina Alba.' The Classical Journal, 84(4), 346-356.
Gabriel, M.M. (). Livia's Garden Room at Prima Porta.
Hoover, M. (2001). The Fine Art of Roman Wall Painting. San Antonio University. Online at http://www.accd.edu/sac/vat/arthistory/arts1303/Rome4.htm
Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)
Several studies, including Kelly arnes, show that healthcare generally moves from "costly settings" such as hospitals into cheaper and more flexible options, such as retail clinics and mobile health
What this actually shows as a future trend is that the global recession has played an important role in defining the customer profile. Clients are no longer interested solely in the best available services, but in low-cost services. For this, they look at flexible options and, in the same context of flexibility, they look more and more towards customization. Customization includes customized treatments and customized location (home, hospital, clinics, mobile)
At the same time, the demand for innovation remains key. The Harvard usiness Review points to the demand for innovation in emerging markets, such as China and India, but this is also true, to a different degree, for the U.S. market
. Innovation can take different…
1. Barnes, Kelly. Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. PriceWaterHouse Coopers. On the Internet at http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/index.jhtml . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
2. Top Trends in Healthcare, medicine & pharmaceuticals. What's Next. On the Internet at http://www.nowandnext.com/?action=top_trend/list_trends§orId=10 . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
3. N.a. Megatrends in Global Health Care. On the Internet at http://hbr.org/web/extras/insight-center/health-care/globaltrends/2-slide . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
4. Child Trends. (2013). Fertility and birth rates. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=fertility-and-birth-rates
There may be other reasons that have to do with cultural implications as well when it comes to population / fertility growth. Some people in LDNs may have religious reasons for not wanting to use birth control and may have major issues with abortion. In DNs, most women go to college, they have a career, they put off marriage, and when they do decide to get married, they may have one or two children. However, in LDNs, women may marry quite early, sometimes as early as fourteen, and may believe that having as many children as possible is what life is about. There are so many cultural factors in LDNs that people in DNs are unaware of.
It's interesting to note that in some countries in Europe especially, the government is actually trying to promote pregnancies because of the slow population growth rate. While this hasn't happened in the United…
Asian Info. (2011). Bangladesh. Asian info. Accessed on January 29, 2011: http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/bangladesh/bangladesh.htm
Food and Agricultiral Organization of the United Nations. (2011). Media Centre: Feeding
Bangladesh's growing population amid rising climate challenges. FAO. Access on January 29, 2011: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/46153/icode/
Five years would be the period selected, given that the only other long-term study of such couples, that of Johansoon's et al. (2009), was selected. These questionnaires would solicit information regarding fertility treatments the couple sought, what kinds of treatment, if the treatment was successful, and the relative health of the participants' marriage.
The longitudinal nature of this study would examine the relative long-term impact of infertility upon marriage, and use a cross-comparison of different subgroups. The main groupings would be individuals in what would be called 'happy' or 'healthy' marriages. For the purposes of this study, happiness would be defined as marriages in which the participants answered similarly for their single responses for the questionnaire, had not sought counseling for their marriage, had not contemplated divorce or separation, and expressed realistic attitudes about the prospect of having a child and its role in making their marriage more or less…
Benasutti, R.D. (2003). Infertility: Experiences and Meanings. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy: Innovations in Clinical and Educational Interventions, 2 (4), 51-72. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from
Chou, K.L, & I. Chi. (2004, May). Childlessness and psychological well-being in Chinese older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19 (5), 449-457.
H. Holter, L. Anderheim, C. Bergh, et al. (2006). First IVF treatment-short-term impact on psychological well- being and the marital relationship, Human Reproduction, 21 (12),
Such loans have been immersed by the government or sold to private investors. The lenders and borrowers were also stimulated by Governments with entering into negotiations to reformulate the existing debts or to implement necessary measures for foreclosure. The private investors also were seen to have obtained or infused their funds in banks or low potential borrowers. However, the strategy of adjustment is not finished. The shortage of capital is still being felt by some of the banks in the region that reduces their lending capacity. The poor performance and liquidity crisis confronted by heavily indebted borrowers also adversely affected the financial strategies. (Moreno, 5)
It has been observed that the financial strategies of East Asia in the past have resulted in fast growth rates and also safeguarded the interests of lenders and borrowers that discouraged the efforts for taking precautions against potential risks involved. The continuing measures for developing…
Denis, Hew. Introductory overview: rethinking the east Asian development model.
ASEAN Economic Bulletin. April, 2002. Volume: 14; No:1; pp: 56-60
East Asia, the Pacific, and the U.S.: an economic partnership. Department of State bulletin, April, 1989. pp: 6-10
Eberstadt, Nicholas. Asia tomorrow, gray and male - demographic trends in East Asia. The National Interest. Fall, 1998. Volume: 12: No: 1; pp: 32-37
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…
Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469
Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163
Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,
Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.
Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…
Ackerman, Diane. (1995) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage
Angier, Natalie. Birds Do it. Bees Do it. People Seek the Keys to it; the New York Times (Apr. 10/07)
Barash, David, P. And Lipton, Judith E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, Nathaniel (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
"She relaxed limply in the seat. "Oh, no. No. I don't want to go. I'm sure I don't." Her face was turned away from him. "It will be enough if we can have wine. It will be plenty." She turned up her coat collar so he could not see that she was crying weakly -- like an old woman" (Steinbeck).
There are a number of fairly eminent points to be made about this quotation -- the first of which is that Allen's husband has taken her away from her source of power -- her garden. Away from that source, she is described by imagery that is rather enervating and in opposition to the vivacity she previously personified. The imagery of her sitting "limply" and weeping "weakly" is strongly contrasted with the images of her cutting through plants and powerfully gripping handfuls of earth -- which symbolizes the source of her…
Budnichuk, Monica. "The Chrysanthemums: Exposing Sexual Tension Through Setting And Character." Universal Journal. No date. Web. http://ayjw.org/print_articles.php?id=647033
Hemingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants." Men Without Women. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1927. Online reprint. Scribd.com, 2011. Web.
Hashmi, Nilofer. "Hills Like White Elephants": The Jilting of Jig." The Hemingway Review. (2003): 72-83. Print.
Hunt, D. "Steinbeck's Allegory of the Cave: Deconstructing Elisa Allen in "The Chrysanthemums." Universal Journal. No date. Web. http://www.ayjw.org/articles.php?id=582962
rapid movement of the modern age and the vast usage of technological equipment, it has become a constant question on whether radio frequencies are damaging to human health. Cell phones are known to emit relatively high doses of electromagnetic waves, which in some research, has been pinpointed to the adverse effect that it has on males, namely the issue on fertility. eports have been made indicating that cell phones might be another risk factor regarding the rise of male infertility due to its frequency emissions. While previous research has found no conclusive tie-ins to the phenomena, the latest technology and data have shown the contrary, though even this research is still subject to much scrutiny. Overall, there are too many variables to indicate that cell phones would be a main cause for male fertility, not without discussing the various other factors that help infertility along.
Infertility as defined…
Agarwal, Ashok, Deepinder, Fnu, Makker, Kartikeya. "Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship." Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15.3 (2007): 266-70. RBM Online. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .
De Iuliis, Geoffry N., Rhiannon J. Newey, Bruce V. King, and R. John Aitken. "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro." PLoS ONE. 31 July 2009. Web. 05 Mar. 2011. .
Wdowiak, Artur, Leszek Wdowiak, and Henryk Wiktor. "Evaluation of the Effect of Using Mobile Phones on Male Fertility." Ann Agric Environ Med 14 (2007): 169-72. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
Population Implosion in Europe
Roughly thirty years ago, a global think tank declared that population pressures would devastate the world by the mid-1990's, however, they did not foresee that women in the developed world would be producing fewer children (Specter 1998).
ith life expectancy rising as the fertility rate drops, most developed countries may find themselves with lopsided societies, a large number of elderly and not enough young people working to support them (Specter 1998). Thus, every program that requires public funds, such as health care, education, pensions and military spending will be affected (Specter 1998).
Due to prosperity and freedom, millions of women are staying in school longer, putting more emphasis on work and marrying later, resulting in a rapid birth rate decline in many countries (Specter 1998). In Italy, women produce on average fewer than 1.2 children, the lowest figure every recorded among humans (Specter 1998). It is…
Specter, Michael. "Population Implosion Worries a Graying Europe." New York
Times. July 10, 1998.
Eberstadt, Nicholas. "The Population Implosion.(demographic trends toward decreasing birthrates and declining life spans)(Statistical Data Included)."
Foreign Policy. March 01, 2001.
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
Gods of fertility were highly prized in the Aztec religion, and Tatloc was worshiped almost as strongly as the sun god. One of the most important temples in the Aztec religion was dedicated to Tatloc, as this was believed to help ensure the fertility of the Aztec women and therefore ensure the continuation of the Aztec race. It is easy to see, based on the way that Smith (2003) presents it, that there is strong evidence for the beliefs that the Aztecs were said to have had.
This is one of the reasons why Smith's (2003) book is so significant to research into the Aztecs and pre-colonial Mexico today. There is more to the book than just what the Spaniards had recorded. While their work was very important and should not be discounted, the Aztecs were the only ones who really know what they did and why - what was…
Smith, Michael E. (2003). The Aztecs. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK. Series: "The Peoples of America."
is an African post-colonial piece of jewelry that is both post-colonial and also possesses gender and class implications.
