Secondly, the projects are diverted away from its target population because state institutions of these poor countries tend to be weak and inefficient. And in the process, we only encounter the "iron law of political economy" in which the resources that were initially allocated to the poor tend to flow towards those who possess more power because the state is inefficient in regulating these resources. Thirdly, the political dimension of the development aid should be taken into consideration -- countries whose majority of the budget comes from development aid may become less capable of independent political action (1-4).
Still on the case of Africa, Jere-Malanda's work (2007) maintained that the manipulative operations undertaken by the IMF, World Bank, and WTO via their aversive economic policies has, opened up Africa to exploitations by Western corporate powers. This is illustrated in the case of IMF and World Bank's insistence on the privatization…… [Read More]
To prevent these kinds of situations, management needs to implement a policy that will limit the total amount of derivative based assets in: the clients' or the company's portfolio to an acceptable amount. At which point, they would have the compliance department monitor these activities, to ensure that everyone is following the different guidelines. This will reduce the possible risks facing the company and it would improve their internal controls. ("One ank One Client")
Clearly, the National ank of Canada is in a much stronger position in comparison with its competitors. The reason why, is because they have been engaging in actions that have been helping the company to: increase its bottom line and expand into new markets. Some good examples of this can be seen with the increases in: Personal / Commercial anking, Wealth Management and Financial Markets. However, at the same time, these actions have meant that possible…… [Read More]
Statement for the Shareholders
Several events have occurred over the past few months that will have an impact on our commercial and investment activities in Germany and the United States. We will discuss each of the events and the likely result on the bank's profitability, strategic business direction, and asset and liability consequences. The events to be analyzed are the raising of short-term rates by the European Central Bank, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requiring separation of underwriting services and stock research, declining reserves held at the United States Federal Reserve, the downgrading of credit ratings for corporate clients, and Berlin searching for an underwriter of municipal bonds.
The latest price indices from Europe indicate an acceleration of inflation in the European Union countries. To address the inflationary pressures the European Central Bank recently increased the equivalent of the United States discount rate. In the…… [Read More]
2. Impact on the Canadian or global financial system
There are high monetary risks in the whole international financial system and it is in chaos. Added to that, the problems in Europe may snowball into a major balance of payment position and reversal in currency indices. This may cause future problems to banks and institutions that operate on a global scale and are at the risk of facing acute financial dilemmas in the near future. A dilemma for the sector for example is that in most countries there are debts that are due to mature in the next 2 years. This will create pressures in the bank funding by that time. This applies to Canada too. Further liquidity in the capital market will also go down because corporate debt markets also are low in investment and low demands in aggregate.
3. egulatory or public policy implications
The global banking sector…… [Read More]
Financial Markets & Institutions," author Dr. Marlanda English outlines the sectors of the financial services industry from the perspective of what you need to know in order to invest wisely. English begins by first identifying the primary sectors according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in addition to three primary activities of the financial services industry as a whole. The primary sectors of the industry include banking, insurance, real estate, and securities and commodities trading. The primary activities of the industry include:
"Raising funds by taking deposits and/or issuing securities and, in the process, incurring liabilities.
Pooling of risk by underwriting insurance and annuities.
Providing specialized services, facilitating or supporting financial intermediation, insurance, and employee benefit programs." (English 2008)
English then goes on to identify ten categories of knowledge required to invest wisely, in support of the thesis that "Participation in financial markets and working with financial institutions requires understanding…… [Read More]
The playing field was further leveled when at&T in 1982 had to breakdown their services, giving MCI an opportunity to shine and show what they were capable of accomplishing.
During the mid to late 70's growth potential for MCI was almost non-existent considering the court orders that were in place. However, one bonus proved to be that since there was an inability to expand there was no need for investment potential at that current time. MCI began to deal in preferred stocks. Stock increased by three dollars within a 1-year range. This allowed for an 85% tax deduction without hurting the company's tax benefits. A method that would allow for some type of evaluation regarding accessibility to MCI, and quality; it was also difficult to decipher the impact of access charges.
There is a need to determine effective ways of charting and assessing growth in revenue, as well as effective…… [Read More]
Regulatory Compliance for Financial Institutions: Implementation of a GLA-Complaint Information Security Program
The objective of this work in writing is to examine the implementation of a GLA-complaint information security program.
Objectives of the Information Security Program
The Gramm-Leach-liley Act (GLA) makes a requirement of financial institutions to "develop, implement, and maintain a comprehensive written information security program that protects the privacy and integrity of customer records. GLA mandates emphasize the need for each bank, thrift, and credit union agency to adopt a proactive information security and technology risk management capability. y doing so, your institution can protect information, applications, databases, and the network as part of a comprehensive information security program." (Net Forensics, 2012, p.1)
Financial institutions are required by banking regulators to "evolve beyond point-security products. You must employ an integrated security strategy that establishes perimeter security as well as security inside the network and among all databases, applications,…… [Read More]
Kose, Eswar S. Prasad, and Marco E. Terrones, 2003a, (forthcoming) "Financial Integration and Macroeconomic Volatility," Staff Papers, International Monetary Fund.
Kose, M. Ayhan, 2002, "Explaining Business Cycles in Small Open Economies: How Much Do World Prices Matter?," Journal of International Economics, Vol. 56, pp. 299-327.
