Forecasting Essays (Examples)

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Cultural Changes Inside Worldwide Telecommunications

Words: 1803 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79821866

Forecasting Effects of Cultural Changes Inside Worldwide Telecommunications

Inc: Linking Demographic and Cultural Diversity and Performance

Within today's increasingly globally-infused corporate workplaces, conventional wisdom holds that demographic and/or cultural diversity contribute positively to enhanced performance by groups, teams, or other divisions of a trans-global corporate entity, thus ultimately enhancing, by association, company products and/or services and the company itself, at home and abroad. As corporate giant Nokia's website states, for example (2005), of its own global workforce: "espect for individual qualities, as well as a willingness to work together in a constructive, positive, even enjoyable, way [,] are all essential for high-quality results." Much related research suggests, however, that while diverse employee skills and abilities in and of themselves may enhance group or team performance, demographic diversity (e.g., differences among workforce members, in terms of language; cultural; referential; or social background), may detract from it (Knight, Pearce, Smith, Olian, Sims,…… [Read More]


Alden, J. (1998). What in the world drives UPS? International Business, 6-7.

'Company." (2005). Nokia: connecting people. Nokia global. Retrieved October 9, 2005, from:,,2889,00.html#faq1.html.

Hamilton, Barton H., Nickerson, Jackson A. And Owan, H. (May 2004) Diversity

and productivity in production teams (May 2004). Washington University, St.
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Operations Management That Are Expressed

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37136797

Technological changes have to be factored in. Other factors (internal or external that might affect the company conditions, including external factors such as economic, political, legal environment, technology, competition, as well as markets. Internal conditions that affect operations include human resources, facilities and equipment, financial resources, customers, products and services, technology, suppliers and some other reasons. The chapter also lists other strategies including modification of the supply chain strategy, sustainability strategies that lower the impact upon the environment, etc. And global strategies that take into account the international nature of the present economy (ibid., 51).

Chapter 2 goes on in the discussion about operations strategy (narrow in scope, internal to the company), with its being distinct form organizational strategy which is broader in scope. For the operations strategy has to be linked to the organizational strategy. Unfortunately, this is often neglected by companies in favor of marketing and financial strategies.…… [Read More]


Bhagwat, R., & Sharma, M.K. (2007). Performance measurement of supply chain management: A

balanced scorecard approach. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 53, 43 -- 62.

Johnson & johnson. (2012). Retrieved from

Stevenson, W.J. (2012). Operations management. (11th ed.) New York, NY: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
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Sales of Mid-Size Sport Utility

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56602076

With.573 correlation of Unibody directly influencing Body-on-Frame sales in the years sampled. Table 3 provides the results of the query made in SPSS Version 13.

Table 3: SPSS Correlation Coefficients

Kendall's tau_b


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)

Spearman's rho


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)

With the statistical analysis showing reasonably strong predictability, the next step is to evaluate the specific 14-month time series for greater insights into the variability and predictability of the data. What emerges from completing a Linear egression along with every exponential smoothing techniques for curve fitting is further evidence of linear (.702 regression) in addition to quadratic (.737 regression) shows that variations in Body-on-Frame demand are explained through these statistical techniques.

Table 4: Model Summary and Parameter Estimates

Dependent Variable: BodyOnFrame


Model Summary












The…… [Read More]


Monthly Energy Review (2006) - Posted: August 28, 2006 from the Energy Information Administration at Website: Here is the specific data table used for the analysis:

Appendix a: Comparison Analysis for 14-month Analysis

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Inventory and Supply Chain Management

Words: 844 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75704422

As is shown in the case, CCBCC begins with an intensive commitment to the initial collaborative planning phases of ensuring front end alignment with their distribution channel partners. Joint business plans ensure the company has the ability to effectively plan for spikes in demand more effectively than traditional, and less flexible means allow for. The collaborative planning phase of the CPF Model is essential for ensuring a high degree of logistics coordination and collaboration has been achieved (Bonet, 2005). The collaborative forecasting process including sales forecasting, exception management and resolving expectations, all essential for making a strategic commitment to CPF function correctly, are also evidence in the CCBCC implementation (Ireland, 2005). Finally the steps of creating and fine-tuning order forecasts, defining identifying exceptions and resolving exceptions to drive orders are also evidence in how CCBCC creates demand management workflows with the applications installed. It is very important to realize that…… [Read More]


Barratt, M., & Oliveira, a. (2001). Exploring the experiences of collaborative planning initiatives. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 31(4), 266-289.

Bonet, D. (2005). A new approach for understanding hindrances to collaborative practices in the logistics channel.International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 33(8), 583-596.

