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My company has enjoyed a good run of success, and is now considering purchasing a competitor in order to expand further. After twelve years of business, we have expanded, becoming profitable, and are now franchising as well. In order to adopt a nationwide strategy with an eye to going global, we are looking at options for expansion. Taking over a competitor is one of the main options. This paper will analyze the idea of taking over a competitor, especially with respect to how to finance such a transaction.
Different Valuation Methods
There are several valuation methods that can be used to analyze the competing company. These are adjusted book value, capitalized adjusted earnings, discounted future earnings, the cash flow method and the gross revenue multiplier (Collin.edu, 2013). Another technique is to base the valuation on the stock market valuation of a similar company. The company we are going…
Collin.edu. (2013). Business valuation methods. Collin.edu. Retrieved March 17, 2013 http://www.collin.edu/sbdc/docs/Business-Valuation-Methods.pdf
Hamel, G. (2013). The advantages and disadvantages of venture capital. eHow. Retrieved March 17, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8567475_advantages-disadvantages-venture-capital.html
Financing Foreign Trade
The promising prospects of Asian economies and to be specific China has endeared many business enterprises the world over to trade with it. China's trade volume totals 1.4 trillion U.S. dollars while its export amounts to 762 billion U.S. dollars (Alomar, 2007). This paints a rosier picture of foreign trade. That is not a true representation especially for small businesses that undertake to engage in foreign trade. Such businesses are faced with myriad challenges ranging from tedious paper work, regulatory issues, and inherent risks (Alomar, 2007). Some challenges come in the context of difficulty to secure reasonable credit terms locally, risky payment processes, and supply chain management issues (Alomar, 2007). The essay ventilates the main products traded between Australia and the United States and major issues involved in financing trade between Australia and the United States.
The bilateral trade relationship between United States and Australia is informed…
Alomar, K. (2007). Doing Business with China: Taming the Dragon. Secured Lender, 63(4), 68-
Congressional Research Service. (2011). International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/R41553_20110107.pdf
Oxley, A. (2001). Report: An Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement- Issues and Implications. Retrieved from http://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/aus_us_fta_mon/
Financing Public and Private Higher Education
Higher education in the United States consists of varieties of institutions that award degree certificates, associate certificates, and postgraduates' certificates. Data presented by National Center for Education Statistics (2011) reveal that there are approximately total number of 4,495 degree and non-degree granting institutions in the United States where 2,774 grant 4-year and postgraduate degrees and 1,721 higher institutions grant associate degrees. As being revealed in Table 1, there are 1000 public higher institutions granting 2-year associate degrees while 721 are private higher institutions granting associate degree. On the other hand, there are total number of 2,102 private higher institutions that grant 4-year and postgraduate degree certificates where 672 are public higher institutions that grant 4-year and postgraduate degree certificates.
Table1: Total Number of Private and Public Higher Education in the United States
TOTAL NUMBE OF HIGHE…
Douglass, J.A. (2010).Higher Education Budgets and The Global Recession. Tracking Varied National Responses and Their Consequences. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.10.
Geiger, R.L. & Heller, D.E. (2011).Financial Trends in Higher Education: The United States. Working Paper No. 6. Forthcoming, Peking University Education Review.
Kane, T.J. & Orszag, P.R. (2005). Financing Public Higher Education: Short-Term and Long-Term Challenges. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). U.S. Department of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, 2010 (NCES 2011-015).
Financing Community Business
The Importance of Small Business in the Economy
Canadian Federal Support for SMEs
Tackling SME Tax and Fiscal Priorities
ebalancing Canada's EI System
Assist Small Business Owners with Succession Plans
Growing Small Firms into Larger Firms
Federal Support for SMEs
Depleted Communities in Canada
Distressed Communities in United States
Community Economic Development Investment Funds
Community Economic Development Funds in U.S.
Community-based financial organizations have been developed in many countries to serve the critical needs of small to medium size enterprises (SME), especially in depleted or distressed areas. Most of these organizations exist to serve a public good and are quasi-governmental in form and behavior. Both Canada and the United States have supported these organizations at the Federal and Provincial/State levels. SMEs are highly visible political targets because they provide employment for over half of the population in North America. A variety of programs has been…
Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB), September 26, 2006, "Business Outlook and Budget Priorities," retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.cfib.ca/legis/national/pdf/5322.pdf
Connecticut (2011), Community Economic Development Fund, retrieved April 9, 2011 from http://www.cedf.com
Economic Development Administration (EDA), 2011, U.S., Department of Commerce, retrieved April 9, 2011 from www.eda.gov
Finance Exchange (2011), "The Importance of Small Businesses in The Economy," retrieved April 9, 2011 from http://archexchange.org/
82), and through charities, which has been mentioned in this paper in previous pages.
By the middle of the 1990s, the CIA estimated that "...fifty Islamic charities 'support terrorist groups, or employ individuals who are suspected of having terrorist connections'" (Gunaratna, 83). And as to the international "formal" banking infrastructure of al-Qaeda - such as it was prior to September 11, 2001 - President George W. Bush issued executive order #13224, which froze funds reportedly totaling $100 million of organizations and individuals believed to be linked to al-Qaeda. In his statement outlining the freezing of assets, Bush (2001 p. 1) said "Our attack on terrorists finances is progressing. The assets of more than 150 known terrorists, their organizations, and their bankers have been frozen by the United States."
FUNDING the ATTACKS of SEPTEMBE 11, 2001: The publication that resulted from the investigations on the September 11, 2001 attacks (World Trade…
Abuza, Zachary, 2003, 'Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya', Contemporary Southeast Asia, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 169-178.
Bush, George W, 2001, 'Terrorist Financing Fact Sheet', from the Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of the Treasury, retrieved 21 April 2007 at http://www.treas.gov/press/releases/po886.htm .
Collins, Susan M, 2005, Chairman, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs United States Senate, 2005, 'Counterfeit Goods: Easy Cash for Criminals and Terrorists', One Hundred Ninth Congress.
Dam, Kenneth W, 2002, 'Testimony of Kenneth W. Dam Deputy Secretary department of the Treasury Before the senate banking Committee, the United States Senate'. Retrieved 22 April 2007 at http://www.treas.gov/press/releases/po959.htm .
Financing and Foreign Ownership of Real Estate in Mexico
Due to the similarities of real estate transactions in general, many Americans assume that the basic real estate terms and principles of the United States also hold true in Mexico (Peyton, 2003). ecause much of the American real estate terminology is adopted for real estate transactions in Mexico, a lot of the paperwork appears to be similar.
However, many aspects of Mexican real estate are completely different. Therefore, a foreigner who wishes to purchase real estate in Mexico may face many obstacles to acquiring simple ownership.
Real estate experts recommend investing a significant amount of time before investing in residential real estate In Mexico. It is important to understand the terrain, its problems and advantages, as well as the area, the people and the corresponding real estate values.
Different Laws in Mexico
According to Rose (1998), even people who are highly…
Creekmore, Mitch. (July 2001). Understanding Real Estate in Mexico. Banderas News.
Foster, Robert. (2002). Buying Coastal Property. The People's Guide to Mexico.
Inter-American Development Bank. (December 14, 2000). IBA Approves $505 Million Loan. Press Release.
National Association of Realtors. (2003). Retrieved at http://www.cascoinc.com/real_estate_practices.htm.
Financing Structuring Health Care
Health Care Financing
Over the last several years, the role of insurance companies in providing different health care solutions has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because costs have been rising dramatically and the total number of uninsured is increasing. The combination of these factors has raised concerns that the many different consumers are being priced out of the system. To fully understand what is happening requires carefully examining how the industry operates. This will be accomplished by looking at: the three main types of insurance, the various categories, the types of managed care plans and the impact of managed care on Medicare / Medicaid. Together, these different elements will offer specific insights as to the underlying strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. health care system.
Identify and describe the three main types of health insurance in the U.S.
