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Foster Children/Foster Care
Issues of a Foster Child
Families and Children Served through Foster Care
The Policy Framework
This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.
Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…
Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. PL. 105-89.
Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. P.L. 96-272.
Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenager. New York: Author.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Planning for children whose parents are dying
One explanation is the fact that mental health services are generally allocated based on the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis, and older children are more likely to meet criteria for specific disorders. Although younger children may exhibit certain symptoms, they are less likely to meet the full criteria for a classified disorder (Fisher 2005). Moreover, the behavior of older foster children may appear to pose more of an immediate threat, either to themselves or to others (Fisher 2005). Even in the general population, risks for violence, juvenile delinquency and other behavioral problems, increase with age, thus in high-risk populations (as defined by factors such as poverty and violence), the risk gradient associated with age increases, therefore the need for services may be the greatest in the short-term among older foster children (Fisher 2005).
In a study published in the January 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of…
Fisher, Philip A. (2005 April 01). Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. Retrieved June 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Fostering and Foster Care. The Adoption History Project. Retrieved June 30, 2006 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adoption/topics/fostering.htm
History of Foster Care. Retrieved June 30, 2006 at http://www.sacbee.com/static/archive/news/projects/foster/timeline.html
Pfeiffer, Steven I. (1997 May 01). Effectiveness of treatment foster care with children and adolescents: a review of outcome studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved June 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
" By telling stories, allows for a certain level of openness or vulnerability on the part of the parent and makes them human to the child. Stories give children a captivating medium in which to explore their emotions but really stories give them something to believe.
Jesus was the original storyteller. Reynolds Price discusses Jesus' involvement with establishing how stories promote the act of good works among His followers with, "Leviticus 19:18: 'you shall love neighbor as yourself.' This provides an insistence that no human relation can proceed with any pretense of moral foundation" unless of course, one moves away from God's love.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this proposal is to act as a vision in which groundbreaking research can be facilitated. This research will focus on religion as a catalyst for conflict among people who share a parent-child relationship within the foster care framework. Specifically, the…
Fowler, James, W. 1981. Stages of Faith. San Francisco: Harper.
Gardner, H. 1995. Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership. New York:
BasicBooks Harper Collins.
Hepperman, Christine, M. 2004. Barbara O'Connor: Taking Care of Moses. The Horn
homeless and runaway young people is viewed by many authorities as a human rights condition that grows out of poverty and victimization, often right in their family settings, and later, in the street (Farrow 1992) where they are further exposed to violence and other forms of dysfunction..
The International Perspective on the Health Needs of Homeless Youth uses the terms "street children" to refer to those below 18 years old who live through various ways in the streets. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund or UNICEF estimated that there were between 30 and 170 million street children and youth in the world (Farrow 1992). The UNICEF divided these young people broadly into a larger group and a smaller group, the larger one, consisting of youngsters who engaged in some economic activity in the streets and often returned to their families at night. The smaller group consisted of young people…
Farrow, J.A., ed, et al. (1992). Homeless and Runaway Youth Health and Health Needs. A position paper for the Society of Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health. http://www.adolescenthealth.org/html/homeless.html
Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. (2004). Youth in the Margins. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund publications. http://www.lambdalegal.org/cgi-bin/icon/documents/record=899
2002). Getting Down to Basics About LGBT Youth in Foster Care. Mediapolis, Inc. http://www.lambdalegal.org/cgi-bin/iowa/documents/record?record=1027
Lesbian Gay Rights Lobby of Texas. (2003). Fact Sheet on the Proposed Ban on Gay Foster Care in Texas. http://lgrl.org/familycoalition/lib194brochure.pdf
Lost Boy: A Foster Child's Search for the Love of a Family
David J. Pelzer is a child-abuse survivor who has shared his experiences as a public speaker and an author. He tells his own story in a series of three books. Pelzer is the son of an alcoholic and extremely abusive mother and he lived his life moving frequently in and out of foster homes. Pelzer is a strong advocate against child abuse and his personal accounts help to bring awareness to many. Pelzer was married and had one child. He is divorced from his first wife, but has remarried.
Pelzer's second book, The Lost Boy: A Foster Child's Search for the Love of a Family, covers Pelzer's turmoil during his teen years and is the sequel to the first of a trilogy titled, A Child Called It. It is the true story of a child who suffered abuse…
Pelzer, David. The Lost Boy: A Foster Child's Search for the Love of a Family. Health Communications, 1997.
The issues of child abuse in the larger society are often unnoticed until it is too late. Unfortunately, public perceptions of the precursors to abuse are limited, and the unfortunate reality of 'out of sight, out of mind' is prevalent in a society which moves as quickly as ours, and in which individuals are completely engaged in their own lives, expressing little ability to watch out for, or concern for the well being of others. The following studies look into the well-being of children, the impact of foster care on the well being of children, and the community's overall involvement in the problem of child abuse.
In order to construct a viable policy regarding what to do about the problem of child abuse, researchers must first accurately perceive the problems which exist in the larger society, and make sure that they have accurately measured the important factors. Since…
Calvert JF and Munsie-Benson M. Public opinion and knowledge about childhood sexual abuse in a rural community. Child Abuse Negl 1999; 23:671-682.
Clewell, B.C., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Benasich, A.A. (1989). Evaluating childrelated outcomes of teenage parenting programs. Family Relations, 38, 201-209.