Crampton-Thomas, P. (2006). Enabling profitable growth through demand driven supply networks. Supply Chain Europe, 15(2), 18-21. R

Ireland, R. (2005). Abc of collaborative planning forecasting and replenishment. The Journal of Business Forecasting,24(2), 3-4+.
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Apples Make vs Buy Decision

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68295485



There are a number of different ways that Apple can recruit the talent it needs to design chips in-house. The first is through acquisition. The article notes that Apple has bought a small chip maker in order to acquire some talent and patents. This approach is often good because the talent is already in place, and the team is already familiar with the technology. There is still the need to get that team up to speed with Apple norms, but acquisition is often the fastest route to talent and technology acquisition. A second method would be making inquiries via the company's existing talent pool. Tech people often know other tech people, with whom they have worked over the years. People in this business will have worked at multiple companies and their contacts could prove valuable for Apple in trying to find the chip-design talent that it needs. The…… [Read More]

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Operations and Quality Management Research

Words: 1886 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51234628

To reduce inventory management costs and errors, enterprise must form a strong, galvanizing connection with suppliers, buyers, internal production, and customers most of all. In conclusion, inventory management will always be part art and science, as tacit & implicit knowledge is needed to provide greater insight into the analysis generated fro enterprise software applications specifically designed to streamline inventory management. The inherent unquantifiable aspects of demand management will also make inventory management a continually difficult, complex problem enterprises must confront daily to stay profitable and grow.


Forecasting and Demand eferences

Leung, S. (2003, Oct 01). Where's the beef? A glutted market leaves food chains hungry for sites; finding spots for new outlets takes heaps of research and an eye for details; hint: Move next to Wal-Mart. Wall Street Journal, pp. a.1-a.1.

Meng, F., Tepanon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2008). Measuring tourist satisfaction by attribute and motivation: The case…… [Read More]


Mathaba, S., Dlodlo, N., Smith, a., & Adigun, M. (2011). The use of RFID and web 2.0 technologies to improve inventory management in south african enterprises. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 14(2), 228-241. Link: 

Wang, H., & Yan, H. (2009). Inventory management for customers with alternative lead times. Production and Operations Management, 18(6), 705-720.

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Financial Markets Institutions and Transactions

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29051605

While this strategy is effective in some situations, the use of bond markets by an investor requires the development of an effective strategy that will help him/her to achieve a specific financial objective. For an investor seeking to maximize the profit-generating aspects of bonds, the most effective strategy is a passive buy-and-hold bond strategy. As the name suggests, it involves buying individual bonds and holding them until maturity. The effectiveness of this strategy in achieving the stated financial objective is that it lessens or eliminates transaction costs and lessens risks linked to income changes from embedded options.


Financial markets and institutions play a crucial role in the growth and stability of America's economy as well as global economies. These markets and institutions are characterized with various financial transactions and different types of markets. However, the ability of economic growth and stability is dependent on the effectiveness of the regulatory…… [Read More]


"Capital Market Transactions." (2013, July 5). Finance Maps of World. Retrieved July 27, 2013,


"Centennial Monetary Commission" (n.d.). Kevin Brady's Centennial Monetary Commission Act

(H.R.1176). Retrieved from U.S. House of Representatives website:
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Market Potential and Forecast Analysis

Words: 996 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37804965

The assumptions of industry structure and pricing are based on the market shares of the leading competitors in the motorcycle market including Harley-Davidson with 65% and Honda with 12.9%. There are over 40 different manufacturers of motorcycles globally who comprise the remaining 22% of the worldwide market (Murphy, 2008). Gaining distribution for a new motorcycle model will be challenging given the concentration level of competitors in the market. As motorcycles are considered discretionary purchases, they are influenced by the consumer sentiment index, the level of per capita disposable income, the downstream demand for motorcycle dealership and repair, and the available time consumers have for using them (Diamond, 2008). All of these factors are taken into account in the factoring of both the baseline motorcycle industry forecast and the hybrid motorcycle forecast as well.

Sales and Unit Forecasts

Using exponential smoothing and an average sale price of $9,100, the forecast for…… [Read More]


Diamond, D.. (2008). Managing Incentives for Green Vehicles. Public Manager, 37(4), 15-18.

Lapide, L.. (2009). History of Demand-Driven Forecasting. The Journal of Business Forecasting, 28(2), 18-19.

Patrick Mahoney. (2007, March). Taking the roar out of the crowd: HYBRID MOTORCYCLES. Machine Design, 79(5), 98-100.

Murphy, R., Graber, M., & Stewart, a.. (2010). Green Marketing: A Study of the Impact of Green Marketing on Consumer Behavior in a Period of Recession. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(1), 134-140.
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Decisions Based on Demand and

Words: 438 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26376530

The second factor is the independent variable being evaluated. The coefficient for determination of the population of the area is 46%. This correlation indicates that there is a high correlation between time and population. However, the correlation is this case is negative, as can be seen in the chart below.

The correlation coefficient for the overall amount spent on building and development of the community is 15%. The correlation between time and amount spent is not very close. In fact, the development appears to be highly sporadic at best. Below is a chart that represents the obtained data.

