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Fixed Costs are the rent paid for the production facility, the utility bills, some salaries (the doorman, the secretary, the guards or even the manager), and accounting, legal and consultancy bills. On the other hand, Variable Costs are incurred by the acquisition of raw materials (flower, sugar, baking soda etc.), packaging materials, distribution costs, the salaries of the kitchen staff or various taxes.
I have prepared two tables wherein I have calculated the Fixed, Variable and Total Costs for the first and the second alternatives. In the first case, the Total Variable Costs amount to $11,900, while the Total Costs reach $16,900. The Cost for one unit (bar) is 99 cents.
Costs per unit
The second alternative…… [Read More]
fixed costs that Cat and Dogs, Inc. have include rent and executive salaries, which are paid no matter how many units the company builds. The company's total fixed costs are $113,200 per month. Variable costs are the factory labor and raw materials, which are $2.20 per unit ($1.50 labor plus $.70 raw materials). The company's gross profit margin per unit is 72.5%, calculated as $5.80 ($8.00 per unit sales price less $2.20 per unit cost to manufacture) divided by $8.00. The sales necessary to break even are $156,137.93. At $8 per unit, this works out to be 19,518 units, rounded, since it's not possible to make a partial unit. The following table describes the income and expenses expected by Cats and Dogs, Inc. If they sell 19,518 units:
Income (19,518 $8 units)
Variable Expenses (19,518 $2.20 units)
Profit (or Loss)
Prepare an income statement.…… [Read More]
variable and fixed costs?
There are plenty of differences between 'fixed costs', and 'variable costs'. While variable costs are those that can be varied according to the changes taking place, fixed costs are those costs of investment goods that are used by the firm or company, with the idea that it would only be through wearing them out by way of the production of goods or by services for sale that they can eventually be recovered, in the long-term. (Fixed and variable costs: William-King) This means that the basic lesson for all entrepreneurs is that all entrepreneurs generally have some basic fixed costs that must be paid, no matter how many products they would be offering for sale, while at the same time, variable costs change according to the number of products that are being offered for sale. It is through a learned process of identification and control of their…… [Read More]
There are a number of industries that have downsized their fixed costs. Most manufacturing industries, for example, have downsized fixed costs by offshoring work, reducing the size of their workforce or by making adjustments to their pension commitments. Industries such as auto manufacturing, airlines and banks have all taken advantage of the opportunity to lower their fixed costs. Government agencies have also undertaken downsizing in recent years, again with an eye towards lowering fixed costs.
A reduction in fixed costs does not necessarily impair a company's ability to meet the needs of its customers. In many cases, the restructuring was necessary to modernize the way the company does business. In other cases, firms like Eastman Kodak have downsized because they have fewer revenues. This means that the downsizing will not affect their service levels because there are fewer customers to serve. Companies like the automakers that have restructured…… [Read More]
Mod 4 Case
For instance, suppose Sam Smoothtalk thinks about accepting the 300 unit offer at $295 per unit. Suppose the company who makes the offer is willing to sign an agreement to buy 300 units each month. That means that the probability quotient is 1 (the sale is a sure thing). Suppose that Sam thinks that the probability of such an offer being available each month is roughly 50%. If he tells Mr. Pecos about his opinion and Mr. Pecos (after eventually consulting the controller, Mr. Ledger) arrives to the same conclusion), then the probability factor would be 0.5. Therefore, the number of units that might be sold is:
300 (units) X 12 (months) X 0.5 (the probability factor) = 1,800 (units per year)
Add that to the initial estimate (10,000 at the beginning of the year and 11,000 after the first month) and you get 11,800 and 12,800,…… [Read More]
Common costs are allocated when the cost falls under federal auspices. Costs that are the responsibility of the state, such as the 55% share of the San Luis Unit, are not included in the allocation base. Non-reimbursable costs are also not included in the allocation base and are ultimately the responsibility of the taxpayer. Some other costs are also not allocated, or are subject to unique allocation methods. These are also excluded. These include interest during construction and safety of dams' improvements.
Allocating costs for internal decision making allows managers to perform a more effective cost-benefit analysis on each project. The allocations are done on the basis of reimbursable costs. It is important for managers to understand how much of a project's cost structure is not reimbursable. However, for these public works projects, managers also need to understand the cost for each in order to make decisions with respect to…… [Read More]
The service offered relies on high level of capital investments in aircraft, as well as the support services. The variable cost per passenger is relativity low. The airlines will seek to minimize their variable costs as the same time as using the capital investments in a wise manner to maximize revenues. One example of this is Southwest Airlines, the founder of the low cost carrier model, where the variable costs are minimized with a no frills service.
The challenge faced by airlines is the sell sufficient seats on each aircraft to ensure that they break even or make a profit; this is due to the high fixed cost. One approach that been the used is dynamic pricing in order to manage the demand for the flights. If a particular flight is selling well and appears to be in demand, the price of the seats will remain high as the airline…… [Read More]
There is a fixed amount of output possible for any given investment in production capacity, at all possible costs, and if we plot all the potential scales of output against the resulting average cost per unit of production, the result is a long run average total cost curve (LRATC). These economies and diseconomies of scale cause the LRAC to fall from a high origin to a minimum point, and then (theoretically) eventually begin to rise, where there is a minimum where slope is zero. This is the optimum enterprise scale (Petroff, 2002 n. pag.). Each combination of output and average per-unit cost represents a discrete, short-term, short-run ATC curve for that level of production, and optimum firm size is the SRATC curve where unit cost is minimal (7 units at 32$ each, in Table 6), the MC cost curve crosses both LRATC and SRATC, no other firms enter to capture…… [Read More]
Joint costing systems should bear in mind the legal constraints on the use of such systems, and should provide accurate information to managers in order to be most useful in the managerial accounting context.
