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Flat Tax Essays (Examples)

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U S Tax Policy Although Smokers
Words: 2407 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 41402953
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orks Cited

Thorndike, Joseph J. "The IRS Is Hiding Its History." The ashington Times.

December 19, 1997, p. A23. February 18, 2008.


After 9/11, the Federal Reserve Bank, then led by Alan Greenspan, used monetary policy reduced the interest rate, or the rate that consumers must pay to borrow money. This did encourage individuals to spend more. However, it is still debatable if this was the most vital component in extricating America from the throws of economic recession. Government spending, or fiscal as opposed to monetary policy, is often seen as a more direct and superior way to rapidly change economic conditions. Fiscal policy was required to stimulate America's recovery from the Great Depression, according to conventional wisdom, although some still argue that it was the Hoover administration's monetary policy that was ineffective, not that monetary policy was ineffective altogether.

But most economists believe that, to get the…

Works Cited

Heakal, Reem. "What is fiscal policy?" Investopedia. October 22, 2008. 


Fairness does matter when creating a tax system. In terms of a consumption tax, the poor often consume more than the rich, at least in terms of a percentage of their income. While for a wealthy individual, much of his income can be locked up in assets, making money off of money, for a poor individual, the bulk of his or her income is devoted to buying necessary goods, including rent and food. The consumption tax taxes everyone equally on the surface, regardless of how someone has benefited from the economic system of a particular society, and actually favors those who can allocate their income to sectors of the economy that are not taxed (such as investments, which are not technically consumption).

A flat tax, where everyone pays the same amount, has similar problems in terms of allocating wealth. 15% of a poor person's income, a person who must pay for his or her rent, food, and necessities out of his or her weekly paycheck, means more to that individual than 15% of an income where much of that income can be devoted to investments and luxuries. While not as unfair as a consumption tax as investment income is also taxed, a flat tax is still unfair, and finding the right percentage to finance government operations yet not to be prohibitively costly for the poorest members of society is a difficult balance to strike. The only good thing about the flat tax is its simplicity, as along with the consumption tax as it requires less bureaucracy to enforce. Bureaucracy is expensive as well as frustrating (as anyone who has ever had to fill out a tax form beyond the standard EZ-file well knows!).

American Tax System vs Other Countries the
Words: 1778 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70830428
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American Tax System vs. Other Countries

The federal government first imposed an individual income tax in 1862 as an emergency means of financing the Civil ar. It also established the Bureau of Internal Revenue, predecessor of the Internal Revenue Service. Tax rates were 3% on income from $600 to $10,000 and 5% on income above $10,000. Later in the war the maximum rate increased to 10% of income." (Encarta)

My how times have changed. This paper will compare the tax systems of four different countries to the American tax system. The four countries that have been chosen are South Africa, Mexico, Hong Kong, and New Zealand..

First lets attempt to briefly (if that were possible) explain the American tax system.

The American Tax System

America has a progressive tax system meaning the greatest tax burden is on people who have the most income. The American tax system can be described…

Works Cited

Corporate Service Center. "Federal Tax Rates." April16, 2002

Film New Zealand. "New Zealand's tax Environment." Jan. 2002 

Flags of the World. . April17, 2001

Henry, Aaron. "The South African Tax System: A Nation is Microcosm." Dec. 6,1999:

Accounting - Alternative Minimum Tax
Words: 813 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 66522941
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Naturally, to the extent the AMT applies to the specific segment of taxpayers to whom it was initially addressed, it is serves a beneficial purpose; on the other hand, that benefit must be considered against the unintended consequences and unfairness of its application to taxpayers completely outside the ranks of the very wealthy, particularly at the lower end of that income category. Undesirable Consequences:

The first major potential problem with the AMT is that it does not incorporate inflation at all; as a result, it applies to more and more taxpayers every year despite the fact that their wealth actually remains unchanged during that time. This is particularly important in times of economic recession, especially where income increases fail to keep pace with rising inflation. Whereas the AMT applied to a fewer than 200 households when first implemented in 1970, it currently affects as many as 15% of households earning…


Congressional Budget Office. (2004). Revenue and Tax Policy Brief: Alternative Minimum Tax.

Leiserson, G. (2008). The Individual Alternative Minimum Tax: Historical Data and Projections. "http: Brookings Institution.

The New York Times. (2007). Times Topics: Alternative Minimum Tax. (Dec. 6/07).

Principles of Tax Analysis
Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41105008
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Tax Analysis

In Pennsylvania taxation is a huge issue, much like in the rest of the United States. arring factions on either side of the political agenda work to either raise or cut taxes within a given year. In times of economic crisis, such as is occurring in the United States at the present has forced citizens and government officials to reexamine taxation practices in the hopes of overturning the depression. In additional to federal taxes, businesses and individuals of the U.S. are required to pay taxes to the state and to their local communities (Financing page 458). State taxation can be extraordinarily high. It has been proven that many states have higher corporate tax rates than several countries of the world. hen comparing Pennsylvania to other states in the country, it becomes apparent that the current tax rate is exorbitant and putting a great deal of pressure both on…

Works Cited:

"Financing Government Expenditures."

"The Tax Foundation: Pennsylvania." (2009). Retrieved from

Federal Tax
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 56289349
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Federal Tax Current Event

The current epublican leadership race has seen Herman Cain as a front-runner for leadership of the epublican Party and thus, a potential presidential candidate for the 2012 election. One of the main components of his campaign is his proposal of a flat taxation plan for citizens of the United States, known as the "9-9-9" tax plan. This plan proposes to replace the current federal tax code with a flat taxation plan of 9% national sales tax, 9% personal income tax, and 9% corporate tax across the board for all Americans. In the article "Herman Cain's murky 9-9-9 tax plan," the author argues that this plan simply would not fiscally work out and that it would lead to an unfair distribution of the tax burden (Hitzlik, 2011).

Hitzlik argues that flat taxation plans such as the one proposed by Cain tend to not result with their positive…


Hiltzik, M. (October 18, 2011). Herman Cain's murky 9-9-9 tax plan. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 November, 2011 from .

Flat 2006 Thomas Friedman Describes the New
Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 82831063
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Flat (2006), Thomas Friedman describes the new global capitalist economy and how it has affected the United States, as well as the type of skills and education that will be most in demand in the 21st Century. Even white-collar workers, managers and engineers have been doing poorly because of globalization, while unskilled and semiskilled blue-collar workers have been devastated. Construction and manufacturing workers with only a high school education have been losing ground in wealth and incomes to the elites for the last thirty years. This era has been far better for the creative and imaginative designers of new technologies than those performing routine tasks. For the last ten years, the majority of Americans were surviving through inflated credit, mortgage and asset bubbles, but when these collapsed in 2008-09 their true economic situation became stark. Friedman's main thesis is that those workers with flexible, adaptive, creative skills who can understand…


Friedman, T.L. (2006). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.

Friedman, T.L. (2009). "The New Untouchables" New York Times, October 21, 2009.

West, C. (1993, 2001). Race Matters. Boston: Beacon Press.

Tax System of One Country With That
Words: 4394 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98725627
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tax system of one country with that of another is an exercise fraught with dificulties and ultimately doomed to failure . tax system will never be much more than a reflection of strongly national cultures and forces. discuss this statement in the light of your knowledge of comparative tax system in developing and/or developed countries i

Tax Systems

The following pages focus on analyzing the factors of influence on different countries' taxation systems. The paper begins with an introductory section that allows readers understand the point-of-view used in this paper. The following section refers to describing the taxes pand taxation systems used by most countries and their objectives, in order to understand the similarities and differences between these taxation systems. The paper continues with the analysis of several factors that influence countries' tax system design, like cultural factors, technological developments, and natural resources. In order to exemplify this, the taxation…

Reference list:

1. Pasekova, M. et al. (2011). Comparative Analysis of Tax Systems: Some Evidence from CEE Countries. World Academy of Science, Engineering, and Technology. Retrieved February 27, 2012.

