Franz Kafka "The Trial"
Franz Kafka's possibly unfinished novel, "The Trial," is one of the great mysteries of modernist literature. It was at once an astute, even prescient critique of modern power structures as well as a novel that does not quite make sense from a literary perspective. Left on the shelf by Kafka in 1915, the book was published in 1925 during the tense interwar period, which was, not coincidentally, the heyday of Modernist literature. Like most Modernist writers, Kafka used his art to express his sense of alienation and powerlessness in an increasingly hostile, meaningless, and dehumanized world. Thesis: "The Trial" is a critique of the bureaucratized nature of power in modern society and its effect on the modern individual's will. K.'s attempts to understand the purpose of the power structure persecuting him are frustrated because the power structure has no actual meaning or purpose, existing instead for…… [Read More]
Franz Kafka: The Metamorphosis
In The Metamorphosis, Franz Kafka tells the story of Gregor Samsa, who transforms into a hideous insect-like creature. Gregor was a traveling salesman before he changed into the creature, and one day he wakes to find the transformation has taken place during the night (Kafka 13). Throughout the rest of the novella, Gregor deals with the changes that have taken place and attempts to adjust to what has happened to him. His sister and his parents find his new form repulsive, and he also attempts to deal with being shunned by them. He cannot help what he has become, and having those who once loved him turn away simply because of his appearance is difficult for Gregor to accept.
He spends most of his time listening through the walls of his bedroom as his family talks, and he hides under his furniture when his sister, Grete,…… [Read More]
His mother Julie Kafka belonged to one of the leading families in the German-speaking, German-cultured Jewish circles of Prague. (Franz Kafka 1883-1924) His relationship with this father was not good and "...Hermann Kafka was a domestic tyrant, who directed his anger against his son." (Franz Kafka 1883-1924) There are many of his stories which can be related to the antagonism and conflict between father and son. This conflict is often translated into scenes where there is a "...scorned individual's pleading innocence in front of remote figures of authority."
Franz Kafka 1883-1924) Kafka's home life was therefore filled with tension and this was also compounded by the fact that he a member of the Jewish minority. " Kafka grew up in an atmosphere of familial tensions and social rejection that he experienced as a member of Prague's Jewish minority." (Franz Kafka 1883-1924)
Kafka was also alienated in many other ways in…… [Read More]
And yet in his personal life despite the anguish he wrote about so eloquently he enjoyed modern novelties such as the cinema, aeroplanes, and motor-cycles. He went swimming and followed the vogue for nudism. He had his fair share of sexual affairs, and he complemented those with visits to brothels (Johnson, 2005).
Doubts about his work caused Kafka before his death to ask that all of his unpublished manuscripts be destroyed. His friend, Max Brod, ignored his instructions. Brod published the novels the Trial, the Castle, and Amerika in 1925, 1926, and 1927, and a collection of shorter pieces, the Great all of China, in 1931. These early works by Kafka as Description of a Struggle and Meditation are thought to be original in a characteristic way, even though their style is more concretely imaged and their structure more incoherent than that of the later works. The characters in these…… [Read More]
After some initial shock, the family simply accepts him as a somewhat unorthodox and reclusive member of the family.
In terms of the meaningless, Gregor's adjustment and life as an insect is described in grim and often somewhat graphic detail. His family's interactions with him evolve according to his new status as insect, and are similarly described with great attention, as if it an important plot element. This can be compared with Marquez's detailed descriptions of Erendira's servitude, where both her cleaning and her sexual slavery are described in painstaking, but emotionless detail.
Death in Kafka's novel can be contrasted with Erendira's grandmother's death scene. Her death is violent and described in great detail, although the narrator's objectivity is retained throughout the violence. In Gregor's case, he simply and quietly dies, to be discovered by the cleaning woman the morning after the event. There is no death bed scene, and…… [Read More]
Alienation in Kafka
Franz Kafka published one of his famous works, "The Metamorphosis," in 1915. Gregor Samsa is the principal character in the story. Samsa is the character whose metamorphosis is the primary subject of the story. The story is not a happy one. One of the primary themes upon which the story meditates is alienation. The paper will examine and explore the instances of alienation in "The Metamorphosis." Gregor Samsa experiences alienation before and after he transforms into a very large insect; it is only after his transformation that the others around him notice him and his alienation.
Gregor Samsa is miserable in his career as a salesman. He does not have much privacy because he has a room in an apartment occupied by his parents and sister. Gregor's supervisor is an unpleasant and disagreeable man who does not favor Gregor. One morning, Gregor awakes in his bed in…… [Read More]
Gregor's change definitely represents anger from many different angles. Perhaps Gregor's anger is the most defensible in that his family has not undergone the most horrific changes imaginable. Gregor is justifies for feeling frustrated because he took care of his family for so long. His "rage at the way they were neglecting him" (768) deserves merit. Sheldon Goldfarb maintains, "Gregor's transformation has a double meaning: it is both an escape from his oppressive life and a representation or even an intensification of it" (Goldfarb). This is true because Gregor was not happy as a man and even more unhappy as a bug. His rage was probably more internal than many consider.