The three different kinds of…
Basic Types of Managed Care. (2009). Go Insurance Rates.com. Retrieved from: http://www.goinsurancerates.com/health-insurance/basic-types-of-managed-care/
Health Insurance Coverage. (2012). Your Health Insurance Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.yourhealthinsuranceguide.com/health-insurance-coverage.html
Insurance Modalities. (2001). CWRU. Retrieved from: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/Managed_Medicare_Medicaid.htm
Types of Health Insurance. (2012). Blue Cross Blue Shield. Retrieved from: http://www.bcbsil.com/getting_started/health_insurance/types_plans.html
Simply put, the September 11th attacks would never have occurred without the prior development of the group's worldwide infrastructure, which consists of truly billions of dollars to establish and maintain (Ehrenfeld, 2003). Enormous amounts of money have been spent on recruitment, training camps, purchasing weapons, training on weapons, creating unconventional weapons, gathering intelligence, promoting Islamist propaganda and other activities (Ehrenfeld, 2003).
The Last Five Years
One of the things that the United States government has learned to do with a greater level of dexterity has been to adapt to the changing technologies which allow terrorist organizations to fund their operations. For instance, with the advancing technologies, vulnerabilities still persist in arenas such as digital currencies and alternative transfer network, also causing even more bitter battles over bureaucratic turf. As the technogical methodologies for moving money around the world improve and become more streamlined, or just more distinct, the U.S. government…
Dhs.gov, Preventing Terror and Enhancing Security, DEPARTMENT of HOMELAND SECURITY (2011) https://www.dhs.gov/preventing-terrorism-and-enhancing-security
Rachel Ehrenfeld, Turning off the Tap of Terrorist Financing, Middle East Forum (September 19, 2003)
Eben Kaplan, Tracking Down Terrorist Financing, Council of Foreign Relations (April 4, 2006) http://www.cfr.org/international-crime/tracking-down-terrorist-financing/p10356#p2
In the last decades, the repositioning of knowledge generation and research has been the trend. New fields of knowledge have been introduced and would continue to be introduced. Along with these new fields and new social issues, there would be application-oriented research within industrial structures, which are likely to retain focus. Higher education is viewed to increase further. New information technologies will open more doors to new knowledge and to a wider, more varied audiences of learners. This is the perceived scenario as the different strata of access and usage patterns continue to be overcome. The non-university sector of education and other providers of lifelong learning are projected to gain equal and heightened importance. Globalization will certainly assert its influence. Universities will join the competitive scene. Europeanization within the context of globalization will accrue to a more market-equipped control and to increasing intercontinental competition. There will be the interplay among…
Dougherty, K. (2004). Financing higher education in the United States: structure, trends and issues. Columbia University. 31 pages. Retrieved January 22, 2007 at http://www.tc.columbia.edu/centers/coce.pdf_files/c9.pdf
Johnstone, D.B. (1993). Costs of higher education. Garland Publishing. 9 pages.
Retrieved January 22, 2007 at http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/FAS/Johnston/TRENDS.htm
2000). The financing and management of higher education. The Worldwide University Reform Agenda. World Bank. 29 pages. Retrieved January 22, 2007 at http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/FAS/Johnston/WORLDBANK , HTM
d., p.173). In other words, priorities have to be assessed when it comes to how these institutions handle the influx of students and how they help them pay for their education. It appears as though there will be continued trouble in public universities because of budget shortfalls and difficulties prioritizing the students and the areas that need to receive more money.
Alexander, F.K. (n.d.). Vouchers in American education. ard legal and policy lessons from higher education. Chapter 15. ASE Reader on Finance in igher Education: 219-233.
Breneman, D.W. & Finney, J.E. (n.d.). The changing landscape. igher education finance in the 1990s. Chapter 11. ASE Reader on Finance in igher Education: 161-176.
auptman, A.M. (n.d.). Financing American higher education in the 1990s. Chapter 8. ASE Reader on Finance in igher Education: 115-126.
auptman, A.M. & Crop, C. (n.d.). Federal student aid and the growth in college costs and tuitions. Examining…
Hearn, J.C. (n.d.) The growing loan orientation in federal financial aid policy. A historical perspective. Chapter 10. ASHE Reader on Finance in Higher Education: 143-158.
Hovey, H. (n.d.). State funds for higher education: Fiscal decisions and policy implications. Chapter 12. ASHE Reader on Finance in Higher Education: 179-197.
Layzell, D.T. (1998). Linking performance to funding outcomes for public institutions of higher education: the U.S. experience. European Journal of Education, 33(1): 103-111.
All of these benefits would not have been possible however without the outsourcing strategies being firmly grounded in a financial analysis of their value and OI over the long-term (Lacity, Khan, Yan, Willcocks, 2010). The incremental revenue growth and continued expansion of any business is predicated on how effectively they can transition from one set of challenges to the next, seeking a means to create greater value by addressing more customer needs effectively while broadening their base of support in customer bases globally. Being able to attain this level of market performance is predicated on the ability to form joint ventures, devise intelligent and informed offshoring and outsourcing strategies, and decide which areas need to be outsourced or not (Mudambi, Venzin, 2010).
The Impact Of Outsourcing On the Structural Integrity Of IT In Enterprises
Despite the many critics there are of outsourcing and its effects on employment, the value delivered…
Lacity, M., Khan, S., Yan, A., & Willcocks, L.. (2010). A review of the IT outsourcing empirical literature and future research directions. Journal of Information Technology: Special Issue: 25th Anniversary Edition, 25(4), 395-433.
Moon, Y., Yao, T., & Jiang, B.. (2010). Outsourcing vs. joint venture from vendor's perspective. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(1), 23.
Mudambi, R., & Venzin, M.. (2010). The Strategic Nexus of Offshoring and Outsourcing Decisions. The Journal of Management Studies, 47(8), 1510.
By year-end 1988 it is estimated that AMT Corp would be in need of approximately $2,000,000.00. Based on the information supplied by the company and after speaking with the other loan officers that have dealt with AMT and Mr. Haskins in the past, my first reaction as Mr. Winter, a staid and conservative banker, would be to say no to Mr. Haskins. That would be my first reaction based on the numbers and the fact that numbers don't lie. AMT's financial woes have been exacerbated by the fact the Mr. Haskins has been aggressively growing the company and the losses have continued to pile up. There is, however, a glint at the end of the tunnel. It seems that AMT has a sugar daddy lined up to support its efforts, if it can continue to grow the business, create new products and markets, and reach certain aspirations before the…
Consultant, I starting a business developing business plan. I'm advice start forming business. I financed I partners. I interested learn intricacies options determine proceed plan.
Dear Mr. Owner:
Business financing is naturally one of the most important concerns of any individual beginning a new enterprise. In general, business owners have two available options: to seek out loans from a variety of available sources or to seek out equity financing from investors. There are advantages and disadvantages to both choices.
Many business owners first seek out loans from friends and family members. This has the advantage of a (usually) low interest rate: however, the cash supply is limited and owners do not always want to create bad blood between themselves and their relatives. Another option is seeking out loans from a bank. "To secure this loan, financial institutions will require several years of financial information on both the business and the…
Allen, S. (2014). Startup business financing. About. com. Retrieved from:
Deducting business-related interest loan payments. (2014). Nolo. Retrieved from:
The Risk of Trade ith India
Over the course of the last decade, the once stagnant Indian economy had become among the fastest growing in the global community. The opening doors of free trade have made India a top destination for high-tech companies, a major service industry provider and host to countless foreign trade and production endeavors. However, just as its fortunes have improved with the proliferation of globalization, so too have its recent fortunes felt the decline of the global recession. As reported in an article from Businessline, Chennai, "due to the difficult financing conditions prevailing in the international credit markets and increased risk aversion by the lending counterparties, gross inflows of short-term trade credit to India declined in 2008-09 and this trend continued in 2009-10." (Anonymous, p. 1)
Still, India remains an economy rife with growth potential for foreign investors. An important factor in…
Anonymous (2010). NEWS: Export credit shows declining trend. Businessline, Chennai, pg. 1. Retrieved from library portal via coursenet.