Firms need to remain competitive, which indicates that the market will set prices to some degree. This implies that firms can make better decisions with respect to what projects/products they wish to pursue by understanding the cost structure of the product. If the product is not viable at the cost at which it can be produced, then the firm can improve profitability by dumping the product.
Banham, R. (2000). Off target? CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/2990860/c_3046531?f=magazine_alsoinside
Frederick, S. (2011).
The persuasive power of opportunity costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://hbr.org/2011/01/column-the-persuasive-power-of-opportunity-costs/ar/1
Katz, D. (2002). Activity-based costing (ABC). CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007694
McKinsey & Co.…… [Read More]
Dibsa should turn towards the market-based pricing strategy, which sees the implementation of competitive prices for the 3-in-1 Lawnmower. The selection of this combination of strategies would generate several impacts upon the company, but most of them would be obvious at product lifecycle level. In this order of ideas:
The sales revenues would be significantly high throughout the first six months and they would allow the company to cover for the large costs incurred in the manufacturing of the product as well as register profits; they would however decrease with the implementation of the market pricing strategy and the 3-in-1 Lawnmower would metamorphose from a star product into a cash cow
The costs incurred in the manufacturing of the new lawnmower have already begun to decrease and will continue to do so; the actual impact of the pricing strategy is limited, with the specification however that these costs will not…… [Read More]
CVP is very useful for small business also because the analysis takes
into consideration variables like eturn on Investment, or Customer
Acquisition Cost. This analysis allows the company to determine what the
maximum profit volume can be, and how the above mentioned variables can be
changed in order to become successful.
CVP analysis is also able to determine the results of media campaigns,
especially for small business, where results are more visible and can be
observed after a shorter period of time. Furthermore, these results can be
translated into a successful company strategy, given the fact that the
strategy would be based on verified results. In relation to this, market
share can increase due to such a strategy.
For small business, CVP analysis is also used in establishing the
company's budget for certain activities. The analysis is able to provide a
flexible budget variant, which is exactly what a small…… [Read More]
There are some differences between the income statements when compiled under absorption costing and under contribution margin. In this instance, the basic income statement is compiled without knowing the costs that go into the absorption costing. One of the differences is that absorption costing reflects the costs of all the activities that go into the production of the good. So when you have an income statement produced under absorption costing it will look as follows:
The fixed costs are $800,000, so the contribution margin income statement would be as follows:
For the next quarter, if production is 50,000 units, the absorption statement would be:
This statement reflects the fact that 50,000 units were produced, which is double the expected…… [Read More]
Managerial Accounting for Sleepease Ltd.
"Identify, discuss and critically evaluate the advantages and problems of using the following costing methods for internal reporting purposes":
absorption costing; marginal costing.
"Refer to the Sleepease case as and when necessary"
The absorption costing is the type of managerial costing where both the variable and fixed costs are charged to process or product. Thus, "absorption costing is a method for appraising or valuing a firm's total inventory by including all manufacturing costs as product costs, regardless of whether they are variable or fixed and therefore it is frequently referred as the full cost method." (Nawaz, 2013 p 50).
Accordingly, the company will be able to determine costs of a product after determining both the variable costs and fixed costs. Sleepease will derive several benefits from using the absorption costing for the production of their product.
First, the absorption costing will assist the…… [Read More]
Cost Benefit Analysis and the City’s Water Dilemma
This memorandum focuses on describing the value of cost benefit analysis. It does so by applying the first four steps of the U.S. Army Cost Benefit Analysis Guide as they relate to the city’s need to increase its water treatment capacity. The purpose of this memorandum is not to take the faculty of judgment away from any council member but rather to show how cost benefit analysis can facilitate the judgment process and provide support for pursuing the best possible opportunity at this time.
Step 1: Define the Problem / Opportunity; Describe the Background
Every problem is an opportunity. The problem that the city faces is with respect to its need to upgrade or update its water treatment plant which is more than 40 years old and costly to maintain. With the large automaker set to come to the unincorporated area…… [Read More]
The raw materials needed as ingredients for detergents require extraction from natural resources, and extraction costs increase as the amounts needed rise. This means that it costs more to use more materials and thus produce more detergent, making materials a variable cost. The factory where the ingredients are mixed into detergent, however, would cost roughly the same to build whether the plan was to produce 100 or 10,000 units per day -- as this cost does not increase as production increases, it is a fixed manufacturing cost. Energy is semi-variable, in that it would require a significant amount of energy for the factory to operate at all, even if it was only producing one box of detergent a day. At the same time, the factory would certainly use less energy producing 100 boxes than it would producing 10,000.