The theme of personal identity is extremely significant to this story in that Gregor was not happy with who he was before his change. He completely loses that identity and faces an even worse identity crisis as a bug.…… [Read More]
Kafka writes, "Gregor's father and mother certainly did not want him to starve either, but perhaps it would have been more than they could stand to have any more experience of his feeding than being told about it" (Kafka). The reality is, they are frightened of their son, and cannot bring themselves to accept what he has become, perhaps out of their own guilt for how they have treated him in the past. They take him for granted, and that is a sad reality.
In conclusion, the story ends, "Just from each other's glance and almost without knowing it they agreed that it would soon be time to find a good man for her. and, as if in confirmation of their new dreams and good intentions, as soon as they reached their destination Grete was the first to get up and stretch out her young body" (Kafka). This proves how…… [Read More]
The novel is interspersed with instances of irony and pure sarcasm and cynicism and there is hardly a light moment in this entire story. There are various ways in which the transformation can be interpreted. But Samsa being a misfit dominates all other interpretations. Samsa lacks a much-needed sense of belonging, which is one reason, why he is unable to develop positive healthy relationships with people around him. His attitude drives him away from people whom he views as materialistic and unloving, "casual acquaintances that are always new and never become intimate friends" (Kafka, 120). It is very important to understand that there are two ways in which this transformation can be viewed i.e. from the standpoint of the 'OTHERS' or from the perspective of the central character. In either case, we would notice that the main reason why Gregor has changed forms was because of his inability to dwell…… [Read More]
Symbolism of the 'Self' in Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis"
In the domain of modern literature, particularly in 20th century literature, Franz Kafka ranks as one of the most revolutionary writer, who used the techniques of expressionism and symbolism to discuss the theme of the "Self" of an individual and his/her integration in the society.
Franz Kafka's experience as a writer had been influenced by his experiences in his family life and as he grew up, contemplating how the individual finds it hard to integrate himself/herself in the society. Kafka was born to Hermann and Julie Kafka on July 3, 1883 in Prague. His family was Czech-Jewish in nationality, and he was educated at the University of Prague, where he studied law. Although he kept a civil service post as a job, Kafka most often writes novels and short stories. Indeed, writing is his passion, and the only medium through which…… [Read More]
Gradually, Gregor discovers how unimportant he really is to the family, and how little they really care about him. He has given them his love and devotion, and they repay him by locking him away when he needs them the most.
Kafka uses the plot to show the increasing disinterest of Gregor's family, and how they have used him for the last five years. His father has grown "fat and sluggish," his mother relied on the servants (that he paid for), and his sister did nothing much at all. He worked like a dog to keep the family together, and in thanks, they lock him away in his room when he becomes an embarrassment. Kafka uses this plot device to add information about the family, all the while showing Gregor's sweet disposition. Gregor's life is meaningless and empty, but he does not blame them for any of it. Instead, he…… [Read More]
"Here there is no why"
Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz.
Attempting to determine what Franz Kafka really meant in any of his stories is a difficult undertaking, given the absurdity and irrationality of the situations he describes and characters that do not seem to function or react as 'normal' human beings. This is especially true in his unfinished novel The Trial, where the young and successful bank executive Joseph K. is arrested and put on trial without charges and for no apparent reason, then taken out and murdered a year later. He never knows why all of this is happening to him, and perhaps Kafka's main point is that there is no 'why'; there is no reason for any of it, and indeed the characters and society he portrays are not acting in a rational manner. Like Primo Levi in Auschwitz, who was thirsty and broke off an…… [Read More]
Gregor is unable to eat fresh food, now, although his delight in eating is just as strong, if not stronger than before.
Still, food, and the consumption of food, now socially isolates Gregor from his family, unlike the emotional connections that food once provided. His sister even discards the fresh foods that Gregor rejected, and he must hide after he eats, so as not to frighten his food provider. Gregor's sensitivity to his sister is underlined in this gesture towards her temperament. Rather than try to connect with his sister, he must isolate himself from her -- although this was true of Gregor before, as to 'earn' her love, he had to earn money to works, so that she could remain idle.
