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It did not actually instigate the Civil Rights Act, which was already under deliberation and passed the year following the march, but it definitely demonstrated the will of the people in regards to the Act. At the same time, the successes of the march were largely symbolic, which has been interpreted by some as meaning that the march was not truly successful.
A determination of the March on Washington's success, then, depends upon one's definition of success. The march itself did not eradicate the Jim Crow laws or establish political and economic equality -- two things which remain sought for today, though the disparity and inequalities have lessened a great deal -- but it did provide a major touchstone in the lives, hearts, and minds of the people involved in the struggle. It remains a large part of the collective consciousness of those for whom the struggle for Civil Rights…
Franklin Delano Roosevelt came to lead the U.S. during a difficult period in the country's history. The Great Depression ruined many individuals in the U.S. And this influenced the authorities in expressing interest in strategies that it could use with the purpose of improving conditions in the country. Both FDR and the Congress acknowledged that adopting an isolationist policy was one of the most effective methods of satisfying people at home. Although it is difficult and almost impossible to demonstrate this, many historians believe that an earlier U.S. involvement in the Second orld ar would have prevented a great deal of suffering in Europe. Another theory relates to how FDR was aware that the U.S. could not avoid the conflict, but that he wanted to keep Americans out of the war for as long as he could.
The world was going through horrible moments during the early years of the…
"1988 | Gorbachev Ends the Cold War," Retrieved July 27, 2012, from the Austria and the End of the Cold War Website: http://www.austria1989.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67&Itemid=97
"Reagan and Gorbachev: Shutting the Cold War Down," Retrieved July 27, 2012, from the Brookings Website: http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/2004/08/01russia-talbott
Franklin Delano Roosevelt by Roy Jenkins
Roy Jenkins, the author of Franklin Delano Roosevelt has had an illustrious career as a politician, academic, and writer which has spanned more than sixty years. He was British, born in ales, served as a liberal member of parliament, performed service during orld ar II with distinction, was the Chancellor of Oxford University, and the President of the Royal Society of Literature. His works include a famous biography of inston Churchill, as well as on Truman, Gladstone, Baldwin, and many others. Shortly before his death in 2003, Jenkins undertook to write a biography of Franklin Delano Roosevelt for the publishing company Times Books' "American Presidents Series." ith his usual excellence, he went to work on this brief book; however, he died before it's completion; and the book had to be finished by another historian Richard Neustadt. Like Jenkins, Neustadt was involved in politics as…
Jenkins, Roy, and Richard Neustadt. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. New York: Times, 2003. Print.
But, was that what the New Deal promised - to solve all America's social problems? Not at all; in fact, the New Deal was initiated to a) help pull America out of the Great Depression, which it did; b) to put people back to work, some kind of temporary work at least, to give them dignity and food on the table, which it did; c) to help rebuild infrastructure, roads, parks, etc., which it did; and d) to reform the economy to the point where investors, banks, citizens, and businesses felt more secure, which it did.
Auerbach is clearly not in the "New Left" camp, and he makes good arguments to counter the criticisms of the "New Left," but that was a long time ago, and the New Deal looks pretty good from the perspective of 2005, when one considers what any alternatives might have been able to accomplish.…
Auerbach, Jerold S. (1969) New Deal, Old Deal, or Raw Deal: Some Thoughts on New
Left Historiography. The Journal of Southern History 35 (February): 18-30.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Educational Programs. Accessed 22 February, 2005 at http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/index.html .
Garraty, John a. (1973). The New Deal, National Socialism, and the Great Depression.
The New Deal also created various social programs aimed at helping people get back to work, but also to ensure all those in society were taken care of. oosevelt created the Social Security Act in 1935 that would provide monthly payments to everyone over the age of 65, and would provide benefits to surviving spouses and disabled people, as well. The Social Security Act is still in existence today and still provides income and assistance for millions of Americans. One writer calls Social Security one of oosevelt's most enduring legacies. He writes, "oosevelt's other profound legacy, the transformation of the federal government into an instrument of income redistribution through Social Security, which established the responsibility of the state for the welfare of its elderly citizens" (Walker). It was relatively unheard of at the time, and it is only one of oosevelt's enduring legacies.
Many of these programs were initiated by…
Abbott, Philip. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990.
Editors. "Good Neighbor Policy: 1933." U.S. Department of State. 2007. 24 July 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/id/17341.htm
Editors. "Franklin D. Roosevelt Biography." FDR Library. 2007. 24 July 2007. http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/fdrbio.html
Roosevelt, Franklin D. Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1932-1945. Ed B.D. Zevin. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1946.
In addition, the New Deal created many agencies to ensure something like the Great Depression could not happen again. Later in the New Deal oosevelt created Social Security, and program that continues today. In addition, the New Deal also created the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), the National Labor elations Board (NLB), and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA). All of these government agencies still exist to ensure safety and security at work, on the farm, and in the stock exchange and financial institutions. These agencies are insurance for the public and for business, and they are some of the most important agencies oosevelt created.
Many critics felt these programs created too much of a dependence on American government, a criticism which lingers today as the government has become even more involved in the health and welfare of the people. However, these programs reassured the people at the time, and gave them…
Adams, Don and Arlene Goldbard. "New Deal Cultural Programs: Experiments in Cultural Democracy." The Institute for Cultural Democracy. 1995. 18 Oct. 2006. http://www.wwcd.org/policy/U.S./newdeal.html.
Brinkley, Alan. "1 the New Deal Experiments." The Achievement of American Liberalism: The New Deal and Its Legacies. Ed. William H. Chafe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. 1-20. Questia. 18 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99839073 .
Eden, Robert, ed. The New Deal and Its Legacy Critique and Reappraisal. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989. Questia. 18 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=36224722 .