2. Greenhouse, S. (2011). Tiny Tax on Financial Trades Gains Advocates. The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from .

3. Ross, M. (2004). Does Taxation lead to Representation? Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 28, 2012.

4. Seto, T. (2008). Four Core Principles of Tax Design System: Introduced and Applied to the Taxation of Multinationals. Loyola Law School. Retrieved February 28, 2012.

Flat by Thomas Friedman Thomas
Words: 1211 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38520643
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Outsourcing has shown that the quality of work does not diminish even if someone who lives at the side of the world does the work. This situation is largely dependent on the amount and quality of investment in enriching human capital in the developing world, i.e. through a more relevant curriculum, which matches the needs of the labor market.

Off shoring, on the hand, works differently. Friedman noted that off shoring involves the transfer of one factory to another place that produces the same product, in the very same way, only with cheap labor, lower taxes, subsidized energy and lower health cost. Competition among offshore sites now persists as manufacturing centers are now transferred to the developing countries. In my view, to some extent off shoring has led to a degree of exploitation especially to its low skilled labor sector. Paying its workers on subsistence, multinational companies could opt to…

Supply sharing is a method of collaborating horizontally among suppliers, retailers and customers to create value. Friedman mentioned the coefficient of flatness -- the fewer natural resources one's company/country, the more you will dig inside yourself for innovations in order to survive. This particular concept brings into mind Rostow's - age of high mass consumption - the rise of consumerism which leveled the globe and is attributed largely to the increasing influence of capitalism. This however, is constrained by the purchasing power of people from developing countries. Consumerism has transformed the cultural mindset in that their needs are now conditioned by the product and service line as prescribed by the west.

Globalization, which I would want to define as the encompassing transformative and catalytic character of technological advances has over the past decade ushered in a new wave of transactional arrangements between sovereign states and transnational entities. Globalization has led to the reconfiguration of hierarchical structures of interaction as the flat world is seen over the horizon. Globalization is predicated on innovation, if a firm or country cannot innovate or integrate the necessary measures to increase its competitiveness then it stands to lose in a highly predatory environment. While globalization, may be looked upon on negative perspective that is it would lead to the demise of uncompetitive small and medium firms, looking at it on hindsight it should serve as an impetus on their part. Lulling them out of their complacency by offering a value added component in their goods and services. Closing your doors to the world and waiting for domestic industries to develop would be counterproductive. Subsequently, integration has evolved into a necessity rather than an opportunity. The critical aspect is to prepare ourselves, equipping the human capital with the right skill and indoctrinating them with a good work ethic, which would transform the workforce into knowledge workers. Although this may be a Herculean task, making some incremental reforms on a sustained basis would translate to substantive gains over the long-term. Globalization would not wait for the weak. Summing it up in four words, the time is now.

Friedman, Thomas. The World is Flat a Brief History of the Twenty First Century-Updated Release 3.0. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2007.

Are Tax Avoidance Strategies Effective
Words: 931 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 25845153
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Tax Avoidance & Firm Growth

What follows in the next few pages is a review of whether there is a correlation between tax avoidance with corporations and firm growth. Indeed, looking at the literature reveals that the evidence is mixed but that the overall answer is a condition "yes," that there can indeed be a link between tax avoidance and firm growth. To explain the conditional nature of the answer garnered, one can look to the work of Desai, Foley and Hines (2006) when they assert that "firms with sizable foreign operations benefit the most from using tax havens, an effect that can be evaluated by using foreign economic growth rates as instruments for firm-level growth of foreign investment outside of tax havens" (Desai, Foley & Hines, 2006). They further state that "one percent greater sales and investment growth in nearby non-haven countries is associated with a 1.5 to 2%…


Chang, S. (2012). The Great Debt Controversy in the U.S. And Beyond. SERI

Quarterly, 5(2), 50-62.

Desai, M.A., & Dharmapala, D. (2006). Corporate tax avoidance and high-powered incentives. Journal Of Financial Economics, 79(1), 145-179.


Work Opportunity Tax Credit Wotc
Words: 4903 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69565580
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ather than being idle and receiving public benefit, individuals of working age typically prefer completing useful work. Mark P. Altieri, an associate professor of accounting at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, and Jason A. othman, (2006), an associate at Wickens, Herzer, Panza, Cook and Batista, note a number of enhancements to WOTC in the article, "Surviving Katrina: Tax breaks for victims of the costliest catastrophe in American history."

According to Altieri and othman (2006), in regard to the WOTC - general law, under IC section 51, the WOTC provides motivation for employers to hire economically disadvantaged individuals. These disadvantaged individuals include qualified ex-felons, food-stamp recipients, veterans, summer youth employees, as well as individuals who receive certain welfare benefits (Altieri & othman, ¶ 23). Altieri and othman explain that in the past, the WOTC -- Katrina was expanded to embrace individuals whose principal residence on August 28, 2005, was located in…


Altieri, M.P., & Rothman, J.A. (2006). Surviving Katrina: Tax breaks for victims of the costliest catastrophe in american history. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2), 58+. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from Questia database: 

Anonymous. (2008). Special tax credit aids Paulding Co. development. Toledo Business Journal.

Telex Communications, Inc. Retrieved June 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:  Battersby, M.E. (2009). The Memorial Day tax surprise. Metal Center News. Sackett Business

Global Tax Treaties UN Model and OECD
Words: 4790 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 36069664
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global tax treaties, UN model and OECD model with the view of analyzing their consideration towards rights to capital and tax income. By throwing light on differences and similarities among the models, the fundamental logic of each of them is explained. The article explains the prospecting policies of consideration when tax treaties are to be signed. It is because there is strong need to enforce a flexible but more aggressive strategy. The Section 1 of the article discusses rights about tax earnings through immovable property. The Section 2 is about business profits. The Section 3 throws light upon income from investment channels like royalties, interests and dividends. The Section 4 describes the capital gains. The conclusion of the article is given in Section 5.

ight to tax income from immovable property

Because of well-known significant relationship between the country of source of the income and the source of income itself,…


Bin Yang, A Comparative Study on the Rules and Administration of the International Taxation System (China Tax Publishing House, 2003).

Bin Yang, International Taxation (Fudan University Press, 2004).

Commentaries on Paragraph 3, Article 7 of the OECD model.

Jin Zhi Liu (translator), Commentaries of UN model Tax Convention between Developed and Developing Countries (China Financial & Economic Publishing House, 1996) 56.

World Is Flat A Brief
Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68030240
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NASA cannot afford to create new technology, and that is a sign of our lack of support of new science and engineering, something that could be critically short in years to come.

In conclusion, there are clearly many advantages to the flat world economy that has developed with the advent of the 21st century, and Friedman does a good job of spelling out those advantages quite well. There are disadvantages, as well, and Freidman recognizes them and gives them priority in his book. America really began this free trade idea that helped shoot technology around the world and make it possible for people to work anywhere, at anytime. America will continue to innovate and create new ideas, technologies, and innovations that will make our world a better, safer, and healthier place, and as they do, they will continue to generate the best jobs and ideas right here in this country.…


Editors. "Average mathematics literacy, reading literacy, science literacy, and problem-solving scores of 15-year-olds, by sex and country: 2003." National Center for Education Statistics. 2003. 10 July 2008. ?

Editors. "Constellation Program." 2008. 10 July 2008. 

Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, Release 2.0. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. (ebook).