Kose, M. Ayhan, and Eswar Prasad, 2003, (forthcoming), Small States in a Global Economy,
Kose, M. Ayhan, and Raymond Riezman, 2001, "Trade Shocks and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 65, pp. 55-80.
Kose, M. Ayhan, Christopher Otrok and Charles Whiteman, (2003) "International Business Cycles: World, Region, and Country Specific Factors," American Economic Review.
Millennium Development Goals, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/pdf/mdglist.pdf
Wei, Shang-Jin, 1997, "Why is Corruption Much More Taxing Than Taxes? Arbitrariness Kills," NBER Working Paper No. 6255 (November).
Wei, Shang Jin (2000b) "Local Corruption and Global Capital Flows," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Vol. 2.
Wei, Shang Jin (2001) "Domestic Crony Capitalism…… [Read More]
Role of Financial Institutions in the Global Economy
Globalization has sparked a revolution in information and communication technology, resulting in the emergence of an era that boasts the arrival of new levels of global interconnectedness. As a result, globalization has also increased the significance of the many different roles that financial institutions play in the overall global economy. Financial institutions can play several roles, ranging from operating as a simple method of savings, to functioning as an important revitalization source in a low-income community. This paper will explain the general role of financial institutions in the global economy, will touch on more significant individual roles, and discuss the overall role of international financial institutions.
Research indicates that a financial institutions' role as an intermediary is clearest in the credit and deposit business (Krayer, 2002). The usual function involves clients bringing to the bank their savings, or money which the bank…… [Read More]
These requirements are:
The respondent has worked within the financial sector for at least five years
The respondent has occupied important positions in the firm (e.g. they are not cleaning staffs)
The respondent has been employed with the current firm for at least twelve months.
5. Analysis of data
The questionnaire revealed throughout the previous section was issued on 50 respondents, from ten different employers in the local financial sector. The responses are revealed in the table below:
a b a b c a b c d e f
When asked about the first reason which stimulated them to remain employed within a position, most of the respondents indicated that the financial packages were the number…… [Read More]
Financial institutions have been under intense scrutiny over the last half decade. Many individuals, often unduly, blame the larger financial institutions for much of the world's economic problems. In the midst of this extreme economic pessimism regarding financial institutions, the underlying business operations of these firms must continue. In fact, it is the result of this pessimism that many financial firms are acquiring new deposits, and customers due in part the economic uncertainties of the future. One large financial institution that has had a very successful marketing campaign in the current down economy is that of Wells Fargo. The current economic pessimism regarding the economy has allowed Wells Fargo to capture market share while also receiving record earnings.
This down economy has created record low interest rates that are expected to prevail until late 2014. These low interest rates, in some cases, create outstanding opportunities for financial institutions.…… [Read More]
Managers in many financial institutions handle large sums of money. However, a small percentage of this cash is involved in the day-to-day running of the businesses' engagements. Since money is the commodity that facilitates exchange of goods and services, it is necessary for those people handling to be good custodians. Most business organizations prefer to keep their money in banking institutions. This not only safeguards the money from risks such as theft and loss but also ensures that finance managers remain transparent and accountable. Banking services require that customers meet some financial responsibilities. In this paper, focus is on the service model and bank holding balance model as offered by different banks. It explains the reasons as to why the latter model is most preferable than the former model (Kennedy, 2005).
As a finance manager, I find the bank holding balance model to be the more appropriate to meet the…… [Read More]
Oversight & egulation of Financial Institutions
In the article entitled "How Financial Oversight Failed & What it May Portend for the Future of egulation," economist ichard J. Herring identifies the government policies he believes contributed to the current financial crisis. These policies include:
Credit rating outsourcing.
The call for investment banks to form holding companies.
Basel I and Basel II minimum capital requirements.
After describing the policies and the financial repercussions of each in detail, Herring presents three arguments in favor of the policies, followed by three refutations of these arguments. From there, Herring goes on to address the principal/agent problems surrounding the financial crisis in both the private and public sectors, and then concludes with the description of two incentive plans -- contingent capital and resolution policy -- he believes will encourage "greater market discipline" (Herring, 2010).
egarding credit rating outsourcing, Herring argues that outsourcing caused a…… [Read More]
The banking business sector is enormously impacted by the perceptive and imperceptive factors in an intensely competitive environment. In recent times, this competition has stiffened all the more with the advancement of globalization. In each regard of their business operations, banks ought to take effective measures in order to diminish risk by pinpointing the prospective causes based on real-world circumstances. Imperatively, the banking sector is deemed to be a significant source of financing for several companies and entrepreneurs. In the past decade, there have been dramatic changes concerning the management of risk in the banking industry. Progressively more financial institutions and managers have augmented the focus on the significance of risk management. In delineation, risk management encompasses the practice of identifying, assessing and listing of risks followed by organized and cost-effective application of resources to curtail, supervise and control the probability and influence of disastrous events or to capitalize…… [Read More]
EU or not EU?
