Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 97 essays for "Fidel Castro"

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

View Full Essay

Castro Power and Authority

Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56584964

Power and authority seems as though they would be synonyms. However, they are different. Someone can have authority and not have power and vice versa. Authority denotes ability. Power denotes influence (Wrong, 2017). In government, authority is bestowed upon politicians or judges, and so forth when they assume office. A Justice of the Supreme Court has the authority to send someone to jail based on the case information. Power on the other hand is the ability to sway opinions and policy in one’s favor. For example, President Trump had the authority to strike Syria with missiles. However, he did not have the power to sway Congress to fund the wall project.
These are things to consider when examining government and politics. Within the realm of power and authority, it is important to have both as that way, things can be done effectively and quickly. For example, someone like Fidel Castro,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sebrina Whitener Fidel A Critical Portrait Tad

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38868985

Sebrina Whitener

"Fidel: A Critical Portrait"

Tad Szulc is a veteran New York Times reporter who first came to know Castro in 1959 while covering a story. Over the years, he has continued reporting on Castro. Szulc has interviewed Castro on many occasions and also interviewed his friends, past friends and his enemies. He was given unprecedented access by both the Cuban government, and by Castro himself, to conduct his research for the book. The book really gets inside the events rather than just reporting from the outside.

Szulc had greater access to Castro than any other reporter. This is one of the reasons why the book is so interesting. ecause of Szulc's relationship with Castro he is able to present him not just as a 'communist' or an 'evil man' as some other books. He is able to present him as he really is. He goes beyond just the…… [Read More]


Szulc, Tad. Fidel: A Critical Portrait. New York: Post Road Press, February 2000.
View Full Essay

History International Relations

Words: 2464 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50664711

United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…… [Read More]

Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:

Source 1. 

Source 2. 

Source 3. 

Source 4.
View Full Essay

Guevara Perceptions of Che Guevera Perceptions of

Words: 4154 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743533


Perceptions of Che Guevera


Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…… [Read More]


Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press

Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing

Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO

Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
View Full Essay

The Cuban Revolution and Marxism

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82439649

What were the ideological influences on Revolution in Latin America?
Latin America experienced several changes throughout the years in various countries. Cuba, for example, experienced a revolution brought on by influences from Marxism and Soviet-style communism. Seen as a turning point in revolutionary history and Latin American ideology, 1959 became the year of Cuba. The Cuban Revolution and the ideals that came with it, spurred countries like Chile and Uruguay to test the waters of political change. It is important to understand and explore how Marxist and communist ideologies became intrinsically connected to the Cuban Revolution and how these ideals changed Latin America as a whole.
The Cuban Revolution became one of the few instances in Latin America where change in ideology generated a new identity for a country and a people. As Alan Knight points out, the Cuban Revolution brought with it seeds of change towards socialism and later…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Health Having Developed My Values

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63730499

It is from this spiritual foundation that I wish to approach healthcare as a professional nurse. Healthcare is my duty, and I shall see to it that I "freely give" of my energy to heal the sick and communicate the word of God via my work.

Heartfelt concern for human beings is a core Christian ideal. In a Christian light, healthcare is not as controversial as it is made out to be in the American media. Rather, the issue of healthcare parallels the three Christian norms of love, justice and peacemaking. To love others is to put into practice Jesus' advice to love our neighbors as ourselves. No matter what a patient's background or physical condition, that individual has the right to receive the best care possible. Love is caring in action, which is the job of the nurse. Justice refers to equal treatment of all patients. Within a Christian…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Guerilla Warfare Guerrilla Warfare Is

Words: 375 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18449308

The rule of thumb is to strike the enemy at places where the enemy feels 'safe' and then never let the enemy relax (Latin pp). Terrorism is an act of violence by groups that are part of guerilla movements, in an effort to create fear and draw support (Ramli pp). Today, suicide terrorism is the most widely used tactic by the insurgents in Iraq, and the present quagmire in Iraq could transform guerilla warfare into revolutionary warfare, whereby the Iraqis could mobilize and seize the state due to their hatred for the occupying power, thus within these constraints revolutionary warfare can take the form of urban guerilla war or rural guerilla war (Ramli pp).

orks Cited

Guerilla. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at

Latin America. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at

Ramli H. Nik. "ill we see history repeated in Iraq?" New Straits Times.

June 04, 2005. Retrieved August 20,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guerilla. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at 

Latin America. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at

Ramli H. Nik. "Will we see history repeated in Iraq?" New Straits Times.

June 04, 2005. Retrieved August 20, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
View Full Essay

Cuban Politics Cuba Is Considered

Words: 2232 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84721252

Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.

In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.

The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…… [Read More]


CBS. U.S.: Raul Castro a "Fidel Lite" Ailing Communist Leader Resigns Post; Fidel's 76-Year-old Brother, Raul, the Heir Apparent. 2008. 

Ratliff, William. Raul, China, and Post-Fidel Cuba. Raul Castro will likely implement Chinese-style, market-oriented economic reforms. 2006. 10 March 2008

Shlaes, Amity. "Cuba Crisis is Avoidable if Bush Can Copy Poppy." Bloomberg. 2008. 

Sweig, Julia E. "Fidel's Final Victory." Foreign Affairs. 2007.
View Full Essay

Cuban Missile

Words: 5521 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6435999

Cuban Missile Crisis

There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.

In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.


After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]


Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.

Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. .

Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. 25 June 2003. .

Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
View Full Essay

Cuban Five Criminals or Antiterrorist

Words: 3160 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81834807

Cuban Five -- Criminals or Antiterrorists

The Cuban Five

Why the Trial Was Unfair

The Aftermath of the Trial

The Implications of This Trial on the elations between Cuba and the U.S.A.

Cuban Five as Criminals

The Five as Antiterrorists

Whether the Cuban Five are terrorists or not has to be seen from an international perspective that is impartial and takes into consideration the viewpoints of the Cubans as well as the Americans. The question has gained particular relevance in light of the international protests that consider the Cuban Five as antiterrorists and not criminals. According to obert Pastor the National Security Adviser for Latin America in President Jimmy Carter's time:

"Holding a trial for five Cuban intelligence agents in Miami is about as fair as a trial for an Israeli intelligence agent in Tehran. You'd need a lot more than a good lawyer to be taken seriously."

This says…… [Read More]


Campbell, D. (2008, January 9). Society has Become More Punitive. The Guardian .