Considering the two overall factors, and the forecasting done, the population will continue to decline, as will the money spent in the community. This community is suffering financially and is not likely to spend their money on luxuries such as dining out. With this conclusion it is inadvisable that a Domino's restaurant…… [Read More]

Sources Used

United States Census Bureau. State & County Quick Facts: Clarksdale, Mississippi. Accessed October 27, 2012 at

United States Census Bureau. Selected Economic Characteristics: Clarksdale, Mississippi. Accessed October 27, 2012 at

CLR Search. Clarksdale Demographics Summary. Accessed October 27, 2012 at
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Accounting Tricks and Their Impact on Valuation

Words: 925 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90863963

forecasting, there are a litany ethical dilemmas, decisions characteristics, problems, or frameworks that may impact the financial statements of Home Depot and Lowe's. The most egregious of which is management assumptions regarding future performance. In many instances, with the exception of cash, nearly every line item has some form of assumptions involved. Accounts receivable is often reported net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, which is a management assumption (Alexander, 2005). Management has the ability to dictate if the company will report inventory using LIFO of FIFO accounting rules. With LIFO, assuming rising prices in an inflationary environment, Cost of Goods Sold will increase thus reducing Net Income. However, the reduction in taxes paid will actually make the company's cash flow from operations increase on the cash flow statement. FIFO will have the opposite impact. From a shareholder perspective reporting under LIFO would be more to the shareholders advantage as…… [Read More]


1) Alexander, D., Britton, A., Jorissen, A., "International Financial Reporting and Analysis," Second Edition, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84480-201-2

2) Astrid Ayala and Giancarlo Ibarguen: "A Market Proposal for Auditing the Financial Statements of Public Companies" (Journal of Management of Value, Universidad Francisco Marroquin, March 2006) p. 41

3) Berezin, M. (2005). "Emotions and the Economy" in Smelser, N.J. and R. Swedberg (eds.) The Handbook of Economic Sociology, Second Edition. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ

4) Gilchrist, Warren (1976). Statistical Forecasting. London: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-99403-0
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Management and Decision Sciences From

Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]

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Supply Chain Management at World

Words: 2156 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87452944

The Japanese retail industry has intricate processes that keep demand management and inventory and production management efficient as a hybrid process that mixes automation and manual work. Given how many of the processes in the Japanese retail industry are comprised of manual and automated approaches to coordinating and communicating, it would take years for an outsider to understand how these specific processes interrelate to each other. Another factor that would significantly limit the potential of a non-apparel chain to replicate World's supply chain is the intensive coordination it allows production workers have, including their ability to create higher levels of process innovation vs. more traditional assembly line workers. Another factor is the intricate demand forecasting and aggregate demand practices World relies on. The specific approaches to forecasting for the Untitled line is also highly specific to Japanese retailing, and could not be easily imitated by outsiders, as this process builds…… [Read More]


Chang Hwan Lee, Byong-Duk Rhee. "Optimal Guaranteed Profit Margins for Both Vendors and Retailers in the Fashion Apparel Industry. " Journal of Retailing 84.3 (2008): 325-333. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 15 Sep. 2008

Donald Sull, Stefano Turconi. "Fast fashion lessons. " Business Strategy Review 19.2 (2008): 4-11. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.
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Data Warehouse a Strategic Weapon of an Organization

Words: 10375 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99774450

Data Warehousing: A Strategic Weapon of an Organization.

Within Chapter One, an introduction to the study will be provided. Initially, the overall aims of the research proposal will be discussed. This will be followed by a presentation of the overall objectives of the study will be delineated. After this, the significance of the research will be discussed, including a justification and rationale for the investigation.

The aims of the study are to further establish the degree to which data warehousing has been used by organizations in achieving greater competitive advantage within the industries and markets in which they operate. In a recent report in the Harvard Business eview (2003), it was suggested that companies faced with the harsh realities of the current economy want to have a better sense of how they are performing. With growing volumes of data available and increased efforts to transform that data into meaningful knowledge…… [Read More]


Agosta, L. (2003). Ask the Expert. Harvard Business Review, 81(6), 1.

Database: Business Source Premier.

Babcock, Charles (1995). Slice, dice & deliver. Computerworld, 29, 46, 129 -132.

Beitler, S.S., & Lean, R. (1997). Sears' EPIC Transformation: Converting from Mainframe Legacy Systems to Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). Journal of Data Warehousing (2:2), 5-16.
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Management a Forecast Is Defined

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9760947

Additionally, the explanatory forecasting technique entails surveying current market activities to explain how and why trends are happening rather than just foreseeing the expected.

Qualitative approach of forecasting

This approach of forecasting tries to employ actual information for identifying qualitative or actual market trends to a specified role or position in the market. This approach of forecasting entails looking for non-numerical data. For example, if we want to know whether a new product will be successful, we are required to review customer surveys undertaken to establish their opinions towards the company or product. Additionally, the qualitative approach of forecasting is not efficient because it is not an actual method. Typically, this approach is mostly utilized when there is a rich portfolio of data on the desired area.

Quantitative technique of Forecasting

Quantitative approach of forecasting is based on the application of numbers including sales numbers, the amount of existing or…… [Read More]

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Operations Management Wal-Mart Runs a

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45929447

al-Mart uses this technique extensively, since not only does it help to guarantee that its suppliers will be able to meet al-Mart's demand, but al-Mart wants to help its suppliers manage their supply chains better. If a supply managers its own supply chain more efficiently, it can supply the good to al-Mart at a lower price.