Cooper, R, and Sutton, K. (1999)
The Effects of Child Abuse on Preschool Children's Play Australian Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 24.
Also, children who do not graduate from school are also at risk for negative and risky behavior during adolescence that can transcend into adulthood. These behaviors include delinquency, drug abuse and violence as well as long-term adjustment issues.
Essentially, children in foster care are at greater risk for not succeeding in school and do have more emotional issues than children of the general population. There must be the utmost emphasis on helping them to succeed. One study conducted suggested the difference between success and failure for a child could be determined with only a few steps and relatively minimal effort on the part of care givers and educational institutions. These include making sure transcripts transfer in a timely manner, a strong working relationship between educators and social workers, the care giver (foster parent) involvement in the education process, and social workers being involved in the direction of the child's education.…
Anne Havalchak, C.R. (2009). Foster Care Experiences and Educational. Social Work Journal, 3-7.
Fernandez, E. (2008). Unravelling Emotional, Behavioural. British Journal of Social Work, 14-16.
Sullivan, M.J. (2009). School change, academic progress, and behavior problems in a sample of foster youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 7.
It should be comforting for parents to know that if their child develops a serious psychological disorder it does not mean they are terrible parents. It would also be important for them to know that how they raise a child with a psychological or psychiatric can make a difference in the outcome. The research indicates that parenting alone cannot solve significant psychological problems, but that by combining good science with good parenting, children with psychological problems can be helped.
ouchard, Jr., Thomas J.; Lykken, David T.; McGue, Matthew; Segal, Nancy L., and Tellegen, Auke. 1990. "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart." Science, Oct. 12. Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://www.mugu.com/gic-bin/Upstream/bouchard-twins?/embedded=yes&cumulative_category...
Macindoe, Ian, Ph.D. 2004. "Happiness: What studies on twins tell us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set point." Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/ageing/thot04dec03.html
Mota-Castillo, Manuel, and Auvil, Erica, MSW 2004. "ipolar…
Bouchard, Jr., Thomas J.; Lykken, David T.; McGue, Matthew; Segal, Nancy L., and Tellegen, Auke. 1990. "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart." Science, Oct. 12. Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://www.mugu.com/gic-bin/Upstream/bouchard-twins?/embedded=yes&cumulative_category...
Macindoe, Ian, Ph.D. 2004. "Happiness: What studies on twins tell us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set point." Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/ageing/thot04dec03.html
Mota-Castillo, Manuel, and Auvil, Erica, MSW 2004. "Bipolar Disorder and Genetics: Beyond Question." Psychiatric Times, June.
Pietrantonio, Anna Marie, M.D.. 2004. "How important is permanency planning for children? Considerations for pediatricians involved in child protection." Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, August.
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
In the second phase of the research, testing of the children in various areas related to their attitude towards outdoor play will take place. Appreciation and awareness of the natural world, signs of emerging independence or continuing dependence, and a variety of other variables associated by previous research with outdoor play will be examined. This will also provide some direct insight as to the factors that motivate outdoor play, allowing for further extrapolation. Specifically, plans and procedures for motivating increased outdoor play and more positive attitudes towards/greater appreciations of outdoor play will be recommended based on the findings of the two research phases. From this, the beginnings of a comprehensive view of early childhood attitudes towards outdoor play and the benefits of increasing positive attitudes towards outdoor play will hopefully be established.
The observations made in this research will not provide enough evidence to lead to any entirely conclusive…
Chan, L. & Louie, L. (2003). "The Use of Pedometry to Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong." Early childhood development & care 173(1), pp. 97-107.
Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010). "Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland." Children & society 24(5), pp. 371-85.
Maday, G, (2005). "Indoor play systems." Scholastic early childhood today 19(6), pp. 33-4.
Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997). "Children's outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children's safety and the changing nature of childhood." Geoforum 28(2), pp. 219-35.
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…
Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.
Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.
Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112
Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html
Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…
Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592
A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.
The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.
Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
As a result, American public schools require policies and curriculum practices that specifically address these increasingly important issues. In this regard, there must be a comprehensive curriculum developed that provides the level of education concerning other peoples and their cultures for America's public school students. Time is of the essence and half-measures will not be sufficient to meet these important needs. Policymakers must take action today to address these pressing issues before even more violence and multicultural strife wrack the nation's schools. In this regard, the WebQuest approach to encouraging students to learn more about other cultures has been proven to be an effective adjunct to the public school teacher's repertoire of tools, and this method should be applied to the issue of fostering intercultural harmony in the nation's public schools.
Brawarsky, S. (1997). Carnegie Corporation's Youth Intergroup elations Initiative. eport of a meeting convened by Carnegie Corporation of…
Brawarsky, S. (1997). Carnegie Corporation's Youth Intergroup Relations Initiative. Report of a meeting convened by Carnegie Corporation of New York. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 426-165).
Downey, P., & Milson, a.J. (2001). WebQuest: Using Internet resources for cooperative inquiry. Social Education, 65(3), 144.
Ihator, a. (2000). Understanding the cultural patterns of the world -- an imperative in implementing strategic international PR programs. Public Relations Quarterly, 45(4), 38.
Merryfield, M.M. (2001). The paradoxes of teaching a multicultural education course online. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(4), 283.