Denny, P. (1993). UNITED STATES: Cuban Five ruling a "travesty of justice." Retrieved December 10, 2011, from Green 

Mears, B. (2009, Janaury 30). 'Cuban Five' file appeal with Supreme Court . Retrieved December 10, 2011, from CNN:

Nobel prize winner and 110 British demand the Cuban Five's liberation. (2006, February 9). Retrieved December 10, 2011, from
View Full Essay

Cuban Missile Crisis Policy Advice

Words: 2554 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 25640028

Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. In late April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. A deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union." (ThinkQuest Team, 1) This provides us with an imperative to undermine Khrushchev's conceptions either that we are indecisive or that we are unwilling to make the sacrifices implicated by a full-scale confrontation with the Soviets.

On the other hand, we must also strike a balance whereby these sacrifices are not necessary. Ultimately, it is our full understanding that the distinctions in the arms race between our tactical long-term abilities and superior stock of weapons and the Soviet Union's decidedly less capable and smaller stock do not constitute…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Divine, R.A. (1988). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Dobbs, M. (2008). One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Bring of Nuclear War. Random House.

Global Security (GS). (2008). Cuban Missile Crisis.

Paz, J.V. (1995). The Socialist Transition in Cuba: Continuity and Change in the 1990s. Social Justice, 22.
View Full Essay

World War Turning Point Europe Significant Change

Words: 2238 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90985032

World War Turning Point Europe, Significant Change Occurred Emergence Legitimate evolutionary egimes

Self-Determination in Cuba

There are few who would dispute the fact that following the conclusion of World War II and prior to its revolution (which began in 1953 and concluded on January 1 of 1959) Cuba was a prosperous region of the world that was certainly worth fighting for. The country's leader prior to the ascendancy of Fidel Castro, Fulgencio Batista, had cleverly manipulated the assistance of a number of external forces, primarily that of the United States, to assist the country in achieving a degree of economic gain and modernity the likes of which were comparable to, if not surpassing, those of other parts of the world.

Its economic prowess may be demonstrated from the following quotation. "Cuba in 1958, prior to the government of the Communist Fidel Castro, paid its employees an average of $3.00 per…… [Read More]


Epperson, R.A. (1985). The Unseen Hand. Arizona: Publius.

Guevara, C. (2005). Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Colonial Struggle? Retrieved from 

Kapur, T., Smith, A. (2002). "Housing Policy In Castro's Cuba." Retrieved from 

Jones, L. (1966). Home. New York: William Morrow and Co.
View Full Essay

Kennedy and Flexible Response'so

Words: 2273 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11752300

The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).

Diplomatic options in…… [Read More]


Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from .

Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved

from .

Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Che Guevara Ernesto Che Guevara

Words: 3453 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71263674

Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .

Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:

To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…… [Read More]


Anthony DePalma. The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Barron, F. And Harrington, D.M. "Creativity, intelligence, and personality," Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, 32: 439-476.

Che Guevara. "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City, 1964.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1996.
View Full Essay

History Political Science

Words: 2318 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7608106


Should the United States Normalize elations with Cuba?

It has been more than forty years now since Fidel Castro and his communist insurgents captured control of the Island of Cuba. Originally supported by the American government, Castro quickly lost United States backing once the communistic nature of his government became clear. The evolution did its work, and thousands upon thousands of Cubans were deprived of their property, property that was taken over by the Cuban State, and in accordance with Marxist tenets, "redistributed" among the workers. In response, huge numbers of Cuban citizens fled the country. Many settled in the United States, especially in and around Miami, where they quickly came to constitute a powerful bloc with strong influence over American policy toward their homeland. Of course, over the years, attitudes have softened. Originally cut off from all except its fellow communist nations, and from the non-aligned states of…… [Read More]


Augustine, Jean P.C., M.P. Secretary of State. "Speaking Notes on the Occasion of The 7th Annual Toronto-Cuba Friendship Day," Toronto, Canada: 24 August 2002.

Buaza, Vanessa. "

Comedians and Levity Have Their Limits." The Sun Sentinel. 16 February 2003.

Feehan, Colleen E. "Prague in the '90's: The Paris of the '20s?" 1995. URL:
View Full Essay

Moral Legal Political and Practical

Words: 9721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27501741

The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "

As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.

International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.

Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood

View Full Essay

British Raj Is One of

Words: 1956 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58947379

Moreover, "corruption and inefficiency have exacerbated problems," ("Fidel Castro: Cuba's Communism Not Working" 2010). Because of the problems currently plaguing Cuba, communism is likely wane gradually by an opening of Cuba's markets even if American-style capitalism is not the replacement. The rise and fall of communism in Cuba has taken place over a relatively short period of time in human history: less than a century. Because of this, the example of Cuba is a world historical event that significantly illustrates the theme of power, governance, and authority.

Themes in history such as geography, historical systems of power, institutions as mechanisms of social change, and science and technology as engines of economic growth and development can be illustrated by specific historical examples. The British aj's infiltration of Fiji and the trafficking of Indian indentured servants is an example of how geography and environmental factors impact the development of human societies over…… [Read More]


Blodgett, E. (2011). Fijian Sugar Plantations and the Ethnic Battle to Govern an Island Nation. TED Case Studies, Number 621. Retrieved online: 

"Castro's Communist regime in Cuba" The First Post. August 7, 2006. Retrieved online:,news-comment , news-politics, pros-and-cons-of-communism-in-cuba

"Enron Scandal At-a-Glance," (2002). BBC. August 22, 2002. Retrieved online: 

"Fidel Castro: Cuba's Communism Not Working" (2010). FoxNews. September 9, 2010. Retrieved online:
View Full Essay

Ernesto Che Guevara Che Went to Sierra

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92172259

Ernesto Che Guevara

Che went to Sierra Maestra, whose people were considered to be amongst the poorest of Cuba's poor. These poor peasants living in Sierra Maestra didn't have the opportunity of visiting doctors and getting treated. Thus, Che made all the efforts he could to help these people live a better life. When Che came here he was simultaneously playing two roles; one of a fighter and the other of a doctor. Initially, Che had been the medical leader and then became the leader of a small band. In spring of 1957, Che was deemed as the most trusted man of the leader (Castan-eda, 1997).

In 1958, when Batista sent a well- trained army of 10,000 to trap the revolutionaries in their mountain stronghold, Fidel and Che's army along with help of local people was able to defeat Batista's men. Che always had the support of people around him.…… [Read More]


Castan-eda, Jorge G. And Marina Castan-eda.Compan-ero. New York, N.Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. Print.

Coltman, Leycester and Julia Sweig.The real Fidel Castro. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Print.