3. al-Mart's forecasting techniques have impacted its master schedules and production plans. The company is linked with its suppliers, such that al-Mart essentially dictates their production schedule on the basis of al-Mart's forecasted demand. al-Mart's demands for cost reductions impact capacity planning and workforce management at its suppliers. The more information that al-Mart gathers, the better it performs at inventory management.

al-Mart prepares its budgets with thorough use of forecasting techniques. It uses time series data to analyze long-term sales expectations. This is linked throughout its supply chain, such that suppliers are guided by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Wal-Mart 2009 Annual Report

Chase, Jacobs & Aquilano. Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. Chapter 13
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Budget Application

Words: 2511 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90964918

Control function, may it be management or accounting, plays the same key role. It is, in many ways, a two-way process. First of all, a top-bottom control flow, where the upper management or higher authorities oversee a certain process, but it is also a bottom-top process, as is the case when the feedback and follow-up actions come from the lower levels.

In the case of the expenditure process, the top-down circuit is, first of all, characterized by the budget restrictions that are imposed on the upper management levels of the company. In this sense, the top management defines a certain amount of money that can be spend and notifies accordingly the lower levels within the company. All acquisitions are thus limited by the expenditure levels fixed in the budget.

In many ways, the control function tends to be associated with management accounting. As we know, one of the most important…… [Read More]



2. Bookkeeping and Accounting. On the Internet at

On the Internet at

Bookkeeping and Accounting. On the Internet at
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Operations Management a Microbrewery in Colorado Is

Words: 2078 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48159267

Operations Management

A microbrewery in Colorado is growing rapidly. There is a long lead time for the purchase of new equipment, so management must make a demand forecast for the next couple of years in order to ensure that it has the capacity it needs to continue expansion. There are constraints, however, in particular with respect to access to key inputs. This casts uncertainty on the demand forecasts, such that simple extrapolation of current growth rates is going to be insufficient. A decision tree is used to help with the demand forecasting, taking into account different scenarios with respect to the growth patterns and the growth constraints.

This paper is based on a real world situation. The situation at hand is that of a small microbrewery, operating in Colorado. The microbrewery is five years old and has expanded annually since its inception. The brewery produces five beers regularly, and these…… [Read More]


Morgan, J. (2013) Alaskan Brewing discontinues pale ale due to hop shortage. Craft Brewing Busines. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from 

Welch, D. (2007). Hops shortage likely to boost price of beer. NPR. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from

Brewers Association. (2013). Craft brewing facts. Brewers Association. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from
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Case Study Supply Chain Whirl

Words: 5412 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37552867


Whirl Pool Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management

Critical appraisal of Whirlpool's Supply Chain Management

Company Overview

Products and Services

Critical review of Operations

Contribution to business performance

System Changes

Changes in Internal Forecasting Process

usiness Performance Results

Criteria for trade Partner Fit

Competitive advantage

Critical Evaluation of System

Customer Centric-Supply Chain Management System

Collaborative Supply Chain

Whirlpool's production

Current System Changes

Planning and sourcing decisions



Drawbacks of Whirlpool delivery system



Factors for taking supply chain management decision

Figure: Supply Chain Performance factors

Gap Analysis

Strategic partnership


Reduced Cost and Inventory

Future trends in home appliances supply chain management

RFID usage

RFIDs to Individual Products

Vendor Managed Inventories

Challenges for home appliances businesses in managing supply chain

Complex features

Multiple Channels Conflicts

Short life Cycles



Executive summary

Whirlpool is renowned as a global electronic appliances manufacturer and marketer. The company's products and…… [Read More]


Basu, R. & Wright, J.N. 2008, Supply Chain Management, Elsevier, USA.

Chang, S.J. 2011, Sony vs. Samsung: The Inside Story of the Electronics Giants' Battle For Global Supremacy, Wiley, USA.

Coyle, J.J, Langley, C.J., Gibson, B & Novack, RA 2008, Supply chain management: a logistics perspective, South-Western Pub, USA.

Ding, S, Guariglia, A, & Knight, J. 2012, Investment and financing constraints in China: does working capital management make a difference, Journal of Banking & Finance.
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Simulation Market Research Simulation the

Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58907081

Ultimately the use of multiple forecasting techniques serves to increase the knowledge of a market and minimize market entry risk.

How would you forecast sales force size in a specialized industry, for example, aircraft?

As the demand for aircraft is defined by a select set of customers who have highly specialized information needs, defining the sales force size for aircraft would be easily accomplished by looking at the average sales cycles in this specific industry (which happen to be quite long) combined with the project management skills necessary to ensure a design win. A design win is the event where the aircraft is designed into the broader program of an airline, or in the case of military aircraft, purchased by a branch of the Department of Defense. Taking the average length of sales cycles and the total population of potential customers for the specific aircraft, calculating the size of the…… [Read More]

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HR Apple Based on the Information Given

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67861200

HR Apple

ased on the information given but in your own words, explain what approaches to recruiting might be best suited for Apple's talent acquisition.