One can see this piece of jewelry as being either Mother-Earth, Mother-Universe or Female Guardian Orisha. It has definite gender -- based connotations with a maternal warmth and sympathy emanating form the image. At the same time is authentic primitive African art and is also class-based since its origins are tribal and would expect a certain lower class of Africans to more likely wear this piece than the upper class. Its connotations, too -- since this is a fertility goddess -- are of people who desire to have children or who have suffered loss in childbirth. This has often been the case of the 'regular African folk -- the lower class -- who due to hardships of regular life have often lost children during or after birth as well as in…
Eeden, JV (2006) Land Rover and colonial style adventure. Int. Fem. Journal of Polictis, 8, 343-369
Etsy African Primitive Ethnic Jewelry, Beautiful, Spiritual Copper or Bronze Pendant
Mbembe, A. (nd) Afropolitanism
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature
At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…
Behringer, Wolfgang (1997) Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular magic, religious zealotry and reason of state in early modern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Breslaw, G., Elaine (2000) Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook. New York, New York University Press.
Cohn, Norman (1975) Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. New York, Basic Books.
Coudert, Allison P. (1989) The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze. In: Brink, Jean, R., & Coudert, Allison P. ed. The Politics of gender in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO, Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers.
Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the…
1. Batt, R. (2011). A history of endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media.
2. Burney, R. O., & Giudice, L. C. (2012). Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and sterility, 98(3), 511-519.
3. Brown, J., & Farquhar, C. (2015). An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA, 313(3), 296-297.
4. Gupta, S., Harlev, A., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Update. Springer.
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
Tu, Edward Jow-Ching (2007 Cross-Border Marriage in Hong Kong and Taiwan. International Marriage Migration in Asia. 2007 Seoul. PAK/IPAR Conference.
Chen, Yu-Hua (2007) the Rise of Cross-Border Marriages and Its Impact on Fertility in Taiwan. Comparative Workshop of low Fertility organized by Asia Research Institute and Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. 22-23 February 2007. National University of Singapore. Online available at http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/showfile.asp?eventfileid=265
Cattelain, Chlo (1997) Family vs. Society: Hong Kong's Battle Over Right of Abode for Mainland-Born Children. HRIC. 30 June 1997. Online available at http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article-revision%5fid=4156&item%5fid=4155
Chan, Bernard (nd) Post-1997 Hong Kong: The Social and Environmental Impact. Asia Financial Group and Asia Insurance Co. Ltd. And the Hong Kong Council of Social Service.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Personhood Amendment in Mississippi
Judith Jarvis Thomson's essay "A Defense of Abortion" and the proposed Mississippi Constitutional Amendment
In Mississippi, a bill that advocated an extreme position on abortion rights was submitted to voters. It was ultimately rejected, despite the fact that Mississippi is a very conservative state. The constitutional amendment would have declared a fertilized human egg to be a legal person, not only equating abortion with murder under the law, but also making certain forms of birth control illegal (Eckholm 2011). It would have made using birth control, including IUDs and morning-after pills, which operate by detaching the fertilized embryo from the mother's womb, a legal for of murder.
Previous regulations of abortion placed restrictions upon when and where women could get abortions, or created parental consent laws. This amendment simply stated when life began: at fertilization. Even embryos in fertility clinics could be destroyed, according to the…
Eckholm, Eric. "Push for 'personhood' amendment." The New York Times. October 26, 2011.
[2 Dec 2011].
Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to offspring of couples who have undergone this process, 'test tube babies.' In vitro ('in glass') fertilization is only one of the many treatments for infertility. The general term by which in vitro can be identified is through artificial insemination, wherein semen taken from the woman's partner or male donor is "injected" into a woman's uterus. In the technique of in vitro fertilization, however, "eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory dish with her partner's sperm" (Dmowski 1991 265).
There are several reasons why infertility happens, and indications that show that a couple needs to undergo an in vitro treatment. Infertility may be due to either the man or the woman's infertility. A man becomes infertile when…
Dmowski, Paul. "Infertility." World Book Encyclopedia Vol 10. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): "Test Tube Babies." 2001. Fertility Confidential Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.fertilityconfidential.com/fertilityconfidential/infertility/conventional/ivf.cfm.
IVF Program. 2000. South Jersey Fertility Center Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.sjfert.com/assisted_reproductive_Programs.html .
Williamson, Miryam. "Waiting Longer to Get Pregnant: The Advantages and Disadvantages for Women." 6 November 2000. Rockhill Communications. Laurus Health News Feature. 10 June 2002 http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/HealthNewsFeature/hnf1110600.htm.
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…
James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/
Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html