Crompton, Samuel. Che Guevara. Pleasantville, NY: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2009. Print.
View Full Essay

Assassination of John F Kennedy

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29408550

Various versions of the conspiracy theories link the purported involvement of Giancana with Castro, Giancana with the CIA, and Oswald to one or the other, or to both. Finally, other conspiracy theories even linked then Vice

President Lyndon B. Johnson to the assassination plot, at least in terms of having been made aware of the operation in advance if not necessarily as a co-conspirator (Galanor,


Several specific individuals later emerged, providing information of their claimed involvement in the assassination conspiracy, including James Files and David Morales

(Benson, 1998). Files was linked to both the CIA after working as a former covert military operative in Laos as well as to organized crime through his association with Charles Nicoletti, a Mafia hitman operating in the Illinois area. Files specifically claimed to have been recruited by Nicoletti to act as a backup shooter positioned in the vicinity of the grassy knoll and…… [Read More]


Benson, M. (1998). Who's Who in the JFK Assassination: An a to Z. Encyclopedia.

New York: Citadel.

Galanor, S. (1998). Cover-Up. New York: Kestrel Books.

The President's Commission on the Assassination. (1992). The Warren Commission
View Full Essay

Peace and Revolution in Chile

Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63113889

Salvador Allende

In what ways was Salvador Allende's "democratic road to socialism" in Chile distinct from Mexican and Cuban revolutionary movements? In what ways was it similar? Does it seem as though a democratic alternative to political coup d'etat is a workable and useful one? hy or why not?

Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens, or just Salador Allende for short, was the first of the South American leader to institute a Marxist form of socialism, who came to power through a democratic election. Although the election that brought Allende to power was virtually a three-way tie, the Chilean Congress eventually named him as president through a run-off process. This victory was substantial for Allende's life and he had tried on three previous occasions to win the presidency. At the time, the Chilean government had several left-leaning government factions, with some more radical than others. This movement mirrored many other movements found…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gale Group. (N.d.). Salvador Allende Gossens Facts. Retrieved from Your Dictionary: 

Guevara, C. (2005 (Originally Printed in 1965)). Socialism and man in Cuba. The Che Reader.

Harris, R. (1999). A Tale of Two Chileans: Pinochet and Allende. Chilean Supporters Abroad.

Sweig, J. (2009). Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground. Boston: Harvard University Press.
View Full Essay

1962 Memo Recommending Presidential Action

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62793215

(2) Blockade (Kennedy, .F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, .F., 1969).

These are the recommendations of this council.


Donald, .(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.

Kennedy, .F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.


Powaski, .E. (1998). The Cold War…… [Read More]


Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.

Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.


Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: /PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Cuban Americans the Relationship Between

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59390126


It had been complicated for Cubans to be assimilated by the American community right away, as the fact that they came in large numbers prevented them from socializing with U.S. citizens to a large degree. Determined to keep their cultural identity, the first people to immigrate into the U.S. did not want to learn English. Instead, they taught their children and grandchildren Spanish, so that they would take their family traditions further.

Americans have had the inclination to treat Cubans differently from other immigrants coming from Latin America because of the circumstances that lead to each ethnic group leaving their respective country. While most Latin Americans had been coming to the U.S. because they wanted to escape the poverty in their homeland, matters had been different when concerning the Cubans. They left their country because they could not survive there knowing that they were supporting a corrupt political ideology.…… [Read More]

People in Cuba had been desperately trying to emigrate to the U.S. And in 1965, at the time when the Cuban government had announced that "any Cuban with relatives in the United States was free to go there after October 10" (Victor Andres Triay, pp. 100), matters went berserk, with some people even perishing because they attempted to leave the island with unseaworthy boats.

Several waves of immigrants followed throughout the twentieth and the start of the twenty first century. My mother came with the 1980 Mariel boatlifts, which were part of a mass-immigration action performed by people that could not live in the conditions imposed by Fidel Castro. The Cuban leader took advantage of the fact that his people were leaving him in favor of democracy and the U.S. And sent along a large number of criminals from Cuba's prisons.

Adults actually had more trouble adapting to the U.S. environment than children. For children, the U.S. seemed like a place of wonder, where they had access to everything that they dreamed of. "It was only a few weeks until I moved in with the family with whom I lived for two years. They are a very, very nice family" (Aimee How'd). A large number of American families did not hesitate to offer shelter to the children immigrants coming to their country.
View Full Essay

Women's Studies Gender and the

Words: 2891 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73045139

As in most other places around the world, the demands of family - caring for children, keeping house, obtaining and preparing food for meals - fall predominantly on women. In the case of Cuba this situation is made worse by the distortions of the communistic economy:

People's motivation to work waned as there was little to work for. Money came to have little meaning in the legal economy - but not by design as, according to Marxism, it was supposed to do in a utopian communist society. There simply was little to buy through officially sanctioned channels, and the government provided most social needs gratis or for minimum fees. Under the circumstances, material as well as moral incentives became ineffective in the legal economy. The burdens of sheer survival and transport difficulties also led people to miss work with increased regularity, above all women on whom the burdens fell most.…… [Read More]

Works Cited /PM.qst?a=o&d=5020460643" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

America and the Bay of

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77940580

One of the best points is brought forth by Higgins, who writes that an estimated force of 1500 men were sent to take on no less than 25,000 Cubans (Higgins 1987). "In the end, of approximately 1300 men who actually landed on the beaches from the Brigade, almost 1200 were captured and about 100 killed in combat (Higgins 149). The Brigade, if they failed, were expected to escape into the protected areas that connected to the Bay of Pigs; when in fact those areas, the conditions of the terrain, the poor training and preparation of the Brigade, made such escape impossible (Higgins 149).

Years later, declassified papers and tapes from the hite House would lend insight into the fiasco, but not clarity. One thing that was evidenced from the hite House tapes is that the Bay of Pigs continued to be a source of humiliation and annoyance to President Kennedy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blight, James G. And Peter Kornbluh, eds. 1999. Politics of Illusion: The Bay of Pigs Invasion Reexamined. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. /PM.qst?a=o&d=105514456" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Isolation There Are Two Different

Words: 1671 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 21000405

In Cuba's case, there has really been no real opening up from the United States to the Cuban cause and no acceptance of the Cuban 'wound'. The embargo still stands and is thoroughly imposed, there are no diplomatic relations and no direct flights between the two countries. There are no signs so far that the United States is willing to warm up to Cuba and allow it to come out of its isolation. In other words, there are really no elements to help us determine that the isolators would be willing to allow the isolated to be released.