efore any problem can be solved, it is important to gather all the resources available in order to best apply any given plan or idea. Understanding what resources are available to the human resources department at Apple Inc. will no doubt serve as a foundation of success if this step is accomplished thoroughly. The resource-based view of human resource management appears to be the best approach in this particular instance. Leadership has made it clear to the human resources department in this case that maintaining competitive advantage will be accomplished by in-sourcing more of the microchip technology and other technological processes within building Apple products. It is up to the human resource managers to now determine what resources can best be applied to this overall…… [Read More]


Brenner, L. (2011). "Innovating HR: Lessons from Apple." Recruiting Trends, July 2011. Retrieved from

Priem, R. & Butler, J. (2001)."Is the resource-based view a useful perspective for strategic management research?" Academy of Management Review, Vol 26. 1, 22-40. Retrieved from ek%204%20Competitive%20Advantage%20RBV/priem%20butler%2001%20amr%20rb v%20critique%20is%20rbv%20useful%20for%20sm.pdf

Linkenin. "HR at Apple." Profiles of Human Management Resources website. Retrieved from
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Business Plan for Slow Wing

Words: 4373 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31123381

Inventory Management Strategy. In his book, Streetwise Project Management, Dobson (2003) advocates the use of a just-in-time inventory management strategy to keep inventories low and manufacturing process more productive. This approach, though, will require close coordination with a Brazilian supplier, warehousing operations, planners and forecasters, and transportation directors throughout the inventory management process. In this regard, Epps (1995) advises, that such an approach requires the efficient transportation of materials from outside vendors directly to the work-in-process area, where the required value added processes of the manufacturing operations take place, which is followed by the shipping of the finished products to the customer within a reasonable timeframe. This inventory management strategy can save manufacturers the costs of inspection, stocking, material handling, inventory tracking, carrying the inventory, and the dangers that are typically related to damage to parts and their tendency to become obsolete over time (Epps).

The just-in-time inventory management strategy…… [Read More]


Bolten, E.F. (1997). Managing time and space in the modern warehouse with ready-to-use forms, checklist & documentation. New York: AMACOM.

Boyson, S., Harrington, L.H. & Corsi, T.M. (2004). In real time: Managing the new supply chain. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Brazil. (2009). U.S. government: CIA world factbook. [Online.] Available: https://www.cia.

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Credit Manager Use Accounting Receivables to Improve

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30879386

Credit Manager Use Accounting eceivables to Improve Cash Flow?

A credit manager can improve his cash flow by properly managing his accounts receivables. Since account receivables are guaranteed income that is to be received by a company, they must be recorded, analyzed, and balanced, to ensure that every cash flow, whether outgoing or incoming, conforms the cash management plan.

One strategy in using accounts receivables to improve cash flow is by giving the customers with trade credits, such as payment terms and discounts, that are beneficial to them. In such way, the customers will be happy with the company's service and this can provide the possibility of having an increase in the number of customers as well as better sales opportunities (Commerce Bank Online, 2004).

Monitoring the performance of accounts receivables help in finding whether the current credit system of the company is effective. Commerce Bank Online suggests the following…… [Read More]


Cash Flow Management.

Retrieved on August 04, 2004, from Online. Web site:

Smith, J. Budgeting.
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Budget Variance Managing Budgets and Keeping Within

Words: 1612 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13727870

Budget Variance

Managing budgets and keeping within those boundaries is a difficult task and requires a steadfast approach with practical strategy. Budget forecasts often are used as important guidelines that are used to keep organizations in line with their corporate strategy. Although this seems rather simple, it is not. The purpose of this essay is to discuss and highlight specific strategies that can be applied to assist in managing a budget within a given set of forecasts. This essay will also compare some expense results that have fallen out of the variance range and discuss the possible reasons for this occurrence. This essay will conclude by discussing benchmarking techniques that will eventually contribute to improving budgeting techniques including forecasting.

Budgeting and Forecasting

Nayab (2011) suggested that "both budgets and forecasts provide estimates, and construct models of how a business might perform financially if the expected events and plans play out…… [Read More]


Benjamin, T. (ND). How to Use Benchmarking Techniques Effectively. Chron, ND. Viewed 31 Aug 2013. Retrieved from effectively-13083.html

Harris, S. (2012). Variance analysis of forecasts also important to financial close. Journal of Accountancy, March 2012. Retrieved from 

Kelessidis, V. (2000). Benchmarking. ADI January 2000. Retrieved from 

Nayab, N. (2011). Forecasting vs. Budgeting: What's the Difference? Bright Hub, 22 Aug 2011. Retrieved from
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Scientists Predict the Number of

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79003773

S. hurricane season may be greater than average this year, with a higher probability of at least one hurricane touching land.

It is also interesting to note that Klotzbach and Gray have altered the model and predictors used to predict the upcoming hurricane season, and the 2007 season was the first season predicted using this new model. The model uses temperature, atmospheric, and other weather data from the North Atlantic, Extreme North Atlantic, and the Subtropical Northeast Pacific regions to predict what will happen during the upcoming hurricane season, and using this data to predict prior years information has been very accurate (Klotzbach and Gray 12-15). Thus, the new prediction for the upcoming hurricane season may be one of the most accurate to date.