Editors. "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 18 Oct. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/fr32.html
Franklin D. oosevelt and the New Deal 1 and 2
The Least Favored from the New Deal
The Impact of New Deal
Helping the Future Generations
The education system
Welfare and Social Security
The Impact on Labor Standards
Measuring the success of the New Deal
Franklin D. oosevelt and the New Deal 1 and 2
The New Deal measures as one of the greatest experiments of public policy in American history. This Deal was carefully designed by the oosevelt administration to mitigate the effects of the economic depression of the 30s; it was an effective tool in assisting the country to recover from the effects of the economic crisis. It helped restore many people's livelihoods. The deal was responsible for making the government directly responsible for the welfare of the people; at least in part. the deal encompassed certain provisions that also shifted the Class power dynamics of…
Adam Cohen. 2009. "The First 100 Days." Time, June 24.
Jim Powell. 2003. How FDR Prolonged the Great Depression. Policy Report, CATO.
Gavin Wright. 2010. The New Deal and the Modernization of the South. Qualitative Analysis, Federal History online.
Guadalupe T. Luna. 2004. The New Deal and Food Insecurity in the "Midst of Plenty."Research Article, DRAKE JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL LAW.
More precisely even, in order to reach the highest position in the United States, he used his conceptions regarding the reorganization of the United States in order to defeat Hoover. In this sense, "the Hoover administration was accused of being the "greatest spending Administration in peace times in all of our history." It had "piled bureau on bureau, commission on commission..." At the same time Hoover was condemned for the modesty of his relief efforts" (Abbot, 1990, 22). Still, once he reached the President's office he dwelt on the need for the U.S. To recover and created the New Deal, a program that would ensure the recovery of the economy as well as that of the population. These discussions however made him one of the most popular presidents of the history of the U.S. especially taking into account the fact that at the moment of Roosevelt's election, there were over…
Abbott, Philip. The Exemplary Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.. 1990.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003.
illiam Leuchtenburg's Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is a text that combines recent American history with a political and sociological analysis of American policy and government, and adds a healthy dose of biography of the president to give the mixture human drama. Leuchtenburg is able to accomplish this literary feat not simply because he is such a skilled historian, but because Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his cabinet exercised a unique degree of power over the American economy of his day. America was in an economic crisis when Roosevelt came to be elected the presidency. To remedy this crisis, Roosevelt essentially had to overhaul the American system of government and the relationship of the federal government to the citizenry. He created the modern social welfare system, the concept of the 'safety net' for the needy, and a sense of government's social obligations as well as a citizen's obligations to…
Leuchtenburg, William. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Perennial, 1963.
Era Franklin D. oosevelt, 1933-1945: A Brief History With Documents ichard Polenberg -- 4 Polenberg quotes, brackets quote i.e [polenberg, page number] 2.Franklin Delano oosevelt Alan Brinkley- 4 quotes brackets [Brinkley, page number] 3.
Franklin Delano oosevelt has had a strong impact on U.S. politics for several decades during the twentieth century. The fact that he had influential roles throughout some of the era's most significant events made it possible for him to develop attitudes that put him in an advantage. Even with this, his leadership abilities are also remarkable when considering his background without taking into account events like the Second World War or the Great Depression.
One oosevelt's most impressive early achievements involved the founding of the United States Navy eserve. As a person in charge of this institution, he got actively involved in a series of dealings involving influential individuals and communities in U.S. politics. In spite…
Roosevelt acknowledged the suffering the war could inflict on the American peoples and thus concentrated on strategies that could put the nation at an advantage. "Unknown to all but a few, the United States was by then far along in an effort Roosevelt had authorized early in the war: the Manhattan Project." (Brinkley 1946) The project involving the atomic bomb was practically a means to use a limited number of soldiers while dealing a blow that could destabilize the enemy.
The fact that Roosevelt was determined to keep the U.S. out of the war is visible when looking at his early reactions concerning the conflict. "When war finally broke in Europe in September 1939, Roosevelt continued to insist that the conflict would not involve the United States." (Brinkley 1928) Even with this, he did not hesitate to get the military to organize better with the purpose of being able to provide a swift response in case of a disaster.
All things considered, Roosevelt played an essential role in U.S. history and it is safe to say that his involvement both in the Great Depression and in the Second World War made it possible for Americans in particular and for the world in general to experience a more rapid recovery and to escape having to suffer for prolonged periods of time.
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
New Deal's Consequences
There are some truly poignant ways in which the New Deal profoundly changed American life. The vast majority of these changes had ramifications in political, social, and economic spheres of life. Perhaps even more importantly, many of these changes created by the New Deal were able to effect American life across these different spheres, creating cumulative effects that eventually resounded through all of three facets of life.
In terms of economics, it is notable that despite its intention to produce the opposite effect, the New Deal actually begat the trend towards economic conservatism and laissez fare economics that still typifies the country to this day. Ironically, the New Deal programs -- which were based on the simple notion that the government was responsible for generating spending and business to stimulate the economy during the Great Depression -- had the immediate impact of producing a heavily regulated economy.…
If Chief Justice Hughes and his five aged associates had chosen to remain, the membership of the court would have been enlarged from nine to fifteen" (Pusey 1995).
A small group of constitutional lawyers advised Roosevelt in the construction of the bill, assuring him that the Democratic majority in both Houses of Congress would pass it. hen Roosevelt introduced the bill, Roosevelt used the euphemism of judicial 'reform' rather than said it was an attempt to circumvent the recent rulings of the Supreme Court. He framed his plan as a way of relieving the pressures of overcrowded court dockets. However, some of the phrases he used made his feelings clear, namely his reference to the problems of lifetime appointments, or "aged or infirm judges," (Menaker 2008).
hen he spoke of justices of advanced ages, the President was obviously speaking of his opponents on the Court, the so-called anti-government Four Horsemen…
Lord, Lewis. "An eagle that didn't take off." U.S. News and World Report.