On the question of whether to expand into the European Union or not, there are a few different considerations for an American firm. While the EU has a fairly complex regulatory environment that could prove challenging, the decision as to where to expand internationally still has to be more of a market-based decision. That means looking at an ROI or net present value type of calculation, weighing the cost of entering the market against the size of the market opportunity. That calculation might show that the EU is the best choice for international expansion, or it might not.
There is a lot of information available about expanding into Europe, so at least the decision to enter the EU market or not can be made with a fairly robust set of information guiding it. Each of the 28 member nations publishes material for exporters, and…… [Read More]
Financial Analysis of Lehman rother
The history has been full of financial collapses and financial scandals and one of the biggest financial collapses that a company has ever seen was that of Lehman brother. The collapse of a firm as huge as Lehman rother and a firm which has such great experience of over a hundred years lead the world into a shock. It created doubts in the minds of people regarding the condition of other financial institutions. The history of Lehman rother is rich which is further discussed.
The history of Lehman rother dates back to 1844, when a boy named Henry who was a 23-year-old son of a cattle merchant who immigrated to the United States from Germany and he settled in Alabama State of the United States where he opened dry goods store. In 1847, when Henry Lehman's elder brother arrived to Alabama, the firm…… [Read More]
Financial managers and CEO's play important roles in ensuring that organizations meet their specific goals. The skill levels for both positions are high and require a great deal of patience and experience. The purpose of this discussion is to determine whether being a financial manager is the best preparation for later becoming a CEO.
ole of the Financial Manager
According to the Bureau of Labor, financial managers must have a bachelor's degree in a field such as business administration, accounting, economics or finance. Although, as the business world becomes more competitive, organizations are requiring financial managers to have Master's degrees and a great deal of experience before they can become financial managers. The Bureau also explains that financial managers are vital to the success of any organization and their jobs involve supervising the preparation of financial reports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strategies. As computers are increasingly used…… [Read More]
This study emphasized the importance roles of financial derivatives, which has been known for the last decade and its effects on the Global financial crisis. It further analyzes the impact of financial derivatives and how it can be controlled to prevent corporations from incurring a lot of risks. It also explains the existence of financial derivatives since 1970, to the recent Global Financial Crisis which occurred in the 2006.
Risk is a feature associated with all productivity. As a result, financial markets adjust themselves to the fluctuation of exchange and interest rates. Hedging risk, these corporations highlight the importance of risk management tools known as Derivatives. Derivatives are defined as financial tools providing investors with effective solutions when avoiding risk caused from market volatility (Dodd, 2006). Financial derivatives are considered to be an effective risk management tool associated with Financial Engineering creating solutions to financial problems (Marks, 2010).…… [Read More]
Hyundai company analysis
Finance is a critical function in any business. It acts as an indicator for the health of a company, as well as determining its growth. When a company realizes new investment opportunities and other future aspirations, finance enables such ventures. Thus, finance reflects the performance of an organization (Gruen & Howarth, 2005). Measurement of performance takes place over a period of time. Organizations practically present their financial performance on a quarterly and yearly basis while others carry out a monthly exercise of tracking their performance. The government requires that all companies present an annual assessment of their performance. The information is featured in the form of financial transactions of sales, investments, savings and others. The information is part of a document called the Annul eport. Investors are informed by the annual report of companies before deciding on whether to invest in the company (Mclean, 2003).…… [Read More]
Threats and vulnerability: A case study of Shoe Carnival, Inc.
Shoe carnival overview
Shoe Carnival Inc. is a publicly traded company that offers a range of footwear products for all categories of customers, men, women, children and sportswear. It also offers casual wear products and other assorted products such as handbags. Its headquarters are situated in Evansville, Indiana and it runs over 300 stores across several states mostly concentrated in South, Midwest, and Southeastern states of the U.S. David ussell, who had sold shoes for over 20 years in the traditional way, founded Shoe Carnival after feeling convicted that that was what he wanted to do. In the year 1978, and with is personal savings and some capital from his in-laws, he opened his first store that he called "Shoe Biz." His main idea was to create a shoe store made shoe-shopping fun. The major difference with ussell's…… [Read More]
The decision of investing or not here then depends on the personal adversity to risk of each individual investor. The general theory states that each investor should construct a diversified portfolio, which adequately balances high risk-high gain shares with medium or even low rates of risk and gains (Hagin, 2004). New Zealand could then be assimilated with a medium risk-medium gain share, and as such would be perceived as a valuable addition to one's portfolio. In this order of ideas then, the recommendation would be that of investing in the country.
Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About, http://useconomy.about.com/od/themarkets/a/capital_markets.htm last accessed on December 17, 2009
Hagin, ., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, isk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons
Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development, http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/18163/healy.pdf last accessed on December 17, 2009
Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis:…… [Read More]
This seems to have been in response to the perception of an upcoming slowdown and indicates that the firm is both cognoscent of its liquidity position and is taking steps to ensure the robustness of that liquidity position.
Moreover, in terms of cash flow coverage, State Street is in a solid position. Cash flow coverage measure the ability of the firm to pay its interest expense. In each of the past three years, State Street has generated more interest revenue than they have incurred interest expense.