Child of age
The film Child of age (Home Box Office, 1992) depicts the devastating effects of child abuse. In the film Beth Thomas, a child who was severely abused and later adopted, discusses her shocking attitudes and desires that include wanting to kill her little brother and adoptive parents. She also discusses numerous incidents of abusing animals and her brother. Her depiction reminds one of a person with a psychopathic personality (now termed antisocial personality disorder).
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others that occurs since 15 years of age and presents with three or more of the seven symptoms that are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The symptoms include a failure to conform to norms or other rules, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness or irritability, disregard for the safety of oneself or others, responsible behavior, and a…
Home Box Office. (1992). Child of Rage. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2 -
Borland (1997) states that,"...the construct of giftedness has undergone significant changes in recent times." (Borland, 1997, p. 13) the author also refers to modern educationists and theorists of intelligence such as Gardner and his Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Howard Gardner has put forward his Theory of Multiple Intelligences in contradiction to the older hierarchical view of intelligence which, Gardner asserts, privileges some types of intelligence over others. The "types" of intelligence that Gardner has isolated includes the following: Visual or Spatial Intelligence; Musical Intelligence; Verbal or Linguistic Intelligence; Logical and Mathematical Intelligence; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligence and the Bodily or Kinesthetic Intelligence. He later added an eighth to the list, which is the Naturalist Intelligence. These intelligences he sees as natural propensities in every child that may be obscured to hidden due to cultural and social factors. In the past linguistic and rational models and ideals of intelligence have trended…
Borland, J.H. (1997). The Construct of Giftedness. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 72(3-4), 6-20. Retrieved April 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ;d=96242801' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
It also fosters their language development. The poems are categorized according to the topics like self, animals, seasons, seashore, bedtime, and adventure which can become a springboard for introducing certain topics. This way, the book becomes ideal for a thematic curriculum. It also contains foreign and classic poems like Shakespeare's "Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer Day" which may help children appreciates poetry at an early age.
From an adult's perspective, I like the book since it contains a lot of my well-liked poems like "The Owl and the *****cat," "Psalm 23," "The Road Not Taken," "Keep a Poem in Your Pocket" among others. From an early childhood educator's point-of-view, the book is more apt for early graders than preschoolers. It may be sturdy but the book is relatively bulky and heavy for a preschooler's hands to handle. The children may also not appreciate the small font size of…
Hyperion Contributors (2003). "A 2006 ALA Notable Children's Book" Retrieved March 28, 2007 at http://www.hyperionbooksforchildren.com/board/displayBook.asp?id=1545
Kennedy, Caroline (2005). "A Family of Poems: My Favorite Poetry for Children" NY: Hyperion/Hyperion Books for Children.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
Lost Boy by Dave Pelzer:
The foster care system in the United States has long been a subject of much negative attention. In many ways, individuals who were part of this system were regarded in a negative way, and were placed upon a great deal of stigma. The Lost Boy, a book that discusses this subject from a highly personal perspective, aims to explain both the internal and external aspects of the system and how it can affect those within it, referring not just to the children who must be part of the system, but also to the adults that knowingly involve themselves within it. The Lost Boy, just as any great book written on a little known subject thus has a great impact on the individuals who read it and on the society in affects. This novel discusses a journey, seen from the eyes of a child and from…
Craft, C. (2012). Dave Pelzer Is a Famous Foster Kid. About.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from .
Naar-King, S. & Ellis, D.A. & Frey, M.A. (2004). Assessing children's well-being: a handbook of measures. Wayne State University. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from .
No Author. (2012). David Pelzer Book Review. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from .
Pelzer, D. (1997). The Lost Boy. Library of Congress Publication.
However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-oth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)
Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System
Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…
Browne, K. Save the Children, (2009). The risk of harm to young children in institutional care. Retrieved from Save the Children website: http://www.crin.org/docs/The_Risk_of_Harm.pdf
Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Foster care statistics 2010. Retrieved from Children's Bureau website: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/foster.pdf
Gardner, D. National Association of Counties (NACo), (2008). Youth aging out of foster care identifying strategies and best practices. Retrieved from National Association of Counties (NACo) website: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/YouthAgingoutofFoster.pdf
Hancock, B.R. FaithBridge Foster Care, (2009).Changing foster care in America: From crisis to community. Retrieved from FaithBridge Foster Care website: http://www.faithbridgefostercare.org/media/1210/faithbridge_white_paper_042009.pdf
'ealism-quality' approaches to leadership in the real world of social services
I have described myself as a 'realism-quality' leader who believes on the need to be task specific. I try to set realistic goals that are achievable and conceivable for my subordinates. This type of leadership is very useful when dealing with some of the challenges that arise in the context of a nonprofit organization that focuses on children in foster care. Very often, parents are initially not prepared for the difficulties that may arise when coping with a child with severe behavioral, emotional, or psychological issues.
One example of a 'realistic' approach that I had to take was when a foster mother assumed the care of a child but was not able to take full control over the situation and left the child's care for part of the day to her adult daughter, who frequently arrived…
Gelfand, Michelle J., Lisa M. Leslie, Kirsten Keller, & Carsten K.W. Dedreu. (2008). Cultures of conflict.
Tsasis, Peter. (2009). The social processes of interorganizational collaboration and conflict in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership. 20 (1).
Even if the woman has medical insurance, it may pay for only a fraction of these costs. Further' there's no guarantee that there will be a family that will want the child once it is delivered. On any given day in the United States, more than 100,000 foster children are waiting to be adopted by someone who can provide a permanent, loving home (Macomber, Zielewski, Chambers and Geen (2005).