August 10, 2003. Full text of print article available March 6, 2009 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/030818/1870thann.htm
Menaker, by Richard G. "FDR's Court-Packing Plan: A Study in Irony." History Now. Issue 15,
April 2008. March 6, 2009 http://www.historynow.org/04_2008/historian4.html
succeeding presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt seem to be categorically and diametrically antithetical from every conceivable angle. Entering the office in 1929, Herbert Hoover's administration marked the end of America's most prosperous period to date. Within nine months of his assumption of office, the country began its tumble into the Great Depression. Clearly, the nation was paying for the good times of the Roaring Twenties. Roosevelt, however, took on the unenviable responsibilities of the president in 1933, and with them, he received a nation ravaged by unemployment, homelessness and starvation. During the worst economic times in recorded American history, he would become the warm, fatherly figure ordained to comfort the citizens. Where Hoover was reserved and conservative, Roosevelt was engaging and progressive. Hoover's reaction to the initial blow of the Depression was one of patience and calculated inaction. He was confident that the problem would right itself.…
The plan also calls for contributions to improve public education, to modernize schools and to improve Pell Grants. There is also money for research in science in technology to improve the broad band capabilities of the Internet infrastructure. Money has also been allocated for small business owners.
This infusion will be over several years. Critics of this plan concur that the amounts of money spread out over several years will not be sufficient to achieve the results the plan puts forth. Also, a lot of money has been given to banks, financial institutions and lending agencies. Money has also been given to the auto industry so that they can be more competitive with foreign auto manufacturers. But soon after, what the critics feared happened. The President asked the CEO of General Motors ick Wagoner to resign. Critics believe that such an unprecedented rise of the power of the Federal government…
Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: Fdr's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Aravosis, John. Summary of Final Stimulus Package. 2009. America Blog. Available: http://www.americablog.com/2009/02/summary-of-final-stimulus-package.html .
Calmes, Jackie. "House Passes Stimulus Plan with No G.O.P Votes." New York Times 2009.
Fox, Justin. "
They each impacted the world in unique yet powerful ways and therefore I chose to invite these three leaders to dinner.
Hitler was of course one of the most nefarious men in history. I did not invite him to dinner to hear him rant about enemies to the Aryan people. Rather, I wanted to understand who Hitler was, to recognize what qualities could turn a human being into such a monster. Hitler was enormously successful at his military campaigns too, and I thought it would be interesting to pit him and his foe, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, together. Both impacted the course of World War Two. To Roosevelt I would like to ask more about his disability and about how he felt about the current state of affairs in America.
Similarly, I would like to ask Dr. King what he thought about America today. He would probably be proud of his…
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
King might be one of the only persons in history with the rhetoric powerful enough to chip away at Hitler's cold heart, to find out why Hitler believed what he did and just possibly persuade him to think differently. Even if King could not get through to Hitler, it would be a fascinating conversation. The only direct question I might ask to Hitler might be about his interest in the occult. I have heard rumors that his dabbling in the occult led to his distorted ideas about the Aryan race.
Over dessert, I would try to find some common ground between the four of us. That common ground, if anything, would be a defining feature of human nature. Dr. King helped awaken America to the reality of racism. President Roosevelt introduced New Deal legislation that left a long legacy of social services in America. Hitler left a trail of blood,…
Voter Through Congressional District esearch
The bipartisan structure which defines the American system of democratic governance is premised on the notion that informed voters, when provided with an opportunity to select their own leadership, will invariably alternate between candidates with whom they identify closely, and members of the opposing party who offer meaningful reform. This maxim of American politics has resulted in a pattern of Presidential ascendency whereby neither party has captured the White House in three consecutive elections since the four consecutive campaign victories notched by Franklin Delano oosevelt more than a half-century ago. Nonetheless, there are still pockets of provincial loyalty which still exist throughout the national electorate, with family histories and cultural touchstones serving to elevate one party above its competition in the hearts and minds of voters. In the second congressional district of Tennessee -- an area which spans the metropolitan borders of Knoxville, as well…
Barone, M., & Cohen, R.E. (2005). The Almanac of American Politics, 2006. Washington, DC:
National Journal Group.
Bill, T. (2010, January 17). Alexander among most bipartisan of gop senators. The Leaf
Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.theleafchronicle.com/article/20100117/OPINION/1170329?nclick_check=1
The President intended to implement safeguards to prevent another series of depression from occurrence. The President was convinced that the second series of reforms will provide assistance to the American people. The President introduced different programs; Works Progress Administration and the National Youth Administration. The government hired people, particularly men for the vacancies available in government departments. The President also introduced the Emergency elief Appropriation Act, the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, the ural Electrification Act, the Social Security Act, the Wagner-Connery Act, the esettlement Administration, and the Federal Housing Act. Both the houses of the government adopted the resolution, and supported with minor amendments.
The first and second series of reforms introduced by the oosevelt's administration provided relief and assistance to the American people, particularly the backward people of Ohio State. The resident of Ohio State received grants from government through one or more of these programs or…
David M. Kennedy., Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War 1929-1945.
William (EDT) Dudley. The Great Depression: Opposing Viewpoints.
August Constantino Bolino., From Depression to War: American Society in Transition.
John Eric Nordskog., Contemporary Social Reform Movements: Principles and Readings.