The total cost of producing laundry detergent takes all of these costs…… [Read More]
Such events are usually difficult, slow, and distasteful processes. Figuring out whether bond obligations are likely to be fulfilled by issuers is best left to bond investment specialists.
Securities pricing is the bond market is complex and different from the stock market. hile a firm usually has only one kind of common stock, it could have dozens or even hundreds of different outstanding bond obligations. Setting current bond prices is complex. Few individual investors have the required skill, knowledge, information, and experience to make such assessments.
For individual investors it is much more straightforward simply to hold bonds through a bond fund. Once a bond fund establishes its "style" for the type, maturity, and quality of bonds it will hold, it selects and purchases bonds with an eye toward maintaining that style. Maintaining targeted maturity is relatively straightforward. Determining investment quality is less straightforward, but bond mutual funds have analysts…… [Read More]
One example has been the printer market; firms will often subsidize the printers that are sold, with the aim of creating long-term profits by the ongoing sale of the printer cartridges (Thompson, 2007). The cellular telephone market also operates in a similar manner, with mobile phone service suppliers subsidizing the cost of the handsets in order to gain a contract from a customer, the cost of the subsidy is offset against the profit that will be gained on the service contract. Therefore, the firm will need to look at the impact that ending production may have on the sale of other goods. However unless there is a complimentary item then it would appear some changes may need to take place.
If there is a loss with the fixed costs of $1,000,000 it is will be expected that higher fixed costs will increase the loss.
Assessment with fixed costs at $3,000,000…… [Read More]
overhead costs and various methods in which the overhead costs are classified.
Ehrhard righam, a renowned author, states that a business cannot consider all kind of money that it earns as profits. The reason for not calling the entire amount "profit" is that the business has to pay expenses for carrying out business activities and processes. These expenses are regarded as the operating costs. (rirgham, 2008) International Accounting Standards oard states that the most common type of overhead costs includes maintenance, production expenses and salaries. It is a common practice of businesses to track their gross income and net incomes. The two figures represent different values. Gross income is usually of a larger amount and consists of all the money a particular business takes in. (International Accounting Standards oard, 2008)
The nature of business decides the type of overhead costs that a business will have to pay. Some businesses have…… [Read More]
Postal Service (USPS) operates at a loss but its closest competitors -- UPS and FedEx -- both operate at a profit. Suggest how fixed costs have contributed to the situation of the USPS. Provide support for your response.
I would suspect that the fixed costs of contributing to employee's retirement funds (Risk Analysis Research Center, 2009, p. 4) and also their restriction from closing local offices (Slentz and McCann, 2009, p. 12) contributes to higher fixed cost at USPS than FedEx because FedEx is not unionized and while UPS is unionized, and thus experiences a fixed cost that is incurred to the level of union contracts, those contracts are more negotiable for UPS than USPS, and nonexistent or fluid for FedEx. Furthermore while union contracts probably affect the rate of closure for physical facilities for UPS, this would probably be more negotiable than for USPS and…… [Read More]
Product Costing systems (ABC, job costing, put costing, .) advanced topic managerial accounting the thesis statemenit a position body paper show evidence support position. The paper discuss opposite point view discuss position valid.
Product costing systems
Product costing system is a management tool which identifies the actual cost of producing each product. It identifies the profits and loss which can be gained or incurred on each product, hence giving companies the opportunity of identifying and promoting of profitable product while dropping, re-pricing or redesigning of unprofitable products Brierley, 2008.
Product costing is a highly sensitive area for managerial accountants, recently, most of them have changed their focus such that they give their attention to appropriate treatment costs which are directly associated with resources that are committed to support activities, which within the company do not vary proportionally to production once the initial capacities have been set. In such as an…… [Read More]
The work and materials required to make and serve regular coffee is considerably different than the work involved in making and serving a venti half-caf mocha-vanilla soy frappucino, for instance, and though some long-term regularity would be expected in the number of each drain that is ordered estimating costs based on a time scale for this area of operations would be cumbersome and inaccurate. Using the job order costing method and determining how much the materials and labor cost for each type of drink (or, in the case of coffee, the cost for making a single batch of the drink), and thus more accurate prices can be set that reflect the company's costs and allow it to continue making a profit (and frappucinos). By utilizing both costing methods as appropriate, then, Starbucks can place itself in a more advantageous position regarding cash flow in and out of the business.
Benefits…… [Read More]
Profit Analysis and Costing for the 21st Century
Value costing is about looking at the different aspects of a business paying particular attention to the opportunity cost they represent, how much they are likely to financially benefit a firm, and how much they are likely to cost it. Through this analysis, it is possible to determine the parts of the business that function the most efficiently and locate the parts that do not.
It is thought that value costing is no longer relevant because business has become far more complex than the traditional format, and with the rise of the internet and the increase in ebusiness, more and more factors must be added to the equation. It is also though that this form of costing is not only too simplistic, but takes too long to put into practice, and harder still to gain any meaningful results from. Value costing tries…… [Read More]
Managerial accounting, there are different types of costing that can be used. Each method of costing has its advantages and disadvantages in different situations. It must be remembered, when determining what the best type of costing method is, that the objective of managerial accounting is to deliver useful information that can assist in managerial decision-making. Thus, managerial accounting matters to the extent that it can help to deliver on overall organizational objectives by providing strategic or tactical insights (Investopedia, 2016).