Drawing again on the parallel, we should point out that this was the same in Philoctetes's case, at least for most of the play. The reason he is able to come out of his isolation is not necessarily because the isolators have realized they have made a mistake or because they are…… [Read More]


1. Sophocles (translated by Carl Philips). Philoctetes. Oxford University Press U.S., 2003
View Full Essay

Juan Bosch When Juan Bosch

Words: 3298 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24367632

" However, osch's writings were by no means one-dimensional, for he addressed many universal aspects of life. Indeed, osch's versatility as a writer is reflected in his ability to write works of fantasy, political thought, biographies, history, social realism, and cultural commentaries. He also published several poems and short stories in Cuban and Dominican newspapers and magazines, and worked for a period of time as literary editor for the influential newspaper, Listin Diario.

The fact that Juan osch was, first and foremost, a humanist who was interested in all aspects of human interest and welfare is clearly reflected in his writings. for, osch did not merely dwell on the miserable plight of the rural poor, but also reflected on the materialism and hypocrisy of the upper classes. For instance, in La bella alma de don Damian (the eautiful Soul of Don Damian), osch depicts Don Damian's soul examining itself with…… [Read More]


Alexander, R.J. Presidents of Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and Hispaniola:

Conversations and Correspondence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

Cambeira, a. Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural

Perspective. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
View Full Essay

Barcardi a Strategic Overview of

Words: 3646 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48097779

Given the scale and global penetration of the Bacardi brand and its product line, it is appropriate that Bacardi should possess a visible and meaningful presence in the discussion on underage drinking and alcohol abuse. Certainly, this would be considered an appropriate measure for an organization boasting Bacardi's proliferation. According to Yahoo! Finance (2010), "the company's portfolio consists of more than 200 brands and labels, including Bombay Sapphire Gin, Martini Vermouth, Dewar's Scotch hisky, B&B and Benedictine liqueurs, and Grey Goose Vodka. Other types of spirits in its portfolio include tequila, vermouth, cognac, and sparkling wine. Serving more than 100 countries, the company operates 27 production sites around the world." (Yahoo! Finance, 1)

This accounts for the company's greatest strength, which is its enormity of scale. Though Bacardi has been in operation for well over a century, the growth potential at this scale has only really been realized in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bacardi & Company Limited. (2010). Bacardi Limited.

Gjelten, T. (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause. Viking Adult.

Hambrick, D.C. & Fredrickson, J.W. (2001). Are you sure you have a strategy? The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 48-59.

Mizrahi, A. (2009). Historic Bacardi Building. Urban City Architecture.
View Full Essay

Che Brief Biography of Che

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76420808

" ("Ernesto, 'Che' Guevara, Books and riters, 2003) Guevara gave up a potentially successful life and career as a doctor in his native land to set the poor free. He joined Fidel Castro to overthrow the right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1957. The revolution proved successful. But even more successful proved Guevara's charisma and his voicing of the ways ordinary people could wage revolution: "Guerrilla warfare is used by the side which is supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression." (Cited by "Ernesto 'Che' Guevara," Books and riters. 2003, from Guevara's Guerrilla arfare, 1960)

Guevara earned his nickname 'Che,' because of his habit of saluting his fellow revolutionaries as 'friend.' However, after the conquest of power in January 1959 when Guevara gained fame as the leading figure in Castro's government, Che began to lose some of his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dorfman, Ariel. "Che Guevara." Time Magazine: 100 heroes special edition. Pp.1-3. [13 Jun 2006] 

Ernesto 'Che' Guevara." Books and Writers. 2003. [13 Jun 2006]
View Full Essay

Causes of Different Economic Development Among Different

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88896797

causes of different economic development among different immigration groups in the United States will be documented on a description of the economic level of each community and some of its characteristics, as well as on the different policies that the U.S. government may have applied in their cases and on the social and human capital they have brought along.

The Cubans represent a case apart, mainly due to the legal stimuli that they received from the White House administration for their immigration. Indeed, as many sources were keen to mention, the Cuban immigrates were privileged, in the sense that, unlike many other populations, they were not required to prove their position as political immigrates, but their status was predefined as such, because of Fidel Castro's Communist regime in Cuba. This meant that they were automatically considered refugees and received the privileges that went with this position.

Additionally, starting from 1966,…… [Read More]


1. Stepick, Alex. Immigrants, Race and Power in Miami: Reconfiguring Relations. November 2003. On the Internet at

2. Dominicans Are City's Fastest Growing, Poorest Group, Says Study. Columbia University Record -- March 10, 1995 -- Vol. 20, No. 20. On the Internet at 

3. Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at

Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at
View Full Essay

Media the Issue Itself and

Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71005822

One reporter for the New York Daily News rants, "Come on, let's be serious…if anything is clear, it is that the trip of the famous couple to Havana has exposed the travel ban as what it is: a senseless, anachronistic and anti-democratic policy, contrary to U.S. interests and values," (uiz, 2013).

What was done to resolve the controversy?

There has yet to be a clear resolution to the controversy, but the expression of symbolic free speech on the part of Beyonce and Jay-Z has deepened the discourse about the purpose and effectiveness of the Cuba embargo. The celebrity visit has caused new dialogue about Cuban-American relations and the meaning behind the ongoing travel ban Many Americans do not give much thought to the travel ban; but Cuban-Americans take the ban personally. Now that the Cold War is over, it does not seem to make much sense to have an embargo.…… [Read More]


Boesveld, S. (2013). Beyonce and Jay-Z's Cuba jaunt sparks uproar as U.S. politicians accuse Obama of breaking tourism embargo. National Post. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: 

Brown, H. (2013). How the GOP response to Beyonce's Cuba trip highlights broken policy. Think Progress. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: 

Hudson, D.L. (n.d.). Posts tagged 'nonverbal expression.' Inside the First Amendment. Retrieved online: 

Peralta, E. (2013). Treasury: Jay-Z and Beyonce Traveled to Cuba on U.S.-Approved Trip. NPR: The Two-Way. Retrieved online:
View Full Essay

War in Iraq

Words: 2951 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61176547

Iraq ar

As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 .

BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. .

Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 .

Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 .
View Full Essay

Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Are Alpha

Words: 2156 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5637404

Alpha 66 and Omega 7

Are Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Domestic or International Organizations?

After Fidel Castro's evolutionary movement overthrew the Batista regime in Cuba and declared his country a Socialist nation allied with the Soviet Union -- the principle enemy of the United States at the time -- many Cubans opposed to Castro flocked to the United States. Many of these refugees and exiles were wealthy businessmen who were committed to overthrowing the Castro regime. The anti-Castro opposition by Cuban exiles took different forms, some of them advocating dialogue or diplomatic opposition, while others taking a hardliner position, engaging in militant activities (Garcia, 1998). The Cuban exile organizations known as Alpha 66 and Omega 7 were among the latter, resorting to violent activities inside and outside the United States, attacking persons and installations belonging to the Castro government and its allies as well as those in the United…… [Read More]


Bohning, D. (2005) The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-1965. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.