In conclusion, it is clear that predicting hurricanes is a science, and that it is also extremely difficult to forecast hurricanes totally correctly throughout the hurricane…… [Read More]


Editors. "Forecast Process." National Hurricane Center. 2008. 29 March 2008.

Editors. "Hurricane Models." National Hurricane Center. 2008. 29 March 2008.

Editors. "Observations." National Hurricane Center. 2008. 29 March 2008.

Klotzbach, Philip J. And Gray, William M. "Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and U.S. Landfall Strike Probability for 2008." 2007. 29 March 2008.
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Improvements to Target's Logistics Processes as One

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33241181

Improvements to Target's Logistics Processes

As one of the leading retailers in North America, Target Corporation (NYSE:TGT) has one of the most advanced logistics, supply chain management and planning systems and series of processes in the retail industry. Target has specifically designed their entire value chain to deliver higher-end electronic products that can compete with WalMart, specifically in the areas of flat screen televisions, laptop computers and increasingly, Apple-branded iPads and iPod products. Target is also using their advanced supply chain processes including Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and eplenishment (CPF) to compete in the high-end women's clothing lines that WalMart is not choosing to compete in (Target Investor elations, 2012). At the close of their latest fiscal year, Target was operating approximately 1,760 stores in 49 states. Target finances its operations through its retail and credit card business units, using the profits from those two operations to finance the operations of…… [Read More]


Columbus, L. (2008, The perfect order meets customer expectations. Supply & Demand Chain Executive, 9(4), 37-38.

Copacino, W.C. (1993). Creating the perfect order. Logistics Management, 32(2), 27-27.

Henderson, T.P. (2001). Kmart, Target outline best practices for ensuring vendor supply chain compliance. Stores, 83(3), 74-78.

Debra Hofman (2004, September). The HIERARCHY of SUPPLY CHAIN METRICS. Supply Chain Management Review, 8(6), 28-37.
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HR Planning and Support Systems

Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35382569

HR Planning and Support Systems

The benefits from a human resource planning software are overlooked by a company due to factors that are particular to the usability of the software, the ability of users in using the software, and the effort of the management to maintain and prioritize its use for human resource planning, modeling, and management.

In most companies, perhaps one common factor that prevents an organization from realizing the benefits of an investment in human resource planning software is the lack of commitment of the management to change from its conventional process into a technology-based method. Many HR organizations, especially those who are used in their conventional methods, view the change into utilizing a new technology as time-consuming and require a lot of changes in management procedures. Thus, most doesn't seriously take the utilization of the software.

Another factor that serves as a barrier for a company to…… [Read More]

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Managerial and Economics and Globalization

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41532569

Pizza Shop Demand Forecasting

Pizza Company Entry: Consumer Demand Forecast

There are a number of issues a company needs to think about before entering any particular market. In an industry such as the food service industry, there are even more factors to consider. Entering into any market can be a gamble, yet food service is often even more vulnerable in regards to the already strong presence of successful competitors and the income levels of the consumer markets being served. Within this particular analysis, the data presented in the course shell will be used as a way to determine if the Pizza Company should enter this particular market, and if so, which conditions will be most desirable in order to facilitate the most successful entry into the market.

egression Analysis

One of the best forecasting tools companies can use is regression forecasting in order to determine the potential for consumer demand…… [Read More]


Green, Richard D., Carman, Hoy F., & McManus, Kathleen. (1991). Some empirical methods of estimating advertising effects in demand systems: An application to dried fruits. Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, 16(1):63-71.

Linton, Ian. (2012). How does advertising affect product awareness & use? Small Business Chronicle. Web. 

Schweiger, Irving. (1956). Forecasting short-term consumer demand from consumer anticipations. The Journal of Business, 29(2), 90-100.

Symes, Steven. (2013). The effects of price increase on sales volume. Small Business Chronicle. Web.
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Role of Marketing Targeting and

Words: 817 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64227096

Positioning is the definition of the unique value proposition of a product, and increasingly these value propositions are benefits based, rarely are they features or price-based today with the exception of Wal-Mart, whose unique value proposition is selling purely on price.

Q: Many popular forecasting techniques draw from past experience and historical data. Discuss some of the more important problems that may occur in using these methods.

First, using forecasting techniques that draw from historical data has the implicit assumption that the patterns of the past will repeat themselves in the future. From nonparametric forecasting techniques where nominal or interval level data is used to parametric statistical routines that rely on ratio-level data, the same fact remains that past data is often no predictor of future trends. Second, historical data is often collected for a specific analytical purpose, and it is often used out of the original context for which…… [Read More]

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Operations and Quality Management Research

Words: 1847 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45879762

The 3M model is also one that thrives on internal competition between ideas for further funding, the progression to the next stage of the innovation process, and the development of prototypes and finished products. What unifies all of these elements together is the strong focus on innovation that is predicated on team-based assignment and requirements (Allio, 1993). There is also a strong focus on minimizing variation in new products once defined and in production using Six Sigma, a technique for minimize product variations over time (Hindo, 2007).