Still, because she provides his food, Gregor's sister sustains the most meaningful connection with her brother that could be described as human: "Gregor sometimes caught a comment which…… [Read More]
And a lot of this has to do with real epithets that were used against Jews at that time on the streets. Someone would see a Jew and say, 'You dirty dog', or 'You're nothing more than a cockroach', or something like that. For Kafka, this became a kind of literal condemnation which he accepted into himself. OK. 'You point a finger at me and call me a dog, the next thing I have to write is a story about a dog,' in which a dog has human qualities; or he transforms himself into a cockroach. A lot of this has to do with the anti-Semitism that was absolutely rampant all around him at the time." (Radio National)
As noted, by having experienced Kafka's work first hand prior to reading Mairowitz's version, I believe that Introducing Kafka turned out to be very delightful for the main reason that the reader…… [Read More]
THE USE of SYMOLISM in FRANZ KAFKA'S
According to Nahum N. Glatzer, philosopher Albert Camus once said that "the whole of Kafka's art consists in compelling the reader to re-read him," and since the interpretations of Kafka are many, this inevitably leads to a return to the story itself "in the hope of finding guidance from within" (35). This internal "guidance" is related to many elements of fiction, such as metaphor, characterization, plot and theme, yet with a single reading of Kafka's the Metamorphosis, written during late November and early December of 1912 and published in October of 1915, one can easily recognize that the use of symbolism is the dominant trait and "guidance" for the reader, due to Kafka's extraordinary ability to transcend reality and create a world that could only exist in the realms of the supernatural or the human subconscious mind.
Essayist Eliseo…… [Read More]
His parents, no longer supported by him financially, are so repelled by his transformation that they completely ostracize their son. Even his sister, when her brother becomes a social pariah withdraws from him, despite his former support for her violin-playing. At first she feeds him and then gradually grows hardened as he resembles less and less the brother she once knew. At the end of the story, the family is relieved upon Gregor's passing, and instead plans for his sister's possible marriage, rather than mourns the loss of the man who sacrificed his life so they could be happy.
Gregor's fantastical fate is thus a metaphor for a very realistic condition -- someone who is imprisoned in a miserable life, with ungrateful relatives, and no real secure sense of a happy and fulfilling identity. Similarly, Lu Xun's "Diary of a Madman," in which the title madman is haunted by the…… [Read More]
"It will be the death of both of you, I can see that coming. hen one has to work as hard as we do, all of us, one can't stand this continual torment at home on top of it. At least I can't stand it any longer.' "
Kafka 80) There is a clear sense that the family letting go of the idea that the beast that is living in their son's room is the son they once knew releases them from the burden, as it is only moments later that Gregor finally succumbs to self starvation and dies. (Kafka 82) After Gregor's death the true nature of each transformation is expressed through the explanations of the family as they take their first time off in a very long time.
Leaning comfortably back in their seats they canvassed their prospects for the future, and it appeared on closer inspection that…… [Read More]
On the surface Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis is novella about a traveling salesman, Gregor Samsa, who literally transforms into a beetle-like creature. But underneath the surface, on an allegorical level, it is a story about adversity and alienation. As Gregor's condition worsens and he becomes more unrecognizable his family must confront the dilemma of how it is they are to handle the situation. And this dilemma, this point of conflict, this adversity they face, reveals their true character(s). It is the purpose of this essay to investigate not how Gregor's family changes in the story, but how their true colors are revealed by Gregor's metamorphosis.
In the beginning of the narrative Gregor's family is visibly concerned with his inability to get out of bed and ready for work, "At the other side door, however, his sister knocked lightly. "Gregor? Are you all right? Do you need anything?"…… [Read More]
Kafka's the Metamorphosis
Question # 3.) In this topic, discuss the symbolism in Kafka's "Metamorphosis." For instance, one of the most important images is the window and its relationship to Gregor's vision. There are also other equally important symbols too, like music, furniture, the apple, and Gregor's insect body. In this topic, analyze how Kafka uses symbolic objects and images to convey Gregor's pain and suffering. You can also connect Kafka's story to Bartleby or Gogol's "Overcoat." Just make sure that you should focus on Kafka's story and incorporate quotes from Kafka to illustrate your point.
Within the canon of classic Western literature, there have been few works of fiction which have inspired as much critical debate as Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis. Originally written in 1912 and published in his native German in 1915, Kafka's masterpiece presents the curious dilemma of Gregor Samsa, a young man who readers learn in…… [Read More]
But getting out of bed is problematic, and it is a humorous picture when a reader imagines what it must have looked like as he hears someone from his office arriving and he "…almost froze while his small limbs only danced around all the faster" (Kafka, 10).
It is also tragic that the apple that his father threw at him has caused inflammation; it is tragic that his room is now a dumping area; it is tragic that the new lodgers threaten to sue and that Gregor's sister thinks they should get rid of Gregor because he was driving away the renters. The incident in which Gregor's mother fainted and was "perhaps near death, thanks to him" (Kafka, 48) is tragic. Add to that the fact that broken glass wounded Gregor in the face and some "corrosive medicine dripped over him" -- and this is ironic and tragic. Medicine on…… [Read More]
They attempt to achieve normalcy at points by allowing Gregor to witness the family interacting through his opened door. Still, he begins to view his family with a detached hostility as they have clearly begun to treat him with shame and revulsion, rather than as a member of the family. Though his sister still attempts to feed him for a time, she can no longer bring herself to address him directly. Likewise, the mounting unhappiness in the family results in a total neglect, where his room is left to descend into filth, underscoring the idea that Gregor himself is, on the basis of his ghastly appearance, filthy and to be cast out.
