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"To degrade and stamp out the liberties of a race" signified the "studied purpose" of linking social and civil equality. Douglass concluded that if the Civil Rights Law attempted to promote social equality, so did "the laws and customs of every civilized country in the world," including the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, the Sermon on the Mount, the Golden Rule, and the Apostles' Creed. He warned his fellow Americans that if the vile spirit of caste as exemplified in the ignoble Supreme Court decision of 1883 persisted there would be a "black Ireland in America" (Gregory, 1971) .
Evidence of the Republican party's betrayal of blacks encompassed its failure to enforce the letter and spirit of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. It likewise included its failure to pass: an Election Reform Bill (during President Hayes's administration) to eliminate election abuses in the South; the Lodge Force…
Pioneer, Lynn. cited in Liberator, 30 May 1845; the North Star, 12 Mar. 1848; Foner, Frederick Douglass, 59-60.
Nichols, Many Thousand Gone; Butterfield, Black Autobiography in America, 11-89;
Blassingame, "I Have Come to Tell You Something About Slavery," Douglass Papers, ser. 1, 1:4.
Frederick Douglass' Paper, 22 July 1853, Ibid., 5:287-88, 286; "The Claims of Our Common Cause," July 1853, Ibid., 2:267
Although fictional, Precious Jones, speaks to the reader through her story with powerful words. She is living in a different kind of slavery, although slavery itself had been abolished ore than a century ago. She is a slave to the lack of humanity of her own parents and the indifference of those who are supposed to teach and offer her guidance in school. As a child, she has no choice, but to comply. By the time she reaches sixteen years of age, she is pregnant for the second time, after having been impregnated by her own father. Both her parents abuse her in every way possible. What hurts even more than the life she has at home is the way strangers at school deal with her. Her teacher's lack of understanding, their indifference and the cruelty of her peers converge toward a shocking reality: although she is sixteen, a student…
Stressing the shackles that slavery could latch to a man's mind, Douglass was given insight into the inherent transgression behind the bondage. And his ability to adopt such a perspective, while easy to underestimate from the distance of over a century, is quite remarkable given the overwhelming social constructions designed to deter that sort of thinking amongst his demographic. One of the more effective messages that he conveyed both through explication and allegorical demonstration is the inevitability that a man, endowed with the ability to think and propose and aspire, is bound only to torment when the physical conditions of his life are inhospitable to these ends.
And slave owners, Douglass indicated, seemed to know this fact very well, choosing more often than not to wield it as the best defense in keeping slavery afloat as a viable way of life. Particularly, he recalled one memory in which a white…
Douglass, F. (1995) Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas. New York, New York: Dover
Douglass, F.1. (1950). Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (January 1, 1846). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers.
Douglass, F.2. (1852). The Hypocris y of American Slavery. The History Place. Online at http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/douglass.htm
Douglass is significant to American history because of his efforts with President Lincoln. Douglass was not simply looking out for his own freedom; he was concerned for the freedom of every slave in America and was determined to do all that he could to help these men experience freedom. Even if this meant talking to the President of the United States. Paul Kendrick notes that Douglass' first meeting with Lincoln was in the summer of 1863 and this meeting "remains one of the pivotal moments in American history: when a former slave could enter the office of the president to discuss significant issues" (Kendrick). In addition, to this, Kendrick notes that even more remarkable than a former slave visiting the President is the fact that Lincoln seemed to "enjoy Douglass's opinions and views, no matter how contrary to his own" (Kendrick). Kendrick also writes that Douglass recalled that Lincoln was…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.
York: Penguin. 1982.
Hively Russell. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 50: Afro-American Writers Before
Douglass understands the importance of name which represent an assertion of identity, and identity is freedom: "I subscribe myself" -- I write my self down in letters, I underwrite my identity and my very being, as indeed I have done in and all through the foregoing narrative that has brought me to this place, this moment, this state of being." (Douglas 75 in Davis, Gates 157). This is why he changed his name to Douglass when he reached New Bedford (Lampe vii). Douglass confesses that in the past, it was "still dangerous, in Massachusetts, for honest men to tell their names," (Ibid) in the sense that name equaled identity, and it was forbidden for slaves to assume their own.
In his, "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American lave," Douglass paints a very vivid picture of slavery. In addition to being historically valuable, his book is an accomplished…
Davis, Charles T. And Henry Louis Gates Jr. The Slave's Narrative. Oxford University Press, 1985.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave. Kessinger Publishing, 2004.
Lampe, Gregory P. Frederick Douglass: Freedom's Voice, 1818-1845. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1998.
An Exceptional Escape from Slavery, an Exceptional Author, Citizen and Man
How did Frederick Douglass' personal experiences illustrate 19th century American race relations? as Douglass' life typical or exceptional? hat was his legacy for future generations of Americans?
Frederick Douglass often presented his life as typical. The narrative structure he applied to his own literary efforts as well as his efforts as a speaker and as a lecturer suggested that his life was normative and comparable to many an American slave's life. Its horrors were used as proof of the evils of slavery and Douglass' lust for freedom was seen as proof of the typical desire to be free that existed in the heart of every man, including every enslaved Black man's. Other slavery narratives of Douglass' day were popular in the literary consumption of much of the North and Douglass' own autobiography made use of many similar…
Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. HarperCollins: New York, 1980.
Douglass in the form of intellectual revolt.
All of these incidents of violence which took place when Frederick Douglass was struggling to become a man free of the bondage of slavery and the inherent dangers that come with it, clearly indicate that the life of a slave during the early to mid-1800's was filled with brutality, murder and death, almost always at the hands of white slave owners and their overseers. According to Wendell Phillips, writing in the second Preface to Douglass' narrative, the injustices carried out against African-American slaves by their white oppressors "is a keen teacher," for it demonstrates "the wretchedness of the slave, not by his hunger and want, not by his lashes and toil, but by the cruel and blighting death which gathers over his soul," meaning that violence against the body pales in comparison to what happens to the human soul when forced to live…
Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America -- 1860-1880. New York: The Free Press,
Jacobs, Harriet. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave/Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Ed. Intro. Kwame Anthony Appiah. New York: Modern
Paul Kendrick notes, "hen it counted, Lincoln had effectively collaborated with Douglass's decades-long pursuit of the total and irrevocable destruction of slavery. That an outspoken black abolitionist and a cautious prairie lawyer would ever meet, much less profoundly influence one another and form a partnership, is astounding" (Kendrick). This relationship seems so far-fetched and yet, it happened. Douglass never set out to meet the president but his determination led him down a path that could only open doors because his message was one of freedom for all. As a result, of their friendship, America was changed for the better. In a sense, they needed each other to forge a path on which the nation could not only travel but prosper.