Constraints eferences

Bernardi, d. S. (2010). Theory of constraints contributions to outbound logistics. Management esearch eview, 33(7), 683-700. Link:

Goodrich, D.F. (2008). The relationship of the theory of constraints implementation to change management integration in professional service organizations. Nova Southeastern University). Link:

Gupta, M.C., & Boyd, L.H. (2008). Theory of constraints: A theory for operations management. International Journal of Operations…… [Read More]


Allio, M.K. (1993). 3Ms sophisticated formula for teamwork. Strategy & Leadership, 21(6), Link:

Hindo, B. (2007, Sep 17). 3M: Struggle between efficiency and creativity. Business Week (Online),, 1.


Shapiro, A.R. (2006). Measuring innovation: Beyond revenue from new products. Research Technology Management, 49(6), 42-51. Link:
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Apple's Make vs Buy Decision

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70980360

Apple is considered one of the best companies globally at using a product lifecycle management (PLM) based approach to planning and executing new products, often leading to new patents being created in the process (Tariq, Ishrat, Khan, 2011). This first strategy concentrates on understanding just what is required from the new product teams in terms of support and services, then aligning hiring plans accordingly to ensure the highest possible level of performance to hiring and recruitment goals.

A second strategy that the company can rely on to effectively plan H esources is to develop a series of check points throughout the hiring process to ensure the needs being evaluated with potential employees accurately align with the broader needs of the company as well. This continual, and recursive approach to developing a very clear idea of what is needed from a recruiting standpoint will be critical to overall success of program.…… [Read More]


Faust, M. (2011). Tribute: Steve jobs. Leadership Excellence, 28(11), 4-4.

Keegan, L., & Jacobson, B. (1995). Apple harvests the fruit of training reform. Human Resource Management International Digest, 3(6), 17-19.

Lynn, G.S. (1998). New product team learning: Developing and profiting from your knowledge capital. California Management Review, 40(4), 74-93.

Maceli, K.M. (2011). Changes in the development process of mobile phone applications bring opportunities for developers and more options to consumers. Journal of Business Case Studies, 7(3), 31-36.
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Hewlett Packard Supplying the Deskjet Printer in Europe

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33315806

1988, the DeskJet printer has become one of the best sold products in Hewlett Packard's product portfolio, with figures reaching 600,000 units in 1990. Much of the DeskJet printers are sold to Europe, a significant market both in terms of absorption capacity and increasing demand. However, the European market has several characteristics of its own.

The most important one is the necessity to adapt the printers to the exact requirements of the European market. One of these requirements refers to the language in which the manual is written, but, at the same time, energy adaptations need to be performed as well, meeting the correct voltage and power cord plug requirements. Given the fact that all printers are produced and assembled in the Vancouver facility, one needs to add to actual production time the time of transport and distribution to the European resellers.

It is important to note that the market…… [Read More]


1. Namvar, Bob. Economic Forecasting -- How pros predict the future. On the Internet at

2. Schreibfeder, Jon. The Mysterious Cost of Carrying Inventory. On the Internet at

Schreibfeder, Jon. The Mysterious Cost of Carrying Inventory. On the Internet at

Namvar, Bob. Economic Forecasting -- How pros predict the future. On the Internet at
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Tilted Terrorism and the Shape

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86675582

The method allows the authors to test the data with much greater degree of precision. With the methodology adopted, the researchers are able to process the relevant data in a systematic method thereby producing extrapolations trends and other forecasts, which assist the researcher to achieve generalizability, objectivity and reliability in the data collected.

On the other hand, Khalsa, (2004) derive many benefits from the qualitative method adopted. First, the author has been able to get better understanding of the terrorist act through the systematic investigation. The strategy assists the author to access a good amount of valuable information which assists in providing a better understanding to the phenomena.


The importantly challenges that Weinberg at al (1999) face in their methodology is the challenges in representing the important political variables in numerical form. The political terrorism is a political event and using numerical attributes to represent political variables may be…… [Read More]


Weinberg, Leonard. & EUBank, William. 1999. Terrorism and the Shape of Things to Come. Terrorism and Political Violence. 11 (4): 94-105.

Khalsa, Sundri. K. 2004. Terrorism Forecasting: Indicators and Proven Analytic Techniques. Scarecrow Press.

Zawawi, Dahlia. 2007. . Qualitative Methods vs. Quantitative in Social Sciences: Bridging the Gap. Integration & Dissemination.
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Bullwhip Effect What Causes it and Using

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33561614

Bullwhip Effect:

What causes it and using EC and VMI to counteract its effects

"The bullwhip effect occurs when the demand order variabilities in the supply chain are amplified as they moved up the supply chain" (Lee, Padmanabhan & Wang 1997). The bullwhip effect could be characterized as a kind of a gigantic game of 'telephone,' in which the first message becomes distorted in the retelling, and subsequent transmissions of the information result in greater and greater errors. "The common symptoms of such variations could be excessive inventory, poor product forecasts, insufficient or excessive capacities, poor customer service due to unavailable products or long backlogs, uncertain production planning (i.e., excessive revisions), and high costs for corrections, such as for expedited shipments and overtime" (Lee, Padmanabhan & Wang 1997).