War Address" by F.D. Roosevelt
Discussion analysis on Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Infamy Speech"
The Second World War had been noted as the most destructive conflict in the history of humanity, mainly because it involved and separated nations of the world into two factions: the Axis and Alliance powers. These factions reflect the kind of conflict that led to the declaration of the world war, wherein the Axis group was composed primarily of Germany, Italy, and Japan, while the Grand Alliance involved the United States, Britain, and France. The Grand Alliance was formed as a protest against the Nazi government, led by Adolf Hitler, implemented its anti-Semitism propaganda across Europe, and it moved on to include the Asian region as well (with the participation of Japan).
The Pearl Harbor attack against the United States served as the catalyst that led to its participation as member of the Grand Alliance and involvement…
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…
Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).
American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,
Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive
Species: Strangers on the Land,
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
saw an unprecedented wave of European immigration during the late nineteenth century and this reflected positively on fields like industry and agriculture, taking into account that it provided a significant labor base and that it seriously increased the number of people in the urban environment. Cities rapidly enlarged as a consequence and it became obvious that technology was going to progress quickly in the era. One can actually claim that immigration, industrial progress, and agricultural progress created a vicious chain. People came into the U.S. because it provided them with jobs and with the opportunity to improve their condition while the agriculture and the industry grew and thus demanded more working hands.
The railroad network expanded rapidly during these years and provided individuals with the opportunity to travel farther to the est and settle in areas previously considered unattractive. Although it is somewhat difficult to claim this, it is only…
"Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Economic Trends," Retrieved
July 27, 2012, from the University of West Georgia Website: http://www.westga.edu/~hgoodson/Economic%20Trends.htm
"Part II: War, Depression and War, 1914-1945," Retrieved July 27, 2012, from the Collin County Community College District Website: http://iws.collin.edu/kwilkison/Online1302home/20th%20Century/DepressionNewDeal.html
courage means words cross threshold. 2. Identify historical figure courage. Explain embodies definition courage. Use specific examples details illustrate point.
The hero: Crossing the threshold
According to the historian of mythology Joseph Campbell, a true hero is a man or woman who 'crosses the threshold' by undertaking a courageous action that enables him or her to be reborn into a new identity. A hero might not seem to be an extraordinary person initially, but through the willingness to reinvent him or herself, he or she is revealed to be a heroic person. This was the case with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born to privilege. He lived a luxurious existence of wealth few Americans could dream of experiencing in Hyde Park, New York. He was descended from a line of prominent figures, the most famous of who was Theodore Roosevelt, the former Republican president. Franklin was educated by…
"Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Biography.com. 2012 [14 Apr 2012]
It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).
The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…
Binstock, Robert H., and George, Linda K. (2010). Handbook of Aging and the Social
Sciences. Maryland Heights, MO: Academic Press.
Black, Jane A. (2008). Notes: The Not-So-Golden Years: Power of Attorney, Elder Abuse, and Why Our Laws are Failing a Vulnerable Population. St. John's Law Review, 82(1), 289-314
Collier, Elizabeth. (2005). Latent age discrimination in mental health care. Mental Health
John F. Kennedy
In contemporary times, John F. Kennedy is known for many things; winning a Pulitzer Prize, however, is not one of them (Coleman). Kennedy's awarding of the Pulitzer in 1957 -- a full four years before he was elected president of the United States -- for the biographical Profiles in Courage was one of his few achievements that he made prior to his election that did not directly involve his equally famous and influential family, including two brothers who also ran for president (Miller Center). Such a statement in no way detracts from Kennedy's prowess as a politician or as a leader. Yet it is highly difficult to extract his success as president from the intrinsic relationship between his family and his political life. In fact, there is a good deal of evidence that indicates that Kennedy's ensuing success as the commander-in-chief (for which he, of course, is…
Bates, Michael. "President Kennedy and the Mob." www.renewAmerica.com. 2009. Print. http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/bates/090114
Black, Allida, Hopkins, June, Sears, John. "The West Virginia Primary." The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. 2006. Web. http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/mep/displaydoc.cfm?docid=erps-wvp60
Coleman, David. "Life Before the Presidency." www.millercenter.org. 2010. Web. http://millercenter.org/president/kennedy/essays/biography/2
Dallek, Robert. An Unfinished Life. New York: Little, Brown and Company. Print. 2003.
Finally, proponents of term limits point out that the aforementioned second-term problems were due to personality, leadership, and policy problems, not clout in Congress alone. In terms of change, the presence of term limits can 'cut' both ways: "On the one hand it is said that not having term limits makes needed change more difficult because of the power that long-time office holders amass. On the other hand, term limits can also be seen as an obstacle to long-term needed political change because it forces a change of leadership at a time when the leader's project might not be ready for such change" (ilpert 2009).
However, the system of checks and balances enshrined in the Constitution suggests that the Founding Fathers envisioned a limited form of government, without a powerful ruling political class, particularly at the executive level. Above all, ashington and his fellow Founding Fathers feared the establishment of…
22: Presidential term limits. (2002, November 27). Post Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2009 at http://www.post-gazette.com/nation/20021127amendment_22p9.asp
Wilpert, Gregory. (2009, February 19). An important victory for Venezuela and for socialism.
NACLA. Retrieved April 16, 2009 at http://nacla.org/node/5526
SSA Status eport
The author of this report has been asked to do an analysis of the Social Security program as it exists in the United States. First, there will be a look at how Social Security was initially envisioned and planned by President Franklin Delano oosevelt. Second, there will be an analysis done of what is projected to happen with Social Security over the next twenty to thirty years. Third, the author of this report will provide two recommendations that will help improve the viability and existence of Social Security over the next generation. Finally, there will be an evaluation of how these recommendations can be implemented given the contentious political environment that exists right now. While petty fights and demagoguery will surely get in the way, the Social Security system is in bad long-term shape and needs to be properly fixed and adjusted immediately.