There are two major costing methods -- absorption costing and marginal costing. Absorption costing is a system of cost accounting that seeks to accumulate the different costs associated with the production process, and portion these out to different products. So the costs would be broken out into direct materials, direct labor, variable overhead and fixed overhead, rather than the convention categories in financial accounting. Using absorption costing has a few…… [Read More]
Price and cost variables are not fixed. At times, there are some fixed elements to these costs but in many instances these costs are subject to fluctuation. These fluctuations can derive from changes in buying power, changes in commodity prices and other considerations. Likewise, forces in the external environment can bring about changes in the prices the firm can charge. hen uncertain variables are fixed, the company can find that margins do not hold as expected, which can compromise profit. In addition, the price can be set on the basis of variables on the assumption that the costs are relatively fixed. hen these costs provide not to be fixed, the price does not deliver a strong enough margin. The impacts of these types of decisions can be far-reaching. Firms can decide to enter markets that are not profitable, and make decisions with respect to their product line-ups on…… [Read More]
Absorption costing is a costing method which treats all costs of production as product costs without considering whether these costs are variable or fixed (AccountingforManagement, 2013). Under the absorption costing method the cost of a unit product comprises direct materials, direct labor, and both variable and fixed overhead. This costing method allocates a portion of fixed manufacturing cost to each unit of a product along with the variable manufacturing cost (AccountingforManagement, 2013). It includes all costs of production as product cost. That is why it is often called a full costing method.
Under variable costing costs of production varying with output are treated as product costs. Product costs under this costing method therefore include costs of direct material, direct labor, and variable portion of manufacturing overhead. Fixed manufacturing cost does not therefore fall under product costs (AccountingforManagement, 2013). It is nevertheless, treated as period cost and just like selling and…… [Read More]
Categories of Cost
Cost can be divided into following six categories:
Semi-Variable or Mixed Costs
Total Production Costs
Indirect Costs (Overhead)
Variable Costs: Variable costs are those costs that change with number of units produced or volume of production (Jackson, Sawyers and Jenkins, 2009). These are also called as the product costs as they vary with each unit of production. Some of the variable costs that changes with the production level include materials, labor and shipping.
Fixed Costs: Fixed cost is the costs that is not affected by the volume of production and remains the same, regardless of the number of units produced. It is also called as period costs which is the name derived by its ability of being occurring over a particular period. Examples include: ent, business licenses etc.
Semi-Variable or Mixed Manufacturing Costs: Semi- Variable or a mixed cost has components…… [Read More]
absorption costing method, and why?
In this case, the absorption method would be the best choice due to the way the method incorporates only the overhead. The overhead is allocated to the 80,000 units sold. The variable method normally counts fixed overhead as a period expense. This means that the fixed overhead during this period is calculated on the basis of the 95,000 units made. This calcuation method would be used if the absorption method is chosen. The absorption method is only utilized to calculate fixed overhead on the basis of the 80,000 units sold. The method also provides management a more precise picture of the profitability of the fishing lures. Therefore, making the absorption costing method optimal.
• What are the benefits of the two methods?
Under absorption costing system, the product cost consists of all variable including fixed manufacturing costs. When variable costing system is utilized, the fixed…… [Read More]
Activity-based costing (ABC) employs numerous cost groups, organized by activity, in the allocation of overhead costs. The conception is that activities are necessitated to generate products, basically activities, such as procuring materials, setting up machinery, assembling products, and scrutinizing finished products. It is imperative to note that these activities can be expenses and therefore the cost of activities ought to be apportioned to products on the basis of how the products use the activities. The costs are placed on the products on the basis of the use of individual products for every activity (Hansen et al., 2007). In the traditional product costing system, to begin with, costs are not linked or mapped out to activities but they are rather traced to a unit within the organization, for instance a department or a division, and thereafter to products. This implies that in the traditional and ABC costing systems, the second as…… [Read More]
"The nature of crop and livestock life-cycles means there are fewer and more significant opportunities to intervene, as opposed to the continual tinkering that can occur in a factory" (Ross 2008, p.42).
However, Jack believes that inadequate record-keeping may also be to blame for farmer's reluctance to use TCM in the industry. Even if TCM must be modified for agriculture, this does not negate its applicability. Farmers must learn how to make TCM work for them. Certain factors make it more difficult to identify target prices and costs, but they are not reasons to avoid implementing TCM. Rather, using TCM could encourage farmer to adopt more innovative practices and help to manage risks inherent in this industry. Jack believes that the resistance to TCM is more endemic to the culture of the agricultural industry than due to real problems with its use in agriculture.
The formula for TCM is fairly…… [Read More]
AT&T Cost and Price
Cost and Price Analysis -- AT&T
The AT&T Government Solutions business is currently headquartered in Oakton, VA and is composed of over four thousand scientists, engineers, and analysts; many of which have already obtained the needed security clearance to work more sensitive projects (AT&T Government, 2012). The company's niche is focused on providing a range of IT managed solutions that include network leadership in voice, data, video, and managed services. The company previously operated under the name GRC International which was originally founded in 1961 (Bloomberg Business, 2012). However the name was changed to AT&T Government Solutions, Inc. In March of 2000 and operates as a subsidiary of AT&T Inc.