Gill, A., Biger, N., & Tibrewala, R. (2010). Understanding and Mitigating Direct Investment Risk in the Indian Real Estate Market. Business and Economics Journal, 2010, 1-10. Retrieved from http://astonjournals.com/manuscripts/Vol2010/BEJ-2_Vol2010.pdf
The biggest funding issue lies within our ability to secure financing from the appropriate government agencies, via grants, for the diabetes screening. The target community for the screening is fairly large, and while the cost of screening a single individual is actually low, to initiate such a program requires a substantial amount of resources. These types of projects are financed through government branches, and they receive their funding from appropriations at the federal and state levels. Because of this, budgets for the project need to be tabled and approved well in advance of start time, and then these budgets will be rolled into larger agency budgets, which ultimately must receive government approval.
As one can imagine, there is a tremendous amount of politicking that goes on with such appropriation requests. Those within government, and within these agencies, typically view appropriations are something of a fixed pie, and as…
Patsopolous, N., Analatos, A. & Ioannidis, J. (2006). Origin and funding of the most frequently cited papers in medicine: Database analysis. BMJ Online Journal. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nikolaos_Patsopoulos/publication/7231934_Origin_and_funding_of_the_most_frequently_cited_papers_in_medicine_database_analysis/links/0a85e53319530333e5000000.pdf
Prokopetz, J. & Lehmann, L. (2014). Physicians as fundraisers: Medical philanthropy and the doctor-patient relationship. PLoS Medicine . Vol. 11 (2)
Scaife, W. (2007). Venturing into venture philanthropy: Is more sustainable health and medical research funding possible through venture philanthropy and social entrepreneurship. Proceedings in Social Entrepreneurship, Social Change and Sustainability. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/19563/1/c19563.pdf
EMS Financing Strategies
Financing an EMS system is an important component and can represent a critical success factor. Systems that do not have adequate resources will be unable to perform at optimal levels. However, systems that are wasteful in regards to resources will represent an inefficient system that will drain public resources. Such a system will likely be the subject of budget cuts or reorganization. Therefore it is important to form a balance in EMS funding between being underfunded and draining public resources. Each EMS system must continually struggle with this funding balance and no two systems are alike. Most systems incorporate a wide range of different funding sources that include everything from relying on volunteer services, to providing fee-for-services, and to using local funding. Having a high level strategy to ensure an EMS system maintains an optimal amount of resources at all times can help simplify this process.
Associates, F. & . (2004). Consultant Report. Kansas City Emergency Medical Services System Design, 1-123.
Fitch, J., & Knight, S. (2015). EMS in the Era of Health Care Reform. Public Management, 7-12.
Seatlle and King County EMS. (2014). 2014 Annual Report. King County Council, 1-75.
Stout, J. (1980). Part II: The Principle Element. Journal of Emergency Management, 35-42.
This trend in the future relation is worrying particularly to the education sector. This is because there are many schools being managed by the churches. The state usually has a role to play when it comes to the financing of such schools. This means that if there are no relations between the church and state then the state will pull out from providing finances to these schools (Closson, & iggs, 2010).The church alone might not be in a position to fully cater for the finances the schools require. In the next 10 years a complete separation of the church and state will lead to inability of churches to sustain their schools hence eventually lead to the closure of most church schools. The quality of education within church schools will also go down since they will not have enough finances to pay teachers and offer other resources required by the students.…
Closson D., & Riggs, R. (2010).Church and state. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/churchstate.html
Evans, W., Murray, S., & Schwab, R. (2012). The Impact of Court-Mandated School Finance Reform. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6166&page=72
McNeal, L. (2010). Teacher Unions and No Child Left Behind Reconstitution: The Calm Before the Storm.
Business Financing and the Capital Structure
Generally, businesses need to make several financial decisions that have significant direct effects on their operations and success in the increasingly competitive marketplace. However, there are numerous varying options that are available to businesses regardless of the types and sizes. The concept of business financing has emerged as an important aspect in the modern business environment because of the various financial decisions to be made by different firms. The main aim of this concept is to generate enough capital for the business to meet its existing needs in order to promote the growth of the business. In addition to generating capital for the growth of the business, business financing helps firms to meet the recurring financial obligations.
Use of Financial Planning in Estimating a Corporation's Asset Investment equirements:
Financial planning can be considered as a process that is used to approximate the financial requirements…
Coplan, J.H. (2009, December 4). Raising Capital: Equity vs. Debt. Bloomberg Businessweek
Magazine. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_72/s0912030511552.htm
Melicher, R.W. & Norton, E.A. (2011). Introduction to finance: markets, investments, and financial management (14th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sharp, R. & Hua, W. (2004, January 4). International Investing: The Risks and Rewards.
" (Chow &
Ng, 13) Simply stated, the collapse of the Asian housing markets seems in
many ways to reflect that which is already now underway in the United
States. The failure of lending institutions to appropriately suit
borrowers with the appropriate financing terms has ultimately translated
into a simultaneous rise in costs within the lagging housing market and the
general dearth of resources available to accommodate the demands of
borrowers with some categorical entitlement to public assistance in
achieving personal home ownership.
This underscores the consequences of the current housing market to
the available terms and conditions relating to residential property
financing. The characteristics of readily available programs are impacted
today by no small degree of tumult in terms of value for property, value
of the dollar and the categorical identification of differing classes of
buyer. Even more then, today, is it important for the borrower to fully
Brown, C. (2005). Residential income property financing. Buzzle. Online
Chow, R. & Ng, E.H.K. (2004). Availability of bank credit and the
residential property price level: evidence from Singapore. National
University of Singapore.
Existing Funding Infrastructure
Education financing in Florida is at a crisis point. The current system for K-12 financing in Florida features a combination of state and local funds. Approximately $7.75 billion is contributed by the state. This comes from general revenues, which puts this financing at risk should there be significant changes to state revenue levels. There have been stories in the news media in the past year where different bodies of expressed concern about the sustainability of Florida's ability to finance its K-12 system (Times-Union, 2012). The education system has seen its funding cut several times in recent years. As a result, the performance of Florida's schoolchildren has been poor.
At the state level, the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) is "the primary mechanism for funding the operating costs of Florida school districts (FLDOE, 2012). The formula on which Florida state financing is organized is based on…
FLDOE. (2012). 2012-2013 funding for Florida school districts. Florida Department of Education. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from www.fldoe.org/fefp/pdf/fefpdist.pdf
Stiefel, L. & Schwartz, A. (2010). Financing K-12 education in the Bloomberg years, 2002-2008. Wagner and Steinhardt Schools, NYU. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/lah431/StiefelSchwartz_AIR_Nov2010_presentation.pdf
Times-Union. (2012). Florida's education funding still lags. Jacksonville Times-Union. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://jacksonville.com/opinion/editorials/2012-04-20/story/funding-floridas-education-still-lags
Policies need be established that dictate how currency is used (Homaifar, 2003).
Trends in international banking suggests that within Europe while the euro may still be the standard currency used, often throughout the world and in international banks generally, much of currency is denominated in the form of dollars (Bertuch-Samuels & amlogan, 2007; Homaifar, 2003). The United States dollar has represented the gold standard among international financial institutions because the U.S. has relatively little exchange rate fluctuation, which lowers the potential risk within the international financial marketplace. To gain operational independence and affirm prices will remain stable, banks want to ensure the currency they use is issued in a country that is stable and holds prestige (Homaifar, 2003). This can easily be assessed by evaluating a country's financial systems, determining whether the banking systems are strong and offer policies and provisions for conducting business using foreign currency as well as…
Bertuch-Samuels, a. & Ramlogan, P. (2007, Mar). The Euro: Ever more global. Finance and Development, a Quarterly Magazine of the IMF. 44(1): 1. Accessed 11, May, 2007: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2007/03/bertuch.htm
Blount, E. (1998). Taming global market risks. ABA Banking Journal, 90(3): 38.
Homaifar, G.A. (2003). Managing global financial and foreign exchange rate risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Lim. E.G. (2006), the Euro's challenge to the dollar: Different views from economists and evidence from COFER and other data, IMF Working Paper, No. 06(153). Washington: IMF.
S. is regulated by both state and federal regulations. Both the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities and Exchange Commission Act of 1934 are federal laws that govern security issuing. he Security Act of 1933 requires that companies fully disclose information regarding their company as well as the security being issued to all potential investors (Megginson & Smart, 2009). he Security Act of 1993 called for the creation of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as well as defining what procedures are necessary for the public sale of securities and for the oversight of public companies. his includes the requirement of companies to file a disclosure form, which is referred to as a registration statement, with the SEC prior to beginning to solicit potential investors. Further, this form must be distributed to all potential investors. he SEC must approve the final registration statement before companies can execute sales…
The issuing of securities to the public in the U.S. is regulated by both state and federal regulations. Both the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities and Exchange Commission Act of 1934 are federal laws that govern security issuing. The Security Act of 1933 requires that companies fully disclose information regarding their company as well as the security being issued to all potential investors (Megginson & Smart, 2009). The Security Act of 1993 called for the creation of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as well as defining what procedures are necessary for the public sale of securities and for the oversight of public companies. This includes the requirement of companies to file a disclosure form, which is referred to as a registration statement, with the SEC prior to beginning to solicit potential investors. Further, this form must be distributed to all potential investors. The SEC must approve the final registration statement before companies can execute sales to the public.
4. What are the benefits to the corporation of going public?
There are several advantages to making the choice to go public including the amount of equity capital that would become available to the company therefore creating a more secure financial situation. The company may also utilize this increase in capital to explore additional investment options and will increase their borrowing capacity for future endeavors. The company would also have other added benefits such as the ability to utilize stock as a part of compensation packages for employees, therefore potentially increasing the caliber of employee that they are able to recruit and retain. Another benefit is the potential attention that the company may receive
International trade permits the companies that interact in the international commercial environment to explore other opportunities existent on the market, and the letter of credit gives advantages for every interested party. Economic growth is enhanced by increased commercial activity, due to some extent to the development of these payment instruments, like the letter of credit.
The letter of credit is used by many commercial players in the world market, especially for the individual advantages and benefits it brings. From the seller's point-of-view, the letter of credit promotes certainty that all the conditions mentioned in the import-export contract are integrally observed, within the established period and the amounts stipulated in the documentation. The Seller may also offer the buyer a supplier credit, having a specific financing method: the submitted documentation is discounted under the particular export letter of credit - in this way, the payment will be made by the payer's…
1. Koudriachov, S. 'The Application of the Letter of Credit Form of Payment in International Business Transactions' (2001) 10 Int'l Trade L.J. p. 37
2. Aaron Larson - 'The Letter of Credit' - Law Office of Aaron Larson, definitions and examples found on Expert Law library, August 2004. http://www.expertlaw.com/library/finance/letter_of_credit.html
3. Marget L. Moses - 'Controlling the Letter of Credit Transaction' - Connell Folley Attorneys at Law office http://www.connellfoley.com/articles/moses1.html
Healthcare Financing and Nursing
Healthcare is one of the most contentious subjects in the United States today, with the financing of the healthcare system the specific issue of concern in legal, ethical, and pragmatic spheres. The debate surrounding this industry has impacted all areas of the healthcare industry, including the nursing profession, in a variety of complex ways that are both direct and indirect. ising healthcare costs without a rising ability to pay has created a strain on many medical institutions, and a rising demand for are with the rapidly aging population of the United States (that is, with a much larger older generation(s) in the country, the overall demographic of the nation is shifting quickly towards more elderly and care-intensive individuals) has not been adequately met with a rising provision of services (Kovner et al. 2011). The following paragraphs will explore several implications of this situation on…
Cleverley, W., Cleverley, J. & Song, P. (2011). Essential of Healthcare Finance. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Kovner, A., Knickman, J., Weisfield, G. & Jones, S. (2011). Jonas & Kovner's Health Care Delivery in the United States. New York: Springer.
Mason, D., Leavitt, J. & Chaffe, M. (2007). Policy & Politics in Nursing & Healthcare. New York: Elsevier.
Accounting -- financing a start up company with either stocks or bonds?
hen seeking financing for a new company, two potential ways of financing the company are to issue stocks to shareholders that desire an interest in the fate of the company, or to sell bonds to individuals who wish to make money off of the interest of such bonds. Common stock options mean that the individuals who buy such stock become shareholders in the new company. Shareholders, as partial owners, have a right to vote for the company's board of directors. Such stockholders have an interest in the profits made by the company because they share in profits in proportion to the number of shares they own.
Of course, a new company could sell a large proportion of stock to finance its operations -- but individuals might not want to take such a risk, as if the company does…
"Bonds." (2005) Yahoo Financial Glossary. Retrieved 3 Jul 2005 at http://biz.yahoo.com/f/g/bb.html
Global Financing and Exchange ate Mechanisms
oles of International Financial Institutions: IMF, World Bank, and ADB
All international financial institutions have their different goals, objectives, varying expertise, and areas of specialization. This study will focus on the role African Development Bank, World Bank and International Monetary Fund on global finance. The partnerships enhanced are geared towards poverty reduction and economic growth that can be maintained. This is according to the recent announcements made by global financial institutions. The International Monetary Fund mainly focuses on promotion of international financial support and macroeconomic stability together with the growth of the member states.
On the other hand, the World Bank has diverted more attention on assisting member states to see a reduction of poverty levels by emphasizing on the development and social, structural, and institutional dimensions. Evidently, the reform for the financial sector is a key role promoted by international financial institutions. Collaboration…
Bakker, A. (2009). International financial institutions. London: Longman
Jeanne, O., Zettelmeyer, J., & International Monetary Fund. (2007). "Original sin," balance sheet crises, and the roles of international lending. Washington, D.C.: International
Olokesusi, F., & National Emergency Management Agency (Nigeria). (2006). The role of international financial institutions in disaster risk management. Ibadan: Nigerian
A joint venture with companies in the homeland of the new facility is a distinct possibility. The great advantage of joint ventures is that the home company knows and understands the cultural environment better than that of a MNE. "Each member of the joint venture retains ownership of his or her property. And each member of the joint venture shares only the expenses of the particular project or venture… Joint ventures enjoy tax advantages over partnerships, too. Capital Cost Allowance (CCA) is treated differently. While those in partnerships have to claim CCA according to partnership rules, those in joint ventures can choose to use as much or little of their CCA claim as they like" (Ward 2011).
The Starbucks Corporation has had great success with joint ventures in its expansion overseas. "In markets outside the continental United States (including Hawaii), Starbucks' strategy was to license a reputable and capable local…
Dileep, R. (2010, July 6). The 12 best funding sources for small business entrepreneurs. Forbes.
Retrieved August 18, 2011 at http://www.forbes.com/2010/07/06/best-funding-sources-for-small-business-entrepreneurs-finance-dileep-rao.html
Starbucks case study: Public Company. (1999). McGraw-Hill. Retrieved August 19, 2011 at http://www.mhhe.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/starbucks-2.html
Ward, Susan. (2011). Joint venture. About.com. Retrieved August 18, 2011 at http://sbinfocanada.about.com/od/management/a/jointventure.htm
lease a financing vehicle? How leases accounted firm's financial reports? hat difference a capital lease
Essentially, leases are alternative means of gaining access to products or goods that could otherwise be purchased outright. There is a certain degree of irony in this definition, primarily due to the fact that there are forms of leases which are extremely similar to purchases, although they contain key distinctions that still make it more feasible for an individual or an organization to lease a product rather than to simply buy it. Varying leases have different effects upon financial reports and taxable standings for companies and for individuals, who largely decide to whether or not they want to lease or purchase something based upon certain factors including status of ownership, residual value, executory costs, and both means and methods of financing. The particulars of all of these aspects of the leasing process can…
Reed, Phillip. The Residual Value of Leasing. Web. 22 June 2001.
Damodoran, Aswath. Dealing With Operating Leases in Valuation. Web. 7 November 2008.
Smith, Kelvin. Service Components/Executory Costs. Web. 22 March 2010.
Author unavailable. Financial Procedures Manual. James Madison University. Financial Office. Web. 26 May 2010.
SOX Impact on Corporate Financial Reporting
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) led to widespread changes in how governance, risk, compliance, financial reporting and decision-making are managed in publically-held coproratio9ns today. Experts in the field of governance and compliance have concluded that the SOX Act immediately redefined the scope of financial reporting and risk definition (Hagerty, 2006). This was especially prevalent in the bond markets, where forcing greater disclosure of financial performance and material events including Section 404 of the Act (Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002) led to more oversight of just how bond debt instruments were structured and implemented over time (oubakri, Ghouma, 2008). The net effect of the SOX Act continues to be seen today with positive and negatives changes to corporate financing taking place, and they are analyzed in the following section.
Positive and Negative Changes to Corporate Financing from the SOX Act
The SOX Act was deliberately written…
Boubakri, N., & Ghouma, H. (2008). Managerial opportunism, cost of debt financing and regulation changes: Evidence from the sarbanes-oxley act adoption. Rochester: Social Science Research Network.
Engel, E.R. Hayes, and X. Wang. 2004. The Sarbanes-Oxley act and firms' going private decisions. Working paper. University of Chicago. May 2004.
Hagerty. AMR Research. Boston, MA. Thursday May 18, 2006.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) U.S. Senators Sarbanes and Oxley. Passed in 2002 by both U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate.
Externalities and Financing Government
Microeconomics Today -- hat is a fair tax?
Tax the rich, give to the poor! Tax the gas-guzzling SUVs of the rich, and give the money to the poor! Or, at very least, give the revenue in the form of tax breaks to independent and corporate organizations attempting to make alternative fuel vehicles. In theory, it seems like an excellent idea. However, although a higher gas tax may seem like a pro-environmentalist policy and superficially progressive in its political tenor and tone, in fact a gas tax really functions in its application as a regressive tax, penalizing the poorer rather than the wealthier Americans. It goes contrary to the fair financing of government, one of the philosophical principles of this nation.
Application of Microeconomic Theory -- regressive taxation and economic incentives for changes in consumer behavior through changes in tax policy
Two of the most controversial…
Carson, Robert Barry, Wade L. Thomas, Jason Hecht. (2005) Microeconomic Issues Today. 8th Edition. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Ignatius, David. (31 May 2004) "Why Gas Prices are Too Low." The Washington Post. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5080-2004May31.html
Mankiw, Gregory N. (24 May 1999) "Gas Tax Now!" Fortune Magazine. Available at http://post.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/mankiw/columns/may99.html
he globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
he ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the hird World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some…
The objective of fighting poverty and improving the overall living standards of those individuals in the Third World and the newly emerging nations has become huge undertaking. One would think that the world would be getting richer based on the advances in technology and the many new economic opportunities in the global economy. "The global decline in living standards is not the result of a scarcity of productive resources as in preceding historical periods. The globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
The ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the Third World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some countries earns more than $40,000 a year. But in this same world, 2.8 billion people -- more than half the people in developing countries -- live on less than $700 a year. Of these, 1.2 billion earn less than $1 a day." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
The World Bank is not a bank in the true sense of what the average person would consider a bank. The World Bank has more or less become a specialized poverty focused social and financial assistance program or agency. The World Bank falls under the jurisdiction of the United Nations and is one of their more specialized agencies. The World Bank consists of one hundred eighty four nations currently who are jointly responsible for the oversight of the institution and
CONVESION ON COMPANY'S FINANCING
Conversion of Google's financing
Conversion of Google's financing
What was the conversion process followed by Google? How did Google manage the issues of converting from a group of proprietors to investors with an executive team including a formalized operational strategy and concerns for public image?
Initially, Brin and Page (the owners of the company) were not for the opinion of converting their company into a public one since they wanted to maintain the control of Google. However, the need for expansion forced them into borrowing 25 million as a venture capital thereby putting them to consider the option of conversion (SmartMoney, 2004). The financial strains made them to consider the option of conversion after lending company demanded that they become public or else they would have to take back 12.5 million from the money (SmartMoney, 2004). Consequently, this triggered the two into the process of converting…
SmartMoney, (2004). Google Goes Public. Retrieved from:
Netsuite, (2012). Google privacy goes public. Retrieved from:
That is supposed to have become one market which does not entail any tariff distinctions between the nations. But it should be noted that some of the analysts feel that it will never become a single entity market, but will remain separated into different varying national markets. The reason is being ascribed to "cultural, informational, logistic barriers and perhaps remaining discriminatory barriers all of which imply an incurable tendency to award contracts to local suppliers." (Is Culture a Major Barrier to a Single European Market? The Case of Public Purchasing)
The general aim of free trade has however changed and it is now not limited any more to the removal of barriers in being able to sell the products made in one country to other countries of the world. This is considered to be even more important for that of the developing countries wherein their progress in development made however…
Madsen, Poul Thois. "Is Culture a Major Barrier to a Single European Market? The Case of Public Purchasing" Retrieved at http://www.ihis.aau.dk/~pmadsen/purchase.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Market Access and Protocol Commitments" Retrieved at http://www.uschina.org/public/wto/ch-memo.html . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Non-tariff Barriers to Imports" Retrieved at http://www.wright.edu/~tran.dung/Chapter8_Pugel.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Tariff" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TariffAccessed 18 September, 2005
WHO rates France as having the best healthcare ("World Health," 2000). In addition to universal healthcare, France also has non-profit supplementary providers, which means that the government subsidizes 70% of regular expenses but pays 100% of more expensive or long-term treatment plans (Sandier, Paris, & Polton, 2004). Money for subsidies comes from mandatory earnings contributions such as 5.25% salary, capital income, and gambling winnings (Sandier, 2004).
An argument that often arises is that people say they don't want the government deciding what medical procedures they can have. However, decisions regarding what procedures are covered by a particular health plan are made by the healthcare insurance companies, which are for-profit ("Insurance Verification," n.d.). Many people are denied treatment regardless of the illness. As already mentioned, some of the other nations with universal healthcare have supplementary plans in addition to the government plans that allow the patient more choice.
There are many…
Carrasquillo, O., Himmelstein, DU.,Woodhandler, S., Bor, DH. (1999). A Reappraisal of Private Employers' Role in Providing Health Insurance. NEJM, 340(1), 109-114.
"Insurance Verification & Eligibility Services." (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globaledgeusa.com/insurance_verification_eligibility_services/
Mahon, Mary. (2010, June 23). U.S. ranks last among 7 countries on health system performance. EurkAlert. Retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-06/cf-url062210.php
Reid, T.R. (Producer). (2008, April 15). Frontline: Sick around the world [Television broadcast]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service.
GBATT Income Statement eview
GBATT has a relatively stable company. It saw revenues decline 4.4% and profits by 4.24% last year. Expenses dropped in lockstep with revenues, indicating that the company has good ability to respond to changes in the prevailing economy. The company still earned a healthy net margin of 12.6% last year, despite the apparent economic downturn.
There are several factors to consider when making the decision to enter the Brazilian market. If the decision to enter has already been made, then the company still has to consider the method of financing for the expansion. Debt better aligns the cash inflows incremental to the project with the outflows. However, debt may come with restrictive covenants, and furthermore depending on the method of debt financing the company might be exposed to different types of foreign exchange rate risk. Equity, on the other hand, comes at a higher cost than…
Global Rates.com (2016) BACEN SELIC rate, Brazilian central bank's interest rate. Global Rates.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016 from http://www.global-rates.com/interest-rates/central-banks/central-bank-brazil/bacen-interest-rate.aspx
Investopedia (2016) Floating interest rate. Investopedia. Retrieved November 19, 2016 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/floatinginterestrate.asp
Picardo, E. (2016) Exchange rate risk: Economic exposure. Investopedia. Retrieved November 19, 2016 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex/021114/exchange-rate-risk-economic-exposure.asp
Financing, and Marketing a Business
An idea for a business can come suddenly or after years of trying to identify a niche in which to market a product or idea. In either case, the process of starting and developing a business is often an arduous and complicated one that requires astute planning long before implementation. There is a difference between those who merely manage an already existing business and those who develop ideas and their own businesses and become entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is defined as "the process of identifying opportunities for which marketable needs exist and assuming the risk of creating an organization to satisfy them" (Hatten, 2012, p.24). Once and entrepreneur has established a need for a product or service there are several considerations that must be taken into account, including what type of business to establish and how to market the product to the world. Successful entrepreneurs are able…
Drury, C. (2008). Management and cost accounting (7th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western
Hatten, T.S. (2012). Small business management: Entrepreneurship and beyond. Mason, OH:
South-Western Cengage Learning.
This can subsequently result as the massive benefits to the commercial contestants devoid of the incurring of the extra cost that pertaining to such commercial participants. The participation of the export credit agencies accompanied by the existing multilateral developments institutions normally results to the lofty stage of the ecological, employment and other supplementary social standards, which are extremely expensive and cumbersome to, accomplished.
The application these existing social standards are normally highly significant to these multilateral institutions concerning the outline policy perspectives accompanied by the chief structures and the existing projects.
These policies perspectives and the chief aims enhance the best practice that pertains to the execution of communications and the whole projects. Numerous leading private sponsors and the existing commercial lenders have finally commenced the process of incorporating of these standards. These standards include the equator principles and the other existing ecological requirements that are aimed at safeguarding of…
Al-Jassar Ahmed & Massachusetts institute of technology. 2005. International project finance.
Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Pages 21-234.
Dewar John. International Project Finance: Law and Practice. (Oxford: Oxford University
Publishing Press 2011)
R.T. Naylor has a unique, and some might say even rogue, interpretation of bin Laden and al Qaeda. While Naylor spends the entire Wages of Crime focusing on the flows of black market and blood money, he does so within a morally relativist framework. Chapter Seven of Wages of Crime is an addendum, new to the most recent edition of the book that was originally published prior to September 11. Responding to the pressing push to apply the economist’s approach to terrorist financing, Naylor understandably adds this chapter as part of his ongoing narrative on the wages of crime. Given the tenor and themes contained in the rest of the book, it comes as little surprise that Naylor reaches the conclusion that cutting off sources of terrorist financing is an unfeasible, ineffective, and perhaps even morally inappropriate method of addressing the problem of non-state actors. In an interview with Standard…
Business Financing and the Capital Structure
In finance, capital structure is used to refer to the manner in which a corporation finances its assets through some mixture of equity, debt, or hybrid securities (Atrill & McLaney, 2011). A firm's capital structure is the configuration or structure of its long-term liabilities and each firm can choose a different configuration depending on its industry and/or its specific needs. Basically, a company has two choices in traditional capital financing.
The company can either sell equity, usually through the issuance of stocks or bonds, or it can sign a note with more of a traditional lender such as a bank in which a specific payment structure will be associated with the loan. Each manner of financing capital has different strengths and weakness that be relevant to a company depending on their circumstances and their goals. This analysis will briefly outline some of…
Atrill, P., & McLaney, E. (2011). Finance and accounting for managers. Harlow, UK: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Kuhn, R. (2011, June 21). What Do Investment Banks Do? Retrieved from Chief Executive: http://chiefexecutive.net/what-investment-banks-do
To, H. (2006, October 22). The Importance of the "Roll Return" in Commodity Futures Returns. Retrieved from Market Thoughts: http://www.marketthoughts.com/z20061022.html
We do not anticipate success is securing a non-voted debt issue. Given the time frame for the completion of the Commons project, the city will weigh our request vs. The upcoming needs for school repairs and roadwork. Education is a touchstone issue for voters, and roadwork affects all voters in the city. hould council decide to issue any of their remaining non-voted debt capacity, it is unlikely they would choose to use it for the Commons project ahead of those two other priorities.
Voted debt, however, they can issue. If the public votes 60% in favor, council will not face the same concerns about opportunity cost. We will not be competing for money with schools. A voter-approved special levy would function in much the same way (financed through property tax increases) but requires only a 50% vote in favor. Although the capacity for such special levies is only $90 million,…
Johnson, Gerry. (2005). New Life Emerges in the Wake of Seattle Commons Failure. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved June 20, 2008 at http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/272622_focus04.html
Jacobson, Arthur Lee. (1995). The Seattle Commons, an Editorial Opinion. Olmsted Parks. Retrieved June 21, 2008 at http://www.arthurleej.com/a-commons.html
No author. (1995). The Commons: Time Line. Seattle Times. Retrieved June 21, 2008 at http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19950911&slug=2141092
History of Washington State votes at http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7536
IMF and World Bank in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations
he International Monetary Fund plays a crucial role in the world's economy, especially in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations. However, its influence ranges well beyond those disciplines.
he main responsibility of the International Monetary Fund is to provide loans to nations experiencing balance of payments difficulties. he International Monetary Fund's involvement allows these countries to stabilize their currencies, rebuild their international reserves, continue to import much needed goods, and generally set the stage for strong economic growth.
A country can only ask for International Monetary Fund assistance when it has a serious balance of payments deficit, as in, more money goes out than comes in, and it cannot get financing to meet its international obligations.
he general understanding is similar to the United States Bankruptcy Code, which is, no one benefits from insolvency, neither the debtor nor the…
The Bank gets about 10% of its funds from taxpayers, in the form of direct contributions from member governments.
The IFC operates partly with funds contributed directly by its member countries but mainly with funds borrowed from the IBRD. The IFC is the fastest growing part of Bank operations, with IFC investments having grown to $2.1 billion last year. Among the transnational corporations represented on the IFC Business Advisory Council are the Bank of Tokyo, Credit Lyonnaise, Treuhandanstalt, SG Warburg.
www.imf.org www.worldbank.org http://www.atu2.com/news/article.src?ID=294
The private financing initiatives
When the Private Finance Initiative was launched in 1992, it was seen as a mechanism to achieve extra public-sector investment by bringing in private finance for capital projects as well as a means to improve the public procurement process that was routinely criticized for poor project management and construction cost overruns. PFIs cut across a range of public services, including hospitals, prisons, public transport, roads, and schools. Each PFI depended on the public-sector purchaser to specify the outputs or outcomes it hoped to achieve, and put private-sector capital at risk for the delivery of those outputs or outcomes. By relaxing the emphasis on input specification, PFIs sought to mobilize innovation and optimize whole-life costs and quality to meet the public requirements. The financing mechanism served to reinforce the long-term nature of the relationship by linking payments to the achievement of outputs over the life…
Chung, Demi. 2009. "Developing an Analytical Framework for Analysing and Assessing Public-Private Partnerships: A Hospital Case Study." Economic and Labour Relations Review 19:69+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5033188311 ).
Flemming, John, and Peter Oppenheimer. 1996. "Are Government Spending and Taxes Too High (or Too Low)?." National Institute Economic Review. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637892 ).
Forrer, John, James Edwin Kee, and Zhibin Zhang. 2002. "Private Finance Initiative: A Better Public-Private Partnership?." The Public Manager 31:43+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000818745 ).
Gibb, Kenneth, and Duncan Maclennan. 2006. "Changing Social Housing: Economic System Issues." Public Finance and Management 6:88+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045014514 ).
With respect to cash flow, many firms rely on revolving credit to smooth out the cash flow inherent in their businesses. Under normal circumstances, this credit is available. However, when it is not available, firms need to figure out new ways to create cash flow. The use of a credit card as a substitute for a line of credit highlights the downside of losing cash flow and not having a stockpile of cash available. It also highlights the need for budgets to include variables such as a higher cost of capital that will accrue from tightening credit markets.
The credit crunch has impacted businesses in a number of negative ways. The business owners in this case have alluded to the improvements they have been forced to make in their operation in order to survive without credit. However, with these improvements there is little left to improve. That calls into…
While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.
As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…
Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).
Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM
Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,
Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.
As a result the "Driving for Higher Performance" campaign (note the play on words of the company's general mission to produce better and better cars every year) Toyota is "now able to zero in on where there are major fluctuations" that deviate from its overall mission of excellence and "drill down on variances that could impact the forecast for the balance of the year," according to Doi. (Ozzimo, 2006) the use of profit center segmentation enabled Toyota to quickly reallocate its resources to meet the heightened demand in the U.S. For new models like the Prius hybrid and the Scion (Ozzimo, 2006).
The approach of CFO Doi is embedded with the approach of the entire company's focus on continual improvement. Doi has also had to deal with legal issues, such as company compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley as well has higher benchmarks for cost reduction, corporate compliance, and value creation (Ozzimo, 2006).…
Company Profile: Toyota." (2007). Reuters.com. Retrieved 5 May 2007 at ttp:/ / www.investor.reuters.wallst.com/stocks/company-profile.asp?rpc=66&ticker=TM
Ozzimo, Anne. (May 2006) "Powering the Finance Transformation." Oracle Magazine. Retrieved 5 May 2007 at http://www.oracle.com/oramag/profit/06-may/p26doi_0.html
Healthcare Financing and Organization
Healthcare is a field that is constantly evolving. This is because of fundamental changes in their financing and organization. The result is that the entire operation is shifting. To fully understand what is occurring requires focusing on why this is a key component for the nurse -manager. This will be accomplished by looking at the way healthcare is organized, the roles and the scope of contemporary practicum. Together, these elements will highlight the shifts and the long-term implications on the field of nursing.
Describe how health care is organized and financed, including the implications of business principles, such as patient and system cost factors.
Healthcare is organized based upon the type of entity that is established. There are three different models that are used to include: for profit, nonprofit and governmental. For profit organizations are focusing on meeting the needs of patients, reducing costs and increasing…
Lowe, N. (2015). Nursing, Nurses and Ethics. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 44 (3), 339 -- 340.
Orgeas, M. (2010). Selected Medical Errors. American Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 181 (2), 134-142.
Google was able to show such confidence, even arrogance, however, in its initial transformation into an IPO because of its unique, stratospheric success as a company. Also, by establishing a wide shareholder base amongst the public, it was able to resist control by a concentrated faction of shareholders. hen going public, most IPOs fall "under greater pressure to produce steady earnings growth -- an expectation that some executives say leads to shortsighted management decisions," and the management of a public company can feel compelled to "make some decisions just so you can show growth from quarter to quarter."(Liedtke, 2004)
Regarding Google, one industry analyst stated: "After the IPO, they're going to have to think in terms of predictable quarterly results and momentum...You have to have a level of predictability and experience to warrant being a public company."(Liedtke, 2004)
But canny Google founders, forever thinking outside of the box,…
Liedtke, Michael. (Apr 30, 2004). "Google does IPO its own way." Business and Technology News. Seattle Times. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006 at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2001916221_googleipo30.html
Harris, Roy. (21 Oct 2004). "Maybe Next Year: The failure of the Google IPO to sizzle confirms the market wants only steak." CFO Magazine. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006 at http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3220008/c_2984411/?f=archives
Financing in the Manufacturing Sector
50,000 workers = 200,000 units
Avg. wage = $80/day
Output price = $25/unit
Other variable costs = $400,000
Total Variable Costs = 50,000 x $80 + $400,000 = $4,400,000
Average Variable Costs = $4,400,000/200,000 = $
Average Total Costs = ($4,400,000 + $1,000,000)/200,000 = $
or ($4,400,000 + $3,000,000)/200,000 = $
Worker Productivity = 200,000/50,000 = 4
With $1,000,000/day in fixed costs at current output and productivity levels, the firm is operating at a loss of $2/unit, or $400,000/day. At $3,000,000 in fixed costs, the loss climbs to $12/unit or $2,400,000/day. Variable costs are covered in both scenarios.
Generally speaking, firms will only go into immediate shutdown when their revenue from production will not even cover the variable costs of that production -- when the loss would be greater by producing units than by ceasing production altogether (Bade & Parkin 2009). As the variable…
Bade, R. & Parkin, M. (2009). Foundations of Microeconomics, 4th ed. New York:
Construction Project Financing/Valuation
A brief search of Internet-listed one-bedroom apartments in Abu Dhabi confirms a current yearly rental price of AED 75,000 for most properties in the city (Justentals.com, 2012). Many apartments located in different buildings and in different [arts of the city are listed for exactly this amount, though some were also found for lower (AED 60,000) and several were found that were higher (approx. AED 85,000), however as an average current price AED 75,000 seems quite accurate (Justentals.com, 2012). Likewise, an estimation of AED 120,000 as the current annual average rent for a two bedroom is also fairly accurate; there is a greater variance observed in prices for two bedrooms that is likely reflective of differences in actual size and also appears to be neighborhood- and building-driven to a greater degree than is the pricing of one-bedroom apartments, however AED 120,000 does seem to be a…
Jones, M. (2011). CEO Magazine Interview. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.ceoqmagazine.com/economicoutlook/gcceconomicoutlook.htm
JustRentals.com. (2012). Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.justrentals.com/abu-dhabi-rent/1-bedroom-abu-dhabi-apartments-for-rent.html
PropertyWire.com. (2012). Downturn for property rents in Abu Dhabi as market is flooded with new supply. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.propertywire.com/news/middle-east/abu-dhabi-rental-prices-201203286352.html
Reuters. (2011). S&P keeps Abu Dhabi outlook. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.emirates247.com/business/economy-finance/s-p-keeps-abu-dhabi-outlook-2011-05-24-1.396898
Nursing Decision on Financing Healthcare
The need to implement programs to improve the services provided by the nurses to their clients, forces the nursing organization to implement proper health promotion activity. One of the major health promotion activities required by the nursing fraternity is yearly training. The need for yearly training arises because of the consistent rising needs of the patient. Most of the other health care disciplines have worked towards having to improve their educational standards to meet the emerging trends in the contemporary world. Training is an important human resource practice, which helps in improving the skills of the employees in their work field (Balke, 2006). The need for training calls for appropriate budgeting for the yearly training, to ensure that there are unnecessary losses.
These refer to the expenses, which the organization cannot modify, once incurred. They include training providers' fee, travel and accommodation fee…
Balke, J.M. (2006). Nurse executives: A grounded theory study of dynamic competencies. (Order
No. 3235016, Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 155-155 p. Kotecki, S., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Cost and effectiveness analysis using nursing staff-prepared thickened liquids vs. commercially thickened liquids in stroke patients with dysphagia.
Nursing Economics, 28(2), 106-9, 113.
Describe how health care is organized and financed, including the implications of business principles, such as patient and systems cost factor while examining the roles and responsibilities of regulatory agencies and their effect on patient care, workplace safety, and the scope of practice.
egardless of the country or situation, healthcare is generally some sort of blend of public and private sourcing and personnel. Depending on who is asking or answering the question, one or both can be seen as a pariah and one or both can be seen as saint. Publicly funded healthcare is financed by taxpayer dollars in large part (if not entirely) and thus is subject to oversight and regulation on a level that is much higher than in the private sector. Even so, government agencies and groups are often seen as being inept and lumbering and funding cuts and mismanagement are often seen as issues…
Basu, S., Andrews, J., Kishore, S., Panjabi, R., & Stuckler, D. (2012). Comparative Performance of Private
and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. PLOS Medicine, 9(6), e1001244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001244
Financing Health Care in the 21st Century
Cost Containment: the United States government
Unlike virtually every other industrialized country in the world, the United States provides medical care to its citizens through the private workplace, primarily financed through private insurance. Expenditures on such public programs as Medicare and Medicaid have increased the government's portion of the nation's healthcare burden since orld ar II. Still, the majority of health care funding still comes from the private sector. This has left millions uninsured whom are too 'wealthy' or young to qualify for public assistance, but do not work at places of employment where they receive benefits. It has also left many Americans underinsured for their healthcare needs. (News batch, 2003)
Although the United States spends far more on health care in actual dollars and as a percentage of the GDP than any other country of the world, the U.S. ranks low among…
News batch. (2003). "Health Care."
Retrieved on July 24, 2003 at http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm
Open Secrets. (2003). "Managed Care."
Retrieved on July 24, 2003 http://www.opensecrets.org/news/mcare/index.htm
30-Year Fixed Mortgage and a 5/1 Arm
There are many different types of mortgage loans available on the market. One of the most traditional is clearly the 30-year fixed mortgage; however, lenders provide other packages to suit the needs of other types of house buyers based on their long or short-term view. This paper will compare two types of mortgage loans -- a 30-year fixed and 5/1 Arm (a loan with the rate locked for the first five years but can only increase 1% with each subsequent year should rates rise). The reader will be able to understand the pros and cons of each type of loan package.
Scenario -- 6819 S. 42nd Lane, Phoenix, AZ (MLS# 4595517)
The house that we will use to conduct our comparative analysis is MLS # 4595517 (the link is http://www.realtor.com/realestateandhomes-detail/6819-S-42nd-Ln_Phoenix_AZ_
85041_M21586-12497) with the asking price of $169,999. Assuming a 20% down payment and…
The growing relevance of Universal preschool education across the world is a pointer to its relevance. I am of the opinion that the government should support and finance preschool education via grants whose payment is made to not only public, but also private sector educational providers. This is a model that has already been tested, tried, and applied in Great Britain. Studies conducted on this front have demonstrated that the relevance of preschool programs cannot be overstated when it come to the social development of children (Swiniarski, 2007). Here, these programs have a positive impact in the enhancement of a child’s communication abilities – more so given that one of the learning goals identified encompasses communication, language, and literacy (Swiniarski, 2007).
Universal preschool education has, however, been criticized on some fronts. Questions have specifically been raised on whether the rapid growth of the programs at present can sustain…
Financing the Healthcare Delivery System
Mr. Y is a patient with heart failure and has visited the emergency room twice in the last three weeks for shortness of breath. He is a very nice gentleman with limited literacy and e-literacy. Some of the problems Mr. Y faces include being homeless, difficulty in complying with his heart failure medication regime, and diet restrictions. He gets admitted to the hospital to stabilize his heart failure. Given his current situation and the numerous challenges he faces, there are concerns regarding what will happen to Mr. Y upon discharge from the hospital.
However, Mr. Y's situation is an example of an issue that is addressed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Case Act, which was enacted by former President Obama in 2010 as part of health reforms to enhance the affordability and accessibility of healthcare in the U.S. The provision/title of the Patient Protection…
Cutler, D.M. & Feder, J. (2009, June). Financing Health Care Reform: A Plan to Ensure the Cost of Reform is Budget-neutral. Retrieved January 30, 2017, from https://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2009/06/pdf/financing_health_reform.pdf
Hass, S. A. (2014). Health reform act: New models of care and delivery systems. Retrieved from Health Reform Act: New Models of Care and Delivery Systems
Staffing process of which I was a part focused on two primary considerations: first, the functionality of the employees within the organization and the need to ensure the new workers had the necessary qualifications to excel and secondly the extent to which the employees' personalities suited the organizational culture. In retrospect, I think there should have been a greater focus upon employees having the necessary interpersonal vs. technical skills. In fact, many organizations such as Southwest Airlines and Zappos primarily put an emphasis on hiring individuals with personalities well-suited to the organizational ethos vs. specific qualifications.
I also believe that during the hiring process there was too much focus on hiring people from within the industry rather than looking outside the box for more diverse experiences. Too much insularity can produce a cookie-cutter mentality within the organization that is not conducive to creativity. Even if people do not have industry-specific…
Barrett, A. (2009). Beyond Eureka. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved from:
Berry, T. (2015). The different types of business plans. Retrieved from:
Debt relief and other means to alleviate financial burdens is but one method of helping the humanitarian crises and epidemics worldwide.
The chieber et al. (2007) study is not an empirical study but rather one that provides a meta-analysis of already existing data. They draw from a number of difference sources including renowned economists and political philosophers to provide a number of possible solutions that can be embraced and tailored for different situations. Because each region of the globe exhibits unique health care problems and unique cultural and financial concerns, such a broad and multi-disciplinary perspective is necessary. Moreover, the authors are unbiased and straightforward in their analysis of global healthcare needs. They simply point out the practicalities of improving global health: framing it in ways that might genuinely…
Schieber, et al. (2007) comment on the disproportionate access to health care among the world's poor population. Citing statistics about the prevalence of disease in developing and Third World nations, the authors note that less than two percent of global health care spending is devoted to helping those most in need. Solving the problem will require a long-term commitment to alleviating the financial burdens already placed on poor countries, and on shifting focus toward a more caring and ethical system.
One of the primary motivators to develop a more caring point-of-view is pure economics. The health care problems posed by the world's poor becomes a great burden to local, national, regional, and global economics. Improving health care would therefore create a more viable global economy, boosting local markets and improving prospects for new market development. Schieber et al. (2007), in their article "Financing Global Health: Mission Unaccomplished," outline several possible reform scenarios that can be put into place immediately, if they are supported by a substantial number of First World nations. Debt relief and other means to alleviate financial burdens is but one method of helping the humanitarian crises and epidemics worldwide.
The Schieber et al. (2007) study is not an empirical study but rather one that provides a meta-analysis of already existing data. They draw from a number of difference sources including renowned economists and political philosophers to provide a number of possible solutions that can be embraced and tailored for different situations. Because each region of the globe exhibits unique health care problems and unique cultural and financial concerns, such a broad and multi-disciplinary perspective is necessary. Moreover, the authors are unbiased and straightforward in their analysis of global healthcare needs. They simply point out the practicalities of improving global health: framing it in ways that might genuinely garner financial support.
Long-Term elationship You owner/CEO a large business idea concept phase full production, a short window due robotics machinery department
Contract is a form of payment; or rather it is an unauthorized government distribution of funding to a contractor before accepting supply of goods or services offered by the government. Contract financing excludes debit payments, payments for incomplete acceptance or charter or rental payments. This is because payments of invoices on cost style contracts do not qualify as contract financing. Therefore, contract financing primarily applies to fixed price contracts. The primary intention of contract financing is to help the contractor in handling costs incurred during the performance of the contract (DOD, 2012).
In addition, provision of this financing covers the amount needed for quick and efficient performance of the contract. The order of preference for contract financing suggests that for every government financing provided the contractor should not acquire…
Department of Defense. (2012). Performance-Based Payments. Retrieved from http://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/cpic/cp/docs/Performance_Based_Payment_%28PBP%29_Guide.pdf
DCAA. (2012). Defense Contract Audit Agency. Retrieved from http://www.dcaa.mil/DCAAM_7641.90.pdf
Bubshait, A.A. & Al-Atiq, H.T. (1999). ISO 9000 Quality Standards in Construction. Journal Of Management in Engineering, 41-46.
One of the most important decisions that businesses have to make when sourcing for funds is whether to use equity or debt financing. Debt and equity financing happen to be the primary sources of capital for entities. In this text, I discuss these sources of financing in significant detail. In so doing, I will amongst other things highlight the main differences between them as well as the various business characteristics that make one source of financing better than the other.
Debt and Equity Financing: Key Differences
A business seeking capital has to choose from a wide range of funding sources. Such a business can either seek to borrow from banks, issue corporate bonds or get private loans from other investors with a higher risk appetite than banks. All these can be classified broadly as sources of debt financing. Commercial banks however remain the commonest debt financing sources (Kuratko and…
Boone, L.E. And Kurtz, D.L. 2011. Contemporary Business (14th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kuratko, D.F. And Hodgetts, R.M. 2008. Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Longenecker, J.G., Moore, C.W., Palich, L.E. And Petty, W. 2005. Small Business Management: An Entrepreneurial Emphasis (13th ed.). Mason: Thomson.
Moles, P., Parrino, R. And Kidwell, D.S. 2011. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
A preview of capital structure issues
In regards to the overall business environment, capital structure has profound implications of the business, irrespective of its industry. For one, a firm's capital structure is then the composition or 'structure' of its liabilities. For example, a firm that sells $40 billion in equity and $160 billion in debt is said to be 20% equity-financed and 80% debt-financed. The firm's ratio of debt to total financing, 80% in this example is referred to as the firm's leverage. This leverage has implications on the entire firm. For example, leverage in many respects is a double edges sword. On one hand, leverage can amplify gains for firms. However, if used incorrectly, leverage can also amplify loses. As such, firms must be cognizant of its capital structure as complacency can hinder overall business performance. Debt and equity financing, can have a profound implications on the…
1) Myers, Stewart C.; Majluf, Nicholas S. (1984). "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have." Journal of Financial Economics 13 (2): 187 -- 221
2) Baker, Malcolm P; Wurgler, Jeffrey (2002). "Market Timing and Capital Structure." Journal of Finance 57 (1): 1 -- 32.
3) Lyandres, Evgeny and Zhdanov, Alexei, Investment Opportunities and Bankruptcy Prediction (February 2007) Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=946240
4) Timmer, Jan (2011). Understanding the Fed Model, Capital Structure, and then Some.