Didion, J. (1987) Miami. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Garcia, M. (1998). Hardliners v. 'Dialogueros': Cuban Exile Political Groups and United States -- Cuba Policy. Journal of American Ethnic History, 17(4), 3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Herman, E.S. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
View Full Essay

Ernesto Che Guevara's Identity Throughout

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80126262

The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.


arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"

iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.

enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance

in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.

Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.

"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…… [Read More]


Barbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"

Biography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.

Benavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance

in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
View Full Essay

Revolution Cuba Bolivia Chile the

Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97225616

What is similar between the Bolivian revolution and the Cuban revolution is the fact that many revolutionaries in Cuba and different groups including the militia, miners and peasants in Bolivia were fighting against each other and for different causes. There lacked consistency of purpose which ultimately affected the economy of each land and resulted in lack of a dedicated leader all could approve of.

The Cuban and Bolivian revolutions also had in common many primary figures of authority that, despite their wrongs or rights, were charismatic enough to capture the support of a great number of people. The Cuban military, much like the revolutionaries in Bolivia, were for the most part ineffective. The United States opposed the leadership of the Cuban government however, during the Cuban war, which separates it from the Bolivian revolution where the United States supplied much in the way of assistance and capital in an attempt…… [Read More]


Latin American (2007) "The Bolivian Revolution 1952-1964,"

Retrieved November 26, 2007: 

Fermoselle, R. (1987). The evolution of the Cuban military: 1492-1965. Miami:
View Full Essay

Cuban Missile Crisis

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57016108

American President John F. Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis played an important role in averting nuclear war between the Soviets and Americans. hile critics (often rightly) accuse Kennedy of making mistakes, including creating the conditions for the crisis in his mismanagement of the Bay of Pigs, his overall performance during the crisis was helpful. Kennedy's choice to avoid a military attack on Cuba was especially important, as was his decision to negotiate diplomatically with Soviet President Nikita Khrushchev.

JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was sparked by American president John F. Kennedy's discovery that the Soviet Union had nuclear missiles in nearby communist Cuba. President Kennedy learned of the buildup of nuclear weapons, which included the installation of offensive nuclear missiles, on October 16th, 1962. At that date, the Soviet Union's nuclear missiles in Cuba were just 90 miles from U.S. territory,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blanton, Thomas S. The Cuban Missile Crisis: 40 Years Late. with Thomas S. Blanton, Executive Director, National Security Archive.,

Wednesday, Oct. 16, 2002; 11 a.m. ET. Accessed October 26, 2005.

Dyer, Gwynne. The Enigma of John F. Kennedy, 10 November 2003. Accessed October 26,
View Full Essay

Women in the Revolution

Words: 1322 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86461736

Cuban Gender oles

Concurrent evolutions in Cuba

Describe your understanding of gender norms and ideals in pre-revolutionary Cuba -- for both men and women. In what ways did the Cuban evolution and the revolutionary government of Fidel Castro include women and/or women's concerns in the revolution? What were the strengths and weaknesses of these measures? Be sure to discuss "feminine, not feminist" ideas: Did they support or undermine women's equality? Why or why not? Use specific examples to support your answers.

The Cuban evolution was a tumultuous time in which many fundamental shifts occurred in the society. The primary shift occurred due to the use of force to overthrow a dictatorship in order to implement a government with a communist despite. Despite many objections to the use of force to obtain these changes, or possibly to the communist ideals in general, there were many egalitarian ideals upon which the movement…… [Read More]


Brown, V. (2011, February). Cuban socialism and women's liberation -- two revolutions entwined. Retrieved from Direct Action: 

CDA. (2013). Womens Work. Retrieved from Center for Democracy in the Americas:

Machado, Y. (2012, July 30). Feminists in Cuba: Is It Time to Take Steps Together? Retrieved from Havana Times: 

Murray, N. (1979). Socialism and Feminism: Women and the Cuban Revolution. Feminist Review, 99-108.
View Full Essay

U S -cuba Relations and the Potential

Words: 3863 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 54526883

S., become attracted to the U.S. And flee the country. Cuba certainly needs to prevent a brain drain at all costs. It could do so by encouraging the U.S. To invest in its infrastructure and for U.S. doctors to train and learn at Cuban facilities, which, by all accounts, have some of the highest standards of excellence in the world (Schoultz, 2010, 8). By helping to build up the Cuban infrastructure, further economic trade could be encouraged. This could also help both the U.S. And Cuba exploit its other natural resources by providing the necessary framework for extraction and export of its huge nickel and sugar stockpiles.

ith the coming economic recovery, the world will certainly need raw materials like nickel and steel as well as sugar to fuel the building and population boom that will more than likely follow a recovery. The political ties that bind the current U.S.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coll, Alberto R. (2007). "Harming Human Rights in the Name of Promoting Them: The Case of the Cuban Embargo." Foreign Affairs. Vol. 3, No. 88. Pp. 199-209.

Griswold, Daniel. (2005). "Four Decades of Failure: The U.S. Embargo against Cuba." CATO

Institute Homepage. Published 12 October, 2005 .

Hanson, Stephanie. (2009). "U.S.-Cuba Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. Report delivered 14 April, 2009.
View Full Essay

Cuban Exiles

Words: 1704 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82127411

Cuban Americans

Of all ethnic groups classified as "Hispanic," Cuban Americans have been seen as a model minority. Compared to groups such as Mexican-Americans or Puerto Ricans, Cubans are seen as an economically-successful sub-group. Furthermore, Cuban Americans are generally regarded as a socially-homogenous group which has parlayed their population and economic might into political clout.

This paper examines the various cultural, political and economic factors that have contributed to the Cuban American success story. This paper argues that counter to popular belief, Cubans are far from a homogenous ethnic group. Rather, it was this group's shared sense of exile and its mobilization of large numbers of immigrants that paved the way for their socio-economic and political clout.

This paper takes a historical approach to the growth of economic and political power of Cuban Americans. It looks at how Cuban exiles slowly shifted focus from anticipating their return to the homeland…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos et al. "Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Available from ERIC database.

Anton, Alex and Hernandez, Roger E. Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile. New York: Kensington, 2002

Azicri, Max. Reinventing Socialism. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.