This would be particularly difficult for the reader to witness, as Gregor undergoes his descent with seemingly little internal reflection. Much as is the case with his life in service to his job, Gregor is driven only by…… [Read More]
Kafka's The Metamorphosis is not only the story of the transformation of Gregor Samsa; it is the story of the transformation of an entire family. hen Gregor suddenly becomes a "horrible vermin" overnight (I), the reader has no choice but to register the effects of that change on Gregor's immediate environment, his family apartment. Because Gregor will never leave that apartment, it is fair to ask how his transformation transforms the others around him. I will concentrate on the chief clerk from Gregor's office, as a representative of the outside world, and Gregor's father Mr. Samsa, as representative of patriarchal authority, and considered as the instrument of Gregor's destruction. I suggest that the transformation which occurs in these other characters is the chief means by which Kafka intends his readers to assess the meaning of Gregor's own metamorphosis.
Gregor's immediate response to his own transformation is to attempt,…… [Read More]
In the beginning of the story, Erendira must "bathe and overdress her grandmother, scrub the floors, cook lunch, and polish the crystal ware" (Marquez) every day. Erendira endures a difficult life for a fourteen-year-old girl, considering she was "too meek for her age" (Marquez). The life her grandmother makes her live is inhumane as she attempts to make Erendira pay for her mistake with prostitution. Erendira's prince does not arrive quickly and when he does, she leaves him. Here is where we see the story move from a fairy tale story to one that seeks to explain human behavior. Erendira takes care of herself with the money she feels she deserves. She decides to do so without a man and this makes the story modern while at the same time, very timeless, in that people are as unpredictable as they are predictable. Erendira is an independent woman in need to…… [Read More]
He does his share of complaining but he does little else to remedy the situation. The truth of the matter is that Gregor did not enjoy much of his life away from work. He never expresses a desire to have more in his life nor does he express any regret, until he is a bug. In "A Hunger Artist," our hunger artist chooses to live a considerable amount of his life behind bars being a public spectacle. hile he can communicate with onlookers, he is separated from them by the bars and the setting in which he finds himself only forces him to interact with individuals for a short amount of time. Once they have become satisfied with his spectacle, they move on and leave the artist to his own thoughts. Our hunger artist is aware of the world that exists around him but it does not seem to affect…… [Read More]
Within this shared common language they are able to see a commonality or a common existence and, despite the many other differences that exist, this common thread will hold a society together.
Thus, it can be said that, according to Marx, language is the great equator. Within language a society is able to claim equality as, at least at the time of his writing, societies, regardless of how many classes it may have had, shared one basic language. However, this is not necessarily the truth today. As societies become more and more intermixed, due to immigration and the global economy, languages are beginning to clash and the emergence of class-based languages are starting to arise (such as Ebonics). When these clashes occur, one begins to see sub-societies rally behind their language and thus, their right to identification. When someone else tries to translate ones language as being the foreign one,…… [Read More]
Certainly, this subverts, right away, our assumptions of what is likely and humanly possible. Later, Gregor's enraged father violently illustrates the old social maxim that appearances really do matter, by pelting his stubbornly-metamorphosed son with apples in a fury one day. Soon afterward, Gregor dies. In most cases, human beings are saddened when a son or brother dies, but in this case, the remaining Samsa family members, with the possible exception of little sister Grete, are actually relieved. Gregor's metamorphosis and subsequent death forces upon each of them a metamorphosis of his or her own: ironically, Gregor's physical metamorphosis forces each of them back into life, like butterflies finally emerging from especially stubborn cocoons. Here, Kafka is pointing out the fallacies and limitations of typical human assumptions about first (in Gregor's case) what one "should" do for others; and second, in the cases of his parents and sister, what one…… [Read More]
The Metamorphosis as authored and offered by Franz Kafka in 1915 is often labeled as one of the more transforming, to use a pun, works in the history of literature of the last century or two, if not well beyond that. Anyone who reads the book should obviously take note of the fact that the points being made are more abstract and figurative but this does not mean they are not profound. As suggested by the assignment being completed in this report, Metamorphosis is a story of transformations and how these changes can lead to significant changes in perceptions and reactions even from the people and groups that embraced the changed person in prior examples and instances.
People inevitably change as they grow older and experience more and more of life. However, sometimes such changes can be quite sudden and dramatic and this can lead…… [Read More]
Human society during its most 'honorable' moments
Gabriel Garcia Marquez' book "Chronicle of a Death Foretold," Toni Morrison's "The Bluest Eye," and Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" all put across events related to suffering and discrimination. The three writers focused on describing particular characters from the perspective of individuals interacting with them and did not necessarily provide these respective characters with the chance to speak for themselves in regard to the condition that they are in. The three books focus on presenting readers with society's tendency to discriminate particular individuals on account of their particularities, even with the fact that these people have done nothing to harm the social order.