According to a…
History.com. (2015). FDR signs Social Security Act - Aug 14, 1935 - HISTORY.com.
HISTORY.com. Retrieved 17 July 2015, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-signs-social-security-act
Reuteman, R. (2010). Will Baby Boomers Bankrupt Social Security?. CNBC. Retrieved
17 July 2015, from http://www.cnbc.com/id/34941334
Schechter v United States: hat is the constitutional doctrine of the non-Delegation of legislative powers?
Over the course of his first terms in office, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt enacted a series of measures designed to extricate the nation from the Great Depression. A number of these actions, including his attempts to create a series of new federal agencies, caused him to engage in open conflict with the U.S. Supreme Court, to the point that Roosevelt even considered increasing the number of Supreme Court justices to ensure his legislation stood unchallenged. Although ultimately he was dissuaded from this plan, the question of when it was legal for Congress to delegate its powers to some of the other branches of government was at the heart of the conflict.
The doctrine of non-delegation of legislative powers holds that even if Congress wishes to delegate its legislative authority to another entity it cannot do…
McBride, A. Schechter v United States. The Supreme Court. Landmark Cases. PBS. Dec 2006.
2 Nov 2015. Web.
Mistretta v. United States. PowerPoint.
Schechter v United States. PowerPoint.
The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.
The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.
FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…
DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]
DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.
Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).
Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
Her son was far more democratic in spirit, and he would even allow his personal secretary "Missy" to act as hostess when Eleanor was away (120). Of course, this raises the question if Missy and Roosevelt were lovers, especially as Missy would occasionally wear nightgowns as evening gowns to these affairs -- out of poverty or another motive, one wonders?
However, it was Eleanor who took Franklin's place at the Democratic National onvention, when Democrats balked at granting her husband a third chance at the White House, even though Eleanor, for all of her popularity and political acumen was looking forward to a quieter life. hapter 5 paints a picture of a nation, a White House, and a couple coming to terms with the extraordinary demands of the first half of the 20th century. But although war was on the horizon, ultimately…
Chapter 5 is entitled "No Ordinary Time." It begins with a reminder that Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the first president to seek a third term in office. Then, the two-term limit was a "tradition," not a law (126). Republicans and even some Democrats resisted Roosevelt's attempt to win a third term but other politicians agreed with the sentiments of one senator who stated: "If times were normal, I would not favor a third term...but I consider 1940 an abnormal year" (93). Of course, none of the events presided over by FDR during his first two terms were ordinary, like the magnitude of the economic effects of the Great Depression. President Roosevelt was weary, and part of him looked forward to retirement, but he had groomed no clear successor (90-91).
As well as detailing the controversy over Roosevelt's third term, the chapter also contains a great deal of personal drama. It depicts a comic dinner party between the Democratic party chief, Franklin's mother Sara who still presided over dinners as if her son was unmarried, and mourned that he had to go into politics and mix with such "dreadful" (that is, lower class) people (95). Her son was far more democratic in spirit, and he would even allow his personal secretary "Missy" to act as hostess when Eleanor was away (120). Of course, this raises the question if Missy and Roosevelt were lovers, especially as Missy would occasionally wear nightgowns as evening gowns to these affairs -- out of poverty or another motive, one wonders?
However, it was Eleanor who took Franklin's place at the Democratic National Convention, when Democrats balked at granting her husband a third chance at the White House, even though Eleanor, for all of her popularity and political acumen was looking forward to a quieter life. Chapter 5 paints a picture of a nation, a White House, and a couple coming to terms with the extraordinary demands of the first half of the 20th century. But although war was on the horizon, ultimately the American public had confidence in its leadership.
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…
Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..
Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.
That's why fascists changed their political program.
Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).
The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.
Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).
So, all German private property got…
6. Georgi Zhukov From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Noontide Pr 1991.
7. Montefiore, Simon Sebag Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar Dixie 1993
8. J.Simon, M. Miller. World Economics WestPrint 1988
United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is the largest, oldest, most comprehensive, and most successful minority higher education assistance organization in America. They provide assistance in a variety of manners, including: operating funds and technology enhancement services its 38-member, historically black, universities and colleges, internships and scholarships for minority students at nearly 1,000 institutions, as well as faculty and administrative professional training ("About UNCF," 2004).
The United Negro College Fund has been in existence for more than 60 years. In this time, it has raised more than $2 billion that has assisted more than 300,000 students to attend college. They have distributed more money, in the assistance of minorities attending school, than any other organization, other than the United States government ("About UNCF," 2004).
Today, UNCF supports approximately 65,000 students at nearly 1,000 colleges and universities. 60%, of these students, are the first in their families to attend college. 62%, of…
About UNCF. (2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, from http://www.uncf.org/aboutus/index.asp .
Roots that Run Deep. (No date). Retrieved January 16, 2005, from http://www.uncf.org/doc/UNCF_Impact_History.pdf .
UNCF History -- Timeline. (2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, from http://www.uncf.org/history/timeline.asp .
QUESTION 2: In rebutting the word of the hitorian in Quetion 1, an equally perceptive cholar argued, "The mot damning force in America, 1900-1940, wa the rie of buine. Corporation produced little but hardhip and depair, and gave u nothing. Indeed, thi period wa marked by the rie of large corporation, but it wa the growth of the large corporation intead that doomed American ociety and detroyed democracy."
In the year prior to Theodore Rooevelt' preidency, two of the greatet ocial/political problem facing America were baed on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy clae and the expanion of "Manifet Detiny" in foreign land. Dometically, the country wa burdened by a financial panic in the 1890' which complicated the live of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more properou. In the citie, people demanded democratic change in many area, uch a the twelve hour work day,…
statement which virtually guaranteed that American capitalism, supported by the huge corporations, would endure well into the twentieth century.