Because it is difficult to separate operations and investments in a financial services firm, such as State Street, measuring the firm's operating efficiency is valuable. State Street's asset turnover is 6.7%. The gross margin was 15.1% in the past year, slightly down from the previous year. Overall, the gross margin has been steady and healthy over the past few years. If one were to…… [Read More]
The Order of the Knights Templar (Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon) was founded in 1118 to protect Christians on pilgrimage to Jerusalem (Blacktorne, 2011). The Order was sanctioned by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and he quartered the nine original knights in the old stables at the Temple of Solomon. All members had to give over all of their wealth and goods to the Order and take vows of poverty, chastity, piety, and obedience just like other monks (Langue, 2011). A majority of the members joined for life, although a select few were also allowed to join for specific duration.
The Templars' were considered the first international banking organizations. Although this wasn't there specific title they charge a fee (interest) for issuing letters of deposits (checks). Some also view them as a multinational corporation; however the banking reference seems to hold more…… [Read More]
2009 was a stellar year in terms of corporate financial restatements; just 630 U.S. companies reported 674 accounting problems serious enough to warrant a restatement, a dramatic 24% decline from the number of companies with accounting problems in 2008" (Krantz, M. March 1, 2010). However, for Citizens First Bancorp Inc., 2009 was not a year in which to celebrate. In the first and second quarters Citizens was forced to restate their earnings based on two separate incidents, the first involving "an accounting error on a $7.5 million impairment of its deferred tax valuation allowance" (Barba, . October 20, 2009). Second a regulatory action by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which involved allegations of "inappropriate behavior at the company, including removing unfavorable appraisals from the loan files, in an attempt to avoid the recognition of additional loan losses" (Barba, . October 20, 2009). The FDIC required Citizens to…… [Read More]
The reasons companies create and maintain accounting systems
Accounting is the language of business. The ability to record transactions is critical for companies in regards to keeping track of critical performance metrics. The subsequent management of revenues and expenses is critical for the sustainability of the business. Accounting systems, therefore, are needed for accurate assessment of business progress. Businesses create these systems to help facilitate their overall strategic objectives. For instances, if accounts receivables are high, management may be inclined to increase credit terms to discourage customers from borrowing. A natural reaction from this strategic move could possibly be an increase in customers paying in cash. Through tightening credit, management was able to avoid potential delinquencies while increase the cash on hand. These decisions can be made through accurate and timely accounting systems.
In addition, accounting systems can help businesses determine methods by which to improve operations. Aspects…… [Read More]
As per IC Sec. 1033(h), the tax rules for the replacement of those properties destroyed or converted in such cases are eased and the overall replacement period extended as well. "Some rules were also revised like the 'ev. ule 95-22' which considers the funds received for the primary residence as well as scheduled property such as jewelry, pieces of art, coins, etc. which had been insured, as funds for a single item of property." (IS, Tax Law Changes elated to Hurricanes Katrina, ita and Wilma) These funds were to be considered as a "common pool" of proceeds from which the gains realized by the taxpayer could be to the extent of the amount exceeding the expenses after meeting a suitable replacement property. This revised rule also clarifies that the replacement property could refer to the residence being replaced or any scheduled private property "in any proportion." (Kess, Hurricane Katrina tax…… [Read More]
The developments of credit derivatives began in 1980s as a new financial innovation after the swap market started. Swap market provided derivative organizations with profit due to their intermediary position while the credit margins for borrowers were reduced. As the swap market developed there was the development of new interest derivatives so that there were additions to the list of products. Credit derivatives are relatively recent introductions and these are mechanisms for the credit institutions to separate the credit risk from their loans and treat market risk as a separate category so that their pricing efficiency could be more competitive and the concerned organizations could be more competitive in the market. (Credit Derivatives Move Beyond Plain Vanilla)
Thus one can say that credit derivatives are a recent form that can be used by bankers to reduce risk, or increase risks and thus meet their corporate objectives. The general…… [Read More]
Significance of Interest to the economy:
Interest rates keep on changing with the passage of time; the rates which were present a month ago are quite different from the current rates. This is because the interest rates change with the change in the growth of the economy. The expectations of lenders and borrowers regarding the future prices also affect the interest rates (Trainer, 2012).
The interest rates in U.S. are affected by the values of the dollar, by foreign interest rates and also by the close examination of the monetary policy actions which are taken by the Federal eserve. In our market economy a great role is played by the interest rates. Interest rates work just like traffic signals. The way in which the signals direct the traffic on intersecting roads, similarly interest rates manage the flow of money to borrowers from savers. Usually in the fund movement,…… [Read More]
Indeed, risk-seeking is pervasive in the financial industry, as competition compels banks to seek higher returns. Regulation such as capital requirements can help to reduce risk-seeking behavior, although the negative affect such regulations have on value can ultimately encourage at least some degree of risk-seeking. Despite this unintended potential consequence, regulation serves to neuter overly aggressive bankers and reduces risk in the banking system. Reducing the risk in the banking system is congruent with the government's objective of making effective use of taxpayer money.