Globalization the World Is Flat
Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47194838
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Similarly, Chapter Eight, "This Is Not a Test," is a must read for every CEO, manager and government official. In this chapter, Friedman has highlighted that "lifetime employment is a form of fat that a flat world simply cannot sustain any longer" (p. 284) (Jones, 2005). He argued for a policy of "lifetime employability," which is a kind of social agreement between government and business and the people that, in its simplest terms, give assurance "that government and companies will focus on giving you the tools to make you more lifetime employable." Further he also argued in support of the universal portability of pensions and health care (Zakaria, 2005).


The most impressive thing about this book was the stories author narrates of individuals who are making a difference in the flat world. For example, the Harvard business grads set up a company in Cambodia to conduct data entry, while…

Works Cited

The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century by Thomas L. Friedman. A Review by Fareed Zakaria. Sunday Book Review. The New York Times. May 1, 2005.

The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century by Thomas L. Friedman.

A whole new scale of togetherness. A Review by Clayton Jones. Review- A- Day. The Christian Science Monitor. Powell's. Com. April 18th, 2005.

Book Report

Rich Should Be Taxed More
Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33991104
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Rich Should Be Taxed More

In every free market economy, there is a particular tax system which is implemented and has to be followed by the citizens of the country but every tax system comes with its advantages and disadvantages. The taxes that are implemented may be in the form of direct taxes such as the earnings of an individual, inheritance and other such incomes, while the indirect tax is levied on the purchases, sales, etc.

The regressive tax system is whereby the amount of tax that a person has to pay decreases as the income of the individual increases. This is a burden on the poor in the society who are crushed under the burden of the taxes because the tax payments take up most of their earnings as a result. A progressive tax system on the other hand implies that a person has to pay more in taxes…

Works Cited

Mccaffery, Edward J. Fair not flat: How to make the tax system better and simpler. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Messere, Ken. The Tax System in Industrialized Countries. Oxford University Press, 1998.

Yang, Ming Yu. "The applicability of the progressive tax from the perspective of contribution theory." International Journal of Management, 2003.

Soda Tax in California the Issue of
Words: 1528 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35381800
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Soda Tax in California

The issue of soda tax, or the implementation of rules that guide the soft drinks industry in terms of guiding the consumer on the content of the soda which often is at the expense of the manufacturer, is not new to California. New York City had a similar bill that was passed but later on shelved due to a court ruling that favored the soft drinks manufacturers who pressed for a ruling out of the directive as unconstitutional. There were three consecutive appeals that failed hence the hopes for that regulation that banned sale of big size bottles of soda among other regulations seem to fizzle out flat (Matias C., 2014).

It is the same spirit as that of Bloomberg in New York that state senator Bill Monning has put forth a proposal that would require the sugary drinks for instance the sports drinks that are…


Calefati J., (2014). Health warning labels proposed for sodas, other sugary drinks sold in California. San Francisco Mercury News. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from 

Bernstein S, (2014). California lawmaker proposes warning labels for sugary drinks. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from 

Esterl M., (2014). Berkeley Voters Approve Tax on Sugary Drinks. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from 

Matias C., (2014). New York City's Soda Ban Fizzles Out For Good. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from

Globalization and Tax Havens
Words: 2570 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92382712
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Globalization and Taxes


Competition for Taxes

One of the most difficult issues regarding the state regulation of their tax relations in regard to international business is the presence of various "tax havens" that are present across the globe in today's modern economy. According to some estimates, as much as half of the world's stock of money either resides in tax havens or passes through them (Palan, 2002). The term tax haven has been widely used since the 1950s; yet there is no consensus as to what it means (Palan, Murphy, & Chavagneux, 2010). The influential U.S. Treasury's Gordon eport concluded: there is no single, clear, objective test which permits the identification of a country as a tax haven . Corporations and private businesses now have a plethora of ways to reduce their tax liabilities. Globalization has exacerbated this problem even further. The mere presence of these various tax shelters…


Bhagwati, J. (2004). In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dyreng, S., Lindsey, B., & Thornock, J. (2011, April 30). Exploring the Role Delaware Plays as a Domestic Tax Haven. Retrieved from Social Science Research Network: 

Friedman, T. (2005). The World is Flat. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Kanter, J. (2015, October 21). E.U. Orders 2 Nations to Recover Taxes From Starbucks and Fiat. Retrieved from The New York Times:

Analysis of Friedmans The World Is Flat
Words: 2944 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94711964
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World is Flat" is taken from a metaphorical point-of-view to highlight the development and advancement of technology in the world. The author, Thomas Friedman, asserts that the world has become flatter because technology together with other factors has turned the world into a smaller place. The author describes the manner in which technology has made the world become more competitive and elucidates what is necessary to compete in this new world that is deemed flat. For instance, Friedman offers a description of how manufacturing firms have relocated the location of their plants to international areas to make the most of cheaper labor and raw materials.

This is towards objective of coming up with products that are cost-effective and more competitive in the marketplace. This particular aspect of outsourcing has disseminated into the service industry also. Friedman describes various instances where tax returns of companies in the United States are accounted…


Caldwell, J. (2005). Book Report On The World Is Flat. Retrieved 17 October 2015 from: 

Friedman, T. L. (2005). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Picador

Griedsom, T. S. (2007). Book Review. The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education. Retrieved 17 October 2015 from: 

Lee, M. (n.d). Book Summary: The World is Flat (Thomas L. Friedman).

Distributive Justice and Accounting Practice Every Society
Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42258872
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Distributive Justice and Accounting Practice:

Every society has an economic framework governed by laws, policies, and institutions that contribute to distinctive distributions of economic incentives and burdens among the members of the society. The economic frameworks are usually brought by human political processes and they usually change across societies and within societies over time. Economic frameworks play an important role in the society because their structures significantly influence the economic distributions, which in turn affect people's lives. One of the most significant aspects of economic frameworks is accounting principles and practices that play a significant role in the effectiveness of these systems. From a wider political/economic view, understanding the function of accounting is crucial for understanding how a society's economic framework operates. Generally, accounting is entrenched in a capitalist, free-market, and economic system through promoting the values upon which the system is based.

Distributive Justice:

The topic of distributive justice…


"Federal Income Tax Brackets 2013." (n.d.). The 2013 Federal Tax Rates and Brackets.

Retrieved March 31, 2013, from 

Garrison, R.W. (1996, October 1). The Flat Tax: Simplicity Desimplified. Retrieved March 31,

2013, from

Laws Governing Taxation Have Long
Words: 2042 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97022896
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..individuals are taxed in their total annual income minus their net new additions to savings, which equals annual consumption (eiler).

Both forms of consumption tax are not without their troubles and for the most part there is no consensus on the benefits of either alternative. Overall, the quest to reform the current system of taxation rages on. It will be very difficult to reform the current progressive tax system of because it is so steeped in bureaucracy and tradition.


The purpose of this discussion was to examine the progressive income tax. e found that the this tax system operates by taxing a certain percentage of individual income excluding certain deductibles. The investigation detailed the history of progressive taxation and clearly defines progressive taxation. The investigation revealed that the implementation of such taxation was controversial since its inception which came as a result of an amendment to the constitution. In…

Works Cited

Boyd T. 2002. Guide to the Tax Act of 2001: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. Review of Business. Volume: 23. Issue: 1. Page Number: 33+.

Creedy J., Gemmell N. 2002. The Revenue Responsiveness of Consumption Taxes. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: Economic Record. Volume: 78. Issue: 241. Page Number: 186+.

Fougere M.., Ruggeri Giuseppe C. 1998. Flat Taxes and Distributional Justice. Review of Social Economy. Volume: 56. Issue: 3. Page Number: 277+.

Fratantuono Michael J. The Great Tax Wars: Lincoln to Wilson -- the Fierce Battles over Money and Power That Transformed the Nation. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: Parameters. Volume: 33. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 168+.

