Florence Nightingale Essays Examples

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Nightingales Realist Philosophy of Science

Words: 2639 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40041066

More importantly, however, contemporary realists differ from Nightingale in four main areas, those of theistic assumption, methods of research, determinism, and naturalism. While contemporary realists certainly agree with Nightingale's position that simply realizing fact is not enough, and that actions based on findings is important (Porter, 2001), Nightingale inserted a certain assumption of God into her realistic viewpoints that modern realism avoids. Whereas Nightingale supported the concept that man's actions were dictated by God, modern realists recognize specific non-theistic causes for behaviors.

Secondly, Nightingale relied solely on quantitative method of research, since such methods were most available in her period. Such methods, involving the scientific, external, specific identification of patterns of events, are useful, but modern realists understand the need for individualistic understanding of information. Whereas Nightingale's focus was on identifying the patterns of relationships, modern realists focus more on understanding those relationships (Porter, 2001).

Third, modern realists differ slightly from Nightingale in their views on determinism. As discussed, Nightingale believed firmly in determinism, and believed no true free will of behavior existed (Porter, 2001). Modern realists, however, focus not only on the tendencies for patterns, rather than inevitable patterns of relationships (Porter, 2001). In this way, modern realists allow…… [Read More]

Barker, P.J., Reynolds, W., and Stevenson, C. (1999.) The human science basis of psychiatric nursing: theory and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 25-34.

Bashford, A. (2000.) Domestic scientists: Modernity, gender, and the negotiation of science in Australian medicine. Journal of Woman's History, 12(2), pp. 137.
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Elizabeth Arden the Founder Florence

Words: 2532 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74300486

Flo retaliated by acquiring Harry Johnson and 11 other employees who then worked for Helena. When Helena opened a salon in New York, Arden opened a counterpart elsewhere. Parallelisms appeared to occur between them in that they both entered the men's skin care industry at roughly the same time. They also both married exiled princes after their first marriages ended in divorce.

Flo or Arden also lost half a million dollars in sales in the first two years since her divorce with Tommy, but being inherently innovative, she managed the crisis, recovered and proceeded to lead the industry. Records bear these out. While many businesses flopped during the Great Depression, Elizabeth Arden not only stayed and spent. It also bought an office building and a penthouse in New York during the stock market crash of 1929 and opened several other salons in the 30s.

Elizabeth Arden demonstrated an unwavering commitment to quality and excellence in her products and adhered to high standards from ingredients to packaging. She owned more than 100 salons in North America and Europe and manufactured approximately 300 cosmetics and fragrances. Flo or Elizabeth Arden was a hard-driven businesswoman whose business grossed around $60 million per year…… [Read More]

Colbert, C. (2004). Elizabeth Arden, Inc. Hoover's Online: Hoover's, Inc. http://www.hoovers.com/free/co/factsheet.xhtl?COID=47820

Consumer Relations. (2000).Elizabeth Arden, Inc. http://www.ffi.cc/corporate_locations.asp
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Historical Development of Nursing Science

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42702084


Historical Development Of Nursing Science

Timeline: History of nursing

Florence Nightingale publishes her Notes on Nursing, which includes her thirteen canons of nursing. This book was the first book to establish nursing as a unique profession that required specific skills and attributes. Nightingale drew upon her experiences as a nurse during the Crimean War and called for more intensive education of future nurses (Theory of Florence Nightingale, 2012, Nursing Theories).

The American Civil War was a bloody, prolonged conflict. Nurses such as Walt Whitman, Louisa May Alcott, Clara Barton, and Dorothea Dix distinguished themselves serving on the battlefield. As a result of the Battle of Bull Run, Barton and Dix created a nursing corps to deal with the need to treat the fallen in a systematized fashion. There were few hospitals in existence at the time. Also, at the time the profession was largely made up of men (Stein 1999).

1873: Florence Nightingale opened her first nursing school, based upon her principles (Theory of Florence Nightingale, 2012, Nursing Theories).

1881: Clara Barton became the president of the first American chapter of the International Red Cross (Stein 1999).

1886: The first nursing journal, named after Florence Nightingale (The Nightingale) was…… [Read More]

Betty Neuman. (2012). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved:

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Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74258664


The Beginning: Nightingale

Although nursing care has been around since the first cave man got a cut, the formal, organized discipline of nursing can be traced to the work of Florence Nightingale. Around the time Nightingale began her research and studies in earnest, a number of medical breakthroughs were being made that impacted the history of nursing. One was the advancement of anesthetics, which greatly enhanced the ability of nurses and doctors to care for their patients and perform surgeries. Anesthesia became especially critical on the battlefield.