With the demise of the Wilson Administration and the opening years of the Coolidge Presidency, America experienced tremendous growth in what has been called the "roaring twenties." Yet during this time, not all Americans were given an equal share in the prosperity. In 1929, the richest Americans controlled the vast majority of savings, while the remainder had no savings at all. A prime example of this disparity was the automobile mogul Henry Ford, who earned $14 million as compared to the average income of $7500 a year. As usual, the major reason for this disparity was due to the increased manufacturing output of the big corporations which saw immense gains in their profit margins while those of the common working man increased nominally. One other factor was the Revenue Act of 1926 which favored big business and the wealthy by reducing the federal income tax and inheritance taxes.
But the major event, beginning in 1929, which financially catapulted American corporations and the wealthy was the Great Depression, the worst economic catastrophe in U.S. history that affected every American citizen. Although many factors contributed to the Depression, the main cause centered around the unequal distribution of wealth and the speculations in the stock market. Once again, American corporations came out on top, due to the disparities between the rich and the middle classes. The stock market crash, a result of excessive stock speculations in the late 1920's, created a very unstable economy yet at the same time helped to foster the growing monopolies in American industries.
The Great Depression continued well into the 1930's, but with the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1931, the economy began to turn upwards and the working man, for the first time in more than half a century, experienced some financial gains. Roosevelt's "New Deal," designed to stabilize the economy and create a more equal society, included among others the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Wagner National Labor Relations Act. In essence, Roosevelt's "New Deal" took power away from the wealthy business owners and gave more power to the growing labor unions which represented the working man. Yet with the onset of World War II in 1941, American corporations found themselves in another advantageous position which increased their power and wealth and helped to form the current system of corporate "Manifest Destiny" in American society.
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study
in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States
Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf
Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
Dallek used traditional methods of research and structure making his book a true "history" from a collegiate-academic point-of-view. But this does not invalidate Caro's work. The problem, then, in looking at both of these books to be authorities is to figure out if it really matters if Caro's lack of credentials and traditional (meaning library) method of information gathering actually denote a lesser effect on the overall impact of the work. The problem, then, that Caro faces is the determination if his work actually is quote worthy of other historians quoting / referencing him.
For Dallek, his unwavering adherence to strict academic research leaves the punch out of the story of Johnson. It is one thing to have a series of supported and peer-reviewed facts lined up chapter by chapter, and it is yet another to make those facts sing in an engaging story format. Caro's book is by far…
Caro, Robert J. The Path to Power: The Years of Lyndon Johnson, vol 1.New York,: Vintage, 1990.
Dallek, Robert. Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and his Times, 1908-1960, vol 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
He learned quickly, showed political prowess, was not afraid to lead his followers in troubled times (like the Screen Actors' strike), and he could think on his feet, develop his own very moving speeches, and he had very strong beliefs which he was not afraid to voice. All of these are qualities of a leader, and they developed as he made his way thorough life.
eagan, with support of some friends and political leaders, began toying with the notion of running for governor in California. Cannon notes,
eagan, despite never having spent a day in public office, had political assets that his opponents failed to recognize. Foremost among these was that he was widely known and liked [...] He was an effective speaker -- in person, on radio, and on television -- with an intangible quality of identifying with his audiences and reflecting their values (Cannon 38).
In 1966, eagan…
Cannon, Lou. Ronald Reagan: The Presidential Portfolio: A History Illustrated from the Collection of the Ronald Reagan Library and Museum. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
Joffe, Josef. "The 'Amazing and Mysterious' Life of Ronald Reagan." The National Interest Fall 2004: 85+.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Von Drehle, David. "Reagan Hailed as Leader for 'the Ages'." WashingtonPost.com. 2004. 24 Oct. 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35593-2004Jun11.html
The orks Progress Administration (PA) created jobs for laborers who were unemployed, but it wasn't just "make work" labor, it actually helped the nation build roads and bridges along with needed public buildings. The Public orks Administration (PA) helped build dams and other reclamation projects; this served to create jobs and at the same time provide "less expensive electricity, flood control, and irrigation water for farmers" (Etulain 324). The Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and Grand Coulee and Bonneville Dams on the Columbia River, were extraordinarily helpful in many practical ways in the western U.S.
hereas Hoover was unable to see the need to put the federal government's full power of assets to work for the citizens - his conservative background kept him from doing what needed to be done in an urgent way - FDR did see the need; and by using his office as a bully pulpit,…
Etulain, Richard W. (2006). Beyond the Missouri: The Story of the American West.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Johnson, Lyndon Baines. (2007). King Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 12, 2007, at http://www.stanford.edu/group/king/about_king/encyclopedia/johnson_lyndon.htm .
S. Marines departed, after in effect being an occupying force on foreign soil, they left "a tender wound, making the Dominicans extremely sensitive to any hint of U.S. interference in Dominican affairs and quick 'to resent any slight, any tactlessness' on the part of the U.S. representatives."
To conclude this portion of the paper, the question is pertinent: why was the U.S. so embarrassingly unprepared for the power grab by Trujillo in February, 1930? oorda explains that the envoy to the Dominican epublic, John Moors Cabot, only 28 years old, misjudged "the distribution of power between the civilian chief of state and the military commander, a mistake repeatedly frequently" by American diplomats, while a nationalism fueled by militarist dictators "swept across the region" in the early 1930s. Meantime, the U.S. backed Trujillo, and even assisted him. It was all part of the American "Good Neighbor" policy: nonintervention, and support for…
Merriam-Webster (2005). "Morality." Accessed on http://www.m-w.com .
Roorda, Eric Paul. (1998). The Dictator Next Door. Durham: Duke University Press.