Eckstein, Susan and Barberia, Lorena. "Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties." International Migration Review 36(3): 799-837
View Full Essay

Fr Walsh and the Pan Pedro Cuban Migrants

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36740246

History Miami and the Pedro Pan Exhibit

The Pedro Pan exhibit at History Miami tells the story of the 14,000 unaccompanied Cuban children refugees who were sent from their homes in Cuba by their parents to foster homes or campus under the guidance of Fr. Bryan O. alsh, who worked with the United States government to waive the visa requirements for the children of the Cuban parents who sought to protect them from Communist indoctrination. However, this move caused the children to be separated from their parents, some for many years and some for the rest of their lives. It caused a rupture in the lives of these Catholic families, who were being pulled in two different directions at once: on the one side was the new leader of their nation, Fidel Castro, who sought to rid Cuba of the American imperialist forces that he felt were undermining the country;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brady, Mary Pat. "Border." Keywords for American Cultural Studes. NY: New

York University Press, 2007. Print.

Lowe, Lisa. "Globalization." Keywords for American Cultural Studes. NY: New

York University Press, 2007. Print.
View Full Essay

Cuban Missile Crisis

Words: 2970 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46885298

Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.

Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…… [Read More]


Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)

Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):

Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):

Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
View Full Essay

Night Falls by Reinaldo Arenas

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35037850

This led to his arrest and multiple attempts at escape from the country and trips in and out of El Morro where ironically, he claimed a celibate lifestyle.

Arenas began his literary career by entering a storytelling contest. This led to his being given a writing job at the Biblioteca Nacional Jose Marti in 1963. He then produced a number of short novellas. In 1965 at 22 he his first novel Celestino antes del alba (Celestino Before Dawn) which won the First Mention Award at the Cirilo Villaverde National Competition. It was originally published in 1967 by the UNEAC (National Union of Cuban riters and Artists) and had a limited run of 2000 copies. This work won the 1969 Prix Medici in the country of France. This was the only novel that Arenas published in Cuba.

He left the Biblioteca Nacional in 1968 and became an editor for the Cuban…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arenas, Reinaldo. Before Night Falls. New York, NY: Penguin, 1994.
View Full Essay

Terrorism Is Defined by Some

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57764387

As we know from the evolution of modern history, the Soviet Union and the countries of the Eastern block generally backed up the Arab countries, mainly because their actions were directed towards the Untied States and Israel, natural enemies for the Soviets.

However, strangely enough, international politics meant that the United States often found themselves backing Iraq, at least during the 80s and the war with Iran. This happened because of U.S.'s relations with Iran, after Khomeini had gained power here, in 1979. So, somewhat in an absurd manner, we find both superpowers, the U.S. And the Soviet Union, tacitly backing Iraq, at least in part of its actions.

This is not the case after the Persian Gulf War, in 1990. The impact from now on is mostly economically driven. Indeed, under international pressure and economic embargo, the Iraqi government and Saddam Hussein's regime is forced to abide by many…… [Read More]


1. Wikipedia. On the Internet at 

Wikipedia. On the Internet at
View Full Essay

Cuban Embargo the Failure of

Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3815555

In fact, the effects of the trade embargo are felt only at the lowest levels of Cuban society, as it deprives them of goods that could be purchased from the United States at lower costs. This result is ironic since the embargo was enacted ostensibly to free the Cuban people from an oppressive regime.

Many people view the Cuban embargo as a complete failure, as it has not accomplished its goals, and arguably has done nothing else than to bolster Castro's position and thrust the Cuban population into a deeper state of poverty. Despite this, the United States has yet to lift the embargo, due largely to strong opposition from key political leaders.


Griswold, Daniel. Four Decades of Failure: The U.S. Embargo against Cuba ice University: October 12, 2005, accessed… [Read More]


Griswold, Daniel. Four Decades of Failure: The U.S. Embargo against Cuba Rice University: October 12, 2005, accessed .
View Full Essay

Cuban Missile Crisis

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99008170

Cuban Missile Crisis

In October 1962 the world came closest to a nuclear holocaust than it has ever done before or since in a critical standoff between the two major nuclear powers (the U.S. And the U.S.S..) over the deployment of missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union. This paper discusses the causes and consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis and assesses President Kennedy's handling of the crisis.


After the Spanish-American War of 1898 that ended the Spanish Empire and Spain's control of Cuba, the United States had given itself the right to intervene in the internal affairs of Cuba and U.S. businesses established extensive interests on the island. All of this ended with the Cuban evolution under Fidel Castro in 1959. The U.S. was not prepared to accept a leftist revolution so close to its borders and the CIA carried out several covert and overt attempts to dislodge…… [Read More]


Cuban Missile Crisis." (2003) Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Brenner, Philip. (2002) "Turning History on its Head." The National Security Archive. The George Washington University Web Site. Retrieved on June 1, 2003 at 

May, Ernest and Zelikow, Philip. (Feb 1998) "Eavesdropping on History: Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Encarta Yearbook, 1998

Through the passing of the Platt Amendment by the U.S. Congress in 1901 that backtracked on the Teller Amendment passed before the War pledging the U.S. intention of not annexing Cuba
View Full Essay

Political Environment the Impact of

Words: 1849 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78575936

An image of this work is represented below (Pazos 1992).

This particular page of the mural depicts Che holding a rifle in a rural setting composed of soft shades of blue and green. The contrasts of these elements in the artwork also represent the controversy embodied in Che's life and work. Che's life was composed of a dedication to love and had grand ideals of elevating man in society. Though in attempts to achieve his goals, Che resorted to the use of violence and was also known by his violent deeds.

The mural portrays those elements by providing an artistic representation of the contrast. On one hand, there are peaceful and tranquil colors shown in a serene environment in nature that represent the aspirations of Che and the Cuban Revolution. On the other hand, the rifle is shown almost centered in the mural. Furthermore, it is the darkest element the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brociner, Ken, David Kunzle, and Lincoln Cushing. "Obiturary." Cuba Poster Project, 1996.

Guevara, Che. "Socialism and Man in Cuba." Marcha, 1965.

Pazos, Felix Rene Mederos. "#10 Che series." Cuba Poster Project. 1992.

Rivadulla, Eladio. "The Film Poster in Cuba (1940 -- 1959)." Design Issues, 2000: p36-44.
View Full Essay

American Terrorism for Many People

Words: 14357 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86656733

The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.

Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.

These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.

Limitations of the Study

The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…… [Read More]


39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from: 

Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from: 

Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: 

Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Latin Hispanic Literature According to Both

Words: 1393 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68002633


Human development and evolution across all cultures mean that there will be a gap between older generations, who tend to cling to outdated ideals and paradigms, and younger generations, who tend away from the traditional and towards new developments. While there are merits in both positions, subscribers to each respective position seldom see the value in the viewpoint of the other. Hence, the conflicts that arise are often difficult to manage and impossible to overcome.