US Civil War to WWII

Wartime became a primary arena for nurses to carry out their practice, as the numbers of wounded required attention. Florence Nightingale was a nurse during the Crimean War. Like Nightingale, Dorethea Lynde Dix was one of the profession's first nurse leaders and managers. Dix led teams of nurses during the Civil War in the United States. Along with Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, Susie Taylor, Mary Livermore, and Mary Ann Bickerdyke, Dix was one of 20,000 nurses staffing the battlefields during the Civil War (Penn Nursing Science, 2012). As the profession became more formalized, with specifically defined tasks, roles, and duties of nurses, many universities in the late…… [Read More]

Penn Nursing Science (2012). History of nursing timeline. Retrieved online:  http://www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/Pages/timeline_1700-1869.aspx?slider1=1#chrome
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Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. (Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended up at the Kaiserswerth Institution on the Rhine in Germany and Nightingale was asked by Pastor Theodore Fliedner to write a pamphlet about Kaiserswerth. In 1851 Nightingale studied for three months at Kaiserswerth, after her father sent her 500 pound for her studies, later she opened her own nursing establishment…… [Read More]

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Nursing Timeline Week 2 & 8226 Create a

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23992783

Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met

Historical development of nursing timeline

The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.

1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross.

1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced by her studies of psychology. Peplau went on to create one of the most influential early theories of modern nursing, the Interpersonal Theory of Nursing. Her Seven Nursing Roles suggests that nurses are more than simply helpmeets to doctors or caregivers. Nurses fulfill many roles, including "the stranger role, in…… [Read More]

Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:

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Timeline Historical Development of Nursing Science Nurse

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82692422

Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science

Nurse Science Timeline

Timeline 1850-2010: Historical Development of Nursing Science

Nineteenth Century

Florence Nightingale begins her nursing training in Alexandria, Egypt at the Institute of St. Paul.

Florence Nightingale, in Paris, visits the Daughters of Charity in their Motherhouse in Paris to learn their methods.

Florence Nightingale goes to Turkey with 38 volunteer nurses to assist in caring for the injured of the Crimean War. (October21)

Mary Seacole leaves London to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea. (January 31)

Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.

1857 -- Ellen Ranyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing program in London.


1860 -- Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not is published.

1861 -- Sally Louisa Tomkins opens a hospital for Confederate soldiers in July. Later she is made an army officer, the only woman to receive this distinction.

1867 -- Jane Currie Blaikie Hoge publishes The Boys in Blue, her memoirs of nursing in the Union Army.


1873…… [Read More]

"History and famous nursing theories." (2011). NursingAvenue.com Retrieved August 23, 2011, from  http://www.nursingavenue.com/Nursing-Theories.html 

Kendall, C. (2010, Apri 15). The history of nursing. Helium Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.helium.com/items/1805546-nursing-history-theory-and-timeline
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Images of Nursing

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25469607

Images of Nursing

1897 Pablo Picasso

1856 Jerry Barrett

As we have noted, there are numerous images that are effective in establishing the image and role of nursing to the general public. Two prime examples are a surprisingly poetic "Science and Charity," an 1897 work by 17-year-old Pablo Picasso, and a work from 1856, "Florence Nightingale Receiving the Wounded at Scutari -- or The Mission of Mercy," by Jerry Barrett.

"Science and Charity" is oil on canvass and was one of the very few "realistic" paintings done by Pablo Picasso. This academic painting shows a woman on her deathbed, a doctor on her right and a nun on her left. The doctor looks away from the patient as he takes her pulse and goes about his science. The religious sister holds the woman's soon-to-be-orphaned child, offering a glass toward the woman. Both the nun and the doctor wear the same colors of black and white, and appear as two sides of a scale. But the balance is tipped slightly toward the sister as the light shines on her while the doctor is cast in shadow. At the moment of death his science is useless, but the charitable care of the…… [Read More]


Smith, Francis. (1982). Florence Nightingale. St. Martin's Press.
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History of Nursing Science Nursing Has Existed

Words: 1117 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30135288

History Of Nursing Science

Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.

Nightingale Emerges

As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be the case. Nightingale began to make her impact during the Crimean War in the 1850's, a conflict between Russia and a list of European countries that included Britain. Immediately upon her arrival, Nightingale instituted a number of changes including a change in the handling of meals and nursing care for…… [Read More]

George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories, the base for professional nursing practice. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

McKenna, H. (1998). Nursing theories and models. Taylor & Francis.
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Nursing Philosophical Theory the Practice

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33366325

Nightingale's philosophy demanded a completely clean and sterile environment in order to best provide for a healthy recovery of patients in need. This is also seen in Martinsen's philosophy and the way it approaches nursing care and practice as a meticulous science.

However, Nightingale's philosophies presented a passive patient, who did not really engage in their own health care strategies. These patients were not involved in the manipulation of the environment around them in order to best facilitate successful care strategies. Rather, the nurses and physicians seemed to work autonomously and outside of the patient's involvement. This isolated the very people who were receiving care and created a situation where the patient could not contribute to the strategy of care of the process of recovery. On the other hand, Martinsen's philosophy is very much influenced by phenomenology. Thus, Martinsen's philosophy of care is centered more around treating the patients and people as social beings that are active within their own care process. Essentially, her philosophy views people as being extremely dependent on social structures and foundations, and that nursing should not ignore such a large art of the human condition in strategizing for the best methods of care. Care must…… [Read More]

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Men in Nursing

Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99721901

Men in Nursing

The history of the nursing field is often depicted as a profession that opened employment doors for women, and contributed to giving women a respected foothold in the working world. While the efforts of activists and politicians have supported the integration of women into the male dominated workforce, little attention has been given to men trying to enter female dominated professions. Both historically and in the present, the nursing field is intrinsically regarded as a single-sex occupation, and has been distinguished as a career that complements the natural abilities of the female gender (Meadus, 2000). The role of men in the nursing profession has been widely dismissed as accounts of male nurses refer to them as "attendants, assistants, or soldiers" (O'Lynn & Tranbarger, 2007, p. 6). Language is not the only form of discrimination against male nurses. As of the present, gender bias in the nursing field is still relevant. Male nurses have been steered towards specific disciplines, which further marginalize men in nursing. In educational settings, males continue to encounter social bias, however subtle, and experience the pressure of social expectation (Wolfenden, 2011). Males are faced with stereotypes and may experience psychological effects that can lead…… [Read More]

Brown, B. (2009). Men in nursing: Re-evaluating masculinities, re-evaluating gender. Contemporary Nurse, 33(2), 120-129. Retrieved from https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/3029/men in nursing.pdf?sequence=4

Meadus, R. (2000). Men in nursing: Barriers to recruitment. Nursing Forum, 35(3), 5-12. Retrieved from: http://folk.uio.no/olegmo/Men in Nursing/Meadus, R.J. 2000.pdf
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Healthcare -- Legal Issues Religion

Words: 2158 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11354839

While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.

Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.

10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.

Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses develop a familiarity with routine procedures as well as with non-routine procedures with which they are very familiar by virtue of their prior experience. Since patient health, safety, and welfare are of paramount importance, nurses should err on the safe side and inquire into the accuracy of physicians' medical orders…… [Read More]

Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
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Health Care and That Too a Quality

Words: 1923 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28802097

Health care, and that too, a quality health care is one of the most basic needs of any human being. In current times, where the fast paced lives are getting faster each day, work stresses are increasing, streets are being storm with junk foods and fast foods, and pollution and congestion is increasing, human lives are getting more and more prone to physical and mental diseases. As a result, the importance of health care systems and health care facilities increases. While, surgeons and doctors are generally seen as the captain of the ship as far as health sector is concerned, very important personnel of the health sector are the nurses. Once quite ignored, the importance of the nursing profession was highlighted by Florence Nightingale, one of the nursing pioneers. Florence Nightingale broke the conventional perceptions associated with the profession of nursing and took it to a new level, explored various dimensions of nursing and added significance to the profession. Ever since then nursing has evolved a great deal and is still in the process of evolving. Over a period of time researchers around the world have shown great interest in studying the field of nursing.


Like any other industry…… [Read More]

Lee, H. & Winters, C. (2006). Rural nursing: concepts, theories and practice. New York:

Springer Publishing.
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Delegation in Nursing Delegation Is Generally About

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86003046

Delegation in Nursing:

Delegation is generally about communication and accountability though it's one of the most complex processes in the nursing field. Delegation in nursing was introduced and discussed by Florence Nightingale in the 1800s and has continued to evolve or develop since then. Despite its complexity, delegation is important in the nursing profession because of cost containment, the problem of shortage in nursing, increases in levels of patient acuity, the growth of the elderly and more chronic population, and technological advancements in healthcare. In order for an individual in this field to fully develop the skill of delegation, he/she needs knowledge of his/her own attitudes and beliefs as well as reflection as a critical thinking skill.

There are five rights of delegation in nursing i.e. The right task, right circumstances, right person, right direction or communication, and right supervision or evaluation. These rights can be utilized as mental checklist to help nursing practitioners from multiple roles to explain the crucial components of the decision-making process ("The Five Rights of Delegation," n.d.). The use of these rights as mental checklist is attributed to the fact that nursing service administrators and staff nurses are accountable in ensuring that the delegation process…… [Read More]

"The Five Rights of Delegation." (n.d.). National Council of State Boards of Nursing. Retrieved November 26, 2013, from  https://www.ncsbn.org/fiverights.pdf
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Nursing Has Changed From a

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49253844

Moreover, I feel that patients must empower themselves to become healthier. New technologies and access to a wealth of information on the Internet is helping patients learn more about their bodies so that health care becomes accessible to everyone. As nurses, we need to listen to what the patient's priorities are. If the patient prefers alternative medicine to what the doctor recommends then we should be willing to let the patient choose as long as we inform them of all possible outcomes. Instead of expecting the health care system to rescue them from destructive lifestyle choices, patients need their nurses to counsel them on improving their eating and exercise habits and reducing stress. To reduce stress in our own lives, we nurses need to learn how to remain positive and life-affirming. At the same time, we need to learn how to address sensitive issues related to death and dying, grief and mourning, pain and anger. Until the system improves, we need to become stronger and more efficient professionals.

When we listen better to patients we take the first step toward eliminating the problems that plague our medical system. If no nurse bowed down to administrative pressures to perform procedures or…… [Read More]

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Nursing Law and Ethics Name

Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92225100

The death of a child is significant and in this case avoidable and a plaintiff has the right to seek compensatory damages as is allowed by law.

Case Study 1 Part B

At the end of the night shift, Nurse Brown took a verbal handover and then noticed the observation chart had not been filled in. To assist her friend, Nurse Harvey, whom she knew had a busy night, filled in the observation chart and fluid balance chart for the hours from 0200-0600 hrs.

Overcome by the events of the last 24 hrs, Nurse Harvey and Nurse Brown go to the local tavern for a few drinks before Nurse Harvey goes on duty. They discussed Mr. Spencer and his son. John, a friend of Mr. Spencer, overheard the conversation and joined them. He was also upset by the events of the day and was most keen to discuss the accident and subsequent care.

Assume that Mr. Spencer's son did not die. In contemplation of possible legal action, Mr. Spencer wishes to see his notes and those of his son.

A g) What are the possible implications of Nurse Brown's actions?

Drinking alcohol prior to a shift, discussing a patient outside…… [Read More]

Hall, J. (1960). General Principles of Criminal Law (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Markesinis, B.S., & Deakin, S.F. (1999). Tort Law (4th ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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Nursing Leadership Theories Nursing Leadership Comparison and

Words: 1627 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51090014

Nursing Leadership Theories


The work of Cherie and Gebrekida (2005) report that there is both formal and informal leadership in that managers are formally "delegated authority, including the power to reward or punish. A manager is expected to perform functions such as planning, organizing, directing (leading) and controlling (evaluating)." On the other hand, informal leaders are "not always managers performing those functions required by the organization. Leaders often are not even part of the organization. Florence Nightingale, after leaving the Crimea, was not connected with an organization but was still a leader." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005)

Trait Theories

Early leadership theories included that of 'trait theories' which held a fundamental belief that "leaders are born, not made." Trait theory makes the assumption that an individual has "certain innate abilities, personality traits or other characteristics in order to be a leader." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005) This meant that it was true that some people actually lead better than do others. Another early theory was that of 'great man' theory which posited that some well-known leaders have had a hand in determining or changing the course of history and that some individuals "possessed…… [Read More]

Swansburg, C. Russel (2002). Introduction to Management and Leadership for Nurse.

Cherie, A. And Gebrekida. AB (2005) Nursing Leadership and Management. 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/health/ephti/library/lecture_notes/nursing_students/LN_nsg_ldrshp_final.pdf
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New Nurses and Managers

Words: 1862 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93453885

New Nurses and Managers: Organizational Analysis

As the nursing profession evolves and rises to meet modern demands, we are faced with growing complexities in our profession and in our workplaces. From the orientation and socialization of new nurses and managers, to the selection processes for preceptors and mentors, to continuing education, to legal and ethical issues, the modern nurse is faced with complicated situations and elaborate organizations that require his/her continuing dedication.

Organizational Analysis


Examining the concepts included in "professionalism": a profession is a vocation, usually involving science or a unique education; the heart of professionalism per se is twofold: a professional has a distinct type of knowledge and a self-imposed responsibility to serve the community (Donelyn, 2004, Slide 16). Applying those concepts to the Nursing Profession, professionalism is the continual pursuit of knowledge, a self-imposed sense of responsibility for human concerns, development through our unique education, accountability to our peers, professional autonomy and self-regulation, and altruism (Donelyn, 2004, Slides 21-31). In terms of work, professionalism includes: knowledge; competence; professional appearance; teamwork. In terms of the person, professionalism includes: respect for others; integrity; a positive attitude; compassion (Donelyn, 2004, Slide 36).

b. The Orientation and Socialization of New Nurses…… [Read More]

Allnurses.com. (2003). Tuition Reimbursement Programs. Retrieved from Allnurses.com Web site: http://allnurses.com/ny-nursing-programs/tuition-reimbursement-prgms-44721.html

American Nurses Association. (2011). Continuing Professional Development. Retrieved from American Nurses Association Web site:  http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/CertificationandAccreditation/Continuing-Professional-Development 
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Nurse and Non-Nurse Leader Leadership

Words: 2188 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21835166

Their leadership role deals with service to their clients, hence, they are their leadership role are similar in a way. However, they differ in that; Florence has the attribute of being autocratic, whereas Clinton is persuasive. Florence showed aspects of commanding whereas Clinton worked by means of winning the trust of others to support his initiative. Secondly, it is notable that nightingale is a nurse while Clinton is a politician. Additionally, they lived in different times, hence the level of development explains their difference in the way they approached issues. They both are holistic; however, Clinton is more open-minded as compared to Nightingale.

Self-analysis of myself as a leader

As a leader, a person works with a group. Therefore, the leadership skills that a person exercises should focus on establishing effective working relations and the environment. A quality leader has multidimensional traits, making him or her appealing and effective in behavior.

My strengths and effectiveness

My leadership skills developed from the point of birth, being among the eldest in my playmates group. In school, I always found myself in the position of authority, in which some people viewed me as being controlling or a crowd puller. However, I believe this…… [Read More]

Parakala, K. (2012). Leadership - the Clinton style. Retrieved from http://www.itsmyascent.com/web/itsmyascent/career-advice/-

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Grand Theory

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48920725

Nursing Grand Theory

Grand Theory

The nursing grand theory is the framework which guides and organizes the knowledge in nursing and explains the nursing phenomena at a more specific level. The nursing grand theory was put forth by Afaf Meleis who constructed on theory which combines the set of concepts, relationships, definitions and assumptions or propositions which are derived from the models of nursing in order to give a systematic view of the specific inter-relationships among the concept for the purpose of explaining, describing, prescribing and predicting. According to the grand theory, it is possible to reflect and provide insights which are useful for practice. However, the theory is not designed to be used for empirical testing since the theory is designed to be applicable to all instances of nursing Meleis, 2011()

Despite the many nursing theories that exist, there are four common concepts that determine and influence nursing practice. These are the patient, the environment, health and lastly the goals, roles and functions of nurses. Each of these concepts is defined and described by a nursing theorist and the most important one is the patient since regardless of the theory being applied, the focus of nursing is the patient…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Meleis, A.I. (2011). Theoretical Nursing Development & Progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Melnechenko, K.L. (1995). Parse's Theory of Human Becoming: An Alternative Guide to Nursing Practice for Pediatric Oncology Nurses. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 12(3), 122-127.
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Timeline of Nursing

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47531700

Nursing Science

Florence Nightingale (d.1910), founder of modern nursing is born.

Florence Nightingale is widely credited for developing what has been called an 'environmental' theory of nursing. When Nightingale began to practice her craft during the Crimean War, there were no professional protocols for how nurses should behave, nor was nursing a standardized profession. Nightingale suggested the need for cleanliness and well-ventilated areas to facilitate the healing of patients. She also stressed the need for psychological relief from the distress of illness for the sick. "Patients are to be put in the best condition for nature to act on them, it is the responsibility of nurses to reduce noise, to relieve patients' anxieties, and to help them sleep" ("Theory of Florence Nightingale," 2014).

1860: Nightingale establishes the first nursing school in London

1873: First nursing school founded in the United States

1882: Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross, charter for the Red Cross is ratified

Clara Barton was extremely influential during the Civil War in bringing professional nursing standards to the United States. One of the reasons the Civil War had such a devastating level of causalities were the illnesses that resulted from men's wounds and the poor level…… [Read More]

Betty Neuman's systems model. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:

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Feminist Theory the Profession of Nursing and

Words: 1601 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55096593

Feminist Theory

The profession of nursing and feminism go hand in hand ever since the theory was introduced. The correlation was as such due to the close link between women and nursing. Nursing has always been considered a very feminine profession. No one really pictures a man when they think of a nurse. There are many beliefs and assumptions that have come out ever since the theory had been stated. The assumptions of the theory are very simple and clear cut. One of the major assumptions of this theory is that women are oppressed. Surely, there has to be an underlying cause for a theory to come forward or for people to speak against. Another assumption is that the theory must be directed towards the normality, centrality and the relevance of women's experience. A major assumption is that gender is socially constructed. Even though many theorists go on to think that the aforementioned notion is true, it is not always the case. When we talk about gender roles that are constructed socially, the idea of family comes forward as well. Family basically goes on to support women being oppressed. This is a major assumption that the feminist theory goes on…… [Read More]

Allan, H. (1993). Feminism: a concept analysis. . Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18 pp.1547 -- 1553.

Bent, K. (1993). Perspectives on critical and feminist theory in developing nursing praxis. Journal of Proffesional Nursing, 9 (5), pp.296-303.
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Women's Roles Then and Now

Words: 1333 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90992063

Role of Women

Womens' Role Then and Now

Women's Role Then and Now

Women's Role Then and Now

Women have played an important role at different times in various fields. They have faced many challenges bravely and gave a new direction for the women to follow in later periods. The achievements are unprecedented and give an idea about the level of courage the women have. Their determination helped them elevate not only their name but they also motivated uncountable other women.

Women's Role Then and Now

The history of the world is but the biography of great men is an old quote which is as true today as it was centuries ago. History has witnessed uncountable great individuals who earned good name and fame because of their service to their country or mankind. It would be biased to attribute all historical achievements to men only. Women, being the partners of men, have worked hard to serve the humanity and there are many females whose name will remain alive in the time to come.

The role of woman has often been mistakenly underestimated by the people who have not come across any success story of females. Women, in all times have…… [Read More]

Chung, K. (2010). Women Pioneers of Medical Research. USA: McFarland & Company.

Robbins, T., Martin, C. And Timmons, A. (2006). Elizabeth Blackwell: American's First Woman Doctor. USA: Capstone Press.
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Evolution of Nursing Definition

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37611780


There are significant distinctions that are available to compare and contrast the definition of nursing provided in the 2010 Social Policy Statement (SPS) with the definition of nursing provided by Florence Nightingale in Notes on Nursing. Nightingale is one of the founders of nursing theory and wrote her work in the late 19th century. She was one of the first nurses to take an analytical approach to some of the insights about the field that she garnered. Her definition of nursing states:

"What nursing has to do ... is to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him" (Nursing Theories, N.d.)

Nightingale believed deeply that a nurse could put their patient in a position of balance relative to their environment and crafted many techniques to this end. By contrast, the American Nursing Association (ANA) and their SPS has the advantage of accessing the culmination of all the founding nursing that have been developed in the field, as well as over a century of research to broaden the foundation in which their definition is shaped. However, despite the differences, there are also similarities at the core of the concepts provided by the two sources. The…… [Read More]

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Nursing Theory Applications in Nursing Theory and

Words: 4440 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78758413

Nursing Theory

Applications in Nursing

Nursing Theory and its Applications

In this paper, we will assess a grand nursing theory namely the Humanistic Model. First let's have a brief introduction regarding this theory. The nursing theories either grand or middle range give organization in expressing statements which are related to questions in the field of nursing. It also gives nurses the opportunity in describing, predicting, explaining and controlling different sorts of activities which are relative to their daily practice. Nursing theories regarding the humanistic model believe on the phenomena that patients hold the key potential in self-actualization which can be used in many healthy as well as creative ways. Here, the focus of the humanists lie in the belief that nursing care is basically two-way interaction which occurs between patients and the nurse, the outcomes of this relation are influenced by both of their actions.

Firstly, let's have a look on some of the important phases in the study of overall nursing. "A nurse should always have broad understanding of its own viewpoints, this helps in making more sense and adding more meanings to its overall experience." (Williams, 2000). Nurses should also be more open to new and many different…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
McKenna, H. (1997). Nursing Theories and Models. London: Routledge.

Kelly, Y. (2002). The Nursing Experience. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Future of Nursing

Words: 1657 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11224487

Nursing is not only a profession, it is a ministry. Nurses not only provide care for their patients, they oftentimes minister to them in order to provide comfort and in some cases, peace of mind. Nursing is a profession that the healthcare system cannot do without. We know that the profession of a physician goes back to even Biblical times, but even though nursing has been around for many years, it does not date back as far as the profession of a physician does. This is not to say that nursing is less important than any other profession. The field has grown so much over the past few decades and nursing is a profession that is in high demand. Nurses now have to decide if they want to do a traditional educational path or get the four-year degree; they must stay ahead of nursing trends in order to gauge the future of nursing so that they are adequately prepared; and they should always consider seriously how their contributions to the profession will make an impact on the world as a whole.

II. History of Nursing

When most of us think about the history of nurses, we automatically think of Florence…… [Read More]

Delaney, C., & Piscopo, B. (2007). There really is a difference: Nurses' experiences with transitioning from RNs to BSNs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 23(3), 167-173. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from the ScienceDirect database.

Franklin, P.D., Archbold, P.D., Fagin, C.M., Galik, E., Siegal, E., Sofaer, S., et al. (2011). Building academic geriatric nursing capacity: Results after the first 10 years and implications for the future. Nursing Outlook, 59(4), 198-206. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from the ScienceDirect database.
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Teaching Theories and an Ethical

Words: 3329 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18369149

Unfortunately, most quantitative studies lack external validity in the research design to allow for general conclusions.

Teaching Theories and Nursing

It was Nightingale that recognized the potential of combining sound logical reflection and empirical research in the development of scientific knowledge that lead to evidence-based practices of today. She saw the need to only classify one's illness by the best possible available knowledge but to also collect patient information in the form of survey. Nightingale's work was also groundbreaking as it was the first to integrate such ideas into one method. She understood how factors such as housing and nutrition could have a direct influence on the patient's health and prognosis (McDonald, 2001, p. 68). Still many researchers to come would look at her work as primitive, inconclusive and one-sided. They would see how such details act as an extension of evidence and the attention paid to details as research of evidence (McDonald, 2001, p. 68). Many academics would argue that Nightingale served her purpose to offer a foundation for modern nursing but did not invent evidence-based nursing. Is it possible that such a foundation could grow into something broader to encompass modern research?

Many researchers argue the credit Florence…… [Read More]

Ackermans, W. & Lohnes, P. (1981). Research methods for nurses. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Allen, K. (2005 Aug.). Online Learning: constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 247-256.
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Branches of Nursing

Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18894795

Nursing is "a profession concerned with the provision of services essential to the maintenance and restoration of health by attending the needs of sick persons." (www.medterms.com) Famous nurse, Florence Nightingale's, greatest achievement was to raise nursing to the level of a respectable profession for women. In 1860, with the public subscriptions of the Nightingale Fund, she established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital. Things have changed a great deal since 1860. In the United States, for example, Nursing has become highly specialized and there are many categories of Nursing. In the United Kingdom, there are five categories of Nursing. As defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council, these categories are: Mental Health Nursing, Learning Disability Nursing, Children's Nursing, Midwifery Nursing, and Adult Nursing. (www.nmc-uk.org) Mental Health Nurses, Learning Disability Nurses, and Midwifery Nurses are all either Adult Nurses or Children's Nurses depending on the age of their patient. These categories are inter-twined, and all of the other branches are relevant to Adult Nursing.

Mental Health Nurses care for people with mental health problems. They help patients either overcome or accept their problem so that they can lead as normal a life as possible. "A mental illness…… [Read More]

www.florence-nightingale.co.uk/flo2.htm www.learndirect-advice.co.uk, Website of Learn Direct www.medterms.com, Medterm Medical Dictionary www.nmc-uk.org, Website of Nursing and Midwifery Council www.surgeongeneral.gov, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Chapter 6
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Portfolio Nursing Leadership

Words: 2322 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50692131

Nursing Leadership Portfolio

Education And Experience

My nursing education includes attaining my Associate Degree in Nursing (AND) at Florida State College at Jacksonville and my Bachelors of Science in Nursing (BSN) at the University of North Florida.

My Professional Nursing Roles include UF Health Jacksonville as a Registered Nurse in Trauma/Surgery Progressive Care, Registered Nurse at Brooks Rehabilitation Hospital in the Cardiac/Stroke Unit and Registered Nurse at St. Vincent's Medical Center in the Medical/Surgical GI Department. My duties at UF Health included caring for post-intensive medical/surgical patients in a progressive care environment and performing duties including medication administration utilizing EPIC EMAR server, PICC line care, IV insertion, PEG tube feedings, TPN/Lipid Management, chest tube care, tracheotomy care, PCA assessment/management, catheter insertion, wound vac care, pulmonary, cardiac, neurological and GI assessment and management. At Brooks Rehabilitation Hospital as a Registered Nurse in the Cardiac Stroke Unit I conducted care for post-surgical and medically complex Cardiac and Stroke patients in a rehabilitation environment and performed duties such as stated at UF Health and additionally educated patients and families regarding home care, medications, precautions, and new medical issues and worked collaboratively with physicians, therapists and social workers in determining plans of care. At…… [Read More]

Portrait of the Guardian (2014) Kiersey.com. Retrieved from: http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/guardian_overview.asp

Grossman, SC and Valiga, TM (2012) The New Leadership Challenge: Creating the Future of Nursing. F.A. Davis, 21 Sept. 2012. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NdM-AAAAQBAJ&dq=grossman+and+valiga+the+new+leadership+challenge+fourth+edition&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Rath, T. And Conchie, B. (2008) Strengths-based Leadership. Gallup Press.
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U S vs The Indian Health Care Systems

Words: 1588 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5106075

U.S. Vs. India Health Care Systems


Health care refers to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, ailments, and other body malefactions. It refers to measures such as purchasing medical supplies, training, and hiring of medical personnel, financing research in the medical field and supporting treatment of patients (Stavans, 2010). The government and the private sector majorly provide this role. In most of the developed countries, private sector operators provide quality health care while the government only takes care of the medical care for the poor in the society.

The health care systems of the U.S. And India are different as seen from their unique characteristics. The U.S. health care system is run by the federal states and the private sector. It is advanced in terms of quality as seen from the beneficiaries' life expectancy. U.S.s' life expectancy is at a record high of 75 years. In contrast, India's health care system is supported by the unitary government and is provided on a universal basis. There are few private sector operators in India unlike in the case of the U.S. Comparatively; the Indian life expectancy is quite down at 64 years. The following study focuses…… [Read More]

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Pros and Cons of Mandatory Continuing Nursing Education

Words: 3117 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83974577

Mandatory Continuing Nursing Education

There is a rapid expansion of techniques and knowledge in the field of health. Researchers James Morrison, James Kelly and Carl Lindsay have approximated that the half-life of knowledge gotten in school of medicine is about 5 years. Thus, in just 5 years 50% of what a physician learns in a medical school will be irrelevant. With such a huge increase in knowledge base, it is important that clinical professionals, such as nurses, dentists and physicians constantly update or enhance their skills. For nursing practitioners, constantly improving education is important for proper and effective nursing care. The quantity of knowledge / information required to care for patients who are critically ill can't be simply gained through experience in the ward or at the patient's bedside. The current stress on competency in healthcare means that experience alone is no longer enough. The current environment requires a constant emphasis for a nursing practitioner to constantly improve their education. Nursing practitioners have a legal and professional duty to update their skills and knowledge and to apply that knowledge at their workplace (Dickerson, 2010).

Pros and Cons of Continuing Nursing Education


Mandates Education: Health technology and nursing practices are…… [Read More]

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Nursing Knowledge Without a Doubt

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90605561

The nurse is often expected to act and react only with empirical information, however personal knowledge is considered equally as important by many nurse educators and researchers (Chinn & Kramer 2004). This also helps to explain why "health" and "environment" are considered distinct major components in the metastudy of nursing; both can be understood on highly subjective terms, with the concept of "good health" changing from patient to patient, or "person" to "person." Environment, too, has a major effect on the practice of nursing and the growth of the nursing body of knowledge.


My personal philosophy of nursing centers on the belief that each individual person under my care deserves full attention and the unique application of my knowledge in addressing their immediate and long-term needs and concerns. That is, each person should benefit as much as possible from the full extent of my nursing knowledge, while still being treated as an individual person. The environment is made up of the person's setting during nursing care, their home environment, and my own home environment and habits -- anything and everything that effects the care administered.

This means that the individual -- including myself -- and the environment are in…… [Read More]

Chinn, P. & Kramer, M. (2004). Integrated knowledge development in nursing. St. Louis: Mosby.

Fawcett, J. (2006). "Commentary: Finding patterns of knowing in the work of Florence Nightingale." Nursing outlook 54(5), pp. 275-7.
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Women's Education 1840s an Analysis of Women's

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33826392

Women's Education 1840s

An Analysis of Women's Education in the 1840s

Women in both Britain and America were set to receive greater attention in the realm of academia in the 1840s than they had in decades prior. The Bronte sisters had both begun their writing careers that same decade and Elizabeth Gaskell's first novel was published at the end of it. Mary Shelley had been writing for nearly three decades already -- Frankenstein being published a year after the death of Jane Austen. Women of letters had obviously received an education -- but from where? This paper will look at women's education in the 1840s and show how it was changing.


Jane Sherzer (1916) notes that "in West Virginia, in Southern Indiana and Illinois there were no schools for the higher education of women up to 1840" (p. 1), however, she adds that "early in 1840, in Indiana there were two schools started for the higher education of women, -- the Rockville Female Seminary on January 31, 1840, and the Crawfordsville Female Institute on February 24, 1840…" Higher education for women at the time "differed from the colleges for men mainly in the substitution of French for Greek, and…… [Read More]

Sherzer, J. (1916). The Higher Education of Women in the Ohio Valley. Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly 25(1): 1-22.

Solomon, B.M. (1985). In the Company of Educated Women. Yale University Press.

Tennyson, A.L. (1847). The Princess: A Medley. Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields.
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Social Political and Organizational Factors

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62279064

Hildegard Peplau was another pioneer in the fields of nursing and healthcare. One of her lasting innovations in this profession can be evidenced from her work in and regard for a theoretical perspective of nursing. The following quotation identifies some of the contributions she made in nursing theory. "According to Peplau (1952/1991), nursing involves the therapeutic interaction between two or more individuals motivated to come together by the pursuit of a common goal, the product of which is mutual growth. The common goal provides the incentive for the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient (Plummer, M., & Molzahn, A.E., 2009, p. 137)."

Additionally, Peplau helped to stratify the various stages involved in nursing. She identified these stages as the orientation phase, the working stage and termination phase, and outlined a series of tasks and perspectives which influenced her theory about each of these stages (Plummer, M., & Molzahn, A.E., 2009). The relevance of her theoretical contributions to nursing can still be evidenced to this day. Several contemporary theories of relational practice have been attributed to Peplau's innovative developments in nursing theory, particularly her regards for the quality of life of patients. Peplau viewed quality of life as one…… [Read More]

Jones, K., Spinks, M., Birrell, J., & Young, N. (2009). Lessons from a guru. Nursing Standard, 23(19), 20-22. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2010169252&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Plummer, M., & Molzahn, A.E. (2009). Quality of life in contemporary nursing theory: A concept analysis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(2), 134-140. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://nsq.sagepub.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/2/134