Every child should be wanted.
However, many women become pregnant with children they and others simply do not want. It seems unfair to the women, and, more importantly, to the child to bring an unwanted child into this world.
Greenfield (2001, July 18). The cost of having a baby. http://www.drspock.com/faq/0,1511,8285,00.html
Macomber, J.E., Zielewski, E.H. Chambers, K. And Geen, R. (2005, November 16). Foster case adoption in the United States. http://www.urban.org/publications/411254.html
Greenfield (2001, July 18). The cost of having a baby. http://www.drspock.com/faq/0,1511,8285,00.html
Macomber, J.E., Zielewski, E.H. Chambers, K. And Geen, R. (2005, November 16). Foster case adoption in the United States. http://www.urban.org/publications/411254.html
Child welfare services have a complicated history in America and still today face a continual crisis. On the one hand, foster care requires resources from the state and breaks up families; on the other hand, implementing family preservation plans carries its own risk. This policy reform paper will examine the problem presented by The Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA), enacted as part of Public Law (P.L.) 115–123, also known as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. It will then provide analysis of the problem from the standpoint of historical, social, economic, and political perspectives. It will then examine the policy, evaluate it and discuss current proposals for reform.
It is recognized that removing children from their families and placing them in foster group home services can be psychologically and emotionally damaging for the child (Ringel et al., 2018). However, leaving children in families where abuse is…
Behrmann, S. (2019). Former DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen says she left post because 'saying no' wasn't enough. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/10/22/kirstjen-nielsen-former-dhs-secretary-said-she-left-post-because-saying-no-wasnt-enough/2450196001/
Definitive Contract. (2016). Retrieved from https://govtribe.com/award/federal-contract-award/definitive-contract-hsfe3013c0366
Mallon, G., McHartt-Hess, P. (2013). Child Welfare in the 21st Century. 2nd Edition.Columbia University Press.
O’Connor, S. (2001). Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Patwardhan, I., Hurley, K. D., Thompson, R. W., Mason, W. A., & Ringle, J. L. (2017). Child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk: Findings from the intensive family preservation program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 70, 92-99.
Reid, P. (2019). DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen speaks for first time since resignation announcement. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/kirstjen-nielsen-resigning-dhs-secretary-expected-to-offer-resignation-today-live-updates-2019-04-07/
Ringel, J. S., Schultz, D., Mendelsohn, J., Holliday, S. B., Sieck, K., Edochie, I., & Davis, L. (2018). Improving child welfare outcomes: balancing investments in prevention and treatment. Rand health quarterly, 7(4).
Wiltz, T. (2018). This New Federal Law Will Change Foster Care As We Know It. Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/05/02/this-new-federal-law-will-change-foster-care-as-we-know-it
Biblical Worldview: How Genesis 1:26-27 Affects My Choice of Professions
A belief that is foundational to the Christian faith is that people are made in the image of God as explicated in Genesis 1:26-27. Given this centrality, it is reasonable to posit that this biblical worldview also affects Christians' choices of professions in varying degrees. To gain some fresh insights into this issue, this paper provides an explanation concerning how this belief affects my relation to people in my chosen vocation of foster parent and group home director, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this biblical worldview in the conclusion.
The unique status of humankind is clearly established early on in the Old Testament in the Genesis 1 account. For instance, the New International Version (NIV) of Genesis 1:26 states that:
Then God said, "Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so…
Blatt, Susan Mcnair. A Guidebook for Raising Foster Children. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 2000.
Peterson, Anna L. Being Human: Ethics, Environment, and Our Place in the World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001.
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
Public Awareness Campaign: Child Exploitation on the Internet
Growing up in an era where the internet and video games take up more than 25% of a child's time made me realize just how integral technology has become to children's lives, and how vital it is that we increase our awareness on the dangers and benefits of technological advancement. Through this proposal, I intend to educate people, as well as myself, on how to handle the security risks that children are exposed to, online.
eports about children being abused and brutalized, either on the internet, or in the real world, have become an integral part of the news today. Not a day goes by without such kinds of reports; and what is even worse is that hundreds of cases remain unreported, and the culprits are left scot free, with immense avenues to identify and devour more unsuspecting children (Byron, 2008). Such…
Byron, T. (2008). Safer Children in a Digital World. The Report of the Byron Review. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DCSF-00334-2008.pdf
ITU. (2012). Child Online Protection. International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.itu.int/osg/csd/cybersecurity/gca/cop/policy.html
NSPCC. (2014). How to Help Your Child Stay Safe Online: Tips, Controls, and Conversations to Help Keep Children Safe on the Internet and Social Networks. NPSCC. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/for-parents/online-safety/how-to-help/help-child-safe-online_wda99633.html
Thierer, A. (2007). Two Sensible Education-Based Legislative Approaches to Online Child Safety. The Progress Freedom Foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.pff.org/issues-pubs/ps/2007/ps3.10safetyeducationbills.html
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…
Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.
Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.
Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html
Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
AGE GROUP PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES
There are many milestones for each age. I have selected some that have to do with movement on a small and large scale because I believe that they have to do with the way in which children may be inclined to move a good deal and perhaps exercise in later life.