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…
About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html .
Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.
Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
There is a belief, common to economists, that government intervention is necessary to assist economic growth. The current belief that the reason that the economy is faltering is that job growth has faltered, has not altered this perception, even though it probably should have. Recently both the Bush and Obama administrations have tried many different means of stimulating the economy (much as Franklin Delano Roosevelt did during the "Great Depression"), and these means have had varying levels if success. However, despite some small amount of relief and a stronger stock market, job growth remains stagnant and the economy slugs along with it. The efforts of the current administration toward job growth and creation, whether that be in State of the Union speeches or actually policies, have not produced the desired effects. hy is this? Could it be that the Keynesian methods of economic growth and job production are faulty?…
Buzzeo, Fred. "Job Creation and Other Economic Myths." Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2010. Web.
Hazlitt, Henry. Economics in One Lesson. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1946. Print.
Mises, Ludwig von. "Capitalism, Happiness and Beauty." Capitalistic Mentality, 1954. Web.
For decades, school children have been taught the misinformation that Christopher Columbus “discovered” America. As consciousness develops and society becomes more aware of the realities of history, it becomes less and less acceptable to celebrate false heroes like corrupt politicians, confederate generals and cruel explorers. Christopher Columbus fits the last category. A close examination of history demonstrates that he brought much despair and horrors to indigenous people near the Americas. The fact that The United States still has a day in his honor is bizarre and absurd. This essay will discuss the numerous compelling reasons why Columbus Day should be abolished, and ideally replaced with something that appropriately honors indigenous people.
One of the most compelling reasons to abolish Columbus Day was the fact that Christopher Columbus was a non-American, non-native, who never actually touched any of the soil of the continental United States. It might even be accurate…
Americans have even been moved to call the document divinely inspired, in another irony, as Constitution gives the right to every American to worship as he or she chooses, free of state influences.
Kammen convincingly shows that how Americans feel about the Constitution is often very different from what lies within the document. In doing so, he encourages the reader to take a more critical view of his or her own conception of the Constitution and to question assumptions that we have somehow always known what the Founders envisioned. e are neglectful of our duties as citizens, says Kammen, if we do not read the Constitution in light of its cultural history and grow more reflexive and self-critical as a nation about the way we view it. The Constitution is malleable in our elected and unelected officials' hands and minds, and in our own collective mind as a culture.
Rosen, Jeffrey. PBS. "The first hundred years." The Supreme Court. 2007. December 30, 2009.
"Text of John Roberts' opening statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee." USA Today.
September 12, 2005. December 30, 2009.
The economy began to contract still further immediately after the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Fears that Roosevelt would devalue the dollar or even abolish the Gold Standard caused both domestic and foreign investors to once again to "convert dollars to gold, putting pressure on both the banking system and the gold reserves of the Federal Reserve System. Bank failures and the Fed's defensive measures against the gold drain further reduced the stock of money. The economy took its deepest plunge between November 1932 and March 1933, once more confirming the temporal sequence predicted by the monetary hypothesis. Once Roosevelt was sworn in, his declaration of a national bank holiday and, subsequently, his cutting the link between the dollar and gold initiated the expansion of money, prices, and output" (Bernanke 2002).
Roosevelt did not abandon the gold standard wholesale. However, he did devalue the dollar, nationalize gold owned by private…
Bernanke, Ben S. (2002, November 8). Remarks at the conference to honor Milton Friedman.
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved June 2, 2009 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/BOARDDOCS/SPEECHES/2002/20021108/default.htm
Bordo, Michael D. (2008). The Gold Standard. The Econ Library. Retrieved June 2, 2009 at http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GoldStandard.html
Kelley, Martin. (2009). Top Five causes of the Great Depression. About.com.
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…
Future of Unions in America
Union membership has been steadily decreasing since the 1970's. But since the history of union membership has been filled with short, fervent periods of rapid increases in membership, followed by long periods of stagnation and decrease in membership, this may not seem to be cause of worry. However, while the current decrease in the number of union workers may seem to be just another slump, the fact that it has lasted more than thirty years, is disturbing. In that time, the world and it's economy has dramatically changed, and one must ask the question "could this be the twilight of the American labor movement?" If unions are going to, not only survive, but flourish and expand their influence, the entire labor movement must change it's very nature; expanding it's scope of interest, membership, and international relationships. This essay will examine the history of the union…
Fletcher, Bill, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Donna Dewitt. (2011 June 2) The Future of Organize Labor in the U.S.: Reinventing Trade Unionism for the 21st Century. Monthly Review. Retrieved from http://monthlyreview.org/commentary/the-future-of-organized-labor-in-the-u-s
Friedman, Gerald. "Labor Unions in the United States | Economic History Services." EH.Net | Economic History Services. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/friedman.unions.us
Haeberle, Kevin. (2011, Feb. 17) Labor Unions are Dead…or at Least on Life Support. Becker's Hospital Review. Retrieved from http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/news-analysis/labor-unions-are-deador-at-least-on-life-support.html
Hirsch, Barry. (2008). Sluggish Institutions in a Dynamic World: Can Unions and Industrial Competition Coexist. Retrieved from http://184.108.40.206/scholar?q=cache:G9FwFp3jAsIJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=
Social Security is one of the strongest federal social welfare programs in the United States. Initiated as part of Franklin Delano oosevelt's New Deal, Social Security kick-started a revolution in federalism that characterized the twentieth century. Prior to New Deal reforms, federal powers were kept largely in check. Social Security was, and still is, challenged on constitutional grounds because of the way its parameters allow for a strong federal government. Social Security raises issues of federalism, in its use of federal resources, funding and power. Moreover, Social Security precludes states from opting out. This essay will analyze the overall effectiveness of Social Security, as determined by the overall goal of the policy in promoting social welfare. The thesis is that in spite of some weaknesses and presumptions, Social Security remains consistent with the constitutional framework of federalism.