Frederick Douglass, influential force in the abolitionist movement, will continue to move racial mountain beyond his last breath. Hs deeds and words represent everything we associate with the word…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Penguin Books. 1986.
Paul and Stephen Kendrick. "Lincoln and Douglass." American Heritage. 2009. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved January 31, 2009. http://search.ebscohost.com
Frederick Douglass: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave
The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave was an autobiography crafted by the famous former slave and abolitionist to illustrate the horror of slavery. Over the course of the narrative, Douglass uses a combination of pathos, logos, and ethos to convince the reader of his or her moral obligation to fight against the enslavement of African-Americans. Douglass gives particular attention to the condition of women in relation to slavery, both how slavery deprives black women of the protections they should have as females and how it corrupts the soul of white women with power.
Douglass was born a slave and he makes clear early on that he was aware of the horrors of slavery from an early age. The first incident he details is the following to illustrate this: "I have often been awakened…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.
14 Dec 2014. Web.
Through luck and hard work, Douglass was able to gain something of an education, but his experience, like his release from bondage before Emancipation, he stated was hardly the norm. Equality and freedom needed to be extended to all Black Americans.
Sojourner Truth's speech "Ain't I a oman?" chronicles the seemingly endless catalogue of hardships she endured as a female slave, without any self-pity. Although a member of the supposedly weaker sex, and the mother of many children, she was still expected to work hard. As a Black woman, she was forced to work doubly hard against societal racism and prejudice against her gender. She worked as hard as a man but was not rewarded for her labor, monetarily, because she was a slave according to the letter of the law. The efforts of her labor were ignored because supposedly a woman 'couldn't work' due to the fragility of her…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, American Slave. 1845.
12 Mar 1007
Truth, Sojourner. "Ain't I a Woman?" 1851. About.com. 12 Mar 2007. http://afroamhistory.about.com/library/blsojourner_truth_womanspeech.htm
Frederick Douglass' "Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass" is a ground-breaking autobiographical tale of Douglass' childhood of slavery, his struggle to escape, and his triumph over stereotypical restraints put upon him because of his color. Douglass uses his narrative to dispel the myths about African-Americans - myths that white slave owners typically circulated to justify their cruel treatment of slaves. He also exposes the white Americans who do not own slaves, as well as free blacks, to the savage and brutal world he grew up in - in an honest way that had never before been seen. Through this narrative, Douglass confronts the ideas of power, family, knowledge, home, violence, and having a sense of self. Douglass also attempts to warn Americans about the dire effects that slavery is going to have on the whole nation - white Americans as well as black.
The power a slave owner has…
Frederick Douglass was born into slavery in 1818 in Maryland. His mother, Harriet Baily, worked as a slave in the cornfields of a plantation. Frederick's father was a white man. Because of his mother's long hours, Frederick was sent to live with his grandmother, who lived on a nearby farm and raised Harriet's children until they were old enough to work.
During the years he spent in his grandmother's cabin, Frederick did not think of himself as a slave. He did, however, notice that his grandmother referred to a certain man as the "Old Master" and whenever, she referred to this man it was with fear.
hen Frederick was six years old, his grandmother told him that they were going on a long journey. They arrived at the Lloyd Plantation, where a group of children were playing on the grounds. His grandmother showed him that three of these children were…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative Of The Life & Times Of Frederick Douglass. Lushena Books. 2000.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) is most often remembered as being the "most prominent African-American orator, journalist and antislavery leaders of the 19th century." (Encarta) Douglass was himself an escaped slave who campaigned for the abolition of slavery. e published his autobiography in three complete versions, which depicted his life as a slave in the South and a runaway slave in the North. e described what life as a free black was like before the Civil War; throughout his life he fought for equal rights for African-Americans and he held several positions within the government. e was born in 1817 in Talbot County, Maryland to a slave named arriet Bailey and an unknown white man. Because his mother was a slave, he also became a slave.
Separated from his mother at a young age, Douglass was taught how to read by a master's wife. Douglass' life was most influenced by his first…
He fought for an education that he felt he deserved, conjoined with freedom he felt he had earned. He spoke out against slavery through speeches, his newspapers, and through his daily life. Douglass was a man with extraordinary strength, and perseverance despite his rough beginnings. It was those characteristics that established his place in history as a prominent leader of the early civil rights movement, and other reform movements of the 19th century. (Encarta)
Douglass, Frederick," Microsoft ® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001
http://www.encarta.msn.com© 1997-2000 06 March 2002
The time spent at Covey working the fields, exhausted, and without any hope left, marked Douglass to a great extent. More precisely, as it is presented in the book, Douglass started inquiring on the possibility to even commit suicide because of the tremendous unhappiness he was living. At the same time, such sentiments did not only come from an exhausting, unequal, unfair, and inhuman way of living, but rather from a desperation felt when realizing that the power of the slave owners is so big that its exercise can transform a man into a slave.
Another important point to be taken into account is the way in which Covey, after Douglass is recuperated from his escape, was found as a symbolic figure to define the black resistance against the slave trade. More precisely, the fact that in the end Douglass faced up to him may be interpreted as a symbol…
This scene illustrates how the boredoms, vices, and needs of life are lessened when we do this. Another scene that represent Voltaire's view of mankind is when Candide realizes that "we must cultivate our garden" (Voltaire 101). As a result of his journey, Candide concludes that mankind stands a better chance of survival in the world without the aid of philosophy or religion. His opinion is that mankind should return to a more simplified way of thinking. Life is a garden and we cultivate our gardens when we make connections with other people. How we relate to others represents the seeds that we plant in our gardens of life. Growth is the result of connecting with others and not the result of our intelligence. In this scene, this notion is simple. Another scene that represents Voltaire's view on mankind can be seen
hile both authors offer instruction on how to…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Penguin. 1982.
Voltaire. Candide and other Stories. New York: Signet Classics. 1961.
Former slave, abolitionist, civil rights advocate
Enlistment of black soldiers
Fair Wages for black soldiers
Awards / recognition
Former slave, abolitionist, civil rights advocate
Most high school history classes teach only that Frederick Douglass was a freed slave who helped free others. While he was instrumental in the Underground Railroad and the emancipation of slaves, he was also a major civil rights advocate. He fought for their freedom, the equal treatment of blacks and the rights of women as well. He was an abolitionist, an orator, and editor of the North Star (later renamed Frederick Douglass' Paper).
The son of a slave woman and a white man, Douglass was a plantation boy of great strength. He was taught to read by the wife of one of his masters. He worked as a calker in the shipyards. This trade helped him when he…
Axelrod, Alan. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Civil War. New York: alpha books, 1998.
Douglass, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, An Autobiograpghy. New York: Gramercy Books, 1993.
Douglas, Frederick," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2002. http://encarta.msn.com1997-2002.Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved
For Frederick Douglass' Paper - Philadelphia Correspondence. http://srch.accessible.com/accessible/text/freedom/00000253/00025307.htm. Retreived7 September 1901.
The Civil War of 1861 introduced a range of issues, one of which was the role of the lack man in his own liberation. One of the objectives of this War was the emancipation of slaves. Douglass took advantage and made the anti-slavery issue continue burning. President Abraham Lincoln took notice of Douglass' fervor and asked him to recruit African-American soldiers for the Union army. Douglass twice met with the President to discuss the use and treatment of African-American soldiers by the Union army. This led to the upgrading of African-American soldiers each time and the corollary increase of their military effectiveness. During the Reconstruction period, Douglass confronted a new set of responsibilities. Politicians had different concepts about race and its particular problems. Legislative battles raged to establish the concept and constitutional integrity of slavery and slave emancipation. In that occasion, Douglass was easily the only African-American with the reputation…
McElrath, Jessica. The Life of Frederick Douglass. Your Guide to African-American History. The New York Times Company: About.com, 2007. Retrieved on July 12, 2007 at http://afroamhistory.about.com/pd.frederickdouglass1/a/bio_douglass.fhtm
Rice, Alan. Frederick Douglass. American Studies. School of Humanities: Keele University, 2006. Retrieved on July 18, 2007 at http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/as/Portraits/rice-douglass.html
UXL Newsmakers. Frederick Douglass, 2005. Retrieved on July 12, 2007 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/article/mi_gx5221/is_n19136182
Frederick Douglass's Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass offers one of the most thorough and detailed autobiographies of a slave. hat makes Douglass's narrative unique is that he witnessed a wide variety of slave conditions, given the brief time he spent in the city of Baltimore when he was young and also having the luck to have mistresses who helped him to read. ithout Douglass's stint in Baltimore, he may never have tasted freedom or longed for liberation enough to inspire his eventual escape, the writing of his narrative and his eventual work as a public speaker. However, Douglass also experienced the deepest despair of slave life with Covey. The autobiography incorporates some core themes related to the life of slaves. Three of the themes most notable in Douglass's narrative include the motif of home, the symbolism of manhood, and the different types of power.
Home provides an…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Digital copy online: http://archive.org/stream/narrativeoflifeo00dougrich/narrativeoflifeo00dougrich_djvu.txt
But as he grew up and became wiser about the world, his attitude went through a radical change. At one point, Frederick witnesses a slave on the Lloyd Plantation shot dead simply for refusing to come get a flogging, which sent a "thrill of horror" through his soul and really woke him up to the realities of slave existence. Life got better for Frederick for a short time, however; he was sent to a relative of the Lloyd's to take care of an infant, and while there he was also taught how to read, much t his new master's dismay. Ironically, it was this master's very vocal reaction to the discovery that Frederick could read that convinced Frederick that this would be his path to freedom and a better life. Margaret Kohn notes that literacy and education make constant appearances in the writings of Frederick Douglass, stressing the importance of…
Growing up in such a lifestyle, it is no wonder that Frederick Bailey thought that he would be a slave for ever -- in his youth, he didn't really understand any other way of existing. But as he grew up and became wiser about the world, his attitude went through a radical change. At one point, Frederick witnesses a slave on the Lloyd Plantation shot dead simply for refusing to come get a flogging, which sent a "thrill of horror" through his soul and really woke him up to the realities of slave existence. Life got better for Frederick for a short time, however; he was sent to a relative of the Lloyd's to take care of an infant, and while there he was also taught how to read, much t his new master's dismay. Ironically, it was this master's very vocal reaction to the discovery that Frederick could read that convinced Frederick that this would be his path to freedom and a better life. Margaret Kohn notes that literacy and education make constant appearances in the writings of Frederick Douglass, stressing the importance of these factors in emancipation.
A key moment came for Frederick when, while struggling through a newspaper article, he finally understood what the word "abolition" meant. From this moment on, Frederick basically dedicated his life to earning his own freedom and speaking out against slavery wherever and whenever he could. At sixteen, he was sent to the "slave breaker" Edward Covey to see if his new attitude could be brought back into line. For awhile, it appeared as though Covey's violent tactics were working, but eventually Fredrick got fed up, and fought Covey for nearly two hours -- an offense for which he could have been killed, had Covey not been too embarrassed about being beaten up by a sixteen-year-old. A few years later, he and some other slaves planned an escape, but one of them exposed the plan and Frederick was jailed. He was promised his freedom at the age of twenty-five if he would work hard for his master. He became a caulker in a shipyard and was paid a high wage for it, but was not satisfied and still resolved to escape, now with Anna Murray his bride-to-be. On September 3, 1838, he did just that, arriving in the free state of New York a day later, where he married Anna and began his career as an abolitionist.
It was in New York that Frederick changed his last name to Douglass and began his fight for the freedom of others. He was helped, of course, by his brilliant mind, and
Douglass and Welty
Frederick Douglass and Eudora Welty came from two completely different environments. Douglass, a child of slaves, was abandoned when he was only six years old and discouraged to learn how to read. Throughout his life, he never forgot his feeling of abandonment. Welty had a happy childhood in a caring family that was passionate about books and reading. One of Welty's first memories was hearing her parents reading to each other from their favorite books. Despite these major differences in their upbringing, both Douglass and Welty used writing as a primary way of expressing their thoughts and ideas and became well-known authors in their own time as well as today, a century later.
It is difficult to understand how Frederick Douglass was motivated to became such an important author when reading his biography. His grandmother raised him until he was a very young child and then left…
Frederick Douglass' involvement in the women's rights movement of the nineteenth century, and where Douglass stood on women's rights. Douglass was an orator, a statesman, and an outspoken proponent of civil rights for all who were oppressed, even women. His stand on rights and dignity for all mankind has made him one of the most enduring freedom fighters Americans have ever known. He worked hard for women's freedom as well as freedom for blacks in the South.
Frederick Douglass was a former slave living as a free man in the Northern United States, and a staunch advocate for civil rights and the ending of slavery before and during the Civil War. He escaped from a plantation in Maryland and made his way to New York, where he worked as a shipbuilder and eventually gained his freedom. He traveled the world calling out for an end to slavery in the United…
Connery, William S. "Proud Lion of Baltimore - the Life and Legacy of Frederick Douglass." World and I Feb. 2003: 156.
Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980.
Kolmer, Elizabeth. "Nineteenth Century Woman's Rights Movement: Black and White." Negro History Bulletin Jan.-Sept. 1996: 8+.
Langley, Winston E. And Vivian C. Fox, eds. Women's Rights in the United States: A Documentary History. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994.
One of the key figures in the United States in the nineteenth century was Fredrick Douglass (c. 1817–1895). Fredrick Douglass was born to a slave woman in 1817. This automatically made him a slave. It is thought that his father was the white owner of his mother (Lee, 13-30). Douglass is most famous for escaping from the shackles of slavery in the year 1838 and becoming one of the key leaders and advocates for the abolition of Slavery in the United States. He revered by the African American community and Americans in general for his fight against slavery. Long after his death, U.S. Civil Rights Movement leaders referred to him in their speeches and used his fight to inspire Americans to fight for the rights of African Americans. This paper looks at the life of Fredrick Douglass and his massive contributions to the abolitionist movement and women's…
Douglass and Canot
Frederick Douglass believed that men should be free and that slavery was morally wrong. Captain Canot did not think slavery was bad and in fact supported slavery. Both men based their takes on slavery on experience and philosophical perspectives. However, the main difference was that Douglass was coming from the perspective of the slave and Canot was coming from the perspective of the slave owner. So for Douglass, of course slavery would seem bad as he experienced it directly and knew what it felt like to not be free. That shaped his perspective. Canot on the other hand only had the experience of being an owner and never felt the loss of his rights as a human being so did not appreciate this perspective.
Douglass based his views also on his education and his experience: he could see right away that inequality was hateful. He saw how…
Canot, T. (2015). Twenty years of an African slaver. UK: Cambridge.
Douglass, F. (1995). The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. NY: Dover.
Gigantino, J. (2006). Land lottery system. Retrieved from http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/land-lottery-system
Good schools, involved parents, and a variety of enrichment opportunities are aids to education. Almost every person can remember a good teacher, a seminal visit to a museum or city, or just an educational experience that changed their life. The lesson of Frederick Douglass is not that there should be fewer opportunities to be educated, as Douglass himself fought for expanded literacy, but that students should not assume, simply because they do not have the best available educational opportunities while they are growing up, that a good education is impossible. It may simply take more effort on their parts.
Some, but clearly not all children, may take their education for granted, like people in industrialized countries take the easy availability of food for granted. But starvation of opportunity to stimulate desire and appreciation for what has been taken away is not a solution.
After establishing that it is conceded that African-Americans are humans, Douglass moves on to the proposition that he should not be called upon to prove that humans are entitled to liberty. He points out that Americans have already declared that man is entitled to liberty and freedom. He points out that all men resist slavery and feel it is wrong for another person to claim ownership of them. He also points out the brutal side of slavery, and argues that no person could argue that those things were somehow right including: beatings, lashings, shackling, hunting them with dogs, split out families, knocking out their teeth, selling them at auction, and starvation. He believes that it is ridiculous to expect him to argue that a system that includes all of these horrors is wrong.
Douglass' also tackles the common argument during the time that slavery was a divinely ordained condition or…
Douglass, F. (1852, July 4). The Hypocrisy of American Slavery. Retrieved February 13, 2012
from the History Place website: http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/douglass.htm
Douglass asks, "Must I undertake to prove that the slave is a man? That point is conceded already. Nobody doubts it" (Douglass, 1852). However, this statement was simply not true; the humanity of blacks was a seriously debated point at that period of time. He repeats this phrase in two more phrases, "For the present it is enough to affirm the equal manhood of the Negro race" and "the manhood of the slave is conceded" (Douglass, 1852). Furthermore, he provides a significant amount of evidence that supports his proposition, but those statements only highlight his circular argument, because he always begins not with the proposition that a slave is human, but with the proposition that nobody doubts that slaves are human.
The third fallacy that Douglass employs is the appeal to belief. "Appeal to Belief is a fallacy that has this general pattern: Most people believe that a claim, X,…
Douglass, F. (1852, July 4). The Hypocrisy of American Slavery. Retrieved February 20, 2012
from the History Place website: http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/douglass.htm
The Nizkor Project. (2011). Description of ad hominem. Retrieved February 20, 2012 from http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/ad-hominem.html
The Nizkor Project. (2011). Description of appeal to belief. Retrieved February 20, 2012 from online
King and ouglas
Frederick ouglass and Martin Luther King were truly great men and great public speakers, and King was also a hero and martyr to the cause of nonviolent resistance who quite possibly was assassinated by Southern racists with the complicity of the federal government. As far as ethos is concerned, both had immense moral authority, since ouglass was an escaped slave who became the leading black abolitionist in the North, while Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who led the civil rights movement from 1955-68. ouglass in his Fourth of July speech used more pathos than King in his Letter from a Birmingham Jail, graphically describing the terrible conditions of Southern slavery that he had experienced himself. Unlike King, he did not make a moral argument for nonviolence although he strongly denounced the United States for betraying its own principles of liberty and democracy for all. In…
Douglass also had great moral authority because he had been born a slave but had escaped and gone on to become one of the leading black abolitionists in the North by 1852. He used pathos far more than King, and mentioned how at an early age had watched as slaves were shipped from Baltimore to New Orleans and Mobile, to the even harsher bondage of the Deep South cotton and sugar plantations. Slavery was therefore a "terrible reality" to him, and he knew from personal experience that it gave whites the power to treat blacks like animals and "to hunt them with dogs, to sell them at auction, to sunder their families, to knock out their teeth" (Douglass 561). That the United States had permitted this evil institution to exist for so long made the Fourth of July a "sham," a "hollow mockery" and nothing more than "bombast, fraud, deception, impiety and hypocrisy" (Douglass 560). Nor did he believe that this massive injustice and oppression would be uprooted peacefully or though reasonable arguments, but only with "the storm, the whirlwind, and the earthquake" (Douglass Paragraph 564).
Nothing could be clearer that the absolute repugnance that Douglass felt toward the institution of slavery and how he hoped to inspire Northern whites to take action against it -- by any means necessary. King hoped to inspire equal abhorrence for segregation and racist violence in his white audience, but he also pointed out that when he started out in the civil rights movement in 1955 he had hoped for great support from white religious institutions in the South. He had received virtually none, though, and this had been one of his great disappointments, since for evil to prosper it required the silence of good people. Unlike Douglass, he took a strongly principled stand for nonviolence but warned whites that if peaceful change failed then the U.S., could expect a racial conflagration.
Douglass' tenacity reminds me of Martin Luther King, who lived in a world where African-Americans knew how to read and write but were still suffering under the weight of racism. King did not become violent and irrational in order to win people to his way of thinking. Even when he was arrested and put in jail for nonviolent protests, he spoke with a calm and unwavering voice. He knew in his heart what was right and he was smart enough to figure out a way to make his dreams come true without violence. King face adversity but he never gave up and he chose to seek his dream in an unconventional way, much like Douglass. He saw the obstacles and, rather than let them stop him, he found another way.
I think Douglass' persistence and perseverance are examples for anyone who wishes to do anything. Douglass' goal, learning to read…
Douglass, Frederisck. "Learning to Read and Write. The Blair Reader. New Jersey: Pearson. 2004.
They "debate" Listwell's occupation and purpose, even though it is none of their business, and then they settle down to gossip and drink, not really doing anything to help solve problems or find answers to questions like slavery. They are like the people of the nation, but they are like the Congress as well, because the Congress often debates issues to death, but never really does anything to solve them. In particular, they represent the issue of slavery, because Congress and those who created Congress debated the issue too, but never managed to come up with a workable or viable solution to ending slavery. Thus, the tavern represents the nation and the people inside represent the lawmakers, who are not doing their jobs.
Finally, the tavern, and its non-descript and decrepit outbuildings represent the nation in another way. The outbuildings, like the tavern, are falling apart, and many of them…
Douglass, Frederick. "The Heroic Slave." University of Virginia. 2008. 14 April 2008. http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=DouHero.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
Dr. Martin Luther King's, but Frederick Douglass' influence on the civil rights movement in the United States is just as remarkable. orn a mulatto slave in Maryland, Douglass endured most of the typical trials of slavery during his childhood. Witnessing fellow slaves and family members being beaten by their masters, Douglass resolved to escape and after a few failed attempts, finally managed to secure his freedom with a one-way ticket to New York City in 1838. Over the course of his 77-year life, Frederick Douglass devoted every ounce of his soul to advocating the rights and freedoms of blacks. He successfully fought not just to end slavery but to end segregation, discrimination, and all other forms of racism in America.
When Douglass was about thirteen years old, he first learned how to read and write and once he escaped the bondage of slavery, Douglass honed his literacy skills and became…
Before, during, and after the Civil War, Douglass fought for blacks' rights and freedoms, including suffrage. He even allied himself with feminists and adopted the women's suffrage movement as part of his political agenda. After supporting Lincoln's campaign for presidency, Douglass became a friend and advisor to the president. Douglass encouraged Lincoln to take a more aggressive stance on the issue of slavery during the Civil War.
Lincoln's assassination and Johnson's presidency offered more challenges for Douglass and the outspoken advocates of equal rights for all citizens. During the Reconstruction, Douglass fought alongside the radical Republicans to opposed President Johnson's conservative stance on black rights. A radical Republican congress overrode Johnson's vetoes on several matters, including the Civil Rights Bill of 1866. Douglass was at the forefront of such landmark measures, including the 15th Amendment, granting all men the right to vote.
Although he did not achieve all of his desires, such as universal suffrage including women, Douglass actively helped to change the American perspective on the rights of African-Americans. Douglass was a controversial figure throughout his life, battling prejudice and waves of political opposition. After enduring the personal trials of enslavement, Douglass transformed American politics and set the stage for future civil rights movements.
would attack the institutional laws that maintained black Americans as vastly unequal from their white counterparts. In his famous missive from legal captivity for protesting on behalf of equal rights, King articulated how it was that the Civil Rights movement could at once work to utilize laws to change institutional segregation and simultaneously resist Jim Crow laws still in effect.
Meditating on the subject, King remarked, "One may well ask: 'How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?' The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that 'an unjust law is no law at all.'" (King, p. 1) Here, King…
Douglas, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas. New York, New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1845.
King, Jr., Martin Luther King. Letter From a Birmingham Jail. African Studies Center-University of Pennsylvania., 1963.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave recounts the horrible conditions that led to Douglass's contempt for slavery. Douglass suffered poverty, brutality, separation from family, and civil injustice all for what he believed to be for the financial benefit of white slave owners. Fear and educational and religious controls were instruments used to keep slaves in their place. But, with his strength and determination, Douglas would rebel against and overcome these controls. And, in the end, Douglass would find the accumulation of material wealth used to justify the atrocities of slavery was an illusion.
As a child, Douglas was underfed and forced to eat cornmeal must from a trough as though he was a pig. The only clothing the slave children had were two linen shirts per year which hung to their knees. When these failed them, the children were forced to go naked. In…
It is not necessarily that Douglas's stories reach the reader's heart because of the intensity with which they are narrated, but it is because the reader immediately relates to how it is very probable that the horrors related by the author are actually real-life events. This proves that real life is often more surprising than fiction.
The society contemporary to "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas" was in point of fact taught to believe that slavery was absolutely normal and necessary, even though most agreed that it was immoral. Most people believe that background is not of extreme importance, given that the individual is primarily the principal factor who can shape his or her life. However, if one is unaware of his or her background, the respective person basically has nothing to relate to and is thus more likely to be unable to create his or her individual…
Icon Reference. (2006) "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave (Webster's Chinese-Traditional Thesaurus Edition)." ICON Group International.
That Frederick is indeed emotionally unavailable is highlighted at every turn. He doesn't do "little things" for Anna, nor whisper sweet words to Ottilie. In his speeches, he thanks neither woman for the help they have given him. "Who helped more than me?" Anna thinks as she hears her husband's first speech. "How come Freddy didn't mention me?" Later Ottilie, listening to Douglass speak years later, reflects, "I'd heard Douglass give this speech numerous times and each time I felt outrage. He'd never thanked me. Never mentioned me."
Anna and Ottilie eventually make a wary kind of peace as each comes to realize that Frederick cannot give her the love she wants. In their final meeting, Anna asks Ottilie if Frederick loves her, and Ottilie has to admit she doesn't know. Laughing bitterly, Anna admits that she never knew if Frederick really loved her either. "I thought he choose you…
In Chapter III, Douglass explains how some of the positive paternal thoughts have come about: Fear of retaliation. Slaves know that acting in any negative manner can possibly bring beatings or even death. Therefore, it is not surprising that "slaves, when inquired of as to their condition and the character of their masters, almost universally say they are contented, and that their masters are kind." Further, many swayed by this prejudice, actually begin to believe that their masters are better than others. Sadly, added Douglass, this often leads to slave against slave, where each thinks he is the better because he has the "better" and kinder master.
Douglass condemns those blacks who foolishly believe they are better because of their master's status. While there is mostly natural connection among slaves, he notes, the system leads to disagreement among slaves. Masters promote one slave to betray another: For example, a traitor…
One cannot write about Douglass' autobiography without mention of his comments on religion. Those who most closely follow such Scripture as "He that knoweth his master's will, and doeth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes" or the likes of Master Thomas who "was one of the many pious slaveholders who hold slaves for the very charitable purpose of taking care of them" (Chapter IX) believe that they are indeed doing something "in the best interests" of their slaves. The greatest fraud of positive paternalism notes Douglass are the religious holidays. "They do not give the slaves this time because they would not like to have their work during its continuance, but because they know it would be unsafe to deprive them of it" (Chapter 10).