Infants: [footnoteRef:1] [1: American Pregnancy. First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine (Small) -- hands clench, strong grasp reflex, holds objects, pulls on clothing or blankets.
Gross (Large) -- Turns head, rolls back and forth on stomach, holds weight on feet, bounces when held standing, sits well by about nine months.
Toddlers:[footnoteRef:2] [2: Toddler Developmental Milestones. Parenting Magazine. http://www.parenting.com/article/toddler-developmental-milestones?page=0,1, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine -- filling up and dumping out small items, trying to dress and undress, drawing or scribbling, stacking or sorting objects, poking and…
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
It identifies effects such as emotional, physical and psychological problems as well as trauma. The various forms of abuse lead to emotional problems to the child particularly distrust and low self-esteem when they are adults. The children who have been abused are also depicted to be aggressive or self-destructive, they are also more likely to go into drug abuse and even become young offenders.in the long run, adults who were victims of child abuse end up abusing their own children.
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse
There are some immediate effects from child abuse which are serious especially to infants as depicted in the source above. Serious injuries and fatalities occur in children who are just under 12 months.there are various signs which indicate that a…
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse childrens.org. (2013). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://childrens.org/child/effects-of-child-abuse/
Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/sheets/rs17/rs17.html
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
Family Resource Center. (2012). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.frcmo.org/effects.html
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…
Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.
Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.
Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.
Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
First of all, assembly and morning call is held for a quick team feel to the whole camp. In this age inquisition and child's mental consumption is on the high side, therefore an expression to facilitate clarity of thought and expression can be maximized fully at this age. Keeping this point-of-view in mind Children are told a story by a narrator or a shown a short animation movie followed by discussion of each child's favorite character, scene, dialogue (or anything they like). In order to give individual attention groups can be broken down into smaller units. Second period has been made compulsory to all in the aforementioned table. Since mathematics is a necessary subject at this scholastic stage. Interesting and innovative ways like animated problem solving, for instance dividing card boards into five students and tabulating results or eating a 1/4th of a pie and so on, can be done…
What follows in this brief report is a review and reaction to a New York Times article about child development. While great strides have been made when it comes to knowing about child development and how to positively move it along, there are still new theories and ideas every day on how to react to setbacks and how to make the child development process even more advanced and positive for the child as they grow and learn for the first time. The article was indeed very intriguing and for a number of reasons that will all be described in this essay. While it is indeed possible to over-coddle and over-fixate on what is good or bad for a child, best practices and habits are what they are based on the current body of knowledge that exists.
The article chosen for this review and analysis was authored by…
Children and Young People Risk of Harm:
The identification and reaction to children and young people risk of harm basically involves the proper application of necessary knowledge and skills to deal with the requirements of duty of care. This process involves all workers who are engaged in providing various services to children such as health, education, family services, and community services. In addition, this process incorporates three major elements i.e. implementation of relevant work practices, reporting the probable risk of harm, and application of nurturing practices.
The other critical aspect in this process is the need for these workers to possess essential knowledge and skills to enable them achieve their respective goals. Children and young people may be at risk of harm when their psychological and physical needs are unmet, they lack necessary medical care, and they are susceptible to sexual or physical abuse. Moreover, when children and young people…
kid can say!" is to identify strategies that assist pedagogues in conveying information more clearly to their students so that they can comprehend more. This is a concept that the most prudent teachers consider and to which they devote a plethora of time, resources, and energy. einhart implies that the basis for his strategy for getting students to learn more implies a revolution of the conventional teaching model in which instructors state information and students internalize and regurgitate it. Instead, the author widely propagates a model in which teachers involve student participation and responsibility in their own learning by asking leading questions which ultimately get students to provide their own answers which helps them to learn more effectively.
The duration of this article consists of einhart's elucidation of various techniques which assist with the basic model that asking the right questions helps learners to comprehend classroom information and concepts better.…
Reinhart, S.C. (2000). Never say anything a kid can say! National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 5(8), 478-483.
The author did not limit his study to researchers who supported one side of an argument but included both, those for and against any idea, bringing more understanding to the reader.
The article is further strengthened by the fact that the author identifies the side where she belongs in an argument that had contradictory statements from other authors. For instance, when she discusses objectivism and constructivism she presents both ideas but states that she is for constructivism. She also brings more understanding of the methods of learning by stating how helpful they are and the limitations associated with them and how to make the methods more effectively including practical examples in every case. In fact, she concludes by suggesting that the integration of two or all of the methods is the best practice.
Discussion of the strengths
Inclusion and proper utilization of different resources was a very positive step the…
Yi, J. (2005). Effective ways to foster learning, Performance Improvement, 44(1).
The main point of the article, "Moms at ork and Dads at Home: Children's Evaluations of Parental Roles," is that when children are given a chance to express their opinions on traditional vs. non-traditional roles, they speak up. In this case, the children used in the survey (67 second-graders and 54 fifth-graders) saw it as "acceptable for both mothers and fathers to work full-time" (Sinno, et al., 2009). However, children found it not as acceptable for fathers to be stay-at-home parents as it is for mothers to be stay-at-home parents. Clearly, 2nd graders were "more likely to rely on ... stereotype knowledge of appropriate roles" (mom home, dad at work), and when dad was the key child-rearing parent it became a non-traditional family. http://abcnews.go.com/NT/story?id=130760&page=1. (This is an ABC News report on the growing trend of fathers raising children.)