Individuals on the supply chain can only make use of information from the person on the chain immediately before them. Information is…… [Read More]


Lee, Hau L, V Padmanabhan, & Seungjin Whang. (1997). The bullwhip effect in supply chains. Sloan Management Review, 38(3). 93-102.

Murray, Martin. (2012). Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI). Retrieved:

Retrieved at:

Organised retail in India will top U.S.$22bn by 2010: ASSOCHAM. (2009). Indian Micro
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Otis Toy Trains the Proposal by the

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31281718

Otis Toy Trains

The proposal by the Chinese company JLPTC is attractive in terms of pricing. While price is an important factor and a key success factor in a lot of cases, there are other variables as well that need to be considered. As a consultant, it is important to state down the changes that are expected to take place objectively and then take a course of action based on that.

Some of these factors are how the supply chain will be impacted in terms of sourcing the products, logistics management, contract and service level scenarios, warehousing costs, inventory levels to keep, demand forecasting, level of information sharing as well as reliability, flexibility and responsiveness of the modified supply chain. (Swink, Melnyk, Cooper, & Hartley, 2011)

Discussing each in turn, the quality of the products that JLPTC makes will have to be a top concern, given that one of Otis…… [Read More]


Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2009). Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning, And Operation. NY: Prentice Hall.

Swink, M., Melnyk, S., Cooper, M.B., & Hartley, J. (2011). Managing Operations Across the Supply Chain. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
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Operational Management Organization

Words: 2132 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72127562

Managing the Total Quality Management (TQM)

Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the amalgamation of diverse entities within the production system all the way through the use of information and computerization technologies for well-organized control and administration of manufacturing and related purposes (Francett, 1988; Gould, 1989; Groves, 1990; Sabbaghi, 1991). Some accounted profits of CIM (Aly, 1989, Chang and Wysk, 1985; Gaylord, 1987; Goldhar, 1985) are faster release of new goods, shorter production preparation, as well as development cycles, increased competence and elasticity, enhanced product quality, as well as serviceability.

Even though a lot of U.S. companies depend on the completion of CIM technologies to recover or uphold competitive gain (Doll and Vonderembske, 1987), a significant percentage has been unsuccessful to realize the expected benefits (De Meyer, 1990). One motive for this breakdown is their leading focus on the technological features of implementation at the same time as disregarding the critical…… [Read More]


Aly, Nael A. (March 1989). A Survey on the Use of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing In Food Processing Companies, Food Technology: 82-87.

Blest, John P., (Spring 1992). Raymond G. Hunt and Carolyn C. Shadle, Action Teams in the Total Quality Process: Experience in a Job Shop, National Productivity Review: 195-202.

Camp, Robert C., (1989). Competitive Bench Marking: Xerox's Powerful Quality tool is making Total Quality Happen, Research Report, The Conference Board. 35-42.

Chang, Tien-Chien and Richard A. Wysk, (1985). An Introduction to Automated Process Planning System, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
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Identifying Long-Term Trends

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76577426

Long-Term Trends

This study offers financial and strategic analysis of Nike Inc. with a focus on creating strategic plans and translating those plans into long-term goals and actionable business initiatives. This paper serves to show the importance of using economic variables in identifying long-term financial goals. It further presents major techniques and tools that Nike's financial managers will utilize in predicting future stock market guidelines and the economy.

The importance of using Economic variables for Nike Inc. financial managers in identifying long-term financial goals

The management is directed to engage financial variables to identify long-term objectives. Some economic variables affecting the company must be considered. This will ensure that necessary actions are undertaken to minimize their impact on the business. The variables include employment trends, inflation, interest rates, and commercial lending. Many companies such as Nike Inc. work towards one goal: maximizing profits. The process of profit maximization is simple.…… [Read More]


Mahaffy, D. (2002). Predictive intelligence helps CFOs forecast demand. Financial Executive, 18(8), 48-50. Accessible via Trident online library (2010). Fundamental analysis. Retrieved from

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2002). Six key economic variables (Power Points). Retrieved from

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2007). Six key economic variables -- measuring the economy. Retrieved from
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Variance Analysis Finance

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38461008

Finance: Variance Analysis

Describe how variance analysis can be applied to flexible and static budgets

A variance is the difference between an actual amount and a budgeted amount. Budget variances are used by management in their control and planning decisions, particularly in the case of management by exception, which entails identifying areas that are not performing according to plan, and dedicating more attention to the same. Variance analysis has to do with the calculation of variances, and identification of the possible causes of the same. It essentially involves comparing and monitoring actual vs. planned costs, with the aim of identifying trends, threats, and opportunities - and adjusting strategies, goals and objectives if need be (Steffan, 2008). Towards this end, variance analysis helps managers evaluate business performance by assessing the level of effectiveness -- the degree to which targets have been met; and the level of efficiency -- the input cost…… [Read More]


Jackson, S., Sawyers, R. & Jenkins, G. (2008). Managerial Accounting: A Focus on Ethical Decision-Making (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Steffan, B. (2008). Essential Management Accounting: How to Maximize Profit and Boost Financial Performance. London: Kogan Page Ltd.