Analyzing Accounting and Taxation
Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 49058685
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Taxation Accounting:

Criminal fraud vs. Civil fraud and taxation of U.S. businesses operating abroad

Tax and Tax Code reforms

When a client's accounts were appraised by the IS, it was discovered that an omission of $100,000 had occurred. Upon such discovery, the first step is to investigate the taxpayer individually so as to collect historic reports of the individual; whether he had engaged in any non-compliance of this sort earlier or this is his first time. To determine whether a criminal prosecution is appropriate, a proof that the misconduct was carried out without an acceptable reason is required (CIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS AND POSECUTIONS OF TAX FAUD CASES GUIDELINES). The following conditions must be kept in view when deciding whether a case can be prosecuted or not:

The validity of the proof of the fraud, the sources and contents used to produce a judgment.

The willingness of the prosecutor to carry on…


(n.d.). Department of Taxation and Finance. CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PROSECUTIONS OF TAX FRAUD CASES GUIDELINES. Retrieved June 6, 2016, from 

Dubay. (2014). Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. How Tax Reform Would Help American Families. Retrieved June 6, 2016, from 

Gale. (2002). Brookings - Quality. Independence. Impact. The Tax Treatment of Foreign Income: Issues and Options. Retrieved June 6, 2016, from 

(n.d.). The White House -- Taxes -- Retrieved June 6, 2016, from /issues/taxes

Business Finance for Pizzapalace Analyze and Recommend
Words: 3461 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31410880
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Business Finance for PizzaPalace: Analyze and recommend optimal capital structure

Assume you have just been hired as a business manager of PizzaPalace, a regional pizza restaurant chain. The company's EBIT was $50 million last year and is not expected to grow. The firm is currently financed with all equity, and it has 10 million shares outstanding.

When you took your corporate finance course, your instructor stated that most firms' owners would be financially better off if the firms used some debt. When you suggested this to your new boss, he encouraged you to pursue the idea.

As a first step, assume that you obtained from the firm's investment banker the following estimated costs of debt for the firm at different capital structures:

P e r c e n t FI n a n c e d w I t h D. e b t, w d r d



References (2011). Operating leverage and DOL. Retrieved May

12, 2011 from 

Ehrhardt, M.C. & Brigham, E.F. (2010). Financial management theory and practice.

Thomas One. 13th Edition. Pp 351-800.

Justice in Society
Words: 870 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74393946
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Justice in Society

What does justice in society really mean?

"It's not fair." One of the first phrases every child articulates clearly relates to a kind of a rough philosophy of justice. This sentiment reflects the idea that because people are not being treated 'the same' the world is unjust. A child may regard the fact that older siblings get to go to bed later as unfair. However, as rough and crude as a child's logic of justice may seem, underlying its assumptions are some of the concepts that relate to a larger sense of justice, namely the issue of equitable treatment. For a society to be just, there must be efforts to create social and economic parity to ensure that the nation's political and judicial systems truly honor such principles of equity.

One concept of equalizing to create justice is that of "John awls' alternative distributive principle, which he…


Lamont, Julian and Favor, Christi. (2008). Distributive justice. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved: 

Stiglitz, Jonah. (2011). Of the1%, by the 1%., for the 1%. Vanity Fair. Retrieved:

U S Welfare and Financial Situation
Words: 4624 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13150102
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In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.

The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…


America's most costly welfare recipients are Fortune 500 companies. Cato Institute News Releases. June 30, 1999. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 June, 2005

Bumpass, Larry. Ryder, N.B. The Changing Contexts of Parenting in the United States. Retrieved at . Accessed on 29 June, 2005

Cauchon, Dennis. State, local spending up despite downturn. USA Today. 14 January, 2003. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 June, 2005

Danziger, Sheldon; Loury, Glenn; Murray, Charles; Wilkins, Roger. Does Welfare Cause Illegitimacy? 9 April, 1994. Retrieved at on 29 June, 2005

Sean Hannity's Let Freedom Ring
Words: 3984 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20006624
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So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.

Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:

This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…


Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.

Free to Choose A Personal
Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88700106
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The authors use everyday examples, such as "investment in a newly formed small business" to make their economic processes more understandable to anyone who understands modern business, and this is one of the things that makes this book so readable, and so fascinating, even for someone who might not be that interested in economic theory and practice.

The Friedman's support many ideas that would reduce the authority of government in many economic areas, including the "negative income tax, the volunteer army, an improved method of auctioning Treasury securities, the monetary rule for achieving price stability; the voucher system for education, the flat tax, and flexible exchange rates" (Jordan et al. 199). It is quite amazing to see just how many of these Friedman ideas have made their way into our business and political world, including the volunteer army, the educational voucher system, and flexible exchange rates, to name a few.…

Works Cited

Economist of the Century." The Washington Times 3 Aug. 2002: A11.

Friedman, Milton and Rose. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1990.

Jordan, Jerry L., et al. "Milton, Money, and Mischief: Symposium and Articles in Honor of Milton Friedman's 80th Birthday." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 197-212.

Oi, Walter Y. "Milton Friedman, Starting His Ninth Decade." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 194-196.

Proposed Legislation in Nursing
Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84799384
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How a Bill Becomes a Law

In Chapter 17, we learned that after a member of the Congress proposes a bill, it is gazetted and then passed through the three stages of reading before being becoming a Law. The time required for a bill to pass through these stages varies depending on whether it is controversial or complex. In the first reading, the bill is introduced to the Congress, which signals that the legislative process has started. At this stage, there nothing much is done; the bill is just read out to the members. No debate happens at this stage. Then, the bill is set for the next stage as the second reading.

Immediately after the first reading, the legislator in charge of the bill proposes a motion for the second reading of the bill. At this time, he/she gives a speech explaining the benefits of the proposed legislation. After…

Amstel's Plans to Venture Into
Words: 1924 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20158157
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he reason this is relevant is the idea of "nexus and apportionment." Michigan deems a taxpayer to have "nexus" in the state if they are physically present in the state for more than one day, actively solicit sales in Michigan and thus have more than $350,000 in sales and have ownership in a flow-through entity that has presence in Michigan. Amstel easily qualifies on all three accounts and this means that there must be a calculation of apportionment for the sales done because not all of the sales would be taxable in Michigan, just those done in Michigan.

As for how Amstel can or should apportion their operations and sales, one can look at the prevailing corporate income tax rates for the relevant states. Michigan has a flat six percent on corporate income as of the first of 2013. Indiana is a bit higher at eight percent. Wisconsin is at…

The reason this is relevant is the idea of "nexus and apportionment." Michigan deems a taxpayer to have "nexus" in the state if they are physically present in the state for more than one day, actively solicit sales in Michigan and thus have more than $350,000 in sales and have ownership in a flow-through entity that has presence in Michigan. Amstel easily qualifies on all three accounts and this means that there must be a calculation of apportionment for the sales done because not all of the sales would be taxable in Michigan, just those done in Michigan.

As for how Amstel can or should apportion their operations and sales, one can look at the prevailing corporate income tax rates for the relevant states. Michigan has a flat six percent on corporate income as of the first of 2013. Indiana is a bit higher at eight percent. Wisconsin is at 7.9%. Finally, Illinois is the highest at 9.5%. All four states have flat income tax rates but Michigan is actually the lowest. As such, it would make sense to keep operations as completely and fully in Michigan as possible except as is necessary to facilitate and support sales in the other three states as there is a nearly four percent variance between the four states by a margin of 1.9% to nearly four percent. However, as noted above, Indiana and Michigan have been subject to selective FUTA rate spikes in the recent past so that should be considered as well while bearing in mind that the same can be true of SUI rates but it depends on the states assigned rate every year. Also, taxes paid on wages (employer and employee taxes) are based on where the employee works whereas corporate income tax is based on where the sales receipts or other income is actually generated.

What the above means is that Amstel can realize a clear benefit in terms of paying lesser sales taxes and corporate income taxes based on how we apportion our operations and sales but we have to be careful of the burdens that we will incur with each new state of operation and the proportions that are applicable for where and when we operate in a given tax year and this applies to both employees' tax implications as well as that of Amstel. In conclusion, Amstel can absolutely expand its horizons by operating in new states and markets but we also need to be careful to comply with all required filings and regulations.

Bill Jones CEO a Local Auto Parts
Words: 1117 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40028150
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Bill Jones, CEO a local auto parts factory recently wrote op-ed pace eThe Chronicle argued green agendas sound nice, good bottom line. He green option company lay workers. rit essay response letter Chapter 10 Friedman's book (Hot, Flat Crowded, release 2:0) formulate a counter argument.

The green agenda

The world today is facing a major problem of global warming. There is also a stunning rise of the people classified as the middle class, and consequently, there is an increased population growth. All these are causing an alarm in the world as this is slowly making the world unstable. Every person should take it upon themselves to correct this trend. This includes individuals and also corporate bodies. This can be corrected by protecting the planet through moral leadership, which will promote the preservation of the environment. This is not an easy task but America could be in the forefront of saving…

Works Cited

Friedman, Thomas L. Hot, Flat, and Crowded Why We Need a Green Revolution -- and How It Can Renew America. Release 2.0: Picador, 2009. Print.

Managing Your Money Olly Lloyd
Words: 1366 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 5660647
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Still, since it is looking to sell a property asset that is not their main residence, they will be required to pay a capital gains tax, in the amount of 18 per cent (Direct Gov). For an estimated retail price of £150,150, and a tax rate of 18 per cent, Olly Lloyd would have to pay £27,027 in taxes.

For the new employment contract, Lloyd would have to pay taxes in the amount of £5,281. The sum is decreased significantly by deductions adherent to contributions made by Olly to the pension funds (Listen to Taxman).

c) Suggestions for financial management

Leone Lloyd-Cardle is, without a doubt, facing severe problems. In order to restore the responsibility and stability of her financial decisions, the following financial management recommendations are made:

Discussing the problem with her husband. Having reached such a high level of debt indicates severe problems which cannot be overcome by…


Davis, E.P., 2009, Financial stability in the United Kingdom: banking on prudence, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 717,  last accessed on December 19, 2011

Inmann, P., 2008, Traders predict house prices will fall by 50% in four years, The Guardian,  last accessed on December 19, 2011

2009, Residence, domicile and the remittance basis: operation changes, HM Revenue and Customs,  last accessed on December 19, 2011

2011, Tax liability, Investopedia,  last accessed on December 19, 2011

Ansoff's Matrix and the Boston
Words: 410 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38171778
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The oston Matrix

1. Cash Cow: DVDs and DVD recorders are excellent sources of profit and revenues for Sony, as they have been for the last couple of years. Additionally, the electronics and game consoles, especially Playstation 2, even if encountering losses in 2004, may also be included in this category, as having a still consistent market share.

2. Dog: The classic CRT TVs and games software have encountered significant losses and decreasing sales over the last years, so it seems that there low market share/low market growth possibilities mark the end of their booming years.

3. Problem Child: The LCD TVs and the media ventures operated by Sony have high potential (high market growth), but the company is still under-represented of the market, with a low market share, even if prospects for improving it still exist.

4. Star: The flat screen TV seems the best representative of this category.…


1. JUSTIN MCCURRY (April 2004). Restructuring costs eat into Sony surplus. The Guardian.

JUSTIN MCCURRY (April 2004). Restructuring costs eat into Sony surplus. The Guardian.

Individual Terms Word Processor Sometimes Abbreviated as
Words: 1933 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58502364
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Individual Terms

Word Processor

"Sometimes abbreviated as WP, a word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing documents. Unlike the standard typewriter, users using word processors have the ability of creating a document and making any changes anywhere in the document. This document can also be saved for modification at a later time or to be opened on any other computer using the same word processor. (Computer Hope, 2011)" Microsoft's Word is a word processor and there are other ones as well such as Apple iWork, Corel WordPerfect, and Sun StarOffice. Amongst the various office automated systems, the word processor is one of the most used thereto.

Hierarchical Database

This type of database is one of the first of its kind and is still present in older or legacy systems. "Each cell in a table may have a table underneath it, which is similar to the…


Best Priced Computers UK. (2009). Decision support systems. Retrieved July 31, 2011 from 

Computer Hope. (2011). Word processor. Retrieved July 31, 2011 from 

Hernandez, G. (2011, August 8). DB types. Retrieved July 31, 2011 from 

Introduction to HIS. (2007). Retrieved July 31, 2011 from

Creating a Chain of Internet
Words: 3598 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49598608
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. Lack of tax incentives for infrastructure development including
broadband penetration. The key elements of the infrastructure
including electricity, telephone and internet service are at time
unpredictable in their performance. The biggest weakness of India
today is its infrastructure, and with only 30% of the workforce
relying on communications links to other nations, India will be forced
to spend greater and greater percentages of their GNP on making their
infrastructure world class.
. Growth of Instant Messaging and convergence applications may make e-
mail a secondary approach to communicating in India in the next ten
years. According to the (Internet in India Report, 2006) the
corresponding growth of the Instant Messaging and all other forms of
peer-to-peer communications from cellular and PDA devices is expected
to be dominated by the Chinese and Indian markets according to
(Tekelec, 2006) as well. The findings of Ovum Consulting are provided
in the white…

Works Cited

CIA FactBook (2007) - CIA FactBook page on India. Provides an overview of
the Indian economy and political structure. Accessed from the Internet on
July 27, 2007 from location:

Columbus, Louis (2005) - Selling Into India: Lessons Learned From Silvio
Napoli. CRM Buyer Magazine, April 22, 2005. Downloaded from the Internet

Human Service Programs in the Ongoing Attempt
Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1512806
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Human Service Programs

In the ongoing attempt to recover human service programs, policymakers, funders, and service providers are progressively acknowledging the position of difficult program evaluations. They want to distinguish what the programs achieve, what they cost, and how they should be functioned to achieve supreme cost-effectiveness. They want to identify which programs work for which areas, and they want suppositions based on proof, rather than impassioned pleas and testimonials. With that said, it is important to understand what are the strengths and weaknesses in the Human Service Programs.

What is Human Services?

Human services are provide assistance aid to citizens that need help in getting or upholding basic human essentials, such as shelter, health and food," to name a few." Social programs also delivers human services, such as psychological requirements, help in distributing with trauma from abuse or sickness as well as complications of disasters, such as climate provoked…


Boessenkool, K. (1997). Back to work: Learning from the Alberta welfare experiment. Commentary - C.D.Howe Institute, (91), 1-1.

Hays, Sharon (2004). Flat broke with children. New York: Oxford University Press.

Holl, J., Kristen, S.S., & Amy, B.S. (2005). Welfare reform and health insurance: Consequences for parents. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 279-85.

Vozoris, N., & Tarasuk, V. (2004). The health of Canadians on welfare. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 115-20.

Zoning and Development Case Study The Natomas
Words: 1807 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 55406554
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Zoning and Development Case Study: The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area

The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area is a land area of approximately 20,000 acres within the Natomas Basin and located in the unincorporated northwestern area of Sacramento County. Consisting of relatively flat terrain, the Basin includes approximately 55,000 acres, with approximately 17,000 acres in Sutter County. The plan to develop the Natomas area involves eight stakeholders: County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the Habitat Conservation Plan Conservancy, Landowners, Airport planners and Developers. The competing interests of these stakeholders require the use of relevant land-use planning methods and provisions for economic equity among all stakeholders, ideally using a in-in approach to conflict resolution.

A. hat is the decision problem involved in this case and what are the relevant factors necessary to understand the situation?

There are several competing interests and concerns:

I. "County South" wants…

Works Cited

Aspen Environmental Group. (2010). Energy Aware: Facility Siting and Permitting Guide. Retrieved from California Energy Commission Web site: 

Callihan, D., Kleiman, D., & Tirnauer, J. (2009). An Independent Evaluation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Habitat Conservation Plan Program. Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

City of Sacramento, CA Planning Department. (2009, June 22). Natomas Joint Vision. Retrieved from City of Sacramento Web site:

Granicus. (2008). 2030 Sacramento General Plan: East Sacramento Community Plan. Sacramento, CA: Granicus.

Scotch Whiskey the Olde Distillerie
Words: 5163 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20382463
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However, the Act of Union in 1707 that combined England, Wales, and Scotland into the United Kingdom had a profound effect on the production of Scotch Whiskey (Beverage Testing Institute, 2007). The English government levied heavy taxes on Scottish whiskey, while lowering taxes on English gin (Beverage Testing Institute, 2007). This resulted in a boom in illegal stills across the country. Many present-day producers have their origins in these illegal operations. In 1823, the Excise Act reduced taxes on Scotch Whiskey to a level where it was once again a viable legal industry (Beverage Testing Institute, 2007).

Scotch whiskey was ingrained in the culture of Scotland. Whether they are malted, blended, or single grain concoctions, they are a part of Scottish history that is slowly becoming adopted by others around the globe. The whiskey market experiences periods of boom followed by periods of bust. The market has not been one…


Barrow, a. First Swedish Malt Whiskey. Slashfood. April 17, 2006. [Online] Available at[Accessed 23, December 2007].

Beverage Testing Institute. 2007. All About Scotch Whiskey. [Online] Available at [Accessed 23, December 2007].

Broom, D.(2006) Global market review of malt whisky - forecasts to 2011. Bharat Books. [Online] Available at[Accessed 23, December 2007].

FedEx. 2007. Ireland. Country Profile. [Online] Available at [Accessed 23, December 2007].

Pre-Negotiation Memorandum
Words: 2123 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86286981
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Prenegotiation Memorandum (pm)

Negotiation Team

Re: Tamarack, MN and Twin Lakes Mining Company

Position Structure

Twin Lakes Mining Company

The Twin Lakes Mining Company (hereafter known as 'company') makes significant contribution to Tamarack, Minnesota - employing 21% of the residents, providing 33% of the total real estate tax base - and is considered an integral entity to the town's longevity. The city needs Twin Lakes to maintain the current standard of living the residents enjoy.

The City of Tamarack

The city operates on a zero deficit per annum decree. Twin Lakes Mining Company has directly caused some of the need for improvements concerning water quality, air quality, and effluvia and pollution management. The city also relies upon the heavy property taxation to provide economic, culture, and recreation services to the community. Twin Lakes Mining Company does not need the City of Tamarack (hereafter known as 'city') to continue operations in…

Aid President George W Bush in Policy
Words: 5641 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99905017
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aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.

Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…


Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from; Accessed on March 5, 2004

Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;  Accessed on March 5, 2004

Realization Requirement What Is Realization Requirement To
Words: 1175 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84872166
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ealization equirement

What is ealization equirement? To what extent, if any, does this differ from Gross eceipts equirement?

ealization is a generator for scheming income taxation. Under the decisive case in the field of tax law, this can be classified as one of the principles, which are three. In such a case, the Supreme Court judged that income traced from purposes of Federal income tax defined as undisputable consents to wealth, without a doubt realized, and complete dominion is in the hands of the taxpayers. In another definition, the court stated it as the gain realization is not necessary for it to be in cash consequential from asset sale.

Property exchange might be the cause of outcome for gain, the indebtedness of the taxpayers for payment, liability relief, and other profits that are realized when a transaction is completed. This checklist includes all the generators of types of realization, as…


Patterson, D.M., & Blackwell Reference Online (Online service). (2010). A companion to philosophy of law and legal theory. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Norton, L. (2013). How to be a global nonprofit: Legal and practical guidance for international activities. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons

Business Plan Version Page Business
Words: 5342 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 43855328
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The market size for AAA Software based on PC usage can be estimated by the total number of new PC sales and the level of antivirus usage on them. The total PC usage during the corresponding year is shown in the figure.


C3: Competitive Analysis- Describe your company's current competition.


egistered/Head Office

Czech epublic

United States

United States

Slovak epublic

United States

Number of Users

More than 150mn users





Product Variants

Home Users - Antivirus (Free, Pro and Internet Security), Products available for Mobile and Mac, Business Users -- Small or Home Office, Enterprise and Server needs

Home Users - AVG Antivirus Free, Antivirus, Internet Security, PC Tuneup, Secure Search, Business Users -- Antivirus, Internet Security, Email Server, File Server, Linux Server, escue CD, emote Administration, Mobile Users -- Antivirus Free/Pro

Home Users, Business Users -- Microsoft System Center Endpoint Protection (only…


Blokdijk, G. (2008). Change Management 100 Success Secrets: The Complete Guide to Process, Tools, Software and Training in Organizational Change Management.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change (3 ed.). Kogan Page Publishers.

Chambers, R. (Ed.). (2007). How to Succeed as a Leader (Illustrated ed.). Radcliffe Publishing.

Doe, J.P. (2011, 10-10). Retrieved from Student Template in APA for Business Plan: .

Opening a Business
Words: 1844 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44037227
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Opening a usiness

Setting up a clothing business in Germany: Discussing the four variables

German textile and clothing industry is among the oldest and consists mainly of SMEs; the sector remains the second largest manufacturer of consumer articles in the country, after the food industry.

Germany has a liberal foreign investment policy. Despite persistence of structural rigidities in the labor market and extensive government regulation, the economy remains strong and internationally competitive. Although production costs are very high, Germany is still an export powerhouse. Additionally, Germany is strategically placed to take advantage of the rapidly growing central European countries.

The current government has addressed some of the country's structural problems, with important tax, social security, and financial sector reforms. At present production and processing of resources is often carried out by suppliers from Asia or Eastern Europe and by branch plants in such countries. This is much cheaper than producing…


1. Web link: 

2. Doing Business in Germany: A Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies. File: CCG2005.pdf

3. FY2001 Country Commercial Guide Germany. File: germany_ccg2001.pdf


Export Marketing Strategy
Words: 3399 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66103332
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Marketing (Water Fans, India)

Industry outlook

The market in India for water fans or misting fans as they are also called is problematical at best. Without doubt, the climate (except in the northern mountains) is hot; the problem is, it is also quite humid. Still, the Indian people have been looking for ways to stay cool for centuries. It was India that gave the world the slatted shutter; when air comes in through small spaces (as in shutters, adopted in the American South before air conditioning, or in lattice-work walls as in parts of India), it is cooled. Still, they did not develop a cooling system like that of that ancient omans, which did use water running through channels to create condensation. The reason, of course, is the problem of water quality. While industrial pollution has now added immeasurably to the water quality problems in India, the sluggish flow of…


Establishing New Ventures: Hiring People. (2004) Indiamart Web site. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from

India. (2004) CIA World Factbook. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from 

India Profile. (2004) U.S. Department of State Web site. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from 

Sen, Soumik. (2004) The New Cold War. Rediff Web site, April 24. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from

Half of the Country What
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16382035
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It is not only subjective but also offensive. On the other hand, even if there may be cases in which people may be reluctant to work, this cannot be cause for generalization to the entire population that is not paying taxes. Further, the speaker dismisses this generalization when arguing that children, that do not pay taxes either, cannot be "punished" which means that at least they are not lazy.

Identify one psychological fallacy found in the speech. Provide the sentence and explain why it is a psychological fallacy

A psychological fallacy in the speech may be considered the one presented in the sentence "Before you know it, the Slackers will demand a new iPhone5." This sentence implies a generalization of an assumed practice on the one hand. Although the use of "iPhone 5" is symbolic, the speaker makes reference to a general good that the slackers may consider to be…

Starbucks Coffee Company Key Executives
Words: 361 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 95032285
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his keeps the costs low, and is facilitated by the fact that the company operates a relatively simple business model, with most of its business focus on operating its coffee shops.

Financial Strategy and Practice

he company's fiscal year was just completed and the financial results were:

Consolidated FY2011


Net Revenues


Cost of Sales

Store Operating Exp

Other Operating Exp

Depreciation and Amortization

General & Administrative Exp

otal operating Expenses


Gross Profit

Gain on sale of properties


Income from equity investments

Operating Income

Interest Income, net

Interest Expense



Non-controlling interst


Income axes

Net Income

he most recent quarterly revenue (Q4 FY2011) was $3,031.9 million.

he most recent quarterly net income was $358.5 million.

he current stock price (as of market close December 2, 2011) is $43.91. he stock price is trading near to the all-time high, but the company is continuing to expand…

The most recent quarterly revenue (Q4 FY2011) was $3,031.9 million.

The most recent quarterly net income was $358.5 million.

The current stock price (as of market close December 2, 2011) is $43.91. The stock price is trading near to the all-time high, but the company is continuing to expand and its financial performance has improved significantly over the past three years. Thus, the stock price is probably going to go higher in the coming year.

Southwest Airline Is One of
Words: 6479 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1715892
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And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.

In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.

Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score


Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20


The external…


Gittell, Jody Hoffer. The Southwest Airlines Way Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

More City Pairs Await Southwest - Kelleher Says Opportunities Remain Using Airline's Formula." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 143. 6 (1995): 40.

A / /

Self-Serving Actions That Management May
Words: 3232 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 140949
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A company may be profitable, but not growing, and vice versa, thus affecting leverage (Aggaral and Zhao, 2007).

b. induce a negative relationship between firm value and leverage; conversely, if a firm is perceived with negative or flat growth, leverage is affected. Interestingly enough, new research shows that there are some micro-factors outside of growth that correlate to value and leverage. These include the way a corporation is managed, the size of the Board, the impression of large dividends and lack of focus on shareholder value, and milking of an industry (e.g. yellow pages in the day of the Internet). In addition, certain governmental regulations that are perceived as heavy handed and/or not conducive to growth or -- what is most critical -- perceived growth have considerable negative effects on leverage. Whether this psychological perception is valid or not, the research does not comment -- but it is surprising that…


Iyer, Khwaja, Luttmer and Shue. (2009). Screening in New Credit Markets. Retrieved July 2010, from Harvard University:

THe Economics of Financial Intermediation. (2007, January). Retrieved July 2010, from

Internal Governance. (2009, January). Retrieved July 2010, from IT Business Edge: 

Stakeholders - Interests and Power. (2009, January). Retrieved July 2010, from

Forecast and Valuations of Black and Decker
Words: 1271 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33223245
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Black & Decker


Since the merger with Stanley, Black and Decker has seen a steady increase in its revenues, gross profit and net income. The different elements of the new company are still being integrated, underperforming divisions are being shed, and synergies between the different components are still being developed. As the company continues to make internal improvements, it can expect that it will continue to grow both its top and bottom lines. It is reasonable to expect that over the next 2-3 years, ongoing internal improvements will help to improve margins, all other factors being equal. The post-merger improvements in the percentage of SGA expenses to revenue should continue in the short-run, albeit at a slower pace. Likewise, internal factors are likely to be responsible for at least a modest growth in income, as marketing synergies in particular emerge.

External factors are also critical to the forecast. The…

Works Cited:

Schurr, L. (2013) Home prices see best yearly gain since 2006. Reuters. Retrieved January 29, 2013 from

Home Office Purchase Project
Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 56478585
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Office Purchase

Decking Out an Office

One of the most significant purchases that must be made is that of the laptop computer the customer has requested. While MacBooks are known for their ease of use, durability, and high-end performance on a multitude of tasks they are also expensive and can be difficult to find appropriate software for, and thus MacBooks can be ejected. Using CNET's buying guide and review articles, the HP Envy was select for further consideration (CNET, 2012). Priced at $659 (rounded to $700 for tax), this computer does not have any optical drive (CD or other disk reader), but does have flash drives and a variety of other ports for connectivity and should serve all of the business needs very well -- it comes equipped with Windows 8, has a variety of features that ease pairing with other devices and communication (Bluetooth capabilities, etc.), is both durable…


Bolton, M. (2012). HP Envy Review. Accessed 4 December 2012. 

CNET. (2012). Laptop Finder. Accessed 4 December 2012. (2012). Office chairs. Accessed 4 December 2012. 

Leswing, K. (2012). HP Envy 4 Review. Accessed 4 December 2012.

Pizza Business Family Owned Small
Words: 2490 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11955381
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The pizza sizes are 10 inches which is an individual, 12 inches which is a small, 14 inches which is a medium, 16 inches which is a large, 18 inches which is a super, and a 20-inch pizza which is a family size. The family size pizza gets about 37% of all the sales which are $400,000, the 16-inch large comes in second accounting for 20% of pizza revenues, the 10-inch accounts for 18% and the 12-inch accounts for 15% (due to a large weekday lunch crowd) the 18-inch pizza accounts for only 10% and the remaining 5% is sales of the 14-inch pizza. The 20-inch pizza price is $20.25 with just cheese and sausage and the 16-inch cheese and sausage is $16.00 a pizza. Each pizza is priced at a markup of roughly 200% as is the standard for most restaurant food. (IRS, August 2005, NP) pizza menu accounting…

Works Cited

Chua, Jess H., James J. Chrisman, and Pramodita Sharma. "Defining the Family Business by Behavior." Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 23.4 (1999): 19.

De Kok, Jan M.P., Lorraine M. Uhlaner, and a. Roy Thurik. "Professional HRM Practices in Family Owned-Managed Enterprises." Journal of Small Business Management 44.3 (2006): 441.

Guidry, Flora, James O. Horrigan, and Cathy Craycraft. "CVP Analysis: A New Look." Journal of Managerial Issues 10.1 (1998): 74.

Hicks, Douglas T. "Yes, ABC Is for Small Business Too." Journal of Accountancy 188.2 (1999): 41.

Macroeconomic Indicators
Words: 1149 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15801506
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With the Fed shifting from quantitative easing (QE) to quantitative tightening (QT) in recent years, and the end of unconventional monetary policy, interest rates are set to continue to rise as the central bank reduces its balance sheet. With bond yields already going up and volatility at all-time lows, questions remain about how the market will react to this normalization process. One thing is for certain, however: the recent rise of prices across several asset classes has coincided with the years of QE beginning in 2008. Home prices have soared, bond prices have soared, equity prices have soared, college tuition has soared, and even precious metals have soared (along with cryptocurrencies in recent months). While some commentators are alleging that we are now in the “everything bubble,” the reality is that what is being seen is really nothing more than inflation in the works. The trillions of dollars of liquidity…

Liquidity Analysis Current Ratio Quick
Words: 499 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59882118
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Asset Turnover



Net Assets / Total Assets



For these calculations, it is assumed that net assets is defined as total nets, net of liabilities (aka shareholder's equity). The asset management at this firm has changed little over the course of the past year. The only ratio in which a change is noted is the asset turnover, and that is more related to the fact that operating revenue saw an increase of 27.7% last year.