The three novels contain a collection of stories told from the perspective of several characters. Even with the fact that narrators put across most of the rationalization in "Chronicle of a Death Foretold" and in "The Metamorphosis," readers are nonetheless able…… [Read More]
Balzac and Kafka: From Realism to Magical Realism
French author Honore de Balzac defined the genre of realism in the early 19th century with his novel Old Man Goriot, which served as a cornerstone for his more ambitious project, The Human Comedy. Old Man Goriot also served as a prototype for realistic novels, with its setting of narrative parameters which included plot, structure, characterization, and point-of-view. The 20th century, however, digressed considerably from the genre of realism. Franz Kafka, for example, has been considered as one of the forerunners of the genre known as Magical Realism. endy B. Faris defines the genre of Magical Realism as the combination of "realism and the fantastic so that the marvelous seems to grow organically within the ordinary, blurring the distinction between them… [including] different cultural traditions" (1). Faris finds magical realism to exist at the crossroads of modernism and post-modernism, as a kind…… [Read More]
Kafka's Joseph K. goes through a confusing and bizarre experience over the course of the novel, learning more and more about the legal bureaucracy surrounding him without ever actually learning anything about it. In a sense, Joseph K.'s experience mirrors the human experience in any society, because it demonstrates how the justification for legal and political authority is ultimately an illusion; there is no inherent justification for human political power, but rather it depends either on the consent of the governed or coercive force, and both of these actually serve to isolate the individual (Panichas 86).
In the case of the former, consent of the governed, the individual is isolated due to the fact that he or she must give up some agency and power to the state, and thus lose some small bit of individuality. The individual essentially becomes a constituent element of the state, and thus, like the…… [Read More]
As he becomes frustrated by onlookers' questions, he shakes the bars of the cage like some wild animal. The artist's cage is literal and figurative in this case. He is confined to his life of suffering and his is a prisoner of it. His psychological cage is just like his physical one. He willingly accepts both. He was never appreciated and this led to even more dissatisfaction. The artist can find no peace within and no appreciated from without. People walked by him without glancing his way. Soon they forget about him and leave him for dead. The artist believes he cheated the world because he never achieved success but in actuality, it was the world that cheated him by treating him as nothing more than an exhibition on the way to the "excitements of the menagerie" (396). He likes the cage and the suffering it brings because he feels…… [Read More]
Alienation in Kafka's "Metamorphosis"
Gregor Samsa, the protagonist of Franz Kafka's short story "The Metamorphosis," becomes increasingly alienated physically, economically, and emotionally from his surroundings over the course of the tale. But while Samsa's transformation into a gigantic insect is true on a literal level, it also comes to symbolize the deeper alienation that Gregor must have been experiencing, even before the metamorphosis took place. Gregor's transformation lays bare the hypocrisies of his society and family life.
When Gregor is transformed into a cockroach, he is unable to go to work or to feed himself. He is repulsive to others, and out of compassion he conceals himself from his sister Grete when she feeds him. Even his old, wholesome food is repulsive to him and he prefers rotten food. His old routine is destroyed, although he makes an effort to go to work. When later in the story he listens…… [Read More]
Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula
At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.
In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes…… [Read More]
The Individual's Sense of orthiness and the (Mal)Formation of Identity in Kafka's Metamorphosis
Much of literature in the modern era, from the dawn of industrialization onward, is concerned with the nature of man's identity within the framework of modern society. One could argue, of course, that the position of man in the complex strata of the universe is ultimately the question at the heart of all literature, art, and even religion; even cave paintings tend to place man in a certain position to other natural elements, and the quest to correctly identify man's place in a variety of settings is observable in the aesthetic and ritualistic art of many ancient civilizations. Mankind's obsession with itself is thus not exactly new, nor does comment on the fruits of this obsessive contemplation tend to be revolutionary.
hat is new in regards to modern literature and sensibilities is the idea that…… [Read More]
Distinctly from John Updike's teenage character Sammy in his short story "A&P," who realizes he has just become an adult; Connie as suddenly realizes she feels like a kid again. Now she wishes the family she usually hates having around could protect her. The actions of the fearsome Arnold, are foreshadowed early on, when he warns Connie, the night before, after first noticing her outside a drive-in restaurant: "Gonna get you, baby" (paragraph 7). From then on, Arnold's quest to "get" Connie feels, to Connie and the reader, in its dangerous intensity, much like the predatory evilness of malevolent fairy tale characters, e.g., the Big Bad olf, or the evil stepmothers (and/or stepsisters) that fix on Snow hite, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, and other innocent young female characters as prey. And Connie at the end of "here Are You Going, here Have You Been" wishes, like Little Red Riding Hood, Snow…… [Read More]
omen in Novellas
Gender, as opposed to the physical classification of sex, has always been based upon societal construct. The current psychology of the masses dictates what proper or improper behavior for the given genders is. Things have progressed, but there is still a vast difference between the roles and responsibilities of males and their female counterparts. The conflict of the modern age often stems from an intersection of gender and ethical dilemmas, both based upon societal rules. Fictional characters are written by flesh and blood human beings. Thus, the norms of the social order will bleed into their fictional creations. Female characters in a fictional work will have the same gendered notes as a human being. If they do not prescribe to the norms of their given gender, it is always for an artistic purpose which functions as the purpose of the piece. Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Chronicle of a…… [Read More]
Grete, Gregor's sister, may go through the most dramatic and genuine change in the entire novel. Whereas the father merely reverts back to adopting the roles that he is supposed to fulfill and did at an earlier point in the family's history, and the mother simply succumbs to her emotional weaknesses that were already present, the direction of Grete's psychological and emotional development is dramatically altered because of Gregor's transformation. Grete was on her way to growing up completely dependent upon her brother. His secret desire to send her to a conservatory to study violin may or may not have been her desire as well, but her devotion to her brother would likely have inspired her to follow his wishes especially since he was taking on the entire financial burden of her education. Grete is the only one to find the strength to directly deal with Gregor in his new…… [Read More]
Maintenance is often put on hold until it is desperately needed, rather than a simple preventative measure. I believe Mainella is unknown, and most Americans, who do not understand the scope and depth of the Park Service and what it tries to accomplish, misunderstand her work.
Mainella has a background in Parks and Recreation, and has been recognized by some peer groups for her work. However, I believe that in the future, as she manages the Park Service more effectively, that she will become more well-known and well thought of. The Park System needs renovation, just as many of the parks need renovation. Through new volunteers, additional publicity, and tireless work, the people of the National Parks attempt to reach more visitors every year, and as they do, these visitors take home a unique and often majestic experience. To allow more volunteers to interact with visitors and bring their own…… [Read More]
Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka
A Discussion about the Methods the Narrator uses to Control the Audience's Perceptions and Attitudes about the Characters and Events
The Metamorphosis is a story that makes an interesting use of the third person narrative by narrating the story from a rather unique perspective, but also evolving as the story progresses. In the beginning of the story the narrator is a witness to all events and is described as being limitedly "omniscient," or being knowledgeable about everything that is going on in relation to the story from one perspective. For example, the narrator is able to illustrate to the reader all of the thought and emotions that are held by the protagonist Gregor Samsa, and after his death this perspective is broadened to including the inner most thoughts of other members of the Samsa family as well. The level of understanding that the narrator can share…… [Read More]
Being away from one's family is hard; it takes time to get used to it. The newly married woman did know how to face this difficult situation and no one to counsel her on the subject.
The wife moved away from her parents' house, then she got two children a boy and a girl. The choice they made for the boy's name was unfortunate. They called him Gogol, like the Russian writers his father admired so much and this name would provide countless occasions for his peers in America to make fun of him. He will later struggle to change it into a neutral old American name, Nike and will finally succeed. Despite that, his family will continue to call him Gogol.
Gogol is a suburban male teenager caught between his Indian roots and his American birthrights. Gogol and his Indian-born parents must somehow strive to keep a balance between…… [Read More]
The narrator becomes repulsed by Bartleby and decides that he must be suffering from some type of mental problem. The less the narrator knows about Bartleby the worse things seem to be for him. He wants to make sense of things. He wants it all to make sense. The conflict arises from his inability to do so. The narrator is simply being human in his desire to control and understand things but Kafka is demonstrating how we cannot always know everything and how we must be at peace with that, lest we become insane. It is also important to point out that some things are simply not meant to be known or completely understood. Kafka does not attempt to explain everything in this story because we often face situations that will never be truly understood.
Marquez demonstrates conflict and how it makes for interesting fiction by allowing the readers to…… [Read More]
Man's struggle against the absurd emerges in Ivan Ilych's death, as he contemplates the meaning of his life. Psychological alienation results as Ivan begins to doubt his existence. Nabokov explains, "Egotism, falsity, hypocrisy, and above all automatism are the most important moments of life" (Nabokov 239). Nature, by means of death, removes all of the things to which Ivan has become accustomed. He is dying and that is all that matters. As he asks himself if he lived his life the right way, he begins to feel compassion for others. Here we see how Ivan must face the fact that the things he believed in and lived for were worthless. The absurdity is that the man had to die in order to realize certain truths about his life.
The Metamorphosis," and "The Death of Ivan Ilych," are stories that demonstrate man's psychological and spiritual struggles through absurd experiences. By capturing…… [Read More]
The use of various artifacts as symbols is also important in showing the transference and transformation of values in many texts. In Whale ider, a whale's tooth that has been cast into the ocean serves as a symbol of leadership, and the protagonist's retrieval eventually cements her ascendance to the role of a tribal leader. Her positive arc moving away from traditional values is shown in her appropriation of certain physical symbols of this traditional value system. In this way, the protagonist both literally and symbolically adopts and yet transforms the traditional values of her tribe in order to achieve her own identity.
Artifacts are out to a much different use in Franz Kafka's the Metamorphosis. Of course, the arc that the protagonist of this story travels is also markedly different from that of the protagonist in Whale ider; Gregor Samsa is quite happy his traditional role of a grown…… [Read More]
proceeds towards the Castle.
K.'s journey is aimless from the morning he wakes up in the village. "[The] main street in the village, did not lead to the Castle hill, it only went close by, then veered off as if on purpose, and though it didn't lead any farther from the Castle, it didn't get any closer either" (10). As a land surveyor, someone appointed to make maps or diagrams for the use of the government, but all he sees is a mess of confusion. As soon as his presence is known to be based on a miscommunication, his role is effortlessly changed to school janitor. The myth of social status melts into thin air. For Kafka, character is as disposable as the reason that props it up, and in this allegorical world, office, not reason, is what holds the plot together.
Frieda is the only hope for K.'s understanding…… [Read More]
At first, he wanted recognition, but later he shuns this and turns his thoughts to the fact that he is doing what he set out to do, and doing it better than anyone else. In the end, right before he dies, he imparts information that changes the whole nature of the story, and when this happens one is left to wonder if all of the talk earlier about wanting recognition and appreciation was simply the disguise that the hunger artist had to shield himself from what his actually concerns and problems were.
9. There are three different ways that "The Visit" can be examined. First, there is the male/female relationship issue, and there is strong support that this was what Durrenmatt was talking about. The interaction between Claire and Anton is an exaggerated but understandable showing of the love/hate relationship that many men and women develop for each other through…… [Read More]
In "From Stage to Page: Franz Kafka, Djuna Barnes, and Modernism's Freak Fictions," Blyn argues, "we can find direct links between Kafka's and Barnes's notoriously opaque fictions and the premier low culture form of their era, the freak show or display of human curiosities," (135). Moreover, the authors' respective engagement with the trope of the freak show serves a distinct political motive: to subvert modernist aesthetics and to ironically predict the twisted horrors of fascism and Nazism. Written prior to the emergence of fascism and Nazism on the world stage, Kafka's body of work and Barnes's too seem prescient in light of their mocking the carnevalesque. Central to Blyn's argument is an understanding of the difference between the carnival and the freak show. The freak show was, for one, a side attraction at a carnival and thus deviant even within the spectacle of the carnival. The freak show…… [Read More]
Undergoing 'Kafkan Metamorphosis'
In his well-published and -- renowned short story, "The Metamorphosis," Franz Kafka has elucidated through effective symbolism the influence of change and difference to the psyche of the individual. The protagonist, Gregor Samsa, experienced this when one day, he found himself unable to go about his daily activities anymore because he has transformed -- or more aptly, metamorphosed -- into a giant insect.
In the last few paragraphs of the story, Kafka had effectively conveyed the true feeling of a human-turned-insect, and Gregor's impending realization that he is to eventually leave humanity and choose for himself his own destiny as a human-thinking insect. This event is documented as follows:
'And now?" Gregor asked himself, and looked around in the darkness. He soon made the discovery that he could no longer move at all. This didn't surprise him; in fact, he found it unnatural that up until…… [Read More]
Such a parsing of into which school Samuel Beckett can be slotted may seem to be nothing more than intellectual engagement -- not that there is anything wrong with this -- but it also serves as an important way of assessing both the "Irishness" and the humor of Beckett's writings. Unlike a writer like John Synge, for example, or illiam Butler Yeats, Beckett is generally not clearly identifiable as Irish from the dialect or settings or historical references in his writings. (This is especially true, of course, once he begins to write in French.) But there are hints of his nationality in this back-and-forthing that he does with literary genres and literary conventions. Such liberty with self-identification in terms of artistic identity is not solely Irish, of course. But an unwillingness to be categorized neatly does seem to be clearly associated with colonial identity. Ireland in Beckett's time was still…… [Read More]
Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:
To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…… [Read More]
Kafka, he Wannsee Conference, And Shadows and Fog
Kafka's protagonist of "he Metamorphosis," Gregor Samsa, perfectly embodies the totalitarian mindset in the sense that he is colonized by the desires of his employer, his family, and even the room in which he lives to the point that he can hardly think for himself. he room in which Samsa dwells is so small; the man becomes a virtual prisoner of its confines. Samsa turns into an insect seemingly as a result of the limiting pressures of his physical space and cramped social and emotional life. In fact, his life is so confining, he can only think of returning to the office, even after becoming transformed into a huge and hideous insect.
Over the course of the short story by Kafka, Gregor's own family rejects him after his physical alteration, despite the fact that Gregor has long been giving up his own…… [Read More]
In the Metamorphosis, it is the image of the main character's family and those around him that is transformed. However, in the Death of Ivan Llyitch it is the main characters image of himself that is transformed. Gregor is the same person on the inside in his cockroach form that he was when he was a salesman. However, his family fails to see him the same. Gregor was happy, but becomes depressed as his family isolates themselves from him more and more. In the Death of Ivan Llyitch the main character moved from depression to joy. The characters in these novels occupy different ends of the emotional spectrum. Their emotional spectrum moves in the opposite direction.