Another non-traditional family is the Foster Care family. According to…
Sinno, S.M., and Killen, M. (2009) Moms at Work and Dads at Home: Children's
Evaluations of Parental Roles. Applied Developmental Science, 13(1), 16-29.
Tyler, K.A., and Melander, L.A. (2010). Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults. Journal of Child and Family
Studies, volume 19, 787-794.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has recently constructed an ultramodern pediatric imaging facility. The healthcare facility exclusively focuses its improved services on children's imaging. In this paper, we present a marketing approach that covers computed Tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, General radiology (X-ay), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MI), Nuclear Medicine as well as ultrasound. The work includes an assessment of both the internal as well as external environment which is important in allowing us to determine the full advantage associated with the CHOP brand, the strategic location of the facility as well as the purchase of the new and improved equipment to warrant the integrated marketing strategy. The approach is however, threatened by the existence of another major hospital within Philadelphia that also offers pediatric imaging services. This risk will however be mitigated by CHOP's approach of focusing on pediatric imaging at an affordable price. Pediatric imaging is to form CHOP's niche market.…
Brassington, F. And Pettitt, S. (2003), Principles Of Marketing, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, London
Kotler, P., Shalowitz, J and Stevens, R (2010).Strategic Marketing For Health Care Organizations: Building A Customer-Driven Health System [Hardcover]
Kotler, P., et al. (2005) Principles of Marketing 4th Ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited
US Census (2000) Philadelphia City, Pennsylvania Statistics and Demographics (U.S. Census 2000)
Enfant is a children's clothing boutique in Park Slope, Brooklyn. The business model is to bring in unique lines of children's clothing, sourced from around the world if need be. Unique items, coupled with a focus on customer relationship management and social media promotion form the differentiation strategy. The target market is fairly wealthy, educated and stylish. They are willing to spend on their children's clothing as they see their children as reflections of their own style.
The shop will lose some money in the first year, but will be profitable in subsequent years, and be able to pay the proprietor a salary. The proprietor is 30% owner, with the uncle as a silent partner who contributes all of the capital in exchange for a 70% cut.
The clothing will be high end, not made in sweatshops, stylish in design and unique to the store in most cases.…
NetMBA (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/
Statista (2015). Leading U.S. retail stores by segment in 2012, based on highest sales per square foot. Statista. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.statista.com/statistics/247319/us-retail-stores-by-segment-based-on-highest-sales-per-square-foot/
Property Shark.com (2010). Retail space on Flatbush Avenue in Brooklyn. PropertyShark.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.propertyshark.com/mason/text/infopages/Retail-Space-Flatbush-Avenue-Brooklyn.html
Investopedia (2015). Restrictive covenant. Investopedia. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/restrictive-covenant.asp
Family Law Midterm
Instructions: Please respond to each question in essay format. Each question highlights the week in which the subject matter was covered but please do not forget to include the subject matters (and themes) covered in week 2. Also, please include "practice points" wherever practical. Please read each question first before starting to answer. For each question, you should assume that you have told your client that he/she should consult a lawyer but you are giving advice learned from this class.
Each question is worth 25 pts.
We learned about the laws of child support in New York State. You have a client who is 21 years old who has been dating a woman who is also 21 years old. Your client tells you that his girlfriend is pregnant. The couple is not married and do not live together. Your client has mixed emotions…
Lesson objectives enhance teacher-student and teacher-teacher communications. Pupils must understand exactly what they're supposed to do, which will lead them to commit time to the activities that facilitate attainment of objectives. Their ability to differentiate and prioritize important course-based learning tasks will increase, and thus, they will not waste precious time over irrelevant details. Also, students need to make guesses with regards to what the teacher deems important, as well as what is expected in the form of evaluation matter (UNESCO, n.d.).
Evaluating the developmental progress of children is a never-ending process; it offers an understanding of children's fortes, inclinations, interests, and requirements, which can be utilized for planning suitable, meaningful activities for promoting learning and development of children, individually (CCHP, 2006).
Inclusion denotes growth and learning of all children together irrespective of individual abilities. Inclusion in practice resembles inclusion in standard early childhood courses, since, in case of…
(2010, September). Retrieved from www.theinclusiveclass.com: http://www.theinclusiveclass.com/2011/07/supports-modifications-and.html
CCHP. (2006). Children with Disabilities and other Special Needs. San Francisco: California Child Healthcare Program.
Dowell, H. H. (2008). The Ausbelian Preschool Program: Balancing Child-Directed and Teacher-Directed Approaches. Retrieved from www.earlychildhoodnews.com: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=114
EdTech. (n.d.). ESL Students with Assistive Technology. Retrieved from http://www.edtechpolicy.org/CourseInfo/educ477/Fall2005/yan_finalpaper.pdf
Social Interaction Skills in Clients ith Autism
Social interaction is very important for every human being. It is important for maintaining our physical and mental health. For instance, social interaction helps safeguard people against the detrimental effects of stress by aiding them cope with life. Good social interaction based on friendships and family is important for leading a happy and fulfilled life. Autism often impairs non-verbal and verbal communication as well as social interaction. Social interaction among autistic people is complicated by physiological problems of shifting attention. Autistic people often require more time than non-autistic people do to shift their attention between visual and auditory stimuli. As such, they find it hard to follow fast changing and intricate social interactions (Bauminger et al., 489). People suffering from autism find social situations very nasty as they face various challenges when interacting with other people. Therefore, it is important to develop social…
Bauminger, N., Shulman, C., & Agam, G. Peer interaction and loneliness in high-
functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33 (5): 489-507. 2003
Grandin, Temple. "Social Problems: Understanding Emotions and Developing Talent. Retrieved on March 18, 2014 from http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/index.php?pageId=600#sthash.mHvErcB6.dpuf ."