Such conflict is clearly portrayed in Nash Candelaria's "El Patron," and also to a degree in Oscar Hijuelos's "Visitors, 1965. n the former, the traditional viewpoint is represented by Lola's father, Senor Martinez, while the more progressive viewpoint is represented by the other three major characters in the story; Lola, her brother Tito, and her husband, the narrator of the story. The difference in viewpoints can be seen on a variety of platforms, including…… [Read More]

In "Visitors, 1965" on the other hand, the differences between respective generations, traditions, and paradigms are far more complex and multi-dimensional than in Candelaria's story. The story begins with an atmosphere of hope and joy as a result of Fidel Castro assuming power in Cuba. One of the main characters, Alejo, is a cook and the time, and chosen to be in charge of the dessert for Castro's visit to the United States. Alejo observes that "Only in America could a worker get so close to a fat little guy with enormous power" (295).

This event represents the difference in power relations as observed in the United States and in Cuba. The contrast is further strengthened as time increasingly reveals the suffering brought about by Castro's rule. American citizens have enough to eat and receive fair trials, along with humane treatment in prisons, while the same could not be expected in Cuba.

Another dichotomy is the one between cultures as represented by language. This is particularly embodied in the character of Hector. As the story progresses, so does Hector's feeling of displacement between cultures. He is not sufficiently confident to speak his native Spanish, nor is he happy in the United States, which he associates with feelings of loneliness and despair. He relates best to his displaced aunts and cousins from Cuba. In this way, the story offers a vision of the displaced and the necessity of adjustment amidst war and uncertainty.
View Full Essay

Vietnam's Economic Transformation

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 22274744

Communism to Capitalism: Vietnam's Economic Transformation

Assess the market opportunities in Vietnam for both consumer products companies and industrial-products companies. hat is the nature of the opportunity?

ith the establishment of normal trading relations (NTR) in the mid-1990s leading to decreased tariffs and quotas on United States' imports, many companies viewed Vietnam as a land of opportunity but the United States has lagged behind other countries with marketing to this country. The potential is there for profitability, but it may take at least twenty years before Vietnam's economy has matured enough to be able to be on level with Taiwan. The current population under 25 years of age is approximately 60%, but the per capita income for most of the population is very low at around $700 per year.

As the Vietnamese people adjust to living outside of Communist rule, they will adapt to the ways of a market economy.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greenhouse, Steven. "New Calls To Lift Embargo On Cuba." New York Times 20 Feb. 1994: 4. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from , uid&db=f5h&AN=30375796&site=ehost-live

Van Khai, Phan. "Putting Behind The Past And Looking Toward The Future." Foreign Affairs 84.5 (2005): 1. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 Was a

Words: 2422 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63580664

Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was a major cold war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba although they had made a promise to the U.S. that they would not (Chayes). hen the U.S. discovered the construction of missile launching sites, President John F. Kennedy publicly denounced the Soviet actions, demanding that they remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba.

hen this did not work, Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba, threatening that the U.S. Days would meet any missile launched from Cuba with a full-scale retaliatory attack later, Soviet ships carrying missiles to Cuba went home. Khrushchev soon agreed to dismantle the missile sites. The U.S. ended its blockade within a month, and shortly after, all missiles and bombers were removed from Cuba.


In 1962, the United States, the Soviet Union and the rest of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brugioni, Dino A. Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside story of the Cuban Missile

Chayes, A. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Oxford University Press, 1974.

Crisis. Random House, 1991.

Hersh, Seymour. The Dark Side of Camelot. Little, Brown & Company, 1998.
View Full Essay

Jimmy Carter Annotated Bibliography Secondary

Words: 1912 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2391785

Barone's conclusion is based on exit polling conducted anyway, by the polling firm Sumate/Penn, Schoen & Berland, showing that Chavez should not in fact have won the election.

Porter, Joy. "Jimmy Carter: the Re-Emergence of Faith-Based Politics and the Abortion Rights Issue." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35 (2005). HighBeam

Research. Retrieved January 30, 2007, from:

he article by Joy Porter examines one-time potentially (but never truly realized) long-term ground-breaking political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., impacts (or, as Porter actually, finally, argues, the lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing, comparatively liberal Evangelism, on religiously-based American political discourse (and activism) up to 25 years after his Presidency concluded in 1980. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 campaign for the Presidency especially, although he clearly used his own distinct faith-based politics as its centerpiece, Jimmy Carter's own personal Christian faith did not in fact promote the agenda of the…… [Read More]

The article by Joy Porter examines one-time potentially (but never truly realized) long-term ground-breaking political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., impacts (or, as Porter actually, finally, argues, the lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing, comparatively liberal Evangelism, on religiously-based American political discourse (and activism) up to 25 years after his Presidency concluded in 1980. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 campaign for the Presidency especially, although he clearly used his own distinct faith-based politics as its centerpiece, Jimmy Carter's own personal Christian faith did not in fact promote the agenda of the religious right, even if it was Carter himself who (ironically) initially awakened right wing Christians themselves to the galvanizing potential of their political agenda(s). Further, because Jimmy Carter's faith-based Presidency was in fact what originally stimulated, right-wing Christians to begin coalescing around their own distinctive political issues, the right wing itself ultimately rejected him for a second term, instead favoring Ronald Reagan since his own conservatism was comparable to theirs.

The U.S. And Israel Stand Alone." Spiegel Interview with Jimmy Carter. August 15, 2006. Spiegel International Online. Retrieved February 16, 2007, at,1518,431793,00.html .

In this interview with Germany's Der Spiegel online magazine that took place with former U.S. President Jimmy Carter in mid-August 2005 during the international publicity run-up to the January, 2006 publication of his then-newest book, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis (2006), Former President Carter, discusses frankly what he sees as both the political and moral failings, into his second term as president, of George W. Bush, e.g., especially, the war in Iraq and his handling of it. Carter further notes within the interview that America now is in an especially precarious spot vis-a-vis the Middle East in general, and that the United States is alone in the world in its unconditional support, under George W. Bush as President, of Israel's overly aggressive political actions and attitudes. Carter also talks to Der Spiegel about Cuba's Fidel Castro, his protracted illness, and how Castro's eventual death will likely impact Cuba and its neighbors.
View Full Essay

Kein and Haynes 2008 Draw

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8637553

Roosevelt also withdrew the U.S.A. from interfering in Mexican policy by repealing the Platt Amendment, whilst World War II further brought the U.S.A. And most of Latin America closer.

he Cold War 1945-90

he peace in certain parts f Latin America (particularly Cuba) was severed by tendency of parts of Latin America to incline towards communism, which the U.S.A. thoroughly abhorred. he Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro succeeded in toppling Batista government in 1959. Castro adopted a socialist-characterized series of reform, which alienated the Eisenhower administration, severed diplomatic relations between the U.S.A. And Cuba, with the U.S.A. freezing Cuban assets and placing an embargo on the country. he Kennedy administration proceeded in supporting the invasion of Cuba that promptly failed but succeed in sharpening the gap between Cuba and the U.S.A. with Cuba overly allying itself with the Soviet Union. he threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated…… [Read More]

The peace in certain parts f Latin America (particularly Cuba) was severed by tendency of parts of Latin America to incline towards communism, which the U.S.A. thoroughly abhorred. The Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro succeeded in toppling Batista government in 1959. Castro adopted a socialist-characterized series of reform, which alienated the Eisenhower administration, severed diplomatic relations between the U.S.A. And Cuba, with the U.S.A. freezing Cuban assets and placing an embargo on the country. The Kennedy administration proceeded in supporting the invasion of Cuba that promptly failed but succeed in sharpening the gap between Cuba and the U.S.A. with Cuba overly allying itself with the Soviet Union. The threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. USA intervention in the rest of the county resulted in various insurrections through the country by different political groups (mostly military dictatorships) vying for power.

The post cold-war 1990 to the present.

There is growing criticism on U.S. involvement in the area, particularly sparked by the Washington Consensus which was an economic reform package promoted for developing nations during the 1980s and 1990s. Some Latin American countries have campaigned for polices contrary to the Consensus and neoliberal politics in both U.S. And Mexico have protested against U.S. interference in their national sovereignty. This has been reinforced left-wing political party rising to power that declare themselves socialists, Latin Americans, or anti-imperialists. There is ongoing debate about constraints upon the state and the expanding role of the free market.
View Full Essay

U S Foreign Policy Pre and

Words: 4171 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95331019

A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).

President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…… [Read More]

References /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

U S History and Foreign Policy

Words: 3087 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44277503

The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (

Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.

In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.

The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…… [Read More]



An Outline of American History (1994) 

View Full Essay

U S Foreign Policies and Actions

Words: 1576 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64140012


Therefore, it is fairly evident that U.S. foreign policy certainly aided in worsening the political situations in much of Latin America during the Cold War. It did so by serving as a source of enmity for many nationalist groups that arose to oppose its domination in the area, by attempting to undermine the reform measures of governments erected in place of those that it favored, and by formally supplying weaponry, funding and training to opposing factions that represented U.S. interest. The effect of all of these measures was that they led to greater and greater reactionary measures among the groups that were infringed upon. This fact is particularly true of Central American involvement in the Cold War, the regimes that were erected and dealt with insurrections and counter insurrections in El Salvador and Guatemala were among some of the bloodiest in the Cold War, excluding those in Vietnam. Yet…… [Read More]


Brand, Hal. Latin America's Cold War. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2004. Print.
View Full Essay

Cultural Experience Description the Event Is More

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26516045

Cultural Experience


The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.

In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.

Geert (2012). National culture. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from 

Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.

Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
View Full Essay

Judgment in Managerial Decision Making

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 11843591

A year later, Soviet's premier in collaboration with Cuba installed nuclear missiles on the Cuban island, a few miles from the U.S. This decision triggered the Missile Crisis in Cuba and many global leaders feared the possibility of a nuclear war (Blight & Kornbluh, 2007).

Focalism / focusing illusion played a part in this failure

As evidenced above, Kennedy's reign offers potent examples of the psychological theory about flawed focusing illusion (group decision-making). Because the group culture overruled the internal agreement, members became unrealistic. In this case, the products of focusing illusions played a part in the failure of the invasion. President Kennedy's poor decision-making practices led to insufficient solutions to the issues of the invasion. Because the president and his advisors limited their discussions to few alternative courses of action, they disregarded further consideration of alternatives, which could have been worthy to the course. The team ignored all viable…… [Read More]


Blight, J.G., & Kornbluh, P. (2007). Politics of illusion: The Bay of Pigs invasion reexamined. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Pub.

Craughwell, T.J., & Phelps, M.W. (2008). Failures of the presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and war in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press.

Higgins, T. (2009). The perfect failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of Pigs. New York: Norton
View Full Essay

Freedom for Black South Africans

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36507083

Apartheid History

Apartheid certainly represents some of the darkest times in the history of South Africa as well as the larger world. In the several decades it existed, a white minority exploited and oppressed a black majority in a violent and suppressive manner. Indeed, the very word "apartheid" means separation and being "apart." The brutality in question lasted from just after World War II in 1948 and eventually (and finally) ended in 1994. While the scars are still healing in South Africa and many social/racial problems still exist, a full generation has passed since Apartheid fell.

Historical Summary

Apartheid was the brainchild and creation of the National Party and the Broederbond organization but was actually a continuation of what was started by the Dutch when they controlled the area. There was a significant amount of blowback and strife that followed as the black populace oppressed by Apartheid rejected and roiled…… [Read More]


Apartheid Museum. (2014, June 19). Home | Apartheid Museum. Home | Apartheid Museum. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from 

History Channel. (2014, June 17). Apartheid. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from
View Full Essay

Psychological Representation of Characters Throughout

Words: 1844 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6468890

Clearly, the films Shadows, Cleo from 5 to 7 and Memories of Underdevelopment; highlights a shift that would occur in film making from: the late 1950's to the late 1960's. Where, a variety of cinematographers have begun to focus on a new type of genre that would be radically different, from the traditional films that were produced by Hollywood. As these kinds of features would discuss various social issues, that could be affecting society and the individual. This would have an impact upon film making in the future, as it would highlight vast disparities that were occurring through the use a different characters and subtle themes. This is important, because the use of these techniques, along with small hand held cameras would create a new way of entertaining a host of audiences. As it would give them the actual feelings of the main character and how the various events being…… [Read More]


Bradshaw, Peter.: Cleo from 5 to 7." Guardian. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010

Burton, Julia. "Film and Revolution in Cuba." N.d.123- 142. Print.

Carney, Ray. "The Searcher." Guardian. 21 Feb. 2004. Web. 31 Oct. 2010 .

James, David. "Underground Film: Leapfrogging from the Grave." Allgories of Cinema: American Film in the 1960's. Princeton NJ: Princeton UP, 1989. 85 -- 110. Print.
View Full Essay

U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3090 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 8617183

President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.

In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).

ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]


An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.

Retrieved January 1, 2009 at

The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at 

Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.