The emotional transformation of the two main characters is opposite as well. Ivan's is an inner transformation. His physical world changes little, it is his emotional world and inner sense of self that changes.…… [Read More]
control over one's own destiny is an illusion of misconstructed ideals and metaphysical analysis. Beginning with Sigmund Freud's fascination with the power of the unconscious which he explicitly details through his work Dora (1963), the influence that the unconscious has on an individual is explicated and determined to practically guide everything that one does, but without really giving the illusion that one is in control. The unconscious controls the self, but does it define who one is? When there is no sense of control or free will, things fall apart. One wants to know that one can influence the way that one's life turns out, but in reality, a very small number of things are actually under one's control. By attributing all sense of control and destiny to the unconscious, one either loses the definition of who one is as a person, or gives up any sort of power in…… [Read More]
he idea of the communication failure between Gregor and his family is emphasized through the use of a very powerful metaphor, i.e. he doors in Gregor's room. Gregor's room is both a safe retreat and a place of complete isolation from his family, similarly to how the author himself took refuge from his father in his room. In fact, Gregor's room can be deconstructed as a symbol for Kafka's own life in his father's house; in this sense, the room becomes an escape in both cases. In Gregor's case, the room symbolizes his escape in both instances of his life; as a young man, he retreats to his room where he is at the same time hidden from and harassed by his family. Secondly, as a bug, he finds shelter in his room which also acts as his prison as he is no longer able to exit without his family's…… [Read More]
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
1.2 Objective…… [Read More]
A participant in the study notes, "The gang members were scared to come outside, scared to hang out together.' and, 'it is still working.' He noted that graffiti and other signs of gang activity have declined dramatically. He pointed out that a wall near the park had graffiti 24/7, 365 days a year prior to the injunction, but not lately" (Maxson, et al. vii). Thus, gang injunctions control a variety of gang-related activities, but they can help control the spread of graffiti and the actions of tagging crews, keeping neighborhoods not only safer, but less unsightly for the people who live there.
Alonso, Alex. "Gang Injunctions & Civil Abatement in Los Angeles." StreetGangs.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.streetgangs.com/injunctions/
Editors. "Gang Injunction." County of San Diego District Attorney. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.sdcda.org/protecting/gi_workflow.pdf
Maxson, Cheryl L. Karen Hennigan, David Sloane, and Kathy a. Kolnick. "Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities?…… [Read More]
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.
The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…… [Read More]
Mill believed that any act may itself be inherently moral, so long as the outcome of that action produces a benign effect. Mill believed that the most ethical act is that which produces the most good, even if the act itself is one which is traditionally considered evil. An example of utilitarian philosophy would include the killing of innocent animals to determine a cure for some infectious disease. And while there are components of this philosophy that would certainly align with Aristotle's definition of ethics, it seems difficult to picture the latter condoning any method to achieve moral behavior, particularly in regards to the following quotation from Nichomachean Ethics. "A man will not live like that by virtue of his humanness, but by virtue of some divine thing within him. His activity is as superior to the activity of the other virtues as this divine thing is to his composite…… [Read More]
Importance of the humanities in the professions:
A comparison of "Paul's Case," Muriel's Wedding and Andy Warhol's rendition of Marilyn Monroe
The modern concept of 'celebrity' is that anyone can be famous, provided that he or she embodies an ideal of glamour, using material trappings like clothing and possessions to show his or her 'specialness.' This is a common method of 'selling' a particular product in business.
The idea is paradoxical -- on one hand, celebrities are special, on the other hand the media suggests everyone can be a celebrity and 'famous for 15 minutes' if they buy the right item.
This can be seen in "Paul's Case" by Willa Cather, about a boy who feels as if he is above his classmates.
Paul desires to have a celebrity-like status, based upon his perceptions of himself as having innately refined tastes.
But this costs money, and Paul is unwilling…… [Read More]
contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her environment. In Oedipus Rex and Antigone, Sophocles explores the relationship an individual has with the world and society. In each of these plays, Sophocles juxtaposes divinity and humanity and investigates the role of each within Theban society as well as looks into conflicts that arise when the laws of man conflict with divine laws. Through their narratives, Oedipus Rex and Antigone posit man is intended to serve others, including gods, and that they do not exist to be self-serving.
Oedipus Rex revolves around an eponymous anti-hero who by saving the city of Thebes from a Sphinx inadvertently and simultaneously brought forth a plague upon it. By defeating the Sphinx, Oedipus secured his place upon the Theban throne and as such was not only responsible for ensuring laws were abided, but was also responsible for protecting Thebes' citizens. Because of the plague that…… [Read More]