Child development- A case study
One of the popular ideas of child development and learning in the early childhood educational setting is engaging children in play activities. Play stimulates and improves cognitive, motor and socio-emotional skills of children. Children practice as well as gain mastery over their behaviors, through play. Play theories are broadly categorized into two groups: classical and modern play theories; the former group focuses on human energy, evolution, and instincts (Does play matter, 2013).
Observed levels of play
"Ted" in the striped shirt: Ted is involved in a cooperative form of play, and has cultivated the skills for interacting with others in order to play. He has well-developed communication skills (listening and speaking) and conveys ideas effectively, telling others what must be done. Play-related communication is the key skill in cooperative play.
"Adam" in the Celtic shirt: Adam also exhibits cooperative play, and aims to engaging in…
Borghans, L., Golsteyn, B. H., & Zolitz, U. (2015).School Quality and the Development of Cognitive Skills between Age Four and Six. Plos ONE, 10(7), 1-20. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129700
DOES PLAY MATTER TO PARENTS? TAIWANESE PARENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF CHILD'S PLAY. (2013). Education, 134(2), 244-254.
Ferguson, K. T., Cassells, R. C., MacAllister, J. W., & Evans, G. W. (2013). The physical environment and child development: An international review. International Journal of Psychology, 48(4), 437-468. doi:10.1080/00207594.2013.804190
Nixon D, Aldwinckle M (2003) Exploring: Child Development from three to six years 2nd edition. Social Science Press, Katoomba.
SPIRITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN'S TEMPERAMENT AND SELF-CONTROL: THE CULTURAL INFLUENCE
The objective of this study is to address the cultural contexts relating to spirituality in young children's temperament and self-control.
Child-Well eing Outcomes
Jesus grew in wisdom
Jesus grew in stature
Jesus grew in grace
Einoth's work entitled "uilding Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being" published by World Vision 2010 reports that World Visions biblical bases for the definition of Child Well-eing Outcomes is found in the ible in the ook of Luke, Chapter 2, Verse 52 which states "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor (grace) with God and with people'. (2010, p. ix) Einoth states that in the tradition of the Jewish people that the body "is the object of special care because it is God's creation and special gift of grace. Growing in stature implies growing caring for…
Einoth, SR (2010) Building Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being. A research project carried out on behalf of the World Vision Institute for Research and Development in co-operation with the Child Development and Rights Team within World Vision International's Children in Ministry Department. Friedrichsdorf/Germany . May 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.worldvision-institut.de/_downloads/allgemein/TheorieUndPraxis_5_StrongFoundations.pdf
Holloday, R. (2007) Cultural Trends Influence Our Children. United Church of God. 28 Apr 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ucg.org/sermon/cultural-trends-influence-our-children/
Sharley, V. (2012) New ways of thinking about the influence of cultural identity, place and spirituality on child development within child placement practice. Adoption and Fostering, 22 Sep 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/New+ways+of+thinking+about+the+influence+of+cultural+identity,+place...-a0310516728
By the 1970s most states had mandatory child abuse reporting laws. These laws aimed at identifying abused children and setting in motion legal procedures to investigate the child's situation and either to provide services for them in their own home or to remove them from their home and place them in a safer environment (Melli, 1998).
Historically, the laws and regulations of the present are the children and grandchildren of the laws that were pioneered in the 1960s and 1970s. Certainly, experience makes any process better and smoother, but essentially, the system of three to four decades ago would have been very similar to today. hat would not have percolated down to teachers, principals and other team personnel yet would have been the knowledge of the new legal system and how to function in it. This uncertainty would have undoubtedly have slowed the intervention as wary professionals move cautiously, balancing…
Crosson-Tower, Cynthia. (2010). Understanding child abuse and neglect. 8th ed. Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
Educators' role in child abuse and neglect prevention. (2010). Retrieved 30 July 2010
SPIITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDEN'S TEPEAMENT AND SELF-CONTOL
Historically, school systems not only permitted but encouraged religious instruction and children were enabled to integrate their spiritual views in the processing of the feelings about the events of the world ultimately allowing them to have well developed moral and philosophical bases for themselves and their interactions with the world around them. The result is that educators were enabled in assisting students in their development of themselves in a more fully rounded manner and to create a strong value system to direct their lives. This study examines these issues through a qualitative lens and attempts to understand the role of religion through a holistic model educators use in providing support for the continued growth and learning of students. Specifically this work intends to examine the influence of the church congregation on the development of young people and specifically on their spiritual development…
Jent, GA (nd) When Can a Person, Especially a Child, Have a Genuine Conversion Experience? Retrieved from: http://www.ttgst.ac.kr/upload/ttgst_resources13/20123-134.pdf
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
Abused and Exploited Children
Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.
Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.
Pecora, Peter J, Jensen, Peter S, Romanelli, (2009) Mental Health Services for Children Placed in Foster Care: An Overview of Current Challenges. Child Welfare. Child welfare and well-being. Policy & Practice, Feb, 2009
Shanalingigwa, Abel, O. (2009) Understanding Social and Cultural differences in perceiving child Maltreatment. Accessed online 20th Feb, 2011.
Young Diverse Children Living in ig Cities
This paper will focus on the lives and challenges minority and culturally diverse youths face growing up in major urban city environments, such as Newark, New York, altimore or Seattle. The advent of major metropolitan areas has stimulated a rapidly increasing population of disadvantaged and volatile youths. In today's America, it seems that more and more young people growing up in major cities are subjected to poor socio-economic conditions, which anymore lead to an increased likelihood for violence and life disruption.
Today's youths growing up in major urban cities are often disadvantaged; they lack the self-esteem, confidence and tools necessary to succeed in their later adulthood. I hope through my research to uncover facts related to urban distress among youths. I hope to also explore community organizations that have focused their efforts on improving the conditions prevalent among urban youths. I propose that…
Achtyes, Eric. (1998). "Big Problem, Small Band Aid." The Daily. Available: http://archives.thedaily.washington.edu/1998/110298/O5.i-.html
Casey Foundation. (2004). Available: http://www.aecf.org
Casey Foundation. Child Trends.
Child Trends. (2004). "Raising Children in Big Cities." Right Start City Trends. Child Trends Kids Count Special Report. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available:
Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
ights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's ights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).
Parent's ights When Investigated
Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…
Arizona Department of Economic Security, 2011, Safeguarding rights, Available from: https://www.azdes.gov/main.aspx?menu=154&id=2030 [5 January 2012]
Big Brothers Big Sisters Christchurch, 2009, Dealing with suspected or alleged child abuse policy, http://www.bbbschch.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/dealing-with-suspected-or-alleged-child-abuse-policy.pdf [5 January 2012]
Children's Rights, 2012, Child abuse and neglect, http://www.childrensrights.org/issues-resources/child-abuse-and-neglect / [5 January 2012]
Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, 2003, Parent's guide to child protective services, http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/publications/22-484.pdf [5 January 2012]
Finally, WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC offers programs to ensure adequate nutrition for low-income women and infants, during and after pregnancy (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC also offers referrals for "prenatal and pediatric" health care through Medicaid (ohio.gov, 2011
Identify the philosophical attitudes and perspectives that have led to either the support or lack of understanding for and marginalizing of this group.
Women have faced many challenges that do not generally apply to men, including violence and abuse, low relative wages, unequal opportunities in the workplace, insufficient prenatal and general health care, and a lack of emotional and financial support for single-parenting. Progress along these lines has sometimes been slow due to discriminatory attitudes against: women in general (sexism, or objectification leads to abuse), women in the workplace, women who have children when unmarried, birth control and abortion, and low-income women.
Antonopoulos, R. (2010). Social Protection for Woman. UN Chronicle, 47 (1), 22+.
Bortz, a. (1980). Historical Development of the Social Security Act. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from ssa.gov: http://www.ssa.gov/history/bortz.html
Hanratty, M. (1994). Social Welfare Programs for Women and Children. In R. Blank, Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-off? (pp. 301-332). Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.
ohio.gov. (2011). Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from odh.ohio.gov: http://www.odh.ohio.gov/odhprograms/ns/wicn/wic1.aspx
(Broderick & Blewitt).
Aside from the major issue, at least for the parents, of Jason's reserved social demeanor; there have been several other indicators of acting our behavior that he has presented. On several occasions Jason has complained of stomachaches and headaches prior to having to go to day care or even to any other playtimes where he knows his parents will not be attending. Also, if he has felt threatened by other children in outside settings he will also develop these symptoms in order to be sent home. Then, conversely, after he has been at day care he often does not want to return home and occasionally has a minor tantrum or crying fit. In instances such as these, with seemingly confusing and contradictory symptoms, one must remember that children often do not express anxieties in any direct fashion but often present with symptoms or strange ideologies that can…
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. The life span: Human Development for Helping
Professionals (2nd ed.). (2006) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Burgess, Kim B., and Alastair J. Younger. "Self-Schemas, Anxiety Somatic and Depressive
Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 20.3 (2006): 175+.
Child esearch Data and Publications
The facts that I reviewed on the Child Defense Fund's Child esearch Data and Publications were specific to the state of Oregon. They gave me both new and familiar information that will be a benefit for me to know as a teacher in order to best assist my students in succeeding.
The race with the largest population in Oregonian children was white non-Hispanic, at a count of 593,483 out of the entire 872,811 population. Of this entire population, 19.2% are considered poor. Shockingly, 8.1% are defined as being at an extreme poverty level. It is not uncommon for the children in Oregon to start their life fighting. Oregon has ranked eleventh for infant mortality rates, one child dying each day before reaching their first birthday. This information should unfortunately not be considerably alarming, as 11.6% of the child population in Oregon is living without…
Child Defense Fund. (2011). Children-in-the-states-2011-Oregon. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from http://www.childrensdefense.org/child-research-data-publications/data/state-data-repository/cits/2011/children-in-the-states-2011-oregon.pdf
Cornell. (2002, April 25). Hunger affects schools, psychological development. Retrieved April
13, 2011 from http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/April02/hunger.kids.ssl.html
EffectiveTeachers.org. (2011). Effective teachers. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from http://www.effectiveteachers.org/