A fourth consideration is that consumers demand regulation. hile this does not constitute an economic case for regulation, it must be understood that governments are not motivated by purely economic considerations. Consumers want to know that their deposits are safe and that they can access money when needed for homes, vehicles and small businesses. Consumer demand, while irrational, is a key driver in the level of…… [Read More]
Every country has a different level of financial development. The World Bank uses four measures of banking development: depth, access, efficiency and stability. An international banking conglomerate considering expansion will want to understand a country's local banking conditions in order to have the most informed view, to help with making the expansion decision. In this scenario, the countries being evaluated are the United States, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, India, South Africa, Iran, China and Turkey. This report will analyze the banking systems of each of these countries against the World Bank criteria.
Basic Economic Conditions
Before investigating the banking systems in each country, a brief overview will be provided of the prevailing economic conditions in each nation. The size of the economy, measured by GDP and by GDP per capita, is related to the market potential for a bank to enter the country. The more money there is a…… [Read More]
financial derivatives? What are they used for? Types of derivatives. Types of derivatives markets (where are they negotiated).
What are financial derivatives?
Financial derivatives are essentially a financial contract between two people or two entities that depends on the fulfillment of an economic asset in the future, such as a stock, a bond, commodity, or a currency. The two parties make agreements between each other to ensure that all aspects of it will be covered and work in a specific way by a certain date. Financial derivatives, by the way, are called so since the term 'derivative' denotes that their value 'derives' from underlying assets like stocks, bonds and commodities. These financial derivatives can range from something as simple as a private agreement to something that is controlled by rules and restrictions.
Different types of derivatives
There are various derivatives that meet different needs.
Some of these derivatives are the…… [Read More]
financial analysis of Chevron from the perspective of a potential creditor. The issue surrounds primarily the creditworthiness of Chevron rather than the type of credit that would be issued. Specifically, the issue is whether "we" would lend Chevron 10% of its net assets. The net assets for Chevron are $209.474 billion, so the amount in question is $20.9 billion in new debt. The report will first analyze the financial statements of Chevron in general terms, focusing on trends and ratios, and drawing conclusions about the overall financial health of the company based on that analysis. The second part of the paper will outline some of the criteria that a lending institution would have for lending to a company, and then that criteria will be applied to Chevron specifically.
Chevron operates in the hydrocarbon industry, where it is one of the world's largest companies with sales of $241.9 billion and net…… [Read More]
Financial Analysis of Mcdonald
A financial analysis McDonald's Cor
McDonald Corporation is a global company that conducts business in 117 countries. McDonald operates 32,737 restaurants and 26,338 franchises in the highly competitive fast food industry. Since 1940, McDonald has built a loyal customer base by continuing dedicating to customer service and providing high quality fast food for customers. Presently, McDonald could boast of over 60 millions customers and the company serves average of 64 millions customers daily. In the United States, and other countries where McDonald is operating, fast food business is very competitive. Despite the competition that McDonald is facing, the company has been able to record revenues of more than $16 billions in restaurants and revenues of more than $7 billions in franchise restaurants business. McDonald operates in six geographical locations. The company business operations are in the U.S., Europe, Middle East, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and…… [Read More]
The article that was written by Conley (2011) discusses the impact that collateralized debt obligations (CDO's) would have upon the subprime loans. These were created in 1987, by the Wall Street firm Drexel urnham. In this product, the investment bankers would take a number of different articles and combine them together as one investment. The various assets that were used included: junk bonds, mortgages and other high yielding investments from the debt. The idea with these different products is that the investment bank could offer customers a stated return on their investment. The way it worked is the brokerage firm would distribute each investor, the stated amount of returns that they would make off of the tranche (the CDO investment). This was derived using a complex mathematical formula that would divide the total amount of interest that was received, from the various high yielding products that were inside the CDO.…… [Read More]
Financial accounting is mainly concerned with the financial statements that are given to the stockholders, lenders, financial analysts as well as other important factions outside the company. The accounting principles come hand in hand with financial accounting since they are used in reporting the results of the corporation's past transactions. These transactions are reported on balance sheets, the statement of changes, the statement of cash flow, and the income statement. Financial accounting is mainly used as a representation of the financial health of an organization to the stakeholders. The audience of financial accounting includes board of directors, financial institutions, and the stakeholders. The financial accounting presents a specific period in the history of the organization. The information helps the audience to review the performance of the company (Needles, Powers, & Crosson, 2013).
In contrast, managerial accounting focuses on the provision of information inside the company to…… [Read More]
financial system trials tribulations starting early 2008. Indicate major reasons contributed financial market's collapse. Please leave a space reason. -College Level paperOrder ID
Five major factors that contributed to the financial market's collapse
eason 1: Historically low interest rates
The first major contributor to the collapse of the worlds' financial markets was the housing bubble. The Federal eserve dropped interest rates to historically levels after the September 11 terrorist attacks and the dot.com bubble burst. This was to generate more spending and borrowing and propel the nation out of recession. Low interest rates encouraged people to buy on credit. Many people took out mortgages, thinking that this was a good time to buy a house, and many others took out mortgages hoping to 'flip' a house, or sell it for more than they paid for it, as they were convinced that it was impossible for housing prices to go down…… [Read More]
Finance: Financial Investment
Today's investment environment is more dynamic than it was a decade ago. This is particularly the case given that today's global economy is much more complex. Further, with information moving faster than it used to, the ripple effects of events happening in any given place are often felt in far away economies. Essentially, some of the challenges investors encountered a decade or so ago are not the same ones they encounter today. One of the key challenges in today's investment environments is sluggish global economic growth. As Connolly (2014) points out, although the trend could be changing (going by recent performance), "the U.S. economic growth rate has been relatively sluggish." Slow rate of economic growth causes significant uncertainty which is not ideal for investment. Next, it is also important to note that the volatility of equity markets has been rather extreme in the recent past. This…… [Read More]
Financial atios of a Prospective Borrower
Financial ratio analysis is a quantitative tool used to analyze financial standing of a business entity. The ratio analysis can also be used to compare financial capabilities of companies in different industries. This paper discusses how financial ratios can be used to answer questions about the management, marketing, and production capabilities of a prospective borrower. The paper also identifies ratios that demonstrate management competency and are mandatory to a financial services regulator.