When President oosevelt backed Social Security, the policy was a direct response…
Jeffrey, T.P. (2011). Authors of social security believed it was unconstitutional. Retrieved online: http://cnsnews.com/blog/terence-p-jeffrey/authors-social-security-believed-it-was-unconstitutional
Katz, E. (1997). American federalism, past, present, future. Retrieved online: http://www.ucs.louisiana.edu/~ras2777/amgov/federalism.html
Norton, G. (2011). Breaking: Supreme Court rules Social Security is constitutional. Daily KOS. Retrieved online: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/08/29/1011367/-Breaking-Supreme-Court-Rules-Social-Security-Is-Constitutional
The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) pushed for a "national conference on safety" and as a result the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) was held (in 1912) and out of that meeting the National Council of Industrial Safety (NCIS) was founded. Later, the NCIS evolved into the National Safety Council (NSC) (Goetsch, p. 6).
On-the-job accidents "and even fatalities" were "an accepted fact of life in the construction industry" during the early 1900s, writes author Richard Hislop on page 4 of his book, Construction Site Safety: A Guide for Managing Contractors. Construction workers helping to build the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, for example, were in harm's way constantly. hen the budget was established and the projections for the Golden Gate were prepared, "it was expected that there would be on fatality for each million dollars of construction work," Hislop explains (1999, p. 4). And since the…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2007.
Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htm .
Goetsch, David L. (2003). Construction Safety and Health. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…
The war had broken the economic back of Europe, as well as its political and transport structures. Another key aspect of later Keynesian theory was the need for maintaining economic infrastructures, rather than breaking them in revenge, and that cash infusions in the short run reap dividends for all in the long run. Keynes always took a long-term rather than a short-term view of economic policies. The current policies against Germany only satisfied short-term emotions, but could cause long-term economic destruction of a major power and thus injure the world. "It was only at a later stage that a general popular demand for an indemnity, covering the full costs of the war, made it politically desirable to practice dishonesty and to try to discover in the written word what was not there."
However, Keynes' perspicuous view of world events also showed that he did not merely focus on the immediate…
Keynes, John Maynard. (1919) the Economic Consequences of the Peace. Available online in full text on 16 December 2004 at http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/keynes/peace
It would construct a credible, but false, situation to deceive or lead the target to act in a manner, which would accomplish the commander's goal. When the target accepted the deception, the commander determined the means or methods needed to present the events. The manual demonstrated the mechanism of "Conditioning an Adversary" through the case of the Egyptian crossing the Suez in 1973. It consisted that deceptive measures and a broad range of centrally-directed and controlled deception events, involving political and military activities. Whether the objective was to control the public and elite view of a conflict or for purposes of military deception, the U.S. military had keen interest in media's perception of events in the battlefield. If the media was present and undermined the political strategy, it needed to be controlled. ut if it were non-neutral, there was greater need to control it. Whether it behaved impartially or not,…
Breuer, William. Uncover Tales of World War II. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999
Bush, Georg W. Remarks at the Decication of the National World War II Memorial. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Government Printing Office, May 29, 2004
Conant, Jennet. Tuxedo Park: a Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science that Changed the Course of World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002
Friedman, Max Paul. Nazis and Good Neighbors. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003
However, it was changes in technology that originally made the cultivation of the land possible, and marked a shift from earlier methods of production, as practiced by Native Americans. hile small Okie farmers might have hated the larger agricultural conglomerates, they too had benefited from technology in past and paid the price when technology destroyed the land. And it was, in the end, technology that also saved such subsistence farmers, in the form of new cultivation methods -- introduced by the federal government.
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." itness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and orld ar II. May 1, 2010.
"The Dust Bowl." U.S. History. May 1, 2010.
Egan, Timothy. The orst Hard Time. Mariner, 2006.
"Hugh Hammond Bennett." The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of rath. Penguin,…
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." Witness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and World War II. May 1, 2010.
But this does not mean it is fair to ignore how many fragile emerging economies, such as Iceland, Ireland, and Greece, have been suffering far worse turmoil than either the U.S. Or Canada today. Regarding the worries about the 'jobless recovery,' Watson believes decreases in employment do not always presage more serious recessions later on.
There are profound differences between today and the 1930s. The difference seem to lie in the political climate: there was widespread support for Franklin Delano Roosevelt's instituting of government programs to help the unemployed and dispossessed. Today, an intransigent Republican minority faction in Congress is stymieing such efforts. Watson's sunny forecast does not provide any advice about how to prevent a similar crisis in the future, he simply advises the reader to watch and wait unemployment figures creep up: "IPA forecast sees the national unemployment rate rising to an average of 8.1% in 2009 --…
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…
An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.
Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp
Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
he Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. heodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. his had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. his public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin…
The years between the Civil War and the New Deal were marked with major changes in policy, government structure, and the world at large. Though race policy was largely regressive following the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, other reform movements pushing for institutional change gained steam during this period. The struggle for women's suffrage and other rights was truly galvanized in 1848, but was put on hold during the Civil War and completely ignored by the Constitutional amendments following the war. By 1920, women's suffrage was finally established nationally.
The other major reform movements of this period were the Populist and Progressive movements. The Populists grew out of various labor and farm movements. Labor unions began to be discussed and formed during this period, though they would not gain a strong foothold until around the 1920s, following the same timeline as women's suffrage. Some elements of the Populist ideal were government or collective ownership of railroads and communication systems and an income tax somewhat similar to what we have today. The Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. Theodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. This had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. This public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs.