Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
In theater classes, children are usually asked to learn scriptwriting, to communicate and sustain different characters, learn to interpret dramatic texts among many others. More than learning the basics of theater production, it can be seen that theater cultivates critical knowledge in the minds of students. The value of critical minds is deemed important especially when they grow old, when different options shall be laid before them, when competing motives hide behind altruistic platforms. Theater knowledge can be seen as teaching the child that different characters exist, that the need to learn to interpret and give meanings to things is essential.
Hence, we have seen that art in schools go beyond technicalities and simple art appreciation. It goes as far as instilling societal values that children need to learn as part of the society. Indeed, art showcases and cultivates important socio-cultural values in a different, fun, and entertaining manner.…
Henslin, J. (1993). Sociology. A Down-to-Earth Approach. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.
Therefore, the certificate was the black's ultimate proof, and without it, they could never hope to live a peaceful and fulfilled life, and although the purpose of the certificates was to ensure that the blacks could move about freely, it had the opposite effect, and this was that they were more often arrested if they ventured to travel outside of their county. When they set up shops, they found that they could only sell in certain incorporated towns, and they could neither sell liquor nor groceries to whites, nor could they operate printing presses or any type of entertainment houses. By the year 1840, the state of Mississippi had its largest free black population, numbering about 1,400, of which more than a third lived in two of the state's fifty-six counties, and about 80% of the free blacks were of mixed racial ancestry. This was, in essence, the condition of…
Abolitionism, Judgment Day. Retrieved From
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4narr2_txt.html Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Davis, Dernoral. A Contested Presence, Free Blacks in Antebellum, Mississippi: 1820 -- 1860. Retrieved From http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature4/freeblacks.html Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Free Blacks Before the Civil War. 2003. Retrieved From
Freed Slaves and Land Ownership
What did freed slaves received after the Civil War and mancipation? What were the realities for freed slaves when it came to wanting their own land to cultivate? These and other questions will be addressed in this paper.
The Literature on Freed Blacks and Land Ownership after the Civil War
After the war, freed slaves had to struggle to adjust to their new lives away from the shackles of slavery. They wanted to break into "…emerging industrial occupations" but that was difficult because laws were passed in the South to "restrict the mobility of newly freed slaves" (Work in America, p. 9). What actions did freed slaves take after the Civil War? The book, Work in America, explains that they "did not suffer meekly" but instead they attempted to organize themselves into a kind of union (9). An example of a union formed by freed…
Economics: An Introduction to Traditional and Progressive Views. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Work in America: A-M, Volume 1 (2003). Santa Barbara, CA. Page 9.
Based on the current information regarding free Wi-Fi being offered in various municipalities, it is impossible to make any generalized statements either pro-or con. There have been some successful implementations and some very unsuccessful attempts at implementation. Generally, those that failed were vast, sweeping projects that failed to consider the limitations which would inevitably lead to their demise. Those with a more limited scope were often more successful. To properly assess the viability of such an ambitious project, each interested municipality must conduct an objective review of its immediate and long-term requirements and make an evaluation based on its needs rather than jumping on the band wagon just because it's the trendy thing to do ( Opsahl, 2009). It has been proven that municipalities can benefit by using Wi-Fi, but the scope should follow a narrower definition in the beginning, and it should be spearheaded by whomever (public/private)…
Opsahl, A. (2009, April 27). Municipal Broadband Efforts Succeed Despite Wi-Fi Meltdown.
Retrieved December 20, 2011, from Public CIO website: http://www.govtech.com/pcio/Municipal-Broadband-Efforts-Succeed-Despite-Wi-Fi.html
Churchhill, S. (2009, December 18). Top Ten Municipal WiFi Stories of the Decade. Retrieved December 20, 2011, from dailywireless.org website: http://www.dailywireless.org/2009/12/18/top-ten-municipal-wifi-stories-of-the-decade/
Kylie. (2010, November 29). Best Cities For Free WIFI. Retrieved December 20, 2011, from TechKnowTimes website: http://www.techknowtimes.com/computing/wireless-internet-computing/best-cities-for-free-wifi/
The next morning, I did not have the freedom to do what I wanted to do, sleep, because of the choice I made the night before. My lack of freedom in the morning was based on my changing values. I could not do what I wanted to do in the morning because my values had shifted. Though I wanted one thing, sleep, I valued another, education.
What this example shows, then, is that freedom is much more complex than simply one's ability to do what one wants to do. Instead, freedom is much more complex. What makes an act truly free is not only doing what one wants, but being able to do what one wants to do in addition to what one values. That is, a free act must be free with no constraints. Free acts must satisfy both one's short- and long-term goals, one's conscious and subconscious. Because…
The title of the story suggests Joe's misery and estrangement from the rest of the world he knows and loves, namely his fellow African-Americans who are in bondage. No other free men are portrayed in the story, other than 'poor Joe,' and Joe makes no move to head to the North, to find other freed men and to seek an education or a job to buy his wife's freedom, as many slaves did in real life. Instead, he passively sits and pines for his wife Lucinda, but her master forbids the two of them to meet. hen Joe disobeys him, her master sends Lucinda away, and Joe dies, waiting for her in their usual hiding place, a 'victim' of his freedom, the author implies. Rather than portraying the man as cruel, Chandler suggests what is to blame is the fact that Joe is free, and lost without a wife or…
Harris, Joel Chandler. (1884). "Free Joe and the Rest of the World." The Century. 29. 1 1884,
Cornell University Library. Retrieved February 16, 2009. http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABP2287-0029&byte=31679514
According to such a contract then, for example, economic well-being can become a reality or all involved in the world market by imposing the same ground rules for all participants. In such an arrangement, the rule-making party would not be allowed to bend or break the policy in its own favor, but instead the marketplace would be leveled for the benefit of all instead o for just a few. This is the principle according to which the Malawian government made its decision to ignore the existing, unfair policy regarding fertilizer subsidies.
According to Dugger, the government found the extreme conditions in its country unacceptable, particularly as it saw subsidies as a solution to this. Furthermore, the government viewed the well-being of its people as its responsibility, and based its decision upon this rather than upon seeking the favor of world powers. In terms of Donaldson and Dunfee's theory, this is…
Dugger, Celia W. "Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts." New York Times, December 2, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/02/world/africa/02malawi.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all&oref=slogin
Madsen, Peter. "Ethics and Policies Regulating Multinational Enterprise." H.J. Heinz School of public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University, 2001. http://www.spea.indiana.edu/tac/colloquia/2001/pdf/Madsen%20.pdf
This means that those providing the bulk of the revenue to the State are not the same as those receiving it. Those receiving (without paying) would naturally prefer more government hand-outs; if they are in the majority, the danger is that government can continue to grow, and command a "rent" which reduces overall productivity.
Is the argument of the Friedmans viable and workable? The program "Free to Choose" was aired in 1980. Since that time, nearly one-half of the world's population has moved from socialistic and communist government control to greater personal and economic freedom. These people include those in China, India, Southeast Asia, much of Latin America and Eastern Europe. The result of this freeing of government controls has been an unprecedented growth rate in the world. In the past decade, for example, global GDP grew at 3.1%, with growth rates in China and India at 9% and 6.3%…
Bade, R. a. (2007). Foundations of Microeconomics. London (HQ): Addison Wesley.
Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.
Friedman, R. (1980). FREE to CHOOSE: The Power of the Market. (McKenzie, Interviewer) New York.
Li, H. (2005). Family Life Cycle and Peasant Income in Socialist China: Evidence from Qin Village. Journal of Family History, 121-138.
" (Snell, 2005)
Presently, there are approximately 1 million students nationwide enrolled in Charter schools and over 3,400 contracts between charter schools and their government authorizers..." resulting in Charter schools being the "most common example of school choice." (Snell, 2005) Charter schools in both the profit and nonprofit sector charter schools are growing and stated specifically is: "In 2005 there were at least 500 public schools being operated by 51 for-profit management companies in 28 states. There has also been substantially more specialization and branding of nonprofit charter schools. There are well-known national nonprofit brands, such as KIPP Academies, and there are scores of for-profit and nonprofit charters that operate a handful of schools each focusing on the Montessori method, or math and science, or the performing arts." (Snell, 2005) Snell also relates that the nonprofit schools have succeeded in branding as some of the nonprofit charter schools are well-known.…
Coulson, Andres J. (2004) Academic Performance of Market vs. Monopoly Schooling (2004) Cato Institute Market Research: A Quick Guide to Scholarly Literature on School Choice. Online available at;
Harrington-Lueker, Donna (1997) a School District's Entrepreneurism Raises Questions About Fairness, Funding, and the Best Place for Learning the School Administrator 1997 February. American Association of School Administrators. Online available at: A School District's Entrepreneurism Raises Questions About Fairness, Funding, and the Best Place for Learning
Lendman, Stephen (2008) Destroying Public Education in America. 7 April 2008. Global Researcher.ca Centre for Research on Globalization. http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=8579
Skenazy introduces to the reader a (supposedly) profound "new" way of raising children in the United States, which is the Free-ange way. Her point-of-view stems from the new parenthood phenomenon of sheltering children to the point of exhaustion: no longer do children walk or bike to school, play in the park with friends, go to the grocery store alone or sleepover at a friend's house. Skenazy suggests that because crime rates in America are at their all-time low, despite what many parents believe, that it is time to give children back recess, walking, playing, and basically, being children. The main premise of the book is to give parents tools to start raising Free-ange children, and addresses any problems or issues parents may face if the decide to make this decision. Each chapter denotes a "Commandment," followed by sound reasoning to a problem or task (such as, letting your…
Skenazy, L. (2009). Free -Range kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children (Without Going Nuts with Worry). SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Also, the importation of technology from abroad exposes consumers and producers alike to the innovative use of vehicles, such as hybrid technology, that domestic producers can implement even better than the original manufacturer. Innovation is the ultimate driver of new sales and the creator of new markets and new markets means more jobs for workers.
Beginning a trade war by setting tariffs or limiting imports through quotas ultimately creates waste and more expensive cars for consumers. Giving domestic producers the ability to price their products artificially low through subsides encourages them not to innovate, a critical part of remaining competitive in a high-tech industry. It has been argued that American car manufactures are out of touch with the needs of car buyers and the needs of the environment alike, but isolating them through protectionism will only preserve company profits and jobs in the short run.
However, a determinist theorist could argue that given the wage inequity between the genders, women who turn to prostitution may do so due to the lack of professions that pay good wages for female employees.
Drug use is another issue that generates much debate. Rational choice theorists often follow the "Just say no" route, and that drug addicts should be penalized for violating the law. Determinists, on the other hand, point out that laws vary by society, and that the laws prohibiting marijuana use only reflect the values of a select elite.
Rational choice theorists may also condemn people who commit euthanasia, whether or not the act was committed with a patient's consent. However, determinists would look more into the situation. Was the patient terminally ill and in pain? Was there consent? These questions will help a determinist in evaluating whether or not a crime has occurred.
The greatest strength of the concept of free will is that it allows evil deeds to be explained as poor conceptions of a weak human mind. The individual abilty to learn and become a greater agent of responsibility seeks a concept of free will to explain how this can be done and with good reason. The individual has no reason to express learning and to grow from human ideas and actions if he or she is resolved to live with a predetermined set of consequences and actions. As man's ability to reason is what is said to seprate us from animals then "free will" becomes and essential aspect of the equation.
hy exactly is it important to so many of us whether or not we can be self-directed, not just politically but also metaphysically? In certain philosophical contexts, such as some discussions of the problem of evil, the…
Ekstrom, Laura Waddell. Free Will: A Philosophical Study. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Free Will" New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia Online. April 15, 2008, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06259a.htm .
Kapitan, Tomis. "Chapter 6 a Master Argument for Incompatibilism?." The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Ed. Robert Kane. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. 127-154.
Kane, Robert, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Free and Forced Actions Analyzing an Argument
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will? Walter Stace argues that every action or event is caused; however, whereas free actions are caused by the doer's internal psychological state, forced ones are caused by forces external to the user. This text evaluates the validity of the author's argument in the short story, 'Shooting an Elephant' based on Stace's definition of free and forced actions.
Free and Forced Actions
Stace's Definition of Free and Forced Actions
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will?', Walter Terrence Stace puts forth an argument for determinism, arguing that it is consistent/compatible with free will. He is of the view that free will exists and every event in the world is caused (Colorado University, n.d.). He illustrates the compatibility of these two views by giving his own definition of what exactly constitutes free will. Stace…
Baxter, T. (2004). Frederick Douglass' Curious Audiences: Ethos in the Age of the Consumable Subject. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bulman, C. (2007). Creative Writing: A Guide and Glossary to Fiction Writing. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Colorado University. (n.d.). Precis: W. T. Stace's Compatibilism. Colorado University. Retrieved September 17, 2015 from http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/robertsm/student_precis3.htm
Lockhart, J. (2010). How to Market your School: A Guide to Marketing, Communication and Public Relations. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Goblins in this case can be viewed as devil's agents who force people to commit sins. Food items are presented as sins that man can get involved in if he doesn't have a strong will power. They are described in attractive terms (Bloom-down-cheek'd peaches,
Swart-headed mulberries,/Wild free-born cranberries (5-14)), just like sins and vices that initially appear very tempting but are eventually harmful to one's soul. In the very same way, these fruits look attractive and are tasty but gradually rob the body of its vigor and beauty.
Laura is a risk-taker and hence fell victim to a clever and tempting ploy. Lizzie is timid and conforms to the norms and thus could save herself and later her sister. This is a rather puritanical argument but that's how the author presents it. But there is another thing which is far more important than their risk-taking capabilities. It is the ability…
Rossetti, Christina. Goblin Market. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1969.
Campbell, Elizabeth. "Of Mothers and Merchants: Female Economics in Christina Rossetti's 'Goblin Market.'" Victorian Studies: A Journal of the Humanities, Arts and Sciences 33 (1990): 393-410.
The novel vividly illustrates this event, stated as follows:
The scorching blade slashed at my eyelashes and stabbed at my stinging eyes. That's when everything began to reel. The sea carried up a thick, fiery breath. It seemed to me as if the sky split open from one end to the other to rain down fire. My whole being tensed and I squeezed my hand around the revolver. The trigger gave; I felt the smooth underside of the butt; and there, in that noise, sharp and deafening at the same time, is where I tall started. I shook off the sweat and sun. I knew that I had shattered the harmony of the day, the exceptional silence of a beach where I'd been happy. Then I fired four more times at the motionless body where the bullets lodged without leaving a trace. And it was like knocking four quick times…
Bree, B. (Ed.). (1972). Camus. NJ: Rutgers UP.
Booker, (1993). Literature and domination: sex, knowledge, and power in modern fiction. Gainsville: Florida UP.
Camus, a. (1988). The Stranger. NY: Alfred a. Knopf, Inc.
Dupee, F.W. (1957). In Nabokov: a critical heritage. N. Page (Ed.). NY: Routledge.
Free exercise clause
1. Why does this clause raise equal protection issues instead of substantive due process concerns?
Equal protection requires that no person may be denied equal protection or be discriminated by any governmental body through its laws. To this effect, all individuals must be treated in the same manner as in the same circumstances and conditions (Blair, 1997). On the other hand, substantive due process seeks to guard a right that might not be expressed elsewhere in the constitution (Fenster, 2014). With this background, it is obvious that the state statute bears more weight as a matter of equal protection and not as a substantive due process right. Motorcycle users, in this case, are required to wear protective helmets when on the state’s highways, despite the fact they are not the only users of the state’s highways. This, therefore, raises equal protection issues. This would have been a…
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in the development of America.
outhern slave society: An essential conflict with free labor social order
There were many distinctions in the Northern and outhern economic and social outlook of America. There were conflicting ideologies being pursued in these regions and the economic progress of Northern region was associated to the free enterprising class known as the middle class. The class thrived in the Northern region by investing in their own businesses, small and large. On the contrary, outhern society was based on slavery system. The Northerners demanded that the slavery of fugitives' slaves shall be abolished and free soil in the west was to be enforced. The essential elements that divided the Northerners and outherners were the matter of slavery. The…
Such deep was the issue of slavery that it broke down the part of Whigs during 1850s and led Republicans to replace them as a symbol of hope, prosperity, and economic progress. The main reason of elimination of Whigs from national scene was their persistence to support the slave system in south whereas its own leaders were not willing to support such oppressive practice while rest of Americas strived for economic progress. Such diverse and conflicting was the issue of slavery and the difference in Southern and Northern concepts of economic progress that 'The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' nearly destroyed two political parties, Whigs were totally eliminated from political scene and Democrats saw their party divided on sensational lines. W.C. Pennington quoted that the slavery impacted each and every aspect of economic and thus the social life of African-Americans. He said "the being of slavery, its, and its body, lives and moves in the chattel principle, the property principle, and the bill of sale principle" (Henretta, Edwards & Self, 358). The domestic slave trade was considered to be absolutely what Republicans essentially wanted to abolish in figurative sense as well. The Republicans held the view that "Free labor meant independence from wage earning with fixed salaries, if northern person is wage earning and dependent for whole life, he is no different from southern slave" (Foner, 15). Thus, the Republican viewed dependence of a northern on the wages for whole of his life as being equal to the status of a southern slave. This figurative explanation indicates that the southern way of life and economic conduct was fundamentally conflicting with that of Republican's notion of free labor and enterprise, let alone being inconsistent with Republican ideology.
The Republican concept of free labor, as described by Zachariah Chandler, meant "that a young man goes out for service, for labor by wages and earns enough money to start his own farm and becomes employer of labor." Thus, it was contradictory to the oppressive and conservative notions of labor held by the southern slave owners. The progress of American society, according the Republican perspective, lay in the enterprising and middle class men who strived for better economic prospects. The practices of slavery and such oppressive social and economic systems were opposed to the very concept of economic justice that was held by Northerners.
There are many arguments both for and against both free trade and protectionism. There are some that say that free trade should rule the day and that the market can regulate itself. There are others that suggest that the market is an immoral mess and/or that countries should be allowed to protect their national and economic interests if and when it becomes necessary. This report will talk about the pros and cons of each thought process and offer an overall opinion at the end. While free trade is generally the better course of action to follow, there are times and situations where at least some elements of protectionism are not beyond the pale.
Generally speaking, free trade is when trade is allowed to happen in an unfettered way. Rather than goods being blocked from crossing borders in the form of exports or imports, free trade is all about letting people…
Free ill" Exist and if so, to hat Extent does it Exist?
The concept of "Free ill" has been debated by many philosophers over a period of centuries, not only regarding its very existence but also regarding its elements, the extent to which it may or may not exist and its moral implications. Our assigned readings have merely touched on debates that have raged and will probably continue to rage as long as human beings contemplate the "truths" about being. Though an exhaustive review of differing philosophical treatments of "Free ill" would probably take hundreds of pages, this work will briefly examine several major philosophies of "Free ill" and some of their most notable proponents. In reviewing these sources and differing approaches to "Free ill," we can see that philosophers approach the concept of "Free ill" with differing definitions, examining disparate aspects and resulting in somewhat different implications for Morality.…
Chisholm, Roderick M. "Human Freedom and the Self." Eds. Perry, John, Michael Bratman and John Martin Fischer. Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford, 2010. 392-99. Print.
Descartes, Rene, et al. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.
Kant, Immanuel. "Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals." Eds. Perry, John, Michael Bratman and John Martin Fischer. Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford, 2010. 504-20. Print.
Libet, Benjamin. "Do We Have Free Will?" Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (8-9) (1999): 47-57. Print.
The issue (not necessarily a "problem") of free will and to what extent people are influenced by subliminal / subtle advertising cues has been a subject of interest for many years, so this is an interesting but not an original problem. For me, I have always felt like I had the free will to make choices based on my desires and interests at the moment, but I am willing to challenge that assertion.
Am I another person that behaves differently when subtle or subliminal suggestions in my immediate environment set my wheels in motion? Or do I even need subliminal cues to take action in certain situations? I'm not in denial, but I wonder if I am more moved by physical stimuli (obvious stimuli) than by subtle, subliminal messages. In this journal entry I'm not insisting that I don't become influenced -- or that I'm not manipulated --…
Harrell, E. (2012). Think You're Operating on Free Will? Think Again. Retrieved June 11,
2014, from http://truththeory.com .
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
There is the mindset that recruiting and retaining younger, talented yet less expensive workers is a practice that is better suited for managers from comparable generations who understand what motivates workers by generation (Young, 008). There is also the theories of how contingency-based leadership as defined by Fielder and others (Fielder, Mahar, 1979) have also shown how metrics can define the goodness of fit between a given manager's leadership style and the needs of the organizations they serve. Finally the use of balanced scorecard (BSC) methodologies has a significant impact on how companies measure the retention and growth in skills of employees over time. The metrics in each of these cases is managed to a series of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and measured for variance over time to ensure managers stay on track towards their goals.
. How do we learn? Identify and discuss the theories to explain the process…
2. How do we learn? Identify and discuss the theories to explain the process by which we acquire patterns of behavior. Be sure to specifically identify the key elements of each of these theories by name.
There are dozens of theories that explain how people learn with the majority of peer-reviewed research concentrating on the areas of learning by observation and self-efficacy, behaviorism, cognitivism, and social learning. Theorists have also worked to create frameworks that encompass learned behavior in the context of strategic planning as well (Hunt, Sorenson, 2001). This is highly relevant in industries marked by rapid and abrupt changes in their structure and their competitiveness, as is evidenced by Freestyle Semiconductor for example. Each of these theories of how patterns of behavior are learned also must concentrate on the extent to which collaboratively-based information sharing and intelligence can provide competitive advantages over time as well (Ray, 2007). Learning by observation assumes the level of innate motivation is present in an employee and that the guidance being receives is accurate given the task at hand. Learning by observation is most successful in self-efficacy scenarios where employees have internalized the objectives of their positions and can readily see the value of the learned behavior. Behaviorism however relies more on observation and the quantifying of it without regard to the attitudes, beliefs and values of the employee. How this affects learned behaviors in organizations is therefore limited it is value as it does not accurately gauge motivation that is innate, only observed. As a result it is often seen as one of several strategies for defining learning programs in organizations, and is also one that is often seen as only part of a potential solution set. Additional insight is needed to define a more complete strategy for enabling organizational development for the long-term.
Cognitivism is in direct contrast to behaviorism in that its key components are entirely internalized within the learner. The information processing is entirely internal and therefore not measurable through observation, only through attitudinal questionnaires and other forms of interviews over time. There is the need for managing retention strategies based on this aspect, measured through a series of questionnaires and internal assessments to ensure that retention programs are resonating and seen as relevant with key contributors. There is also the aspect of cognitivism being more of a continual development cycle that is recursive in nature; there is a continual focus on how to create the greatest learning experience from the standpoint of relevancy to key contributors based on their perceptions alone. This is inherently more challenging and
Do you think metrics can be applied to other areas of management, such as employee attitudes, employee performance, or skill development? How might those metrics be measured and managed?
There are an abundance of opportunities to provide metrics of performance in other areas of management as well. The uses of metrics for example for measuring employee attitudes and attributes that lead to performance analysis are also pervasive in defining human resource management strategies aimed at increasing both morale and performance (Bukowitz, Williams, Mactas, 2004). Often these metrics and more like they are integrated into a common benchmark report often called a balanced scorecard and are used for assessing strategies and their performance over time.
2. How have the fields of psychology and sociology contributed to our understanding of organizational behavior? Explain with suitable illustrations
There is direct relevance to organizational behavior of psychology and sociology across several different dimensions. irst,…
From a sociological standpoint, organizational behavior has also shifted the balance of power in many working environments as knowledge now trumps seniority from a job security standpoint (Marques, 2008). Sociologically this forces managers to focus more on how they can serve their subordinates and be developmental as opposed to being focused on their own agendas over time. Sociologically, organizational behavior is turning more into a level paying field as a result. The reliance on knowledge as a critical catalyst in the development of entirely new approaches to competing on product development, shown in the Freestyle example, is becoming more pervasive. The Internet and with it the speed up in development cycles is forcing more companies to rely on psychologically and sociologically based approaches in managing their businesses than ever before. Psychology also is contributing to a rapid reduction in resistance to change once employees find they can internalize and excel at the objectives they are given.
3. Explain Fiedler's contingency model. In your discussion, describe the role of the LPC (least preferred coworker) questionnaire and identify the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness, according to this model.
The essence of Fielder's contingency model is the empirically-based observations of how any given managers' organizational effectiveness is more determined by their situation leadership vs. their absolute set of leadership characteristics. There are several key assumptions with regard to the Fielder Contingency Model, the first being that there are no empirically proven best practices of management, instead there is the need for a leader to assimilate and determine the unique role they have in a given organizational culture before they can become truly effective over time
He writes, "In Louisiana, South Carolina, and Virginia - the home of large free black populations - men who had never known slavery dominated among econstruction officeholders. For the South as a whole, however, the black political leadership arose out of local slave communities" (Foner 136). He shows the struggles, victories, and defeats the blacks faced, and helps the reader see why econstruction was so important to our history. He also believes that there is still a type of econstruction going on today, in other ways, which is another reason he feels it is so important.
Foner's book belongs on the shelves of any reader interested in Civil War history, because he explains his ideas effectively and writes so anyone can understand his ideas and conclusions. It effectively uses illustrations to help make some of the key points, (such as how blacks were viewed historically during econstruction and beyond), and…
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 2005.
The authors use everyday examples, such as "investment in a newly formed small business" to make their economic processes more understandable to anyone who understands modern business, and this is one of the things that makes this book so readable, and so fascinating, even for someone who might not be that interested in economic theory and practice.
The Friedman's support many ideas that would reduce the authority of government in many economic areas, including the "negative income tax, the volunteer army, an improved method of auctioning Treasury securities, the monetary rule for achieving price stability; the voucher system for education, the flat tax, and flexible exchange rates" (Jordan et al. 199). It is quite amazing to see just how many of these Friedman ideas have made their way into our business and political world, including the volunteer army, the educational voucher system, and flexible exchange rates, to name a few.…
Economist of the Century." The Washington Times 3 Aug. 2002: A11.
Friedman, Milton and Rose. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1990.
Jordan, Jerry L., et al. "Milton, Money, and Mischief: Symposium and Articles in Honor of Milton Friedman's 80th Birthday." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 197-212.
Oi, Walter Y. "Milton Friedman, Starting His Ninth Decade." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 194-196.
Changing the Basketball Landscape
Perhaps the most valued basketball player's representative that contributed to transforming the landscape of how athletes in this sport were compensated was Paul Silas. Interestingly enough, Silas worked for multiple of agencies that were intimately associated with basketball and player remuneration. He was actually a member of the Boston Celtics. Additionally, in 1975 he became the president of the National Basketball Player's association. During the middle of that decade, Silas was able to take a decidedly different approach to arbitration and its presentations which resulted in desirable compensation benefits in which "the players could claim a major victory" (Bradley, 2016).
A Worthy Agreement
Silas played an integral role in enabling the players in the NBPA to avoid an arbitration settlement shortly after taking over the presidency of this organization. His contribution to the way that he was able to alter the foundation upon which players were…
orking in the field of research analysis, a person must literally wade through thousands of pieces of information in order to determine the proper courses of action that should be undertaken under various circumstances. All research analysts work in either the government or in the private sector, most often in fields such as marketing wherein they acquire data based on consumers and consumption. From that data, they must determine what trends influence consumerism and how to best provide for their clients way that would induce consumers to purchase or utilize various goods and/or services (Roberts 2010). The governments of the world have always been responsible for accumulating and exposing information to the populations under their control. In the United States, there are laws which ensure that information is made available to any persons who demand it. Although, there is still information which is under the strict control of…
Baker, Seth M. (2011). "Information is Overrated." HappenChance. Word Press.
"Freedom of Information FAQS." (2011).
McKellar, Ian (2011). "We Already Have Information, Why do We Need More Data?" Word
free range parenting." Child Protective Services in Maryland, acting on a report from law enforcement, investigated a couple for neglect, based on the fact that they allowed their children to walk home from a park without parental supervision. For the Maryland couple, the charge was "unsubstantiated child neglect." This is not a criminal charge, but it is typically a precursor to a criminal charge (Nye, 2015). The couple was charged by Maryland Child Protective Services, rather than the police. The charge means that, operating within the confines of their mandate, Maryland CPS has the right to monitor the parents for the next five years. The CPS may, if it chooses, recommend criminal neglect charges that would go through the standard criminal justice processes. The CPS responded to an alert that the children were walking alone, and brought about their own investigation of the parents in this case. Thus, the effort…
Parents need to be given back the right to raise their children as they see fit. There are two main premises in this argument. The first is that parents have in recent years seen such rights eroded, replaced by increasing government involvement in what used to be parental decisions. It is known and agreed that in the 1980s and earlier, children were able to walk freely in their own neighborhoods, play in parks unsupervised, and to walk to and from school. Today, parents can be charged with neglect and face other legal actions if they allow their children unsupervised in public, even at a playground or walking to/from school. As Pimentel (2012) notes, there has been a shift in the way that both government agencies and courts have interpreted the standard of care that parents need to provide their children. External intervention in parenting is typically only exercised when neglect is suspected; it is the interpretation of the concept of neglect that has shifted over time that results in cases like that in Maryland.
There have been considerable study of this issue, by ethicists, legal scholars, sociologists, public administrators and, of course, by parents. The first support to the thesis is that the erosion of parental rights is a recent phenomenon. Pimentel (2012) examines the issue from a legal perspective, and notes that laws regarding child neglect have increasing been interpreted, especially since the turn of the millennium, to include strict provisions for constant supervision. The Supreme Court affirmed that the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment protects the right of parents to make decisions regarding the care of their children in 2000, and it is only in the interim that the statutes and legal interpretation of those statues has begun to change (Pimentel, 2012). He notes that the degree to which these changes have occurred varies between states. Thus, the issue is not the advent of "free range parenting," but that the statutes and interpretations in law of the concepts of neglect and the standard of care expected of parents have changed. The vagueness of existing laws -- which also
Hence, "transcendence" a denial of the self at the core of Sartre's philosophy. Human beings are condemend to be free in that no religious or political doctrine is inherently or intrinisically correct in every situation. No schema can accord for every possible situation fo being or existance. All schemas that attempt to make a claim for their totality of their state of correctness at all times are thus acts of "bad faith," as they attempt to put artificial constraints on human freedom. Rather, for Sartre, life is simply what we make of it, diferent human existences bump up against one another in a random fashion. However, it should also be remembered that for Sartre, a state of human freedom also corresponded to responsibility to the world. Even free existances, not essences (i.e., human beings) are still responsible for the world, the horizon of meaning in which all free beings operate.…
Flynn, Thomas. "Jean-Paul Sartre." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2004 Edition). Edward N. Zalta, Editor. URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2004/entries/sartre/ .
I know the teaching profession doesn't pay much, and there are a lot of serious problems in schools today, but I'm up for the challenge. They say if you can make a big difference in the lives of three or four students in each class, you can consider that you have done your job.
"I'll try to make a difference in the lives of every student in every class. What's wrong with trying to go for it all? The Phillies tried to go for it all and win a World Series, but they got stopped just short of their goal. Still, how many other teams didn't even get that far? In the National League there are 16 teams, so the Phillies beat out 15 teams to get to the world series. If I can change the lives of even 2 or 3 students in each of my 4 or 5…
If the daily paper were more expensive, the elasticity would increase.
In terms of profit, the daily paper is a strong proposition. Clearly priced well above the variable cost, the daily paper takes advantage of the low price elasticity of demand to generate a strong contribution margin.
The $1.99 Sunday newspaper functions similarly to the daily. This paper, however, is packed with far more features. Thus, it is sought out by consumers rather than purchased on impulse. As a result, the price elasticity of demand for the Sunday paper is lower than for the daily editions. The significantly higher price reflects that.
In terms of profit, the Sunday paper is the key driver of contribution margin. The high price, combined with high circulation and strong ad yields, makes the Sunday paper the big earner for the Sun-Times. Low price elasticity of demand contributes to this contribution.
The monthly subscription has…
(Rothschild.) Numerous other instances have been reported by people who have been interrogated by agents simply because they have criticized the government, President Bush, or his "war" on terrorism.
All of this speaks to the new McCarthyism, where political dissent is being equaled to treason," stated Barry Steinhardt, associate director of the American Civil Liberties Union in ashington. He finds the anecdotal evidence deeply troubling. "It's a very frightening trend: that people are doing nothing more than expressing the very freedoms that we are fighting to preserve - and find themselves with the FBI at their door." (Steinhardt.)
Other reports of the new "un-American" activity of voicing an opinion that does not support the Bush Administration's activities have resulted in professional writers, including Pulitzer prizewinning cartoonist, Steve Benson, losing their jobs. This, in effect, takes away the individual's right to a free press because the presses, owned and controlled by…
ABFFE alerts booksellers to concerns re new antiterrorism law. American Booksellers
Association. Nov. 1, 2001. 2/21/02 http://www.bookweb.org/news/btw/5175.html
Douglas, William O. Amendments to the United States Constitution. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1969. Vol. 19 (141-145.)
Johnson, Gerald. "The American Presidency." Grolier's Encyclopedia. 2000. 2/21/02. http://gi.grolier.com/presidents/nbk/side/pofus.html
internet is its near-instant access to literally thousands of tutorials, lessons, and how-to guides. Ranging from the mundane to the extremely esoteric, these lessons grant the user amazing amounts of information for free. echnology tutorials are perfect for this medium, as they are usually step-by-step and provide a thorough method of learning.
Windows Networking, a website devoted to learning networking offers a tutorial through the Windows operating system. It's called 10 Ways to roubleshoot DNS Resolution Issues, and as its name implies it provides a step-by-step guide to solve DNS resolution issues. he author helpfully includes a series of pictures, diagrams and an enumerated list of each issue to guide the reader through the article. echnically this is not a tutorial so much as a how-to guide, but seeing as it focuses on an issue that many network administrators have to deal with on a regular basis, it is an…
The tutorial is a mixed bag when compared to an effective learning tool. On one hand it does give a thorough list of issues that one could encounter while fixing DNS issues. It does go to great lengths to explain said issues, and even describes how to fix a few of them. Unfortunately, if the user is not accustomed to reading online tutorials or is a novice network administrator, then they will be lost in a world of jargon.
There is one problem with this entire tutorial. While there are plenty of methods to troubleshoot the issues, there are few ways to resolve said issues. Of course one can argue that the article itself is not designed to go over things like that, but it would be nice nonetheless.
Davis, D. (2009, June 17). 10 ways to troubleshoot dns resolution issues . Retrieved from http://www.windowsnetworking.com/articles_tutorials/10-Ways-Troubleshoot-DNS-Resolution-Issues.html
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…
First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws. 2003. Web. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5214a2.htm
Horner, William T. Showdown in the Show-Me State: The Fight over Conceal-and-Carry Gun Laws in Missouri. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2005.Questia. Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
Patrick, Ryan. Ron Paul Introduces Bill to Abolish 'Gun-Free Zones'. August 2011. Web.
Free Will: Comparing Aquinas & the Holy Scriptures
Thomas of Aquinas is recognized by the Orthodox as one of the foundational theologians, particularly in that he provided an important step in towards the Renaissance by helping to reacquaint Christianity with Aristotle, who he refers to throughout his as "the Philosopher." As one who draws inspiration from Aristotle, he is particularly interested in rational philosophy as applied to the realm of religion and theology. This makes his defense of free will particularly strong, though at points one feels he lacks the necessary sense of ambiguity to completely address the iblical texts. What is important to glean from his work, however, is a message that is also prominent in the Scriptures: that man is "made to God's image, in so far as the image implies an intelligent being endowed with free-will and self-movement..."
Summa Theologica, II:1:1)
Some thinkers believe that humans do…
Aquinas, St. Thomas. On Law, Morality, and Politics. New York: Hackett Pub Co, 1988.
Aquinas, St. Thomas. The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, 2nd ed.. Trans. Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Archived at http://www.newadvent.org/summa/
Holy Bible (KJV). Archived at http://www.bible.com
Free Clinc That Will Be Opening in My Area
Free clinic opening stands out as a humanitarian measure of contributing back to the community. Free clinic serve to provide easy and affordable medical health care to citizens without medical insurance or the low-income earners (Walker, 2013). As employers suffer the brunt of slow economic performances, they have sought to reduce the benefits they extend to employees as well as reduce their workforce. This in turn has made access to health care a dearer venture in the community as more people fall under the bracket of those capable to pay for medical cover. Operations under the venture of opening a free medical clinic may stand a chance to bridge the widening gap between access to primary health care and falling incomes in the community (Walker, 2013).
To institute a free clinic in a community successfully, comprehensive support from the recipient community…
Brennan, V.M. (2013). Free Clinics: Local Responses to Health Care Needs. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fernandez-Kelly, P., & Portes, A. (2013). Health Care and Immigration: Understanding the Connections. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis.
Walker, L. (2013). Choosing a Sustainable Future: Ideas and Inspiration from Ithaca, . New York: New Society Publishers.
Baruch Spinoza believed that humans' actions and activities are not based on free will, but rather humans are moved to action and thought because he believed that nothing happens by mere chance. His rationale for believing as he does is the basis for this essay.
Free Will vs. Determinism
A review of what Spinoza believed is not the easiest thing to accomplish since some of what Spinoza puts forward is seemingly esoteric to the lay person or student engaged in research. But in researching Spinoza's philosophy, looking carefully at his positions, one can come to understand basically why he did not believe in free will. He believed that God, and God alone, is free to make decisions and to act according to His free will. Since God is Nature, and Nature is God, and therefore everything that exists on Earth are there because God decided, of His own free…
The following incident is being used as a metaphor for Spinoza's ideas. He believed that everything in nature takes place by necessity (and mankind is part of Nature). When the enormous section of a hill in Washington State became too saturated (after numerous heavy rains earlier in 2014), and collapsed into a village, killing / burying many people and their homes, that can be used as a metaphor for what Spinoza was saying. Thousands of tons of wet earth roared down into the village with no warning, but that disaster was determined by Nature. The land didn't decide it would suddenly give way and hurtle down upon the village.
In fact, the logging around that piece of land took away the roots of trees that otherwise would have kept the hill in place. And the river below was known to be cutting into the hill, eroding important features of the land -- a definite determination that led to the horrific event. Moreover, the heavy rains in Washington State leading up to the collapse also determined that the land would give way. So, if one can see the hill as a human entity, as part of Nature that has intelligence (which may seem to be a stretch, but it does have value as an example), that entity did not have free will to decide when it would slide down into the village. The existing Natural World realities determined if and when it would roar down into the village.
In conclusion, humans governed by determination, and not by free will. One's will is not put into motion by a decision one makes, but rather one's will acts out of necessity which has been predetermined by God, or Nature, which is also God, according to Spinoza. In other words, there are no should have arguments or could have arguments, or ought to have done arguments in terms of why an action or activity or decision was performed. That is because the behavior in question was externally or internally caused by the person who could not possibly have acted other than the way he or she did.
In the increasingly competitive global economy of today, organizations are struggling to find significant competitive advantages that will enable them to offer the customer far higher value, through either a superior product or lower prices. In fact, it is widely known that businesses in most industries are currently being compelled to try and achieve both in the race to attract new customers while retaining old ones. The situation is made further problematic by the need to reduce operational costs in order to stay profitable: "...and before we are finished, we have to start looking for the next big cost-cutting idea. " (Robinson & Schroeder, p. 13) In their quest to seek solutions, most organizations either look to their managers or to outside consultants for "big ideas" that will enable them to build long-term sustainable advantages, losing sight of the fact that historically "big ideas" have always been few and…
Robinson, A.G., & Schroeder, D.M. "Ideas Are Free." Berrett-Koehler, 2004.
Therefore, they are compelled to choose what they do in order to instantiate God's foreordainment of history. It wouldn't seem to make sense, therefore, for the person to attempt to change their circumstances or to fight against fate. Affliction, tragedy and evil would be just what God wishes to throw at an individual, who could scarcely escape its occurrence. This seems to suggest a response of futility toward life in which all is merely endured and passes almost robotically. At the same time, one might interpret it as comforting, for it eliminates the human's striving and desire to achieve something before the eyes of God. Or if God allows good to enter a life, this good is not deserved or merited, but is purely random. God's character would appear fickle, if not even unjust, for subjecting people to a predestined fate they cannot hope to change. Perhaps the main problem…
Ali, Afroz. Understanding Predestination and Free Will. Mt. Lewis, NSW: Al-Ghazzali Centre for Islamic Sciences and Human Development, 1426/2005.
Cohen-Mor, Dalya. A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Mahmood, Iftekhar. Islam Beyond Terrorists and Terrorism: Biography of the Most Influential Muslims in History. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2002.
Mahmoud, Mohamed a. Quest for Divinity: A Critical Examination of the Thought of Mahmud Muhammed Taha. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2007.
The free will defense suggests that God permits, but does not cause evil. Therefore, it is possible to live in a universe in which good and evil continually coexist. Human beings are blessed with the ability to make a choice that can further the objectives of God and good, or to promote the interests of evil. Although this view is logically coherent, there are clear objections to it.
One objection is that God has nothing at all to do with evil, and human beings, made in God's image, likewise have nothing to do with evil. Free will is therefore irrelevant and in fact negated. There is no such thing as free will, according to this point-of-view. All human beings have is a fate that has been pre-determined by God. Using this objection, it is easy to see how the human being is portrayed as a passive recipient of life…
"Introduction to Philosophical Inquiry." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/intro/hick.html
Speaks, Jeff. "Swinburne's Response to the Problem of Evil." Retrieved online: http://www3.nd.edu/~jspeaks/courses/mcgill/201/swinburne.pdf
ATC Free Flight Program
The field of aviation is an ever-evolving field. The changes take place because of technological advancements that allow those in the field to reach new heights and new levels of personal abilities. The ATC Free Flight Program is one in which pilots have recently begun to participate in studies. The program promises to be innovative and exciting but the aviation field must move with extreme caution because of the human error factor that is involved.
In his book Commercial Aviation and Safety Alexander T. Wells explores the many factors that impact aviation safety. One of the things that he explores is the ATC Free Flight System and all of its participating factors of operation. While it is an extremely sophisticated and modern idea it still leaves room for human error, which in the case of aviation can be tragic.
Currently there are tests going on all…
____(1996).FAA's 'free flight' puts airline pilots in the driver's seat / / In 10 years, pilots may decide their route, altitude and speed. The new system would save money and time. Minneapolis Star Tribune;
1. Wells, Alexander T. (Commercial Aviation Safety McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing; (April 19, 2001)
2. Kansas City ATC tests Free Flight airspacing tools http://www.ainonline.com/issues/02_02/02_02_kansascityatcpg64.html . byPaul Lowe
4. OVERVIEW: The Free Flight Concept http://www.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/freeflight-atm/overview.html
Air Traffic Control Free Flight System
Free flight represents a positive change in airline traffic management system. It promises efficiency and profitability to the industry, which is going through a rough period.
The 1978 deregulation of airlines was perceived as a revolutionary change in the airline industry. Similarly, in the field of air traffic control, the 'free flight' system promises to be the most important change ever since the introduction of radars in communication and aviation management. The rapid advancements in satellite technology have given a tremendous impetus to the field of communication and Satellite-based navigation equipments promise to be the future trend in aviation control. The phenomenal growth in air traffic and the difficulties in regulating it have highlighted the shortcomings of the present air traffic control system. The American airline industry is incurring a loss of around U.S.$3.5 billion annually due to the inefficiencies in the present centralized…
1) Ken Kaye, "About Free Flight: History," Accessed on April 22nd 2004, http://ffp1.faa.gov/about/about_article1.asp
2) Mica R. Endsley, "Situation Awareness, Automation & Free Flight," Accessed on April 22nd 2004, http://atm-seminar-97.eurocontrol.fr/endsley.htm
3) CAASD, "CAPSTONE," Accessed on April 23rd 2004, http://www.mitrecaasd.org/proj/capstone/overview.cfm
4) Mario S.V. Valenti Clari et.al, "Cost Benefit Study of Free Flight With Airborne Separation Assurance," Accessed on April 23rd 2004, http://www.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/freeflight/downloads/aiaa2000.doc
But even with no cost savings whatsoever, this project has a positive NPV.
e can see, therefore, that the greatest area of sensitivity is with the terminal value. The terminal value at present is worth $143 million of the NPV. If we break down the variables that go into the terminal value, however, we notice that the cost savings are critical. If SGA expense is not reduced, then the terminal value is reduced to $67 million and the total NPV for the entire project ends up being $98 million. This figure is less sensitive to the change in cost of goods sold.
e should also consider testing combined sensitivity of our shakiest projections. Sales may not live up to expectations and cost savings might not occur. If we assume no net income and no additional cost savings, the project will have an NPV. If we assume that our expectations for…
No author. (2009). Free Cash Flow. Investopedia. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/freecashflow.asp
Ely, Bert. (2008). Savings and Loan Crisis. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/SavingsandLoanCrisis.html
Damodaran, Aswath. (no date). Closure in Valuation: Estimating Terminal Value. Stern School of Business. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/pdfiles/eqnotes/dcfstabl.pdf
Breierova, Lucia & Choudhari, Mark. (1996). An Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis. MIT. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://sysdyn.clexchange.org/sdep/Roadmaps/RM8/D-4526-2.pdf
The explanation was that a restricted diet would not give enough material for the electron transport chain in the mitochondria to function fully. With fewer electrons to pass, there were also fewer oxygen free radicals produced. Aging, thus, slows down (Nelson).
Proponents of the free radical theory, however, believe that dietary antioxidants are not directly beneficial, as they do not reach mitochondrial DNA (Nelson 2000). The site remains vulnerable and susceptible to attack. However, supplemental antioxidants can indirectly increase lifespan by protecting other cell parts, like cellular proteins and membranes, from injury by free radicals. They still serve a valuable purpose in slowing aging down. The application of the free radicals theory has not reached perfection. Genetic change in achieving increased life span remains controversial and difficult to perform. Dietary restriction is un-attractive to most people and dietary antioxidants do not directly increase life span as they do not access…
Diamond, J., et al. (2002). Free Radical Damage: a Possible Mechanism of Laryngeal Aging. 4 pages. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal: Medquest Communications, LLC
Held, G. (2002). Research into the Aging Process: a Survey. 11 pages. North American Actuarial Journal: Society of Actuaries
Hood, E. (2003). Towards a New Understanding of Aging. 7 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
King, a. (2004). Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Mediates Blue Light-Induced Death of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. 9 pages. Photochemistry and Photobiology: American Society of Photobiology
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
The appeal of the Nike Free is precipitated by the growth of interest in the 'barefoot running' trend, the growing proclivity of individuals to wear sneakers for reasons of fashion, and the growing footwear market in Turkey.
Goals and Measurements:
The goal is to penetrate the Turkish market and will be measured according to the achievement of incrementally spaced sales goals. Projected sales expectations will be measured against real sales at the end of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years.
Strategic Marketing Goals:
Strategic marketing goals include the targeting of young users, the establishment of an affiliation between the shoe and desirable health goals and a pairing of the shoe with an image of hip, dynamic fitness orientation.
Tactical Marketing Goals:
Tactical marketing goals will revolve on the promotion of medical evidence of the health benefits of 'barefoot running.'
ith a $20 million budget, Nike Free's…
Adams, B. (2012). Running Shoes get the High Fashion Treatment. Style File Blog.
Fibre 2 Fashion. (2008). Footwear in Turkey. Fibre2fashion.com.
Murphy, T.J. (2012). Least Is Best: A Guide To Minimalist Running Shoes. Competitor.
Nike. (2012). Nike Free. Nike.com.
Drug Free Workplace
Substance abuse in the workplace is a serious issue. Employees who are under the influence of a drug on the job compromise an employer's interests, endanger their own health and safety and the health and safety of others, and can cause a number of other work-related problems, including absenteeism and tardiness, substandard job performance, increased work loads for co-workers, behavior that disrupts other employees, delays in the completion of jobs, inferior quality in products or services, and disruption of customer relations (Drug-free workplace policy, 2004). These reasons explain why it is so important for an employer to support a drug free workplace. Key components of this initiative are to publish clearly defined policies, establish a drug awareness and education program, train supervisors to detect and manage substance abuse issues and offer an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
Clearly defined written policies lay the groundwork for a drug free…
Drug-free workplace policy. (2004, January) SDSU Foundation Human Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.foundation.sdsu.edu/hrpage/pol_form/polform_notice_drug.html
elaws -- drug free workplace advisor. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen16b.asp?selection_list=
The role and responsibilities of supervisors. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://workplace.samhsa.gov/DrugFreeWP/suptrng.html
Utah Valley State College policies and procedures. (1992, June 18) Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.uvsc.edu/policies/hr/c-3_08.html
ugustine assumes the will is free and wants to determine how we choose good or evil (Murray, 2004). His approach to the "free choice of the will" assumes that "there can be no denying that we have a will." Rather, he defines "good will" as "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which assumes that it is free.
In fact, a free will that does not seek God is obsessed with material things, which can be easily lost or ruined (Murray, 2004). Those who choose evil are ruled by their passion and desire for material things. This is pointless because they only have, according to ugustone, "the love of things which each one can lose against his will." He believed that those who choose to do good gain everything because there is no fear of losing "things"…
Augustine assumes the will is free and wants to determine how we choose good or evil (Murray, 2004). His approach to the "free choice of the will" assumes that "there can be no denying that we have a will." Rather, he defines "good will" as "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which assumes that it is free.
In fact, a free will that does not seek God is obsessed with material things, which can be easily lost or ruined (Murray, 2004). Those who choose evil are ruled by their passion and desire for material things. This is pointless because they only have, according to Augustone, "the love of things which each one can lose against his will." He believed that those who choose to do good gain everything because there is no fear of losing "things" due to lack of attachment to material possessions. Those who seek to be perfect could lose every thing and still gain all precisely because they are trying to attain the perfect, which is wisdom. Wisdom cannot be lost as long as the beholder has good will.
Augustine's teachings show the importance of understanding the use of one's free will (Murray, 2004). If an individual has a free will, then he also has the duty to make decisions based on a well-formed conscience and what is good and evil.
However, it has also been played a valuable role in terms of regulation to prevent monopolizing practices.
2. The Federal Government benefits the public in several ways. Through regulation, it provides the country with a stable economy. By means of this, Federal programs such as retirement and medical funds help citizens to live secure and worry-free lives. It also provides the public with educational institutions to help with the pursuit of gainful employment. The education paradigm also includes rights and freedoms for citizens who wish to pursue any type of self-improvement.
The Government also provides the public with a sense of security and safety. By means of Homeland Security, the Government allows its citizens to live free from concerns about terrorist or other attacks.
The country's way of life is protected by means of defense mechanisms against terrorism and other public threats.
Government bonds are called risk-free because they will be paid back. he underlying assumption is that the U.S. reasury can always print more money in order to finance the payback of these bonds. hat does not by any means make the bonds truly risk-free, but they are guaranteed to return face value. here are actually a few different ways in which government bonds are risky.
A recent change to the more orthodox view of government bond risk is that U.S. government bonds were downgraded in 2011, something that had never happened previously. his has not changed the market view of U.S. government paper, but it does imply that, according to one rating agency at least, the bonds of some other governments are less risky than the bonds of the U.S. government. hat said, the risk conditions of U.S. bonds have not changed. hey are still considered risk free because…
The risk of default in U.S. government bonds, aside from political shenanigans like the debt ceiling debacle in the summer of 2011, lies largely with the federal budget. This is known as sovereign risk. The sovereign risk of the United States, and several other developed nations, is very low. With other countries, however, there are genuine budget issues that make default a possibility. In the Eurozone, for example, nations like Greece are struggling to meet their debt payments. With Greece, there is no ability for the government to print more money in order to cover its obligations, and that increases the sovereign risk. Nations that have their own currencies do not have this type of risk, but still have sovereign risk to the extent that they could find themselves one day without enough cash to pay their obligations.
It should be noted that part of the reason that government bonds give a return is not related as much to risk as it is to providing the incentive to invest. Governments issue debt because they need to raise funds. If there was no return given on that debt, nobody would invest. Therefore, there must be some sort of return offered, in order to entice investors. The rate is typically set in regard to the opportunity cost of capital, and the market yield will reflect the market's views about the sovereign risk associated with debt.
Thus, risk free securities are not truly risk free. There is the risk of default, although this risk is very minor. There is the risk as well that the value of the investment will not be much. In the event of hyperinflation, for example, the value of the money might be very low. However, the value will always be paid out because the Treasury can print that money. The interest rate reflects, in addition to an enticement to invest, the combined risk of default and the risk associated with expected future interest rate moves.
High health care costs are another problem associated with American health care. eporter Curl continues, "Mr. Bush said competitive forces in the marketplace - primarily by giving Americans more choice - is the best method for bringing down health care costs. Another way is to give people who can't afford health