atios demonstrating Production, Management, and Marketing Capabilities of a prospective Borrower
In the contemporary business environment, firms rely on loans from banks to improve their business operations. However, before a bank or other financial institutions can offer loans to organizations, they have to evaluate management competency, production, and marketing capabilities of a prospective borrower. The bank uses different financial ratios to analyze production efficiency of a prospective borrower.
An efficiency ratio is…… [Read More]
Develop a financial strategy for using global nursing strategies to increase fiscal responsibility. Include the positive and negative financial impact of bringing foreign healthcare providers into a financial organization. Examples such as physicians, nurses, and therapist should be evaluated and assessed for financial viability.
Healthcare institutions may be faced with fiscal constraints at some point in their growth process therefore necessitating austerity measures and sound business practices that will help minimize costs and enhance operational and financial efficiency inside the hospitals (Dong, 2015). Many questions arise as to how the financial management culture in healthcare institutions can influence care quality. This research paper attempts to identify the global nursing strategies that would increase financial responsibility in healthcare institutions as well as the financial impact that hiring foreign healthcare providers into the financial organization has.
According to Dong (2015) there is a significant statistical relationship between the financial performance of a…… [Read More]
The second purpose of the $700 purchase of troubled assets is to create a market for the securitized versions of these assets. As a result of the crisis, the market for these assets became illiquid. The value of securitized debt obligations became near zero, which severely impacted the balance sheet of all banks that held these assets. By creating a secondary market for these products, the government hopes to increase their value. This will improve the balance sheets of the banks.
The second key clause in TARP is that banks selling troubled assets to the government are required to give the government warrants. This, in theory, protects the government from losses. The theory is that the banks will see an increase in value as a result of the government's efforts, allowing the government to profit from the warrants.
Ancillary to TARP was the FDIC's excusing of troubled assets in its…… [Read More]
stock market and the Banks promote economic growth and it provides a critique of their functions in transitional economies. Every country depends on its economy for its growth. For a country to be stable it has to be stable in terms of its economy. Bank and stock market contribute to a great extent to the economy growth of every country where it provides firms with opportunity to get funds thus encouraging more investment from the firms. At the same time they give information on the ways resources should be allocated. The development of a financially sound, market-oriented banking system is always considered to be fundamental to a flourishing transition. Arguably, it is important to macroeconomic stability and to positive long-term growth prospects. As documented, bank intermediation in transition economies continues to be stunted after a decade or addition of reform, mainly where advancement in banking reforms is inadequate. The banking…… [Read More]
UXB2B: Chinese Taipei
The case of UXB2B speaks of a rather new technological procedure and application to resolve e-commerce issues related to internet security and e-finance logistics for trading partners in the supply chain industry. However, I digress. UXB2B is an e-commerce company that specializes in the development of e-business applications designed to enable supply chain integration through a streamlined and secure software link. Leadership Information: The CEO of the company has a research background in national defense and an educational background in computer and information science
The software, UXB2B had e-everything as its selling point. For example the software enabled eSales, eProcurement, and eFinance; collectively called "SaaS (Software as a Service)"
SaaS met the requirement that UXB2B sought to bring to the market place. The software enabled e-communication amongst all stakeholders to exchange information to open and close transactions via an interconnected system. t first glance, success in the…… [Read More]
Financial system serves as the economic backbone of the country. Financial markets provide capital to businesses, and home owners and a safe haven for income. The financial system includes a variety of financial institutions (different types of banks, for example) as well as the central bank, the stock market and other peripheral types of businesses like mutual funds. For individuals, the system provides a safe place for deposits, and access to capital for things like mortgages, college education or cars. For businesses, banks are a critical source of investment capital that is used for expansion. Thus, the financial system allows for our economy to grow, and for consumers to be able to afford to live better. For the economy, it is critical to have a robust financial system. hen the financial system is weakened, as happened in 2008, the results for the economy can be devastating (Levine, 2010). This is…… [Read More]
Past financial crises provide us with a framework for understanding the best responses to future crises. There are three types of responses, and the best response will contain some form of all three. These are monetary policy, fiscal policy and regulatory policy. The latter is more a long-term response, essentially learning from the crisis and adjusting the legal/regulatory environment to reduce the odds of a similar future crisis emerging. More important from an economic point-of-view are the monetary and fiscal policy responses, and these will be the focus of this paper. In a forward-looking examination, it will be challenging to get much useful from 1907, because the environment then was different in every meaningful way from how it is today, but the responses can still provide some insight into financial crisis response. While all of the crises are different, they all have similar conditions -- there is panic…… [Read More]
Financial Contracting for New Venture:
Investments in a new venture usually involve financial contracts between the entrepreneur and external investors. These external investors include venture capitalists, angel financiers, banks, private financing companies, and credits unions among others. Notably, financial contracts can have positive and negative effects on the new venture. For instance, an angel financier can add a clause on the financial contract that will not permit the entrepreneur to borrow more funds without permission from the lender. While this is likely to occur when the lending institution has a mortgage or lean on the venture's property, the clause is usually added to lessen foreclosure risk. As an individual seeking to venture in a clothing business for the Mixed Martial Arts customers to provide shirts, hoodies/fleeces, and hats, it is important to choose the most appropriate type of financial contracting with the external investor. This process of selecting the most…… [Read More]
Content Find articles address financial reporting practices ethics standards health care finance, including * generally accepted accounting principles * corporate compliance, ethics, and fraud abuse
Financial management: Literature review
Healthcare institutions, like all organizations, are continually confronted with the four basic elements of financial management: deciding what to invest in or produce; how to finance those investments or products; how to manage assets, and how to report those assets in a manner that is useful and also complies with all necessary regulations. This paper will provide an overview of two recent articles, one on the necessity of uniform accounting procedures to ensure ethical and legal compliance amongst healthcare institutions and the other on the financial consequences of failing to do so for the institution itself.
Article 1: Maintaining the strength of your convictions
According to Larry Tyler's 2004 article "Maintaining the strength of your convictions" "Most financial executives…… [Read More]
Had the organization employed the techniques of activity-based costing, they would have realized the need to change their approach and had started manufacturing small size and fuel efficient engines, as most of the customers were requiring these items. "If Ford [...] had used activity-based costing, they would have realized early on the utter futility of their competitive blitzes of the past few years, which offered new-car buyers spectacular discounts and hefty rewards" (Drucker, 2003).
Unlike absorption costing, marginal costing uses the traditional division into direct, indirect, fixed and variable costs. The accounting method sees that the final marginal cost of a product will be calculated by summing up the direct costs of labor, the direct costs of materials, the direct expenses and the variable overheads (Brown). The applications of marginal costing revealed that Ford was able to support a price advantage relative to General Motors and Chrysler due to its…… [Read More]
Bank of America and Merrill Lynch would have to be separated and Goldman Sachs could no longer be a bank holding company. "Commercial banks would take deposits, manage the nation's payments system, make standard loans and even trade securities for their customers -- just not for themselves. The government, in return, would rescue banks that fail. On the other side of the wall, investment houses would be free to buy and sell securities for their own accounts, borrowing to leverage these trades and thus multiplying the profits, and the risks. Being separated from banks, the investment houses would no longer have access to federally insured deposits to finance this trading. If one failed, the government would supervise an orderly liquidation. None would be too big to fail -- a designation that could arise for a handful of institutions under the administration's proposal" (Uchitelle, "Volcker," 2009).
The Volcker proposal seems sensible,…… [Read More]
For most parts of history, government financial executives have been taken as scorekeepers, and made responsible for collecting, processing and reporting the financial information that used by elected officials and senior managers who use them in making their decisions. The question is whether their role has now changed with the present importance of information technology. (From Scorekeeper to Business Partner: The Evolving ole of Government Financial Executives)
Now there is increasing evidence of the importance that information technology is getting in public administration and this is resulting in more and more insistence from the public that government financial executives have a greater say in all decision making activities of the government. The finance executives are now the individuals to lead the charge for getting an entrepreneurial type of government and have it judged based on its performance. For most of the finance executives now, the changes are leading…… [Read More]
25 per share on the initial offering date in 1961 and held as a long-term investment. The original 100 shares has grown to 48,000 shares through stock splits and stock dividends. And this does not include the reinvestment of cash dividends.
Bought 100 Shares
100% stock dividend
2 for 1)
2 for 1)
3 for 2)
33 1/3% Dividend
4 for 3)
3 for 2)
3 for 2)
5 for 3)
2 for 1)
2 for 1)
2 for 1)
2 for 1)
Lowe's has been a publicly owned company since October 10, 1961. Its stock has been listed…… [Read More]
...I need(ed) a lot of reassurance. Had I gone to a unit where they put me with a preceptor who really didn't care about educating...I think I would have struggled big time....[but] they never treated me like I was stupid," are common responses of new nurses in mentoring programs (Hodges 2008, p.83). Mentors provided advice on psychologically coping with the emotional demands of nursing, time management, accuracy, and striking a balance between work and professional life.
Mentoring programs are especially important for nurses given that "developing an ability to thrive in unpredictable health care environments is crucial to all nurses, but particularly to practice in acute care settings" (Hodges 2008, p.80). All healthcare settings draw upon a nurses' ability "to recover quickly or adjust to adversity is commonly known as resilience. The capacity for resilience allows one to reframe, adapt, balance, persist, and grow in the face of adversity and…… [Read More]
Commercial lenders lend money with the intention of making money in return; they also carry out a kind of business. But when a government sponsored body lends money, then the reasons behind existence are slightly different. Government usually lends money to those businesses which are facing financing issues. Such businesses are often those which are considered by the government officials as potential enough to bring in economic benefits in the area (Bizcoach, 2013).
Calculating the finance requirement is a great challenge for the managers of the organizations. The institutions which are of complex nature face difficulty in calculating the exact finance requirement. An example of such institution would be capital markets which are quite complex. The sum of external financing depends on the operating budget of the business and on the existing capital resources. If a company has a solid operating budget, then it would be easier to…… [Read More]
Financial Management in Healthcare
Medicare and Medicaid are programs run by the government and which provide medical services as well as services that are health care related to particular groups of individuals in the United States. It is imperative to note that these two programs are exceedingly dissimilar but are supervised and overseen by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services which is a department that is found within the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States. The origin of these two programs dates back to the year 1965 when they were created after President Lyndon B. Johnson signed changes to the Social Security Act (Crosta, 2015) for the national health care program. This program was principally created at the time when individuals who were aged 65 years and above found it impossible to obtain private coverage for health insurance. In particular, this was a time when…… [Read More]
This aspect of the study were inclusive of works of "economic historians on the development of financial systems" most particularly the "banking systems" worldwide and exactly what the resulting impact will be. (Rousseau & Sylla, 2001) hile the two identified "strands of literature" one dealing with domestic and the other international developments, are no always related to one another" but are however, both elements of the story called financial globalization." Definition of a "Good Financial System" states that there are five key components which are: (1) Sound public finances and public debt management; (2) Stable monetary arrangements; (3) a variety of banks, some with domestic and others with international orientations, and perhaps some with both orientations; (4) a central bank to stabilize domestic finances and manage international financial relations; and: (5) ell-forming security markets."
Impacts of Globalization on National Economies
Impacts on the economies of the world have been stated…… [Read More]
To demonize the concept of universal healthcare with the word 'rationing' "buys into the myth that we don't have rationing of medical services now. But we do. It takes many different forms. It is commonplace for health insurance companies and HMOs to deny patients beneficial treatment. They find a variety of excuses for doing so, and may not openly admit it, but we all know that it happens. Medicare rations drugs by requiring co-payments that many patients can't afford. Emergency rooms ration care by making people wait so long in line that some just give up and go away" (Singer 2011).
The recent decimation of many retirement funds means that more and more members of the elderly are eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid. The elderly on fixed incomes often struggle to afford medications not currently covered within the provisions of Medicare because of the "doughnut hole" in…… [Read More]
" (Crawford, 2011)
These comments are showing how Wellstone understood the risk that this would pose to the financial system. In eight years after making this speech, the federal government would be directly bailing out firms that were too big to fail. This is indicating how the repeal of the Glass Steagall Act allowed financial institutions to engage in excessive amounts of risk taking. It is at this point that they took on large amounts of debt and had no accountability. (Crawford, 2011)
The information from this source is useful in showing how the repeal of certain laws helped to create situations which allowed for an atmosphere of deregulation. This set the stage for excessive amounts of risk taking with the liquid assets of the firm. When this happened, many institutions began to engage in activities that were believed to be safe. However, they were considered to be speculative and…… [Read More]
International Financial Markets and Institutions:
Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…… [Read More]
Business Plan for a Financial Divorce Software
Business Plan Divorce Software
Business Plan relating to the Sales of a new Financial Divorce Software.
Business Plan relating to the Sales of a new Financial Divorce Software
Keys to Success
Legal Form of Ownership
Location and Facilities
Products and Service
Ps of Marketing
Financial Statements and Projections
evenue and Cost Estimate
Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement
Forecasted Balance Sheet
Financial planning is involved in every aspect of life. Individuals and businesses have to formulate their daily, monthly, and yearly budgets in order to achieve a balance between their incomes and expenditures.…… [Read More]
Korean Financial Crisis in the Late 1990s: Lesson for Current Euro Area
The objective of this study is to examine what is unique or different about the Korean financial crisis as compared to other Asian financial crises and to determine the primary causes of the financial crisis in Korea. This work will further examine the government response to the crisis and what it is that can be learned from the Korean financial crisis and applied in Korea to the Euro Area.
The major components of the Korean financial system in the 1960s and 1970s are stated in reports to have been nationalized with "lending targeted toward favored sectors and firms including the exports and heavy industries. (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Regional banks came on in 1967 and could only operate in their own provinces, which provided encouragement for development that was regionally-based. In the early 1980s, plans were made for…… [Read More]
The product uses content transformation and rich and large file graphics conversion to speed content delivery. AppCelera also offloads Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) processing to increase the performance of Web servers. CIO Mike Stevens says members have seen a performance improvement of about fifty percent since system deployment.
efore making the final AppCelera decision, MidWest Financial took a llok at caching appliances, but found them to be more beneficial for static content. Many other devices were more than double the company's budget.
V. Unanswered Questions
Answers to the following questions would be useful to properly assess Midwest Financial's options.
Did the company try to optimize its site for use over by low-bandwidth connections by, for example, using HTML pages light on graphics and streaming media?
Although half of Midwest Financial's members currently use dial-up Internet connections, what are their plans for the future? Doesn't Midwest expect roadband to grow over…… [Read More]