Based on Douglass' book, it does not appear that there is much difference between the two forms of paternalism. Some people may see that one is more positive than the other -- that one type of paternalism is acting on behalf of the slaves or, as it is said, in their best interests. However, it does not seem that either of these forms of paternalism is right. They both see slaves as second-class citizens who cannot form their own opinions or live without the support of others. Why bother to debate which approach is better, when paternalism is not wrong, regardless of how it is defined?
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Berkley SunSite. Retrieved from website June 16, 2006. http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass
Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist
Frederick Douglass, one among the leading personalities in civil rights history, escaped a life of slavery and went on to become a social justice advocate; he is counted among prominent personalities like President Lincoln, Harriet Tubman, Susan rownell Anthony and William Lloyd Garrison. The historic 13th Amendment was the fruit of Douglass' and others' efforts towards civil rights; but Douglass knew well that African-Americans had a long way to go in gaining complete freedom. Douglass, in 1832, was sent away from the city, to Thomas Auld's plantation. Thomas (Hugh Auld's brother) sent Frederick to Edward Covey, the infamous "slave-driver and negro-breaker" who was known for crushing the resistance of any slave. Here, Douglass was beaten severely. Once, the 16-year-old Douglass retaliated, physically besting Covey; hereafter, he was never whipped again. In 1841, Douglass got acquainted with William Lloyd Garrison (a highly outspoken abolitionist and founder of abolitionist…
Barnes, D. (n.d.). Frederick Douglass: "Fourth of July" Speech. Retrieved from Milestone Documents: https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/frederick-douglasss-fourth-of-july-speech/impact
Biographies. (n.d.). Retrieved from Civil War: http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/frederick-douglass.html?referrer=https://www.google.com.pk/
Braswell, S. (2015, July 03). Friedrick Douglass' Fiery 4th of July Speech. Retrieved from Ozy.com: http://www.ozy.com/flashback/frederick-douglass-fiery-4th-of-july-speech/61450
Engel, J. (n.d.). "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?." Retrieved from American Class: http://americainclass.org/what-to-the-slave-is-the-fourth-of-july/
Graff Asserts that literacy played a less significant role in the industrialization of American than was one thought. He argues that training people to read and write was not enough. Literacy alone was not enough to advance the industrialized nation (Cattau).
Douglas did not need to know how to read to perform his job in the shipyard. He only needed to know how to write four letters. He did not need to how to read and write proficiently. The workforce may have needed little bits of knowledge to perform their jobs, but this is different from being able to read and write fluently, which supports Graff's ideas on the importance of reading and writing to the industrial age. It relied more on the availability of a workforce, rather than the need for a literate workforce. The only ones that needed to learn to read and write were the managers and…
Akinnaso, F. Linguistic Unification and Language Rights. Applied Linguistics. 1994. Vol. 15. No. 2, pp. 139-168.
Brandt, Deborah. "Remembering Writing, Remembering Reading." CCC 45.4 (1994): 459-479.
Cattau, D. Harvey Graff argues for a clearer view of our sentimental notions. June 13, 1995. The Dallas Morning News. http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/graff40/outgrowingmyths.html Accessed May 29, 2008.
Douglas, Frederick. Learning to Read and Write. Online. http://www.gibbsmagazine.com/learning%20to%20read.htm . Accessed May 29, 2008.
The slave had created a new identity through education that replaced the older one. Further, Douglas gives an example that if a slave were able to read the Sacred Scriptures, the slave would be able to see the inconsistency of slavery. Therefore slave owners deny education to slaves to prevent any change of the slave detecting any inconsistency in his or her position. Slaves must not know why they are slaves, or they would understand that their masters are robbers.
Ultimately, it is too difficult for slave owners to deny education to slaves and thus the inevitable downfall of slavery. On this matter, Douglass says that "[N]othing has been left undone to cripple their intellects, darken their minds, debase their moral nature, obliterate all traces of their relationship to mankind; and yet how wonderfully they have sustained the mighty load of a most frightful bondage, under which they have been…
I have frequently felt her head, and found it nearly covered over with festering sores, caused by the lash of her cruel mistress. I do not know that her master ever whipped her, but I have often been an eye witness of the revolting and brutal inflictions by Mrs. Hamilton; and what lends a deeper shade to this woman's conduct, is the fact, that, almost in the very moments of her shocking outrages of humanity and decency, she would charm you by the sweetness of her voice and her seeming piety." (149) Slavery thus causes, what Douglass states are "THE BANEFUL EFFECTS OF SLAVEHOLDING ON MY DEAR AND GOOD MISTRESS," upon women in particular. omen are suggestible and such a bad institution as slavery corrupts even good hite females as well as harms the tender bodies of Black females -- again a very persuasive appeal to a hite Northern audience…
Amelia, a Lowell Factory Worker, on Wage Slavery." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Douglass, Frederick, My Bondage and My Freedom. With and Introduction by James M. Cune Smith. Retrieved at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=DouMybo.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=10&division=div2 [2 Feb 2005]
Lincoln: First Inaugural." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Lincoln: Gettysburg Address." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Certainly there were myriad slave rebellions, in the American South and elsewhere, before Douglass's time. But Douglass came along when the time was right for social change, when the South had been recently defeated and American slavery was in its most precarious state ever. Therefore, Douglass and Abolitionists like him: black and white; male and female, seized the moment, and in 1865 slavery was outlawed.
The name Frederick Douglass is a household word in most American households. However, it was not until publication, in 1999, of Alfred F. Young's historical biography of the Shoemaker and the Tea Party (Boston: Beacon Press) that a brave shoemaker who risked his life in the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, George Robert Twelve Hewes was known to history at all. Though he, too, was a man of his era, Hewes was not nearly as representative as Douglass. Nor was Hewes's era representative…
American life stories:
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin and Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
Although Benjamin Franklin and Fredrick Douglass began their lives on the opposite sides of the black-white divide in America, their personal narratives contain many parallel features. Both suffered a kind of slavery -- indentured servitude to his brother in the case of Franklin and actual slavery in the south in the case of Douglass -- and both later rose to prominent heights as authors and self-made men.
Both men held work in high esteem. Franklin saw his thrift and industry as the reason for his success. Douglass criticized slavery because it eroded the ability to work hard and to make a profit off of one's own labor. Both men are shown chafing at the restrictions placed upon them while they were young. Douglass longed to learn how to read and while literacy was not…
Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass by Nathan Irvin Huggins. Specifically, it will answer some specific questions about the book concerning rights, slavery, and major reform movements of the time. Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave and natural orator, was a large part of the abolitionist movement before and during the Civil War. He did not single-handedly assure the ultimate freedom of black slaves in the United States, but his compelling voice and writings helped millions of Americans understand the plight of the black man, and ultimately change it for the better. However, Douglass did not stop at abolitionism. He was a voice for temperance, free land for the people, and especially women's rights. He was a crusader who believed in his causes, and had the skill to bring them quite vividly to the people. Frederick Douglass was a citizen heavily involved in his country and his beliefs --…
Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980.
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm
The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
rightly named: he was a cruel man. I have seen him whip a woman, causing the blood to run half an hour at the time; and this, too, in the midst of her crying children, pleading for their mother's release. He seemed to take pleasure in manifesting his fiendish barbarity," (Chapter 2). The shocking cruelty Frederick Douglass describes in his autobiography constitutes one of the first and most thorough slave narratives. Douglass and other former slaves revealed to readers the real face of slavery rather than the propaganda that allowed the institution to metastasize for centuries. Given the fact that slavery by definition entails treating people worse than animals while using psychological and physical torture and also denying them the right to extricate themselves from the situation let alone take part in the societies in which they live, there can be no possible justification for the practice. In fact, it…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. 1845. Retrieved online: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/23/23-h/23-h.htm
Current Marketing Situation
The personal computer (PC) is designed to increase convenience of computing aspects employed by consumers. In particular, this product is purposed to enable the consumer to undertake several functional and computing services through one device. IBM, the producer of the personal computer, is acknowledged as one of the key trailblazers in the technology industry. In particular, the company is one of the original founders and advancers of the personal computer versions that we perceive and use in the present day. PC manufactured by IBM facilitates not just the individual consumer at home, but also organizations as a whole in their business operations. The benefit of this product is that it enhances the convergence of technology being used within an organization. For instance, the computer works in tandem with other technologies, such as the internet, different software and cloud-based services. This is a user-friendly device…
Ferrell, O. C., Hartline, M. (2014). Marketing Strategy. Ohio: South Western Cengage Learning.
Intel. 2012. Retrieved from the web at http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/company-overview/company-facts.html
Jeffs, C. (2008). Strategic Management. California: SAGE Publications.
Kotler, P., Keller, K. L., Brandy, M., Goodman, M. & Hansen, T. (2009). Marketing Management, 1st edition, New York: Pearson Education.
Frederick Douglass to the Americans, entitled, "What to the Slaves is the Fourth of July?" commemorates the celebration of the Independence Day of the American Nation. However, Douglass, in his address, emphasizes that this special day was not to be celebrated by black American slaves like him ("[t]his Fourth of July is yours, not mine")- instead, the Fourth of July was a reminder of the injustices and inequality of the black American slaves with that of the white American nation. In his address, Douglass provides the audience a detailed explanation of his argument, that is, the reason why the day of Independence of the United States cannot be a celebration for the black Americans. Douglass also provided the audience the chief thesis of his address: that the Fourth of July is, for the black American slave, is not a day of Independence, because the Declaration of Independence itself and the…
American life is all about the fight towards becoming upwardly mobile and making life better. Ellen oster by Kaye Gibbons and the Narrative of the Life of rederick Douglass, an American Slave written by himself tell the story of struggle and hardship that leads to change and reflection. These two stories although differing in setting and protagonists, share the same level of pain that are universal regardless of race, gender, and age.
Both protagonists are bound by the chains of their existence. The differences are based on age and racial inequality. In terms of style and content, because the two novels were written during different time periods, they will have differences, especially in perspective since Douglass wrote it about himself where as Kaye Gibbons wrote about a made up character. In this essay these differences will be explained along with the universal themes that bring the two together.
Freedom is something both the protagonists of the two stories crave and need. Ellen needs to be free of her abusive father and finds it through his death and Douglass wants to be free of slavery and finds it through his escape. These pursuits not only illustrate the universal need for liberty and the pursuit of pleasure, but the human need to exist and exist well. It is through books such as these, that people can begin to understand things on a deeper level and realize the struggles everyone goes through at one point in their lives.
In conclusion the readings of Ellen Foster and Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave illustrate the plight and struggle of people in different times and periods. Ellen had to deal with poverty and abuse in 1970's American south and Douglass had to deal with existing during the period of American slavery. To compare the stories, one had to look at the subject matter. They were very different protagonists, one a black man, another a white girl, but they both determined to succeed and prevail against all odds and obstacles.
In regards to differences, the writing styles were the opposite of each other. One sought to create depth and mystery, the other to analyse and explain. Douglass wanted people to understand the plight of African-Americans were as Gibbons wanted to create a rich and deep character. Two great stories, two great characters, and one universal themese of suffering is what this essay offers.
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…
Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.
Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.
Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm
Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
Douglass begins to regret his own existence because reading allows him to understand the horror of slavery and its seemingly "everlasting condition" (68). Douglass realizes that knowledge, while it is powerful, it is also painful. Douglass knew and understood too much. If he did not know how bad things were, he would not feel so hopeless. However, he was beginning to understand the ways of the world and the injustice of slavery.
Douglass is anxious because he knows what it is like to be treated kindly and the others knew "nothing of the kind" (72). Experiencing kind masters was a blessing but it also spoiled Douglass in that he knew that slave owners could be nice and not beat their slaves. He had no idea of what the next master might be like and it could literally go either way for him.
Auld was a slave owner without the ability…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Penguin. 1982.
At which point, he would escape and settle in New edford, Massachusetts. This would mark the beginning of the long fight that Douglas would have in the abolition of slavery and campaign for civil rights. This awakening would lead to the publishing of the book, The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas, An American Slave. Where, he would print the different speeches on the abolition of slavery. This would become a best seller and make Douglas famous. However, he was wanted by southern slave hunters and began to campaign in ritain against the evils of slavery. This allowed for sympathetic friends to buy Douglas's freedom, which helped him to return to America.
The different events that were described by Frederick Douglas were a testament of his desire to obtain his freedom at any cost. Where, he would endure suffering and brutality at the hands of slave masters. These incidents…
Douglas, Frederick. (2009). "Chapter Two." The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas, An American Slave. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 21 -- 27. Print.
What was surprising or affected you in the book?
The most surprising aspect of the book is that it highlights the challenges that are impacting everyone. This is accomplished through showing the brutality and the sense of unconcern about what is happening. For example, in one section Douglass illustrates how female slaves are often victimized by their slave masters or relatives. This is taking place through showing how many are often brutally raped and forced to deal with these abuses continuously. These areas are shocking, as it is showing why slavery must be destroyed at all costs. This is surprising as Douglass will talk about these issues in great detail. (Gates)
Comment about the incidents related to slavery in that book.
The incidents related to slavery are illustrating how the slave master and society have a sense of indifference. This is because they do not care about what happens…
Gates, Henry. Classic Slave Narratives. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print.
African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans
Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, econstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1845. Available from http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/f-douglas/Narrative-Douglass.pdf. 2012 May 05.
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Of Our Spiritual Strivings." The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Available from http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html . 2012 May 05.
Rowley, Stephanie J., Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Smith, Mia A. "The Relationship Between Racial Identity and Self-Esteem in African-American College and High School Students." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3., 715 -- 724, 1998.
Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Cooke, Deanna Y. "Racial Ideology and Racial Centrality as Predictors of African-American College Students' Academic Performance." Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 8 -- 27, 1998.
Both religion and the law purport to advocate human rights, freedoms, and liberties. Yet neither religion nor the law can offer any justification for the dichotomy of slavery. No logic can sustain the argument that slavery is humane or just, and the brilliance of Jacobs' and Douglass' lsave narratives is their mutual ability to expose the fallacies in both religion and the law. The optimism with which the authors express their views does not negate their overt critiques. For instance, Jacobs and Douglass are both deeply religious. They do not criticize Christianity but only the way Christian doctrine is distorted to support slavery. Neither author criticizes the United States but only the way American law and values are distorted to support slavery. Their incredible ability to overcome a lack of formal education to write their stories bears witness to the power of the individual to transform defunct social norms and…
South - Mary Chesnut & Fredrick Douglass
Prior to making a comparison between Mary Chesnut and Frederick Douglass, in order to present material which sheds light on the relationship between white southern women and slaves, it would seem appropriate to look closely at each of these two noteworthy characters from American history.
Mary Boykin Chesnut
Mary Boykin Chesnut was born in 1823, into the aristocracy of South Carolina, had all the privileges of wealth and power - including the benefit of an education at an exclusive boarding school in Charleston - and married into another very prominent family in South Carolina. She lived on a plantation with numerous black slaves, which was fairly typical for wealthy people during that period. What was not typical of wealthy people during those times was the fact that her circle of friends was political and social heavyweights - after all, her husband was a…
Adams, Phoebe-Lou. "The private Mary Chesnut." The Atlantic 255 (1985): 125.
Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman's World in the Old South.
New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
DeCredico, Mary A. Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Confederate Woman's Life.
Anti-Slavery Movement of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, an American Slave"
Frederick Douglass' biography entitled, "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Life" is a literary work that does not only discuss slavery in broader terms incorporated into a literary work during the 19th century, but the narrative is also a social study of the life of black Americans during the black American slavery period (19th century). Being a social study of the American society during the 19th century, the Douglass biography illustrates the injustices and inequality among black Americans during the black slavery period through vivid and descriptive narrations of the author's experiences as a young black American slave who tried to free himself from the slave bondage. Douglass' biography is also an example of a literary work that focuses on the theme of anti-slavery movement, similar to the objectives of famous black American writers…
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." 14 May 1997. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE. 11 November 2002 http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass /Autobiography/.
He was not just some compassionate liberal advocating freedom for the oppressed, he was an actual victim of the system who had risen above it. This strengthened his leadership abilities even further because he was able to use his personal experiences to relate the horrors of slavery to those who had only read about it.
When he tells about the cruelty of the slave overseer Mr. Gore, stating "His savage barbarity was equaled only by the consummate coolness with which he committed the grossest and most savage deeds upon the slaves under his charge" (p. 356), one cannot helped but be moved and outraged. There is no denying that his experiences were as horrendous as Harriet's. But there is also no denying that the male and female experiences of slavery were different. The fact is, the male and female experiences in just about any walk of life are different, no…
Representations of omen
The concept of slavery in America has engendered a great deal of scholarship. During the four decades following reconstruction, despite the hopes of the liberals in the North, the position of the Negro in America declined. After President Lincoln's assassination and the resulting malaise and economic awakening of war costs, much of the political and social control in the South was returned to the white supremacists. Blacks were left at the mercy of ex-slaveholders and former Confederates, as the United States government adopted a laissez-faire policy regarding the "Negro problem" in the South. The era of Jim Crow brought to the American Negro disfranchisement, social, educational and occupational discrimination, mass mob violence, murder, and lynching. Under a sort of peonage, black people were deprived of their civil and human rights and reduced to a status of quasi-slavery or "second-class" citizenship (Foner). Strict legal segregation of public facilities…
Douglass, F. The Anti-Slavery Movement. Rochester, NH: Lee, Man and Company, 1855. Print.
Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Boston, MA:
Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.
Elliott, M. Color Blind Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Jonathan Edwards "Sinners in the hands of an Angry God"- write about your response to Edward's sermon as a member of his congregation.
Edward's "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is fascinating from a historical perspective but absolutely frightening from the perspective of someone who might have been listening to the sermon when it was delivered in 1741. The "fire and brimstone" approach to religious teachings is unpalatable. Religion should engender love and trust in humanity, not fear, anger, and near hatred. Edward seems angry, and is trying to encourage the congregation to join him by cultivating a sense of fear and self-loathing. However, I am reacting with my modern sensibilities. If I were a member of a New England congregation, I might actually be as mad as Edwards was, and receptive to his ideas. I might have come from a religious background that fomented fear of…
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
Thoreau, Stowe, Melville and Douglas: Reflections on Slavery
Henry David Thoreau, Harriet Beacher Stowe, Herman Melville and Fredrick Douglass all opposed the intuition of slavery in the United States in the middle of the nineteen century. This matter deeply divided the nation and ultimately led to the Civil ar in 1860. hile southerner's saw the matter as a state's rights issue, abolitions framed the debate from a moral perspective. Most people in the south felt that slaves were their property, and it was for them to decide the moral and religious right of the slavery question. They saw the abolition of slavery as a threat to their very way of life. Abolitionists believed there was no distinction between slavery and liberty, a nation that condoned slavery could not be truly free (Foner). Each of these writers presented their views of slavery in there literary works.
Henry David Thoreau
Douglass, Fredrick. Douglass: Autobiographies. New York: Penguin Books, 1994. Print.
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty, Vol. 2, 3rd Ed. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 2012. Print
Melville, Herman. "Benito Cereno." The American Short Story. Thomas K. Parkes (ed.). New York: Budget Books Inc., 1994. Print.
Stowe, Harriet Beacher. Uncle Tom's Cabin. New York: Random House, 2003. Print.