AT&T Government Solutions received a majority of its work from the defense industry in 2011 which represented close to three hundred eighty million dollars' worth of revenue. By contrast, the civilian sector represented nearly…… [Read More]
Production and cost analysis: discuss it and how we use it.
In any business, there are a number of tools firms will use to increase productivity and improve their profit margins. These are designed to provide them with a strategic advantage and objectively tell them how to deal with critical weaknesses. However, in order to receive the long-term benefits they must utilize specific tools to protect market share and reach out to a larger segment of customers. (Trujillo, 2008) (Taylor, 2008) (Jain, 2010)
Two areas that are often utilized during the process are production and cost analysis. To fully understand how they are applied requires carefully examining each one and the way they are used by firms. Together, these elements will offer specific insights as to how organizations are able to remain competitive and adjust with critical challenges they are facing inside the marketplace. (Trujillo, 2008) (Taylor, 2008) (Jain, 2010)…… [Read More]
By focusing measurement on cycle time, productivity, quality and profitability, Guillermo will have better information that can help guide his decision-making with respect to the different strategic choices with which he is faced. If he chooses to continue making furniture, he will be better equipped to improve his processes in the future as this information forms the basis of a much stronger control system than is currently utilized at Guillermo.
The markets for the retardant and the coating have not yet been established. Guillermo has cost figures but has little idea of how much he can sell these products for on the market. A conservative assumption is a 50% markup but still a conservative figure. Sales figures are also going to be based on the annual production capacity. The market is assumed to be much greater than capacity, as the capacity is underdeveloped at Guillermo currently. Sales figures…… [Read More]
Strategic Recommendations for a Reduction of Operating Costs for Burn Care Unit
Burn Care Unit is a healthcare organization operating the 40-bed unit. Since its formation, Burn Care Unit business has been profitable with an increase in revenues, however, the organization has faced challenges in recruiting the professional nurses, which forces them to adopt the Baylor plan. The plan is an overtime policy that adopts 36 hours pay for nurses who work for 24 hours on the weekend. Nurses who work for 60 hours in the weekdays are paid the equivalent of 70 hours. However, the company has recorded high cost of operations because of the policy. Moreover, Burn Care has incurred $800,000 in nurses' payrolls because of the Baylor plan, and based on the recent increase in the costs of operations, the accountant has suggested that the CEO should discontinue the Baylor Plan to reduce the costs of operations.…… [Read More]
This provides tremendous opportunity to build market share without significant increases in infrastructure. The downside of these markets is that they tend to be less efficient, because fixed costs are higher in relation to revenues. The company can win in such markets, however, if it uses its globally powerful brand to gain a stronger presence in underserved markets, thereby pre-empting rival firms from entering these markets. ith Coca-Cola establishing market share, it will be all the more difficult for other companies to match the distribution clout and brand loyalty that Coca-Cola can build up.
In every market, competition remains a serious threat. Economies of scale can help the company in two ways. The first is that it improves margins, leaving more money left over for marketing efforts. The second is that there is often price competition in competitive markets. ith better economies of scale, Coca-Cola can withstand price wars long…… [Read More]
This accounting report is intended to emphasize the importance of the role of a management accountant in business operational and financial decisions. The focus on two companies engaging in different lines of business with disparate concerns, questions, and issues provides a basis for the reader to understand specific instances in which a management accountant can play a pivotal role in the success of an enterprise. W. White Chemicals was perplexed about their loss of market share and a small drop in revenue. When the executives came together to discuss the problems, they each had a different opinion about the source of the problem and the possible solutions. The management accountant was able to demonstrate how a change from the traditional accounting system the company was using to an activity-based system would help the team interpret the market situation and get a handle on the actual, rather than the obfuscated,…… [Read More]
Leverage permits superior possible returns to the investor than otherwise would have been obtainable but the probable for loss is in addition superior, since the investment becomes valueless, the loan principal and all accumulated interest on the loan still need to be paid back (Kotarski, 2009).
In monetary economics it has been projected for a long time that financial capital is put into a company each time the probable return of the investment lies beyond the opportunity cost of capital. Opportunity costs point to the worth that would have been produced by another utilization of capital. In the monetary markets opportunity cost of capital matches up to the yield of an investment with a related danger. A corporation generates worth when it utilizes capital more resourcefully than the market. In order to figure out if and how much worth has been produced, the yield of the capital utilized by the…… [Read More]
The third controllable cost is storage and delivery, which depends on program scope independent of which professional educates the consumer.
d. Unrecoverable expenses if the activity is not implemented include the cost of preventable traumatic head injuries borne by the total health care insurance consumer pool whether cyclists are insured or not; the direct E costs attempting to prevent one traumatic head injury from becoming catastrophic (death); the foregone potential earnings that would be generated were one child not killed before they could finish their career, and the public cost from obesity prevented by cycling. As with variable costs, the actual savings will depend on the variable factors discussed above. Likewise, without predicting exactly how many traumatic head injuries would be prevented by helmet use or not, this budget estimates what those savings would be if one catastrophic head injury were prevented in such a way.