$1,243,522 / $2,280,086

$1,201,590 / $2,213,837

Total Asset Turnover

$799,554 / $2,280,086

$625,787 / $2,213,837

Net Assets / Total Assets

$779,841 / $2,280,086

$756,174 / $2,213,837

verall, the financial health of Hopeful Happy Health Care Systems (HHHCS) is adequate. The biggest area of concern is with respect to profitability, as the company has very low operating margins. In 2000, the company barely turned a profit, and…

Overall, the financial health of Hopeful Happy Health Care Systems (HHHCS) is adequate. The biggest area of concern is with respect to profitability, as the company has very low operating margins. In 2000, the company barely turned a profit, and although 2001 represented an improvement, that improvement was somewhat limited, and the ROA was still below 1%. It is expected that a firm with health profits is able to generate a much higher ROA.

The most alarming of other figures is the accounts receivable turnover. At 176 days, this turnover is far too slow. The combination of narrow margins and high A/R turnover in day means that the company could find itself subject to cash crunches from time to time. It should be noted, however, that 176 days is a substantial improvement over the previous year.

Most of the other ratios held more or less flat. This indicates that the company's operations are fairly static, so limited changes can be expected in the future. HHHCS has made improvements in the areas where it needed to, which is encouraging. In future, the company should focus on improving its operating margins, as this would have a positive impact on a number of other key ratios as well. The firm has a healthy level of debt, but should hold the line on taking on new debt until there is evidence of significant revenue expansion.

Alcoa Company Analysis Company Description
Words: 2631 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80382427
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Anemic returns on capital and fixed assets - the financial ratio analysis later in this paper makes this point very clear; the company is struggling to gain higher levels of asset utilization and therefore increase gross margins and profitability.


Aerospace growth will significantly grow Alcoa's business - Despite the many problems in the areas of asset utilization and profitability, the company is well positioned to take advantage of the growing demand for their core products, services, and programs oriented to the aerospace industry.

Growth of the global construction industry - This is also a significant opportunity for Alcoa to continue to grow all its core businesses through demand for construction products in the most rapidly growing industrialized economies globally. This includes the growth in construction throughout China, India and throughout the Pacific Rim 4Q06 Analyst Presentation (2006).


Automotive and truck growth continues to stall - This is impacting…


Investor Analyst Day (2006) - Introductory remarks to Investment Analysts during June 15, 2006 Alcoa Investor Day.

Accessed from the Internet on February 20, 2007 from location:  the location:

Olive Garden Marketing Plan
Words: 3277 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 79523145
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Country: France

Introduction & Background of the Company: Olive Garden

Global Marekting Environment Analysis

French Politics, ules & egulations

French Economy

French Society & Culture

French Technology

Opportunities & Threats

Global Competition Analysis

Primary Competitor

Secondary Competition

Entry Strategies Discussion & Evaluation

Entry Strategy Selection & Discussion

Target Market Analysis & Segmentation

Target Market Analysis

ecommended Target Market Analysis

Target Market Segmentation ecommendation

-- Global Marketing Mix Strategies

-- Product Strategy in France

- Current Product Strategy with Examples

ecommended Product Strategy

-- Price Strategy in France

-- Current Price Strategy with Examples

-- ecommended Price Strategy

-- Promotion Strategy in France

6.3.1 -- Current Promotion Strategy with Examples

-- ecommended Promotion Strategy 9

6.4 -- Place Strategy in France & #8230;.9

6.4.1 -- Current Place Strategy with Examples 9

6.4.2 -- ecommended Place Strategy 9

eferences 10

1.2 - Executive Summary

France is one of the more prominent and…


Bachman, J. (2013). Olive Garden's Parent Needs a Fix, but Would a Company Split Help?. Retrieved 2 July 2015, from 

Buffalo Grill. (2015). Restaurants Buffalo Grill: retrouvez votre restaurant Buffalo Grill. Retrieved 2 July 2015, from 

CIA. (2015). The World Factbook. Retrieved 2 July 2015, from 

Daily Mail,. (2010). Popular French fast food chain causes controversy by introducing halal-only food. Mail Online. Retrieved 2 July 2015, from

Compass Group Marketing Strategy Case
Words: 3509 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 52319495
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There is also the threat that given the significant inefficiencies in Compass Group that the risks of currency fluctuations could become very significant over time, especially as the dollar loses value and yet suppliers and logistics networks must be paid in this currency. Simply put, the price of food and the costs of running a global supply chain in perishable goods is exorbitant when currency fluctuations are also taken into account (Buzalka 2005, 46,48). To date there does not appear to be any benchmarking of sourcing, procurement, labor or inventory carrying and obsolescence costs, all factors that are major threat to Compass Group operating throughout North America and in the UK. All of these risks are in addition to the acute financial condition the company finds itself in during this period, with Net Current Assets as a Percentage of Total Assets (Table 1) negative throughout the five-year periods. This is…


Amanda Afiya 2005. Time for Compass to confront its demons. Caterer & Hotelkeeper, November 24, 5.  (Accessed July 21, 2008).

Tom Bill 2005. Compass in UN probe over £35m contract. Caterer & Hotelkeeper, October 20, 14.

School of Engineering and Design
Words: 15360 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 38518716
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The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…


'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: .

"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.

Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.

Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.

Negative Interest Rate Japan
Words: 6967 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36751911
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On January 29th, 2016, the Japanese government instituted a negative interest rate for the first time in history. The stated objective of this policy is to "encourage banks to lend, business to invest and savers to spend," but the policy has come under heavy criticism. It is, ultimately, a high-risk policy that essentially takes Japan into uncharted waters (euters, 2016). To suggest that this policy is unorthodox is an understatement, but it highlights the rather unique position that Japan is in with respect to its economy. Economists in particular will be observing what happens with this policy closely, because it is a new situation, and the impacts can only be theorized at this point. This paper will outline the context for this decision, and analyze whether it not this is a good move by the Bank of Japan.

Background on the Japanese Economy, 1940s to 1980s

Understanding how this…


Einhorn, B. (2016). Abenomics? How about Kurodanomics? NewWeek Retrieved April 22, 2016 from (2016). GDP real growth chart, Japan. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from 

Jones, R. (2005). Japan's economy. OECD Observer. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from 

Kobayashi, K. (2009) The G20s blind spot: President Obama must squarely face the bad asset problem. Vox EU. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from

Wal-Mart Case Study Wal-Mart Faces
Words: 9789 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4187164
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The Price-Sensitive Affluents, Wal-Mart has learned (Wal-Mart Annual eports) is more interested in finding an exceptionally good deal and not necessarily concerned about the shopping experience. This is particularly true as one of the strongest factors influencing the execution of their strategy, the emerging global recession during this timeframe, takes hold. Again as with the Price Value Shopper and the paradoxical purchasing patterns of the Brand Aspirational segment show, the cost savings, accuracy, and quality of products delivered with the Wal-Mart supply chain are much more important in the long run relative to store accoutrements and improvements. Admittedly nearly two dozen superstores are very dated in their decor and layout and do need to be re-vamped (Frazier, 38). Yet as this analysis of the customer segments shows based on Wal-Marts' filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission over time (Wal-Mart Annual eports), the far greater contributing factor to growing same-store…


Richard Appelbaum, Nelson Lichtenstein. "A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. " International Labor and Working Class History 70.1 (2006): 106-125.

Tom Belden. . "Big-Box Retailers Target, Wal-Mart Strike Early, Deftly in Toy Price War. " Knight Ridder Tribune Business News 10 December 2003 1.

Dave Blanchard. "RFID is off and running at Wal-Mart. " Logistics Today 1

Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. "Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. " Benchmarking 15.2 (2008): 166-177.