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Fiscal Year Essays (Examples)

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Fiscal Federalism Spending and Taxes
Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91044983
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Foremost, when they occur, they generate massive financial setbacks for the institution implementing them as they generally require a large sum of money. "It is difficult to properly handle investments in public budgets. The rewards are spread out over an extended period of time while the cost or the pain of investing is immediate. That makes if difficult to finance public investments" (Penner, 2008).

For the state and local governments to be able to fund their investments, they should organize their incomes into two categories: current operating capital and capital component. A simple accounting method would help them benefit immediately from the investment. In this order of ideas, given that the investment is amortized and the amortization is registered as part of operating expenses, the users of the investments would immediately benefit from it, and also pay it at the same time (Penner, 2008).

Another means to deal with the…


Penner, R.G., June 10, 2008, Budgeting for Capital Investment, Statement before the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure

Rueben, K., McGuire, T., Kellam, S., October 2007, Navigating State and Local Finances, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy

Rueben, K., Rosenberg, C., April 28, 2008, State and Local Tax Policy: What are rainy day funds and how do they work? Tax Policy Center

Woolley, J., Peters, G., 1999, Richard Nixon, the American Presidency Project,  accessed on November 14, 2008

Fiscal Policies There Are Many Issues Within
Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28132779
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Fiscal Policies

There are many issues within the context of federal fiscal policy that are complicated and technical, which is why lay people likely don't fully understand those policies and practices and problems. Those issues are fully flushed out in this paper.

Question ONE (a): Explain the problem of time lags that occur in the enacting and applying fiscal policy. Nadia Macdonald explains in her book (Macroeconomics and Business: an Interactive Approach) that time lags occur because it takes -- in many cases -- a "long time for the government machinery to produce outcomes" (Macdonald, 1999, 141). The government machinery she is referring to is the legislative process (that is, a bill produced by the executive branch or by a member of Congress has to work though committees, through debates, before it is finally acted upon by vote), the "bureaucracy" and the "red tape" that is inevitably involved in new…

Works Cited

Macdonald, Nadia Tempini. (1999). Macroeconomics and Business: An Interactive Approach.

Andover, UK: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Mukherjee, Sampat. (2002). ISC Economics for Class Xii. Mumbai, India: Allied Publishers.

O'Connor, David Edward, and Faille, Christopher C. (2000). Basic Economic Principles: A

Fiscal Impact of the Maryland Budgetary Crisis
Words: 5056 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79562335
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Maryland Prison System

Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.

The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…


Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report.

Public Budgeting and Fiscal Federalism
Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84696525
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Fiscal Federalism

To the Cato Institute:

The Cato Institute policy statement on "Fiscal Federalism" is an excellent example of 'throwing the baby out with the bath water.' Yes, there may be unnecessary government bureaucracy involved in the awarding of federal grants to states. But the need for more efficiency does not mean that the entire program should be scrapped. During the recent 2008 recession, many states were cash-strapped and desperately needed funds to support Medicaid and unemployment insurance. Unlike states, the federal government can spend at a deficit. If there were no grants, this would have caused tremendous privation and social unrest.

The relationship of the states and the federal government is necessarily a symbiotic one. States are presumed to have better knowledge of what programs are needed to address critical issues within states' borders. The federal government acknowledges this expertise, even though it may use its prerogative to prioritize…


Williams, Bob. (2012). The most egregious budget gimmicks of 2012. State Budget Solutions.


Fiscal and Monetary Policy How Is a
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41910330
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Fiscal and Monetary Policy

How is a recession defined? Is the U.S. currently in a recession? Explain.

The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is widely recognized as the arbiter of starting and ending dates of U.S. recessions (Burtless, G. April 19, 2010). As such, NBER indicates, recessions start at the peak of a business cycle and end at the trough; and are a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales (National Bureau of Economic Research. 2011). The last U.S. recession, coined the Great Recession, ended in June 2009, 18 months after the economy began sliding into a downturn in December 2007 (Murray, S. September 21, 2010) according to NBER.

While more than eight in 10 Americans think the economy is in another recession, according to a new CNN/ORC…

"Fiscal policy refers to the government's choices regarding the overall level of government purchases or taxes" (Mankiw, G.N. 2004). Reviewing the 2011 Obama Budget of 3.69 trillion (The New York Times. February 1, 2010), an immediate consideration regarding the outlays is that mandatory spending: Social Security, Medicare, Interest on Debt; 64% of the total proposed budget, is effectively off limits to changes. The remaining discretionary spending of 1.415 trillion is available as a fiscal tool (The Washington 2010). Certainly, the President could propose additional spending measures such as his American Jobs Act released in September 2011.

Concomitant to discretionary spending is the revenue collected by the Federal Government in taxes, 2.57 trillion in the 2011 Obama budget (The Washington 2010). One of the prominent fiscal tools the President has utilized is deficit spending, 1.27 trillion in the proposed budget to stimulate the economy (The Washington 2010). Government spending reflects a belief in the multiplier demonstrated by "additional shifts in aggregate demand when expansionary fiscal policy increases income and thereby increases consumer spending" (Mankiw, G.N. 2004). There is debate over the size of the multiplier; Keynesians contend it is greater than one, while supply- side economists believe the coefficient is significantly less than one. While this debate is important, the reality is that Congress and the President will not agree on further government spending to stimulate the economy, given the deficit and the explosion of debt past 15 trillion dollars.

The other fiscal policy tool available for use is tax cuts, which allow individuals and businesses to keep more of the money they earn, a portion of which will be saved, and a part which will be spent. The consumption side will lead to increased aggregate demand allowing the economy to grow. In the longer-term though the reduction in marginal tax rates will engender an environment leading to greater incentives to work, save, and invest. Tax cuts though must strive to be revenue neutral from an accounting perspective, with the understanding that there will be a strong economic effect. The

Fiscal and Monetary Policy and Economic Fluctuations
Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10263461
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Fiscal and Monetary Policy and Economic Fluctuations

The global economy was relatively doing fine more than five years ago before it was hit by economic downturn or recession. During this period, the American economy was at its peak, particularly in the fourth quarter of 2007. However, this was followed by a mild recession at the beginning of 2008, which eventually turned into a severe credit crisis across the world approximately one year later. While only a few countries escaped the economic recession, virtually no country could avoid the severe bear markets in stock (Norris, 2012). Some countries like the United States experienced changes in gross domestic product and stock markets. Since it has the best record of the main developed countries, the United States was severely affected by the recession. As the economic downturn came to end, America started the process of recovery from the effects of the recession. This…


Davidson, P. (2013, September 11). Economy is Still Bruised Five Years After Crisis. USA

Today. Retrieved November 24, 2013, from 

Klimasinska, K. & Chandra, S. (2013, August 27). America Resilient Five Years After Great

Recession. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 24, 2013, from

Fiscal and Monetary Policy
Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34460415
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Fiscal and Monetary Policy in a Fictitious Economic Scenario

Recently, all of all Street waited with bated breath for Allen Greenspan to announce what would be the shift in the Federal Reserve's upcoming policy regarding interest rates, given that our national economy was apparently recovering at a much stronger than expected pace. Dismayed at the news that the Fed was likely to raise rates, thus encouraging saving and tempering consumer spending, the stock market temporarily took a nosedive. It was speculated that this information might have been leaked, to assess all Street's reaction to a possible rate hike. The Fed retracted its position, slightly.

This recent dialogue of public relations and monetary policy highlights the impact even suggestions by the federal government and the Federal Reserve chairman regarding national fiscal and monetary policy respectively can have upon the nation. Fiscal policy is the use of government spending and taxes to…

Works Cited

FRBSF. (2004) "How the Fed Guides Monetary Policy." Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Website. 

Herman-Ellison, Lisa. (February 7, 2003). "Fiscal and Monetary Processes." National Council on Economic Education. NCEE Website.

Fiscal Reporting in Special Education
Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42188368
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Fiscal eporting in Special Education

The element of fiscal reporting constitutes a key component of special education program delivery. It plays a vital role in the acquisition and supplying (after completing centralized accounting) valuable information for supporting decisions and justifying financial resource utilization. The value of information may be proven through its content: i.e., resources' nature and the means adopted for raising them, resource allocation according to approved budget provisions, and their utilization (Cenar, 2011)

Successful special education management necessitates effective information utilization. Information pertaining to special education spans from student and staff data to program- and school- level financial data. An inclusive education data system will be able to offer the following benefits:

Data can be utilized in the decision-making process;

It can used for targeting particular improvement areas;

Disaggregated data can be utilized for examining wide-ranging aims;

Data can be employed for timely evaluation of special education program;…


Allison, G. S., Honegger, S. D., & Johnson, F. (2009). Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems: 2009 Edition. NCES 2009-325. National Center for Education Statistics.

Board, J. (n.d.) Accounting Public School Budgeting and Auditing-Budgeting, Accounting, Auditing, Future Trends. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from 

Cenar, I. (2011). Financial Reporting in Education Institutions the Implications of the Transition to Accrual Accounting. Annales Universitatis Apulensis: Series Oeconomica, 13(1), 22.

Ellerson, N. (n.d.) American Association of School Administrators School Budgets 101. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from

Fiscal Cliff Its Challenges and
Words: 2224 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52499293
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S. It too had run into a deep recession and too sought ways out of it by considering tax options. In a similar way, both candidates running for the South Korean presidency in the 2012 presidential elections vowed to "to prioritise "national reconciliation," better "economic democracy" and social welfare" (BBC News (17 December 2012) South Korea's presidential candidates) and to do this via easing South Korea's income gap between rich and poor by adjusting tax burden appropriately. No wonder, that U.S. President Barack Obama congratulated her and stated that he "is looking forward to working closely with her administration on issues of mutual concern" (ibid). The two nations currently have a lot in common and Ms. Park seems to be treading the path that Obama has in mind.


Our recent recession goes by various names. It is called, in turn, the Great ecession, the Lesser Depression, the Long ecession,…


Condon, S. (December 19, 2012) the middle-class tax hikes in Obama's "fiscal cliff" plan. CBS News.

Grosz, D. (Dec 19, 2012) Rich Make Out Like Bandits in Fiscal-Cliff Negotiations. The Daily Beast

Fiscal and Monetary Policy and
Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74921591
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Inflation remains low because of the seemingly unchanging rate of unemployment and income. In addition, the low inflation rate is associated with the slow economic activity during the winter months because of adverse weather conditions (Liu, 2014). One of the major reasons for the minimal changes in U.S. interest rates as compared to five years ago is the slow recovery in the housing sector. The housing sector continues to slowly recover from the effects of the 2008 global recession. This rate of recovery has had significant effects on the country economy as evident in the low interest rates.

Strategies to Encourage Consumer Spending:

The Federal eserve can use fiscal and monetary policy to develop strategies that will encourage people to spend money in order to stimulate economic growth. One of these strategies, which is a fiscal policy initiative, is government tax cuts that enhances the buying power of consumers. Tax…


Liu, H. (2014, April 28). Trading the U.S. FOMC Interest Rate Decision, April 30, 2014.

Retrieved April 28, 2014, from,-april-30,-2014-210865 

Pettinger, T. (2012, May 18). Policies for Economic Growth. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from 

Yellen. (2014, March 19). Transcript of Chair Yellen's Press Conference. Retrieved from The

Nursing Fiscal Plan of Action
Words: 2263 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 89453028
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Nursing Fiscal Plan

The author of report is asked to assess a budget framework and compare what has happened to what is set to happen through the rest of the year and ascertain how best to close out the year. The author is asked to assess budget line item requests for the duration of the year as well as what expenses can and should be deferred until the new fiscal year. The budget projections that were accurate are to be labeled as well as what factors have caused the inaccuracies. As to the latter, it is asked if those inaccuracies were controllable or predictable.

The author is asked to do a bit of research on patient acuity symptoms and to ascertain the best approach for that process vis-a-vis quality patient care. The author is asked what strategies pertaining to motivation, communication, care delivery and so forth need to be implemented…

Works Cited

Brennan, CW, and BJ Daly. "Patient Acuity: A Concept Analysis." Journal of Advanced

Nursing 65.5 (2009): 1114-1126. CINAHL with Full Text. Web. 29 Apr. 2013.

Ekwall, A, M Gerdtz, and E. Manias. "The Influence of Patient Acuity on Satisfaction

With Emergency Care: Perspectives of Family, Friends and Careers." Journal Of

Pro-Formal 5-Year Financial Projection Overview of the
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62009830
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Pro-Formal 5-Year Financial Projection

Overview of the XYZ Financial Statements

Objective of this report is to provide 5-year pro-formal financial statements of the XYZ Company. The company financial statements reveal that the XYZ records net sales of the $1.74 Million at the end of the first fiscal year while the gross profit is $637, 428. Moreover, the company total operating expenses is $285,850 making the company to record the net profits $144,335. (XYZ Company, n.d).

Overview of the company balance sheet at the end of first fiscal year reveals that company total current assets are $69,525 while the company total fixed assets are $300,000. The company total assets are $369,525. Moreover, the company total liabilities are $146,000. The report provides the strategies that the company will employ to increase the total sales and the net profits with the next five years.

Strategy to Implement to Increase Sales within the Next…

Student Profile the Student Is a 29-Year-Old
Words: 1183 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36111247
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Student Profile

The student is a 29-year-old French speaking accountant whose employer is sponsoring him to come to the UK for a four-week intensive English course.

Desired Proficiency

This student should be able to deliver dynamic presentations, about twenty to thirty minutes in length, and engage in discussions about accounting and business practices. He should also be able to attend to lengthy presentations and phone calls on the same subjects. He will need to read and write quick emails, professional memos, and formal reports. In addition to what is specifically related to the fields of business and accounting, he will need a good handle on the vocabulary of Information Technology in the inevitable event that something goes wrong with his computer, the email server, his slideshow, etc.

Current Proficiency

The student currently demonstrates an adequate mastery of basic interpersonal communications skills to make new acquaintances using greetings, questions about the…

Wendy's Arby's Group Output Year Ending Jan 3
Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33332082
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Output (year ending Jan. 3, 2010)


Output (year ending Dec. 28, 2009)


Change in sales:


Cost info (in thousands)

Cost Driver

ate (Change in cost/change in sales)

Cost of sales






Other (misc)


Wendy's/Arby's Group 2010 Annual eport)

Wendy's/Arby's Group's basic sales operations, which consist of many different activities classified into broad categories of costs in company financial statements, are examined n the above table. Not all cost categories are represented, however the three that are most easily broken down (from the available information) into specific activities appear above: cost of sales, which includes all of the basic activities from material procurement through labor costs; facilities costs, which includes property maintenance, procurement, and other physical resource control; and other miscellaneous costs, which involve a number of different one-time and ongoing costs incurred in a given year (Gilman, 2011). The time…


Bradtke, D. (2007). Activity-Based Costing. New York: Grin.

Gilman, S. (2011). Analyzing Financial Statements. New York: BiblioBazaar.

Wendy's/Arby's Group. (2011). 2010 Annual Report. Accessed 8 February 2012.

Public Programs Over the Last Several Years
Words: 1801 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14306249
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Public Programs

Over the last several years, the total amounts of spending for the federal government has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because of the high trade deficits and national debt is having an impact on how various services are delivered. In the case of Justice Department, they have been facing drastic cuts. The reason why is from officials using the funds they are receiving to provide generous benefits for employees. ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011)

A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a DOJ Inspector General's report. They found that there is rampant waste inside the agency (with them spending $16 per muffin for a breakfast gathering and $600 thousand for event planning services). ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011) These elements are illustrating how these kinds of reports are leading to a reduction in spending and…


Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ. (2011). TPM Muckraker. Retrieved from: 

Cost Control. (2012). Reference for Business. Retrieved from: 

Department of Justice FY 2013 Budget. (2012). DOJ. Retrieved from:

DOJ Cuts Will Impact Public Safety. (2011). 10 News. Retrieved from:

Financial Environment This Year the
Words: 1393 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 77231647
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S. Treasuries (Gjelten, 2009).

What hasn't happened "officially," i.e. The establishment of a formal IMF SDR world currency system or some other form of a supranational currency, seems to be occurring in the market anyway, but just in a more informal fashion. For instance, already central banks throughout the world are favoring euros and the yen over the dollar as illustrated by the following numbers (Euro, yen to replace dollar as world reserve currency, 2009). During July through September 2009, banks put 63% their new cash into euros and the yen. As a result, the dollar's share of new cash in the central banks was down to 37 compared with approximately 67% a decade ago. Currently, according to the IMF, dollars account for about 62% of the currency reserve at central banks -- the lowest on record (Euro, yen to replace dollar as world reserve currency, 2009). Further, if China…


Amadeo, K. Dollar decline or dollar collapse? 

Batson, a. (2009, March 24). China takes aim at dollar. The Wall Street Journal. 

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426.

Davidson, a. (2009, March 23). Bejing shows buyer's remorse. Forbes.

Fiscal and Monetary Issues in America Economics
Words: 2730 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73454786
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Fiscal and Monetary Issues in America


There are high tensions in the American economy today resulting from speculations whether the government will be able to hit the debt ceiling. Failure to hit the debt ceiling has serious economic effects to many sectors of the economy both in the United States and various countries of the world. Political disagreements regarding the budget delay decision-making process as the date ceiling draws closer each day. The government debt will cause disruption and failures in the U.S. market system and beyond because some rates will double while others will completely fall. The consequences of these are both the government and private sector failures and the economy will not be in a position to sustain itself. Government securities will lose market value and the cost of bonds will double because of the risk premiums. The result of this is government deficits, which will require…


Eichner, A.S., & Kregel, J.A. (1975). An essay on post-Keynesian theory: a new paradigm in economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 13 (4), 1293-1314.

Moseley, F. (1995). Heterodox Economic Theories: True or False?. Brookfield: Edward Edger


Lee, F & Bekken, J. (2009). Radical Economics and Labor. New York: Routledge Publishing.

Fiscal and Monetary Policy On the Most
Words: 1364 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69129640
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fiscal and monetary policy.

On the most basic level, the primary difference between fiscal and monetary policy is that fiscal policy pertains to the actions of the federal government designed to influence the national economy through government spending and taxation while monetary policy refers to the actions of the central bank to govern the money supply. Tight or restrictive monetary and fiscal policy is used to curb inflation; a liberal monetary and fiscal policy is used as an economic stimulus (What is the difference between fiscal and monetary policy, 2002, As Dr. Econ).

2-Compare and contrast Keynes and Hayek

According to Keynes, it was sometimes necessary for the federal government to take a role in managing the economy, to correct the ebbs and flows of the business cycle. During severe recessions consumers became wary about losing their jobs, stopped spending money, and this further curtailed economic growth. Eventually, more and…


Koehn, Nancy. (2011). Tale of the dueling economists. The New York Times. Retrieved: /2011/10/23/business/keynes-hayek-views-origins-of-an-economics-debate-review.html?_r=1&ref=books

Nasar, Sylvia. (2011). Hayek, Keynes and How to Prevent Economic Crises. Bloomberg.


Fiscal Option for the Ebc
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47602317
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Socioeconomics and Fiscal Policy

Current Events Article eview

One of the more interesting discussions occurring relative to the purpose and effective use of fiscal policy in today's macroeconomic environment is arguably occurring inside the European Union (EU). There is a high level debate that is ongoing about the future of the EU after various economic crises that have emerged such in Greece, most notably, but also in other economies such as Spain. Some argue that the since the European Union is made up of independent nations with their own elected governments, their problems are going to be essentially local and they will need local solutions that any policies from a centralized financial system that sets fiscal policies for all the EU nations could ever possibly address (Debating Europe, N.d.).

There are many ideological objections to the fiscal union that is being formed that lie outside its potential effectiveness, such as…


Coeure, B. (2016, March 21). The future of the euro area. Retrieved from European Central Bank: 

Debating Europe. (N.d.). Arguments for and against fiscal union. Retrieved from Debating Europe:

Fiscal and Monetary Policy and Economic Fluctuations
Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68114707
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economic situation in the United States is favorable compared with five years ago. Five years ago, it was late 2009 and in the depths of the Great ecession, so performing better than those levels is no great achievement. But as a point of comparison, all metrics are better today. The annualized rate of GDP increase in the third quarter of 2014 was 3.9%, down from 4.6% in the second quarter, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis (2014). In 2009, the Q3 GDP was 1.7%, which is a low number, but at the time represented positive growth following three straight quarters of declines. Thus, technically, Q3 2009 was when we emerged from recession (Treasury, 2012). GDP growth in the interim has been uneven, but the past couple of quarters indicate healthy, manageable growth that should not lead to runaway inflation.

Unemployment, which is a lagging indicator, is 5.8% as of…


BEA. (2014). National income and product accounts, 3rd quarter 2014. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from 

BLS. (2014). Consumer Price Index Summary. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from 

BLS. (2014). Unemployment rate. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from 

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (2013). Why does the Federal Reserve aim for 2% inflation over time? Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Fiscal policy and paper money
Words: 2378 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44400550
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Xian Feng emperor. A national monetary policy relates to issuing paper money. In the case of the emperor, this policy was done incorrectly and the government should not issuing paper money as the sole way to solve financial deficits. hat will be posed in this report will be some solutions and comparisons that would helped the country economically during that time period. The relevant time periods for this report shall be during the time of the Xian Feng emperor (1831-1861) and the later part of the Qing era

Xian Feng Emperor & Qing Government.

In general term, the 1700's was a prosperous point in time for the Qing government. Their empire was stable, China's borders were secured and agricultural production was strong enough to keep food shortages at bay and taxes for peasants low. However, during the 19th century, the Qing government was challenged by several threats and problems. These…

Works Cited

Horesh, Niv. Chinese Money In Global Context: Historic Junctures Between 600 BCE

& 2012. 1st ed., Stanford University Press, 2013.

Von Glahn, Richard. Fountain Of Fortune. 1st ed., Berkeley, Calif., University Of

California Press, 1996.

Policies Discuss the Way Fiscal
Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39820911
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In turn, low consumption leads to low level of economic growth, but also to low inflation. Gross Domestic Product is also distorted by taxation, as every integrant component - consumption, investment, savings and net foreign position are deeply influenced, directly or indirectly, by level of taxes. A liberal fiscal policy, with lower taxes, encourages individuals and companies to develop and register important economic growth rates, but induces an increasing inflation rate.

Federal Policy

The Employment Act after World War 2 and the Full Employment and alanced Growth Act made it a goal of the federal government to achieve full employment and price stability. According to economists and statisticians, the full employment figure is set at 3-4%, not at 0% unemployment as it could be believed. This 3-4% is also called normal unemployment rate, and is one of the desiderates that was put into practice following the World War II. However,…


1) Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 1999. "

Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers,"

NBER Working Papers 7363, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

2) Albert Rees, 1973. "

Macroeconomic Situation in the U S Corrective Fiscal
Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1463806
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Macroeconomic Situation in the U.S.: Corrective Fiscal and Monetary Policy

December 2007 marked the onset of the Great recession, which ended in mid-2009 but left the U.S. economy struggling through the damage wrought by its severity. Federal policy has gone a long way in the prevention of an occurrence of another recession, but growth remains too sluggish and inadequate for the full-health restoration of the economy. Vigorous and sustained fiscal and monetary support is needed if the economy is to recover and achieve the pre-depression employment level.

Save for the temporary hiring of census officials, the overall economy recorded a drastic fall in employment levels during the last half of 2009. In December 2012, the unemployment rate was reported at 8.1% - approximately 3.5 percentage points above the average rate in 2007, at the end of which the Great ecession struck (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). This rate further exceeds…


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014). Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Bureau of Labor Force Statistics. Retrieved from 

Council for Economic Education. (2013). Fiscal and Monetary Policy Process. Council for Economic Education. Retrieved from 

Greenlaw, G., Hamilton, J. Hooper, P. & Mishkin, F. (2013). Crunch Time: Fiscal Crises and the Role of Monetary Policy (No w19297). National Bureau of Economic Research.

US Inflation. (2013). U.S. Inflation Rate. U.S. Inflation. Retrieved from

monetary and fiscal policy
Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73323236
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Monetary policy and fiscal policy are the two main ways in which governments influence the health of the economy. Monetary policy is conducted by central banks, while other branches of the government are responsible for fiscal policy. The Federal Reserve illustrates the three major ways in which is uses monetary policy. Monetary policy reflects the amount of money that is in the economy, which in turn influences the health of that economy. The Fed sets monetary policy in line with seeking a stable rate of growth, controlled inflation and a healthy rate of job creation.

The primary means by which the Fed implements monetary policy is through open market transactions. These are the buying and selling of Treasury securities, or government debt. If the Fed wishes to increase the amount of money in the economy, it buys securities and if it wants to decrease the amount of money in the…

Leadership & Fiscal Responsibility the First Two
Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 35972386
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Leadership & Fiscal esponsibility

The first two chapters of Financial and Accounting Guide for Not-For-Profit Organizations, authored by Gross et al., explicitly relates to the financial practices that pertain to not-for-profit entities. Although many of the basic fundamental principles of these organizations are the same as those which are for profit, these chapters emphasize several facets of accounting that specifically pertain to the former. As such, it is interesting to note the way that these two chapters are structured and related to one another. The first chapter, "esponsibilities for Fiscal Management," denotes an overview of the practices that the financial manager (which is referred to within the text as a "treasurer") (Gross et al., 2008, p. 6) should undertake to keep a non-profit financially healthy. The second chapter flushes out this basic outline with many salient details that are pivotal to operations.

The basic responsibilities that a financial manager is…


Gross, M.J., McCarthy, J.H., & Shelmon, N.E. (2008). Financial and Accounting Guide for Not-for-Profit Organizations: 8th Edition. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.

Higher Education Fiscal Responsibility Aside
Words: 1603 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3581664
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(Eds.). (2005). The role of education: Promoting the economic and social vitality of rural America. Jackson, MISS: The Southern

ural Development Center, Mississippi State University.

Green, M., Eckel, P., & Barblan, a. (2002). The brave new (and smaller) world of higher education: A transatlantic view. The Changing Enterprise. First in a Series. [n.p.].

Phelps, D.G. (1992). A vision for the Los Angeles Community College District.

Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Community College District Department of Public Affairs.

obinson, P.. (Spring 1988). Changing roles and new expectations. New Directions for Higher Education 61(16, 1). 71-74

Whalen, E.L. (1991). esponsibility center budgeting: An approach to decentralized management for institutions of higher education.


IN: Indiana University Press.

In relationship to other responsibilities, e.g., department or program chair, for example.

Also, at various times, e.g., annual or biennial state legislative sessions, another responsibility of such a team is to request additional funding for…


Beaulieu, L., & Gibbs, R. (Eds.). (2005). The role of education: Promoting the economic and social vitality of rural America. Jackson, MISS: The Southern

Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University.

Green, M., Eckel, P., & Barblan, a. (2002). The brave new (and smaller) world of higher education: A transatlantic view. The Changing Enterprise. First in a Series. [n.p.].

Phelps, D.G. (1992). A vision for the Los Angeles Community College District.

Turkey Economy Turkey -- Fiscal and Monetary
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76854214
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Turkey Economy

Turkey -- Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Fiscal policy refers to how a government adjusts its level of spending on various goods and services it provides to a population. Governments can spend money in a number of different ways that ultimately serve the public good. They can employee people to work on various projects. For example, the government can invest in things like health care, infrastructure, or education. Investments in such project can have a significant impact the country's economy. hen the government spends money there is a multiplier effect that injects money into the economy. For example, when the government pays an employee then that employee has money to spend on housing, food, entertainment, and other items which helps to stimulate the economy on an aggregate level.

Monetary policy is an entirely different type of policy tool than fiscal policy. This policy is determined by a federal bank…

Works Cited

Bureau, P. (2012, November 3). PESTLE Analysis of Turkey. Retrieved from Market Analysis:

Business Insider. (2011, March 9). Turkey: A Model of Middle East Stability. Retrieved from Business Insider: 

Cademir, Y., & Peker, E. (2013, January 22). Turkey's Central Bank Keeps Easing Monetary Policy. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: 

Reuters. (2013, July 8). Turkey's Central Bank kicks off monetary tightening, dollar down from all-time high. Retrieved from Hurriyet Daily News.

Forcasting the Years Ahead Pose
Words: 3138 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16506223
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The forecast provided by Allen Sinai gave the reader a somewhat accurate analysis of the macroeconomic phenomenon. However, there are also a few problems. Sinai estimates a 0.4% increase in 2005 for the consumer price index, which is not actually correct, but it's not to far from reality either. Given the increase of the interest rate, people will probably feel not so comfortable in buying as much as during the previous years, so a slight decrease can be expected. After all, January is known as a slow month. 0.4% means about 4% a year, which is much more than the economy is currently able to take.

The estimated trade balance was larger than the recorded one, therefore proving the pessimism of Mr. Sinai. After all, many analysts expected worse trade deficit results than the one that were published in November 2004. It would seem that the low-value dollar policy promoted…


1. Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan Federal Reserve Board's semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. July 2004. On the Internet at 

2. CBO's Current Economic Projections. January 2005. On the Internet at 

3. International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook. Chapter 2 - the Global Implications of the U.S. Fiscal Deficit and of China's Growth. Page 64. On the Internet at 

Agregate Demand, IS-LM, AD-as information on the Internet at 4.

Canadian Economy in Recent Years
Words: 1439 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2388517
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According to Longworth, "the reason (the bank) insist on keeping inflation in line is because this is the best contribution the bank can make to a healthy economy." In other words, keeping inflation low, stable and predictable is key to keeping the economy "on the smoothest possible track for long-lasting economic growth and job creation," says Longworth. By doing this, the Canadian public and private monetary policy is able to avoid an inflationary "boom-and-bust" cycle is one of the leading causes to recessions and increased rates of unemployment. "To put it another way, the Bank's focus on inflation means that the gap between the potential and actual performance of the economy can be kept as narrow as possible."

III. The Negative Side of the Canadian Economy

On the flip side of the careful monetary policy planning is the government's fiscal policy planning, or, according to some, lack of planning. According…

Works Cited

Central Intelligence Agency. (2005): CIA World Factbook: Canada. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing.

Fortin, Pierre. (1995). The Canadian Fiscal Problem: The Macroeconomic Connection. Atlantic Economic Journal.

Howlett, Michael and M. Ramesh. (1992). Political Economy of Canada: An Introduction. Toronto: McClelland and Steward.

Longworth, David. (2007). Canadian Monetary Policy.

Analyzing the Fiscal Accountability
Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70911863
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Affordable Care Act

The following will be a research on the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its social and economic effectiveness.

President Obama has made extensive changes to the health care system, with detailed reforms being introduced in the form of "the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" that was incorporated in to the law on March 23, 2010. The law proposed the following improvements in the existing system:

Provisions were added that expanded coverage.

Better control and monitoring of health care costs.

An improved system of health care providence.

This legislature demanded U.S. citizens and legal residents to have health insurance (Summary of the Affordable Care Act -- The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013).

Purchase of coverage will be easier as the law has opened up "state-based American Health Benefit Exchanges." "

Premium and cost-sharing credits have become more accessible to families that rank between 133-400% of…


Burke, S., & Kamarck, E. (2013). Brookings - Quality. Independence. Impact. The Affordable Care Act: A User's Guide to Implementation. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from 

Furman, J. (2014). The White House -- Six Economic Benefits of the Affordable Care Act -- Retrieved April 19, 2016, from 

(2013). Kaiser Family Foundation - Health Policy Research, Analysis, Polling, Facts, Data and Journalism. Summary of the Affordable Care Act -- The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved April 19, 2016, from

Kraft Over the Last Few Years Kraft
Words: 1483 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 165124
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Over the last few years, Kraft has been dealing with unique challenges. This is from the wide range of products and markets the firm is competing. In this study, there was a focus on the current opportunities and challenges. What was determined is that Kraft is facing considerable risks from a number of industry and external factors. To address these issues, the firm must maintain constant amounts of watchfulness of new changes and quickly adjust to them. This will help the company adapt with critical challenges and address the needs of stakeholders.

For many firms, globalization has increased the competitive pressures they are facing inside the marketplace. This has transformed the kinds of strategies they are utilizing. In the cases of Kraft Foods, they are facing similar issues from these and other factors such as: high raw material and energy costs. This has the potential to hurt their ability…


Kraft Foods. (2012). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: 

Our Progress in 2011. (2011). Kraft. Retrieved from:

PEST Analysis. (2009). Value-Based Management. Retrieved from: 

Porter's Five Forces: A model for industry analysis. (2007). Quick MBA. Retrieved from:

Back From the Brink the Greenspan Years
Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76895622
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qualities of a man that make him an effective leader of the most intricate process in the modern world? Since taking the chairmanship of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan has demonstrated that whatever these qualities are, he has them. is wisdom and insight into the workings of U.S. economy have helped guide numerous administrations to construct positive economic policy. e as helped guide the nation out of the recession of the mid-70's, the hyper-inflation of the 1980's, and the fiscal short sightedness of the Clinton administration. is wisdom surprisingly does not ascend from any one particular classroom, but a life time of pursuing that which he loves. e has, according to biographer Stephen Beckner, been in the right place in the right time, making friends and influencing people for the purpose of personal well-being, and that of the nation.

Born in New York the only child of a Wall Street…

His love for people. Greenspan is not a numbers geek, nor a recluse. His influence extends because he can work with people, and he builds confidence so others can work with him.

His love for the free market. Greenspan is a committed free market economist. Without his principle-based commitment to the end result, he would have easily been led astray by the self defeating economic policies of Carter or Clinton.

Beckner, Steven. Back from the Brink. New York: Wiley and Sons. 1999.

Role of the CIO Evolved During Last Ten Years
Words: 347 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78471713
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Changing ole of the Chief Information Officer

With the advent of the twenty first century all business programs, stratagems, and systems are continually being bombarded with IT systems that demand content knowledge, organizational effectiveness, and *** on the part of the chief informational officer of a company. No longer can the CIO simply be a technology mechanic but one who is a creative and entrepreneurial leader as well. Over the past ten years the growth in informational technology, and the application thereof, has presented the user with challenges never before seen. In today's high technology environment the CIO leaders be able to align their IT components and organizations with corporate wide business goals. Ten years ago companies were looking for CIO's who were IT pundits; however, that is not the case today. Companies are now seeking CIO's who are business savvy and communicators as well as relationship builders. Today's successful…


Uittenbogaard, Jeroen, de Jong, Berend and van der Zee, Han (2001). The Changing

Role of the CIO: Past, Present and the Near Future. Nolan Norton Institute.

Why Are Students Having a Difficult Time Graduating in 4 Years
Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82833442
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Students Having a Difficult Time

hy are students having a difficult time graduating in 4 years?

There is a constant change occurring around the globe, and for that no one can just stick to one point and be left behind but has to move with the same pace as time asks to even in the field of education, and the result one expects to get once one is graduated is a nice job, everything is in a move of constant change.

Students need a full four-year period to graduate, and in this span of their life, which means 18-22-year age, they have to face assorted problems, which can be financial, parental stress, the courses being covered themselves and pressure from other ends.

This research paper, discusses the problems which are most commonly faced by many students because of the speedy nature of a four-year graduation program. It thoroughly discusses all…

Works Cited

Asher, Donald. 6 Reasons College Students Don't Graduate in 4 Years. Donald Asher. 2010. Web. 22 October 2012

Conan, Neal. Students Find It's Tough To Graduate In Four Years. Talk of the Nation. 21 May 2012. Web. 22 October 2012.

LaCombe, Amy M. Is First-generation Status a Predictor of 4-year Graduation Rate, Grade Point Average, Choice of Major Upon Entry, and Major Upon Graduation at a Private, Highly Selective 4-year Institution? Boston: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 2007. Print.

Vise, Daniel de. Education - Public universities pushing 'super-seniors' to the graduation stage. The Washington Post. 3 June 2012. Web. 22 October 2012.

Income Distribution Gap the Global Fiscal Crisis
Words: 2771 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70168155
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Income Distribution Gap

The global fiscal crisis will be borne by the millions of people who do not have a share in the benefits that were derived from the global economic expansions that occurred previously. Not only has the gap widened between low wage earners and high wage earners in nations across the globe, the world's income gap distribution has widened. Economists have long concluded that a limited degree of income inequality contributes to worker motivation, promotes innovation, and rewards talent and effort. Nevertheless, when income differences become too great, the dynamics become counter-productive. unaway income inequality is considered to be a destructive force, such that "rising income inequality represents a danger to the social fabric" ("Board of Canada," 2012). The repercussions from excessive income inequalities include children not attending school so they can contribute to household earnings by going to work, increased crime rates, lower life-expectancies, and malnutrition.



Acemoglu D (2009) Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Card D. And DiNardo JE (2002). Skill biased technological change and rising wage inequality: Some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(4), 735.

Jones CI (2002) Introduction to economic growth (2nd ed.). New York, NY W.W. Norton.

Milanovic, B (2005) Worlds apart: Measuring international and global inequality, 180 -- 81. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gap Digs Out of a Fiscal Hole
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31720126
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GAP Digs out of a Fiscal Hole and Expands

GAP Leadership e-configuration

Fiscally, things have been going quite well for GAP INC., in particular since a new CEO - Paul Pressler - showed up to take the GAP reins in September of 2002. "Sales...are back on the upswing..." And earnings have also "resumed their upward trajectory" (Karr, 2004). What is even better for investors / shareholders is that as of February 2004, the price of a GAP stock has "doubled Karr reports. Still, GAP is saddled with about $2.8 billion in debt, according to the article in Daily News ecord.

Notwithstanding that debt, GAP "could find itself able to renegotiate its credit agreement" - and hence, "shed itself of current restrictions" on dividends and stock purchases, which could result in savings.

There is additional positive corporate news from GAP (WWD, 2004); to wit, Jorge Montoya - who is 57 and…

References (2004). "JAPAN: GAP Focuses On New Sales Initiatives."

Molin, David; & Young, Kristin. (2004). "GAP taking aim at H&M?" WWD.

WWD. (2004). "GAP Board Shuffle...Chain Debate...Fighting Counterfeits."

Comparing the Fiscal Status of Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi
Words: 1832 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88718403
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Coca Cola & Pepsi

Coca-Cola and Pepsi are long-time rivals in the soft drink industry. In terms of their primary markets, the two have been engaged in an intense battle for market leadership for decades. hile this makes them natural comparables as investments go, they are significantly different in a number of other ways and this makes the question of which is the better investment a more challenging debate. Pepsi has spun off its bottling enterprises into a separate company, Pepsi Bottling Ventures, while Coca-Cola uses third party bottlers under contract. Pepsi has historically been the more diversified of the two companies, with its current businesses including Lay's and Quaker Oats/Gatorade. The nature of competition in the soft drink industry is international for both firms, but it is also intense. For both firms, the core soda products are viewed strategically as cash cows, but gains in market share and shelf…

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2011, 1). Reading the balance sheet. Investopedia. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from 

Investopedia. (2011, 2). Reading the income statement. Investopedia. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from 

Loth, R. (2011). Financial ratio tutorial. Investopedia. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from 

MSN Moneycentral: PepsiCo. (2011). Retrieved June 9, 2011 from

Economic Challenges Canada Faces in Recent Years
Words: 2957 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67866735
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Economic Challenges Canada Faces

In recent years, the challenging economic condition in Canada has emerged as a concern for citizens, policy makers and the government alike. Canada faces challenges in terms of creating a more innovative society, as the country continues to experience a significant productivity gap compared to other advanced industrial economies. The Canadian industry appears to be slower in successfully developing, applying and marketing innovative products, processes and services than a majority of other nations. This lack of innovation is the cause of Canada's low productivity growth and competitiveness, and therefore must be addressed in order to increase employment growth, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life for all Canadians.

Current research predicts that although Canada's economic performance will gradually strengthen out of the recent mild slowdown into a better pattern of growth in 2004, Canada's economy still faces the longer-term challenge of increasing…


Department of Finance Canada. (2004). The Economy in Brief. Retrieved March 8,

2005, from the Department of Finance Web site: 12e.html

Economic Survey Canada. (2004). Building Partnerships for Progress. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the Economic Survey Canada Web site:

Environment Canada, Informing Canadians on Pollution. (2002) Highlights of the 2002 National Pollutant Release Inventory, Environment Canada.

Why Are Students Having a Difficult Time Graduating in 4 Years
Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 42984392
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students having a difficult time graduating in 4 years?

Annotated Bibliography

Asher, Donald. 6 Reasons College Students Don't Graduate in 4 Years. Donald Asher. 2010. Web. 22 October 2012

There are certain reasons behind the fact that students do not manage to complete their degrees in time. The most important reasons are as follows.

Parents do not ask their kids to complete degree in time. They let them push it beyond four years on the condition that after four years, the expenses will be paid by themselves. t does not let the kids understand that completion in four years is a desired target.

Students are not regular in studies.

Students are not serious hence they change majors and fields too frequently and late.

Students try to study in multiple institutes one after the other and much time is wasted.

Sometimes students work and find it difficult to concentrate on studies.…

It is common culture in universities that students enrolled in four degree program do not complete it in time. Hardly any student does so and it is considered as an exception. It leads to increased tution fee for students and less number of graduates for universities. In the modern wrold, the universities are trying to change this culture. The admnistraiton is detemined to promote the concept that four-year degree program must be completed in four years and not more than that. It is in favor of students and universities both that students complete their degrees in prescribed duration.

Yoder, Steve. Life and Money. The Fiscal times. 19 December 2011. Web. 22 October 2012.

There are few students who graduate in time. These students consider themselves as lucky. In America colleges, the trend of graduating in four years is quite low. Students get good scores in the beginning of their study programs, but as the course becomes tough, they lose interest which results in low grades and frustration. One of the major reasons for not passing out in time is dependence of course as pre-requisite. If a student is failed in one pre-requisite he cannot take any other course which is offered subsequently. Much time is wasted in waiting and university does not facilitate in offering the courses quickly.

US Dollar vs Other Currencies Over the Last Five Years
Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66146410
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Exchange ate Analysis

The author of this report is to follow the order of Dorchester Inc. And analyze the exchange rates for three different countries. The author will use the United States Dollar (USD) as the common currency and then compare/contrast the exchange rates of the dollar against the Euro, the Yen and the Australian Dollar. All three will be looked at over the last five years using the Bloomberg website. While one would expect these three charts to be at least somewhat similar, they are actually quite different and no two of the three are remotely alike.

The USD/YEN rate, which compares the currencies of Japan and the United States, shows some very sharp activity over the recent years. Of course, 2010 marked a year where the United States and much of the rest of the world was in a sharp recession. While the worst was from late 2007…


Bloomberg. (2014, September 29). USD to JPY Conversion Chart. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from 

Bloomberg. (2014, September 29). AUD to USD Conversion Chart. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from 

Bloomberg. (2014, September 29). EUR to USD Conversion Chart. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from

Banking and the Current Fiscal
Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70964429
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They could not foresee the housing market falling as it did, and the number of foreclosures it would create, and so, they aggressively continued to pursue the market when they should have been cutting back. The top executives left the company, but they were not fired, in fact, Killinger retired, comfortably it would seem. The customers of the bank, especially those with mortgages, are the ones who really will suffer in the long-term. The bank will rebound, but those with foreclosed homes never got the chance for a bailout, and so, they lost everything, while the executives and leaders of the bank are not charged with any wrongdoing. Luckily, the American taxpayers did not suffer, either, because JP Morgan Chase financed the takeover and the continuing operations of the bank.

In conclusion, WaMu's failure came about due to a number of reasons. They invested far too heavily in the sub-prime…


Adler, Joe, and Hopkins, Cheyenne. "FDIC's 'Big One': Long Prelude Gave Way to a Sudden End." American Banker, 29 Sept. 2008, Vol. 173, Issue 188.

Cocheo, Steve. "Kerry Killinger Builds His Dream Bank." ABA Banking Journal 93.8 (2001): 22.

Editors. "Washington Mutual, Inc." New York Times. 27 Sept. 2008. Business, 1.

Ivy, Bob and Shen, Linda. "Washington Mutual Hobbled by Increasing Defaults on Option ARMs." 15 Sept. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008.

Lee College
Words: 1346 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99627922
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Lee College Financial Activities

Lee College is an academic non-profit organization that awards both undergraduate and graduate degree program to students across the world. Located in the United States, the financial statements of the Lee College conform to the Government Accounting Standard Board (GASB). (Lovvorn & Kieschnick, 2011). Overview of the Lee College financial activity reveals that total unrestricted revenues at the end of the 2012 fiscal year is totaled $16,230,000 while total unrestricted expenses are $17,050,000. However, $3,290,000 is total amount record for the increase in permanent restricted revenues and $650,000 is increase in temporary restricted. Temporary restricted consists of contributions totaled $1,500,000, gain on long-term investment and net assets released from restrictions. Permanent restricted revenues consist of income of endowment totaled $2,540,000 and gains on long-term investment totaled $750,000. Overall amount of permanent restricted revenues are $3,290,000.

Unrestricted revenues reveal the total revenues and total expenses, and unrestricted…


Lovvorn & Kieschnick .(2011). "Lee College District Annual Financial Report for the Year Ended August 31, 2011. Lovvorn & Kieschnick."

Expenditure Revenue Analysis Project
Words: 2605 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78920864
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Expenditure Revenue Analysis

NY PA Expenditure

hile governmental entities must strive to serve the public good to the best of their abilities, public administrators must navigate an environment of extreme complexity in which the allocated capital funds are put to their best use. The administration of the capital budgeting process can be extremely time consuming, confusing, and expensive. This research will discuss capital budgeting policies and procedures in the states of New York as well as Pennsylvania for the fiscal years of 2009 and 2010. These governmental entities generate funds through taxes, public debt, inter-governmental transfers and various businesses owned by the government and capital projects represent a significant portion of the state's responsibilities. ith the use of a prepared financial analysis, this paper will describe current practices and examine how debt ratio affects borrowing and investment opportunities for the two governmental entities.

Much of public spending on capital projects…

Works Cited

Aschauer, D. (1989). Does public capital crowd out private capital? Journal of Monetary Economics, 171-188.

Borio, C., & Zhu, H. (2011). Capital regulation, risk-taking and monetary policy: A missing link in the transmission mechanism? Journal of Financial Stability, In Press.

Bronzini, R. (2009). Determinants of long-run regional productivity with geographical spillovers: The role of R&D, human capital and public infrastructure. Region Science and Urban Economics, 187-199.

Butler, A. (2009). Corruption, Political Connections, and Municipal Finance. The Review of Financial Studies, 2873-2905.

New Look Jacket Inc Analysis a Business
Words: 1049 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74488732
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New Look Jacket Inc.

Analysis a Business Issue.

New Look Jacket Inc. (NLJ) specializes in the production of Nylon Jackets and Leather Jackets. The company delivers successful financial records at the end of the 2012 fiscal year with the net income of $417,100, which is $170,850 greater than the net income budgeted for the 2012 fiscal year despite that the company operations goes through some turmoil. A more detail variance shows that the external factor largely responsible for the growth of leather markets that rapidly increase than anticipated making NLJ to catch with the increase in market demand.

Variance Analysis

Contribution Margin

Based on the figure in Exhibit 1, the total amount of contribution margin for the Nylon jackets is $4,350 less than the budget. Although, the actual unit of contribution margin is $0.15 greater than the standard due to the lower admin cost and selling per unit. However, the…

Buyout Strategies a Researcher Works Within the
Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45332737
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Buyout Strategies

A researcher works within the finance division of a large alcoholic and beverage company which is interested in expanding the company line of business. The company considers the buyout strategy to enhance the competitive market advantages as well as expanding the presence of its product range in the UK wines and spirits market. A Finance Director of the company identifies Blavod Wines and Spirits plc as a potential buyout target. Before implementing the buyout strategy, a Finance Director asks the researcher to provide a report analyzing the financial strength of Blavod Wines and Spirits and recommends whether Blavod Wines and Spirits could be a potential buyout target.

Fundamental objective of this report is to analyze financial strengths of BLAVOD WINES and SPIITS plc and recommends whether BLAVOD WINES and SPIITS plc is a potential buyout target for the company.

: Overview of Blavod Wines and Spirits plc



Annual Report, (2011). Blavod Wines and Spirits plc .UK

Nisar, Tahir M. (2010) Buyout strategies and performance measurement systems. In, Venture Capital Networks, London,

The Panel on Takeovers and Mergers (2011). The Takeover Code. Paternoster Square London.

Joshua, R., Joshua, P. (2011). Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers&Acquisitions,

Wal-Mart -- the Financial and
Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86125700
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In cities, urban dwellers have less room to store large amounts of goods in small apartments, and have more access to smaller, independent stores that offer more boutique services and access to wider varieties of specific goods. Discount shopping is easier for a urban walker, comparing prices on a street, and also an urban bookstore might have a wider selection than al-Mart, as might a grocery store, but only at al-Mart can a customer buy a best-seller and brand name groceries at low prices at the same time. Additionally, partly because of bad press regarding its labor practices, and also because European consumers tend to buy less in bulk, at the same time, than their American counterparts, al-Mart's success in Europe has been less dominant than its home country of America, although its international sales remain strong.

Identify the name of the company's independent accountants (auditors) and explain in your…

Works Cited

Annual Report." (2006) Wal-Mart Official Website. Retrieved 10 Jun 2006 at 

Dividend History." (2006) Wal-Mart Official Website. Retrieved 10 Jun 2006 at 

Form 10-Q for Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.: Quarterly Report." (2006) Yahoo finance. Retrieved 10 Jun 2006 at 

Organizational Leadership." (2006) Wal-Mart Official Website. Retrieved 10 Jun 2006 at

Macdonald Financial Analysis
Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 69197533
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Financial Case Study

Company Overview

McDonald Corporation specializes in the food service globally. The company started operation in 1940, and in 1967, the MacDonald registered its trademark. The primary product of McDonald includes chicken, hamburgers, soft drink, French fries, dessert and milkshakes. Over the years, the company has expanded its menu and included wraps, fish, salads fruits and smoothies. Presently, the company operates its business through either affiliate or franchise globally and the company realizes bulk of its revenues from the fees collected from franchise. Moreover, the company derives its revenues from the royalties and rents. Since MacDonald has started operations, the company has enjoyed rapid growth. At the end of the 2012 fiscal year, the company recorded the annual revenues of more than $25.7 billion with the net profits of $5.5 billion. The company also recorded the market capitalization of $94.5 billion. The company operates in 119 countries and…


McDonald. (2012) Annual Report, MacDonald Corporation .

Morning Star (2012).McDonald's Corporation MCD. USA.

Canada's Federal System Affect Economic
Words: 1705 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25918488
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Mediocre material will, likely, thus be introduced into the market, and fledgling authors discouraged. This may in a matter of fact not only prove detrimental for general culture but also for the store itself, since discouraged with the level of prevalent reading matter, potential customers may frequent other locations for their desires.

Conclusively, as an example of Mr. Flaherty's impact on the book-selling business, relaxation of tax demands on private investment may profit the business depending on its projects and ambitions. The more ambitious its projects, likely the more it may profit. I am unsure, however, how much 3 's Used Books can make itself independent from dealing with the U.S. Or with other countries; a bookstore, by nature, has to have international dealings in order to succeed. As regards the economic policies, particular to Ontario, passed in 2009, the bookstore, can with provisos, mostly benefit form their implementation.



Bloomberg. "Comfortable Business will replace Stimulus." Business Week, Oct. 23, 2010. 

Howlett, K. & Curry, B. "Canadian Finance Ministers to Target Debts and Deficits in New Year." Tuesday's Globe and Mail, Dec. 21, 2010.

Ontario Chamber of Commerce. "Economic renewal and Business Competitiveness."  / Web. 2009

Clark County School the Clark
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" Other changes comparing to 2004-2005 F.Y. are: an increase with 0, 7% in general operating revenues, and a 35% increase in student enrollment, but also an increasing expenditure with $115, 6 million, an increase of 2% for salaries. We can argue that the positive results and the positive effects are more numerous than the negative one.

4) for an answer to this question I must mention that the incomes are received and are saved in several funds. Therefore, the money is spending by using also a fund; the General Operating Fund witch shows the main expenditure areas and the occupied percentage. "The General Operating Fund Dollar is spend on: instructional materials 3,56%, utilities, postage, property insurance 3,99%, transportation 0,79%, licensed salaries and benefits 55,87%, other 6,61%, capital outlay 0,6%, debt service 0,2%, contingency 0,27%, police salaries and benefits 0,67%, administration salaries and benefits 6,86%, support salaries and benefits 20,58%."…


Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District,

Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District,

Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District, retrieved on October 12, 2006

Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District,

Purchase of Smithon Manufacturing Mr Jones Wants
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purchase of Smithon Manufacturing, Mr. Jones wants to know if he should outright purchase all of the stock.

1(a). Smithon Manufacturing requires new equipment, which will cause debt for the first two years. If Mr. Jones decides to purchase all shares of the company, he will inherit the company's debt. Already the owner of Johnson Services company, one option is to issue debt to pay for the Smithon company. Issuing debt has its benefits, including reduction in taxable income due to issuance of interest payments to debt owners. In issuing debt, Mr. Jones would raise Johnson Services company's debt-to-equity ratio, which raises the chances of bankruptcy and may have difficulties receiving corporate loans in the future (Sharp Investing, 2007).

Mr. Jones wishes to change the structure of Smithon Manufacturing from a C corporation to an S corporation. AC corporation is a separate legal entity, and shareholders have liability protection from…


All Business. (2011). Advantages and disadvantages of c corporation. Retrieved February 11,

2011 from - corporations/2515-1.html (2011). Do you need a new ein? Retrieved February 11, 2011 from,,id=98011,00.html (2010). Corporations. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from,,id=98240,00.html

Impact of Budget Cut in State Government Public Policy
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The current fiscal crisis facing American states has led to some drastic changes in state budgets. Throughout the country various states have been struggling to balance budgets without cutting vital services to citizens. In many states this quandary has caused a great deal of debate and has proven to be a major hurdle for governors. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the New York State budget as proposed by New York's governor, Andrew Cuomo. The research will focus on how the budget affects the public policy especially in the health care field. The discussion will also evaluate the advantages of the proposed budgetary cuts.

Proposed Budget

On February 11, 2011 the governor of New York released the 2012 budget proposal. There are several cuts that are expected to take place as a result of this budget. The governor explains that

"New York is at a crossroads, and…

Works Cited

Early Medicaid proposal calls for fee on hospitals. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from: 

Future of NY schools, teachers online in budget. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from; 

Medicaid and New York's Budget. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from: /2011/02/19/opinion/19sat1.html?src=twrhp

Cuomo, A. State Budget. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from:

Governmental Accounting What Are the
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The report reflects the actual figures. Variance columns are presented in comparing the actual with the revised budget. There is reconciliation between the budgetary basis and GAAP are presented on the comparison schedule. The major differences are in how they are reported. There are budgetary comparison schedules provided for reserve funds. All special reserves are included. ("Comprehensive Annual Financial eport," 2012)

3C. Look at the note that describes the basis of budgeting (usually in the Summary of Significant Accounting Policies). Is the budget prepared on the GAAP basis or some other basis? Are the differences, if any, between the budgetary basis and GAAP clearly explained? Does the note indicate that encumbrance accounting is used?

The budget is prepared on a GAAP basis. The differences between the two are clearly explained in the approaches. It is indicating that encumbrance accounting is not used. ("Comprehensive Annual Financial eport," 2012)

4A. Look at…

Dell Case Study
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Dell Case Study and Business Strategy

Comment by Sabina:

Dell is one of the leading industries for computer production and sales globally. The brand is highly recognizable and the company is mainly known for its personalization of computers for customers. In 2004-2005 Dell became one the leaders in the industry for PC sales, by overtaking Hewitt Packard. However since 2007 sales have dropped and Dell is struggling to keep its market share. Dell must compete in a very competitive market against competitors such as Apple. The competition has advance technology and has adapted similar business strategies to gain market share. Some of the major challenges that Dell faces are failure to keep with the technological advances of the competition, defect in equipment and management struggles to keep production cost low. In this paper I will discuss Dell's business strategies, some changes in the last two decades, their financial performance and…


Constantinides, E. (2006). The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management. 22 (3/4) 407-438.

Corbett, P. (2010, January 04). Facebook demographics and statistics report 2010. Retrieved from 

Datamonitor. (2010). Dell Inc. SWOT Analysis. 1-10.

Lee. L., & Ante, S. (2005). Can the PC King Excel in Services? Business Week. 3935

SWOT Nike Air Max 2012
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In addition to these accomplishments, the company also branched into over a dozen businesses and has successfully created one of the most successful supply chains globally today (Barrett, 2003). Along the way to these stellar accomplishments however Nike has been accused of going too easy on suppliers who violate child labor laws and having questionable ethics (Doorey, 2011). It has also been experiencing high legal costs due to the various approaches the company takes to protecting its brand (Nike Investor Relations, 2012). As the company pursues high growth opportunities in women's apparel including shoes, one of the fastest growing markets it competes in, it is challenged with relatively moderate growth in sales, relatively flat gross contribution margins at 10% and a Return on Assets (ROA) of 14% with little growth over the period of analysis shown in the Appendix. On top of all these factors, the competitive climate of the…

Small Business Obtaining Capital to
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82 in 2011 to $1.24 in 2012. Moreover, the company has been able to increase its net cash from operating activities from $12.7 million at the end of the 2011 fiscal year 2011 to $25.2 million in 2012.

Moreover, the company has been able to increase the shareholder's value over the years. Typically, the company records ROE growth of 14% and EPS growth of 26% at the end of the fiscal year 2012. The company has been able to increase its total assets within the past 5 years. For example, the company total assets in 2011 were $168 million while the total assets increased to $178 at the end of 2012 fiscal year.

Table 1: KMG Financial Ratios Between 2006 and 2012
















Profit Margin, %








Return on Equity,…

Works Cited

Barhart. KMG Chemicals. (KMGB).2012.

Forbes. KMG Chemicals. Forbes Fortune. 2012.

Allebach, M.A. Small Business, Equity Financing, and the Internet: The Evolution of a Solution? Virginal Journal of Law and Technology.4(3). 1999.

Continual Improvement

Gasb Statement 34
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GASB Statement 34, Basic Financial Statements and Management Decisions

Select a local government in your state and review the financial statements and audit report for the county or municipality. The financial statements of the government selected should have at least three funds.

Located in Muscogee County, the city of Columbus, Georgia is the state's third-largest city with over 194,000 residents. The Consolidated Government of Columbus, Georgia recently released its latest Comprehensive Annual Financial eport (CAF) for the 2011 fiscal year. Among the various funds for which this report records accounting practices are the city's General Fund, Special evenue Funds, Debt Service Funds, and Capital Projects Funds.

Analyze the method of accounting used for the general fund and all other funds in existence by the government. Evaluate the reasoning for the use of the method of accounting for each of the funds as required by GASB.

According to Figure A-1, Major…


Hodge, P.J. Columbus Consolidated Government, Finance Department. (2012). Comprehensive annual financial report . Retrieved from website: 

GASB. (1999). Summary of statement no. 34 basic financial statements -- and management's discussion and analysis -- for state and local governments.Governmental Accounting

Standards Board, Retrieved from

Police Systems and Practices Question Set Discuss
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Police Systems and Practices Question Set

Discuss how temperament can impair communication?

The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.

Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.

A police officer's locker room is like any other…

Consumption Problem Selection of a
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Table 1. Locomotive Routing Algorithm Performance





Planning Problem

Routing Problem


in cost

Cost ($)

# of locos

Cost ($)

# of locos

# of infeasibilities










3 m 41 s









4 m 07 s









3 m 59 s









4 m 20 s









4 m 07 s









4 m 07 s









4 m 07 s


The results of the sensitivity analysis as being revealed in Table 1 show that Amtrak Rail will be able to achieve a fueling and servicing with less than 2.2% increase in the locomotive routing…

Works Cited

Nemani, a.K. & Ahuja, R.K. Or Models in Freight Railroad Industry. Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science. 2010.

Vaidyanathan, B. Ahuja, R.K. & Orlin, J.B. The Locomotive Routing Problem. Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering. University of Florida. 2008.

Financial Analysis of Mcdonald a Financial Analysis
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Financial Analysis of Mcdonald

A financial analysis McDonald's Cor

Company Overview

McDonald Corporation is a global company that conducts business in 117 countries. McDonald operates 32,737 restaurants and 26,338 franchises in the highly competitive fast food industry. Since 1940, McDonald has built a loyal customer base by continuing dedicating to customer service and providing high quality fast food for customers. Presently, McDonald could boast of over 60 millions customers and the company serves average of 64 millions customers daily. In the United States, and other countries where McDonald is operating, fast food business is very competitive. Despite the competition that McDonald is facing, the company has been able to record revenues of more than $16 billions in restaurants and revenues of more than $7 billions in franchise restaurants business. McDonald operates in six geographical locations. The company business operations are in the U.S., Europe, Middle East, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and…


Infinancials (2011). McDonald's Corp. Market valuation multiples. Infinancials.

Mizen, P. (2008). The Credit Crunch of 2007-2008: A Discussion of the Background, Market Reactions, and Policy Responses. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. 90(5):531-67.

Putilina, I. (2010). A Financial Analysis of McDonald's Corporation. Economic Research Center.

Stapleton, R.C & Subrahmanyam, M.G.(2009). Interest Rates and Foreign Exchange Risks: An Overview of Hedging Instruments and Strategies. University of Lancarster.UK.