3. We estimate the…… [Read More]
iordan Manufacturing, a company that is wholly owned by iordan Industries, a Fortune 1000 enterprise specializes in the field of plastic injection molding. The business is unique due primarily to iordan extensive knowledge and expertise with plastic moldings. Innovations in plastic and its uses have created greater demand for iordan products. Namely, innovations in bottling, auto manufacturing, and National Defense have created an environment for robust growth. Its products currently include plastic beverage containers produced at its plant in Albany, Georgia, custom plastic parts produced at its plant in Pontiac, Michigan, and plastic fan parts produced at its facilities in Hangzhou, China. iordan's major customers are automotive parts manufacturers, aircraft manufacturers, the Department of Defense, beverage makers and bottlers, and appliance manufacturers.
iordan's Manufacturing Initiatives
iordan forecasts production using an average of the past three years sales. The average is used to help eliminate excessively low or high volumes of…… [Read More]
Efficiency and Cost of Production
Production efficiency is defined as the level at which a company is no longer capable of producing additional amounts of a commodity or good devoid of lowering the level of production of another product. Efficiency in production is attained and realized when a product is manufactured and formed at its least average total cost. It outlines sufficient production devoid of wasting important resources (Investopedia, 2016). In delineation, economies of scale are the factors that make the average cost of commodity production and manufacture to decrease as the volume of its output rises (The Economist, 2008). Internal economies of scale are cost savings that accrue to a company irrespective of the market, industry or setting in which it operates. On the other hand, external economies of scale are those that profit a company owing to the manner in which its industry is organized (The Economist, 2008).…… [Read More]
STANDARD-ASED COSTING AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR TODAY'S MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT
This paper outlines the various defect of the standard-based costing method and how they do not effectively measure manufacturing environment of today. It has 8 sources in Turabian style.
Cost control is needed by businesses to plan the actual cost it might incur on the production of certain commodities. The budget is an overall costing system but sub-division is needed if and when the company requires detailed cost structure of the department. This is necessary for achieving the overall goals of the organization.
In production organizations, such as manufacturing companies, the basic concern of the management is to have smooth operations with the least cost possible. There the existence of cost is measured by the tangible output each component of the department produces. Income is compared to the cost incurred. A system that is set for measuring the performance level of…… [Read More]
Business 315 and Analyzing Direct Costs
It is crucial for an organization to properly calculate semi-variable costs in order to allocate indirect and direct costs. These costs govern over direct materials, which are "materials that physically become part of a product or service and therefore are clearly indentified with specific outputs or service" (Thompson 2011). Semi-variable costs change often, depending on the volume of the output. These mixed costs are associated with both fixed and variable elements to production. These costs are often broken up using the cost-volume formula which takes into account activity measures like labor as well as the fixed costs and variable unit rate. This helps an organization then outline indirect costs, which are those costs that are unable to be specifically outlined or traced according to a corresponding cost object (Thompson 2011). Essentially, indirect costs are associated with activities of an organization or enterprise…… [Read More]
feasible, the full cost structure must be analyzed. The best way to make this determination is by starting with the retail price and working backwards. Ultimately, what we need to know is whether or not the order will generate sufficient contribution to fixed costs in order to be profitable. The fixed costs are known, at $8 per unit. Thus, the contribution margin needs to be higher than 8% for this order to be viable on a financial basis. The questions will be addressed on an individual basis.
This question makes no sense. There is a verb missing: "Will you be able to the requirements…"
These wallets should be imported from China because that is where our production facility is located. There is nothing in the case that would indicate a choice between locations of production.
Handle? This verb is vague -- what is meant by "handle"? A professional writer should…… [Read More]
accounting important success firm? What methods cost accounting ? The paper (a) identify main issues chosen area, (b) reference learning occurred, (c) build class activities incidents facilitated learning understanding, (d) present specific current / future applications relevance typical workplace.
Cost accounting -- definition, importance, methods
The modern day society is constantly presenting the economic agent with more numerous and more pressing challenges. In order to face them and emerge as a competitive institution, firms develop and implement a wide array of strategies, such as creating customer value, developing the skills of the staff members, establishing strategic partnerships or creating financial stability and accountability. One specific means in this endeavor is represented by cost accounting, which represents a key to organizational success. The current project focuses on the identification of the reasons as to why cost accounting is important to organizational success. A secondary research objective is that of pin pointing…… [Read More]
udgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare
One of the most critical issues facing healthcare facilities and organizations is the rapidly increasing cost of providing services. Cost control and budgetary issues are the first consideration for many healthcare facilities. According to statistics, the "single most important thing on the minds of healthcare decision makers is cost management and containment." (Lawson, 2004). In fact, more than 95% of respondents to a survey concluded that cost containment and budgetary issues were among the most pressing issues in the healthcare industry. Yet budgetary issues within the world of healthcare are among the most difficult to address, as most healthcare facilities vary greatly in the level of services they provide to consumers, and the amount of resources readily available to serve those consumers.
Healthcare facilities face increasingly and rapidly rising costs in the face of a poor economy and rising costs associated with providing healthcare…… [Read More]
Marginal revenue = marginal cost
This paper will examine the MR=MC principle, which is one of the guiding economic principles for business. This reflects the relationship between marginal revenue and marginal cost. Marginal revenue is the additional revenue from producing a unit of a good, and marginal cost is the additional cost of producing that unit. In general, businesses prefer to produce only when they can make more selling a unit than it cost to produce, but there are exceptions, and that is where the MR=MC principle relationship becomes interesting.
MR=MC is also known as the profit maximization rule (IE, 2018). The slope of this curve reflects the margin, and how it changes as the company achieves economies of scale. For example, if a company has a slow, manual process for producing widgets that results in a marginal cost of $1.00 per widget, and but because widgets are not differentiated…… [Read More]
economic analysis of the operating cost that are incurred in the running of a metro station. The paper also reveals the variables that are tied to the cost efficiency of the whole process of running a metro station. The cost of operating the stations is however grouped under the semi-fixed costs that are involved. This is because these costs do not vary proportionately with the output of the metro business. This paper seeks to shed light on some of the main factors that affect these costs. Empirical analysis reveals that very strong system specific factors influences costs but it is worth mentioning that there are other station specific details that also influences the costs. These include the number of platforms in the station, the length of the passageways, the interchange demand, availability of toilet facilities etc.We also discover that presence of air-conditioning has a great effect in the propulsion of…… [Read More]
This particular analysis will rely on the financial data of FedEx and UPS for the financial years ended 31st May 2013 and 31st May 2012; and 31st Dec 2012 and 31st Dec 2011 respectively.
FedEx and UPS Comparison -- Selected Balance Sheet and Income Statement Items
Cost of Goods Sold
From the figures above, it is clear that FedEx outperformed UPS on a number of fronts. This is particularly the case with regard to the revenues the company managed to rake in, in comparison to those of UPS. Within the two years under consideration, FedEx was able to increase its total revenues by of 3.77%. When it comes to UPS, its financial statements within the last two years show a revenue increase of 1.92%. It is therefore clear that…… [Read More]
moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.
Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are actually fairly easy to absorb and interpret with the proper definition. Products and materials, even if slightly compromised, typically retain their value even if…… [Read More]
The question does offer some good ideas and thoughts to keep in mind when it comes to controlling costs. Indeed, having internal employees as opposed to external employees like contractors and the like that cannot be directly controlled in all aspects by the project management team is usually advantageous. However, these exterior employees and their associated costs can be controlled via an agreed price in advance that will not vary based on the acumen (or lack thereof) of the people working on the project unless something unforeseeable changes or is revealed. In that case, the costs are going to go up regardless of whether the costs are internal or external.
As it relates to electricity being a "hidden cost," it has to be expected that a construction project that uses any electricity from the site/client itself is going to cost money. As such, there should be an expected…… [Read More]
1. The appropriate budget allocation will vary by organization based on what?
The appropriate budget allocation will vary based on the specific profiles of the organization, its needs and the extent to which resources are actually available. In an economic downturn, supply chains can become tight. With tariffs going up or a trade war worsening, obtaining cheap resources becomes more difficult. This has to be taken into consideration when determining a budget--i.e., that organization must look at the macro as well as the micro. The micro in this case would be to determine the individual profile and needs of the organization and how best to obtain a balance between being fiscally conservative and being technologically secure.
2. The information security function should be able to provide a reconciliation of what?
The information security function should be able to provide a reconciliation of prior purchases and their overall effectiveness.…… [Read More]
The financial results for Starbucks and McDonalds over the past couple of years are as follows:
This analysis shows that Starbucks has seen its revenues grow faster than its cost of goods sold, which is normally taken as an encouraging sign. When firms are able to grow their margins, they are able to have better bottom line profitability, and it also shows that the company's market power is improving. For McDonalds, the COGS grew at a slightly faster rate than the revenues. This means that to a minor extent, McDonalds was less able than Starbucks to pass along cost increases in factor inputs than Starbucks was last year.
An interesting point of analysis is that Starbucks saw all of its balance sheet line items increase much more quickly last year than the revenue or COGS. The receivables, payables…… [Read More]
SOW Cost Estimate
Statement of Work
Time and materials
Relocation of Office Headquarter
Schedule of rates [Include fixed-rate costs for items such as equipment and hourly rates for employee time and service.]
desks (with associated chairs)
day- 1st eb 2012
day- 1st eb 2012
day- 2nd eb 2012
Small Items (120 X 160 boxes)
day 3rd eb 2012
Computers (with monitors)
day- 1st eb 2012
Phase 1 -- Movement of urniture and Computers
2nd eb 2012
Phase 2 -- Movement of rames and Small Items
3rd eb 2012
Phase 3- Cleaning, Organizing and Arranging relocated items at new premesis
4th eb 2012
Statement of work
ollowing assumptions are to be made…… [Read More]
Accordingly, Hanson (2009) reports that "while Toyota does have an 'initial allocation for the United States', very strong demand from Japan may cause the company to 'review its sales plan and reallocate the production plan'." (Hanson, 1)
In this case, the sales plan denotes an unallocated cost that may demand a change in financing with the shift of focus to a new market. Another issue cited is the relative shortage in availability of specialized batteries required for the vehicle as Toyota works toward the construction of its own battery production facility. This project represents a convergence of allocated funds and nonallocated costs encountered during the process of construction and facility development.
Hanson, R. (2009). Toyota may cut back U.S. Prius allocation as demand in Japan soars. Motor Authority. Online at http://www.motorauthority.com/blog/1033294_toyota-may-cut-back-u-s-prius-allocation-as-demand-in-japan-soars… [Read More]
To avoid repeating negative historical experiences, regulatory regimes need to block the control and domination by networks/platforms. In the report, "Infrastructure and Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature," Stephane Straub (2007) reported that at times, in some developing companies, "the hope of getting a fixed-line installed is a distant and costly dream" (p. 4). Meantime, the primary option for the individuals waiting for fixed-line telecommunications services would likely be having to us a much too expensive cell phone.
In 2010, much of the fixed-line telecom industry faces growing threats from cable and wireless service competitors.
As the writer of the quote introducing the study section pointed out, more firms are realizing "a cellular wireless solution" generally provides "more stability than the usual wired connections… [and serves as] a valuable asset built for the long haul" ("Lincolnshire Drainage Board…," 2010, ¶ 9). In the book, Integration in Asia…… [Read More]
Federal Contracting: enefits and Drawbacks of Cost Reimbursement Contracts
The objective of this study is to examine the pros and cons of cost-reimbursement contracts from the view of the federal contractor and to discuss which elements of cost-reimbursement contracts tend to produce the biggest troubles for contractors and explain why.
Cost-Reimbursement Compared to Fixed-Price Contract
Cost-reimbursement or cost-plus is reported as a contract "where a contractor is paid for all of its allowed expenses to a set limit plus additional payment to allow for a profit." (GovWin, 2010, p.1) Cost-reimbursement contracts can be contrasted with fixed-price contracts, which are reported to be such that the contractors "are paid a negotiated amount regardless of incurred expenses." (GovWin, 2010, p.1) Fixed-price contracts make provision of payment of the allowable costs that are incurred in performance of a contract "to the extent prescribed in the contract." (GovWin, 2010, p.1)
In the fixed-price contracts,…… [Read More]
Cost of Capital
The capital which is used by a firm, and shown n the balance can be divided into two main classifications; debt and equity. When a firm assesses its total cost of capital, this will usually be calculated on a weighted basis, using the costs of the different types of capital (Elliott and Elliott, 2011). An understanding of this can be appreciated by looking at some of the main sources of capital and the costs associated with each type of capital.
One of the most common forms of capital is debt. Debt is capital that is obtained through borrowing. There are many kinds of debt, which may include long-term debt such as structured loans from banks or other financial institutions, and short-term debt, such as overdraft facilities and credit agreements with suppliers. The cost of debt is relativity simply to calculate, with most debts having an…… [Read More]
The employer, according to the rules laid out by the IMSS, is expected to contribute at least a minimum amount according to the risk factors involved in the job into the fund, that is, a sum of 17.42% of each worker's wage. Basic health care, medical facilities, accident care, as well as care for illnesses are all taken care of under the social security fund. In addition, the employer is expected to pay about 5% of a fixed payroll tax into a fund that will help the employee find a home of his own easily. This fund is known as the 'National Fund for Employee Housing' or INFONAVIT. "The goal of this federal program is to provide benefits allowing employees to more easily acquire a home"
2% or 25 times the minimum wage, of a worker's salary must also be paid into the SA or the etirement Savings System under…… [Read More]
3. Internal ate of eturn
The internal rate of return is used by economists and investors to identify the expected financial outcome of a given project. It is generally accepted that the final value of the internal return will vary from the initial calculations, but it is still relevant as the proportions in modifications will tend to remain relatively constant. The internal rate of return can be perceived similarly to the growth rate a project is expected to return and given this situation, the project with the highest I will be the one to be selected by the organization (Investopedia, 2009).
Internal rates of return for the four alternative investment projects are: project A -- 21%, project B -- 25%, project C -- 24% and project D -- 23%. Based on this measured rates, the most desirable course of action for Galaxy Satellite Co. is investment project B, with the…… [Read More]
This paper is a discussion on Activity-based costing (ABC), one of the costing methodologies used in business. The methodology essentially entails assigning a cost to the various activities of an organization, which range from planning and production to quality control, logistics, and distribution (Kaplan & Anderson, 2007). It also entails determining the amount of time required to perform the activities (Kaplan & Anderson, 2004). The cost and time are then used as a basis for determining the price of the organization's products or services. If properly implemented, ABC can deliver significant benefits to an organization, especially with respect to business performance and competitive advantage (Cokins, 2001). Focusing on Amazon, this paper discusses the use of time-driven ABC in e-commerce activities. First, a brief background of the organization is provided. Next, attention is paid to how a time-driven ABC system can be implemented in the organization and the associated benefits on…… [Read More]
Does having two companies' stock increase the expected value of your portfolio? If not, then why is diversification a good thing in this example?
Having the portfolio which consists of two equal stocks doesn't increase portfolio's value, which will remain the same ($105,000), yet it decreases the risk of winding with nothing, as the probability of winding with nothing in case portfolio consists of two companies' stocks is twice smaller (0.25 against 0.5) and the probability of favorable outcome is 0.75 compared to 0.5 for a one company stock portfolio.
A d) Calculate the probability that you will end up with nothing, and the probability that you will end up with $210,000, for each of the following cases: splitting your money evenly between 3 stocks, between 5 stocks, and between 10 stocks. What is happening to the probability of "in-between" outcomes as portfolio diversification increases in this example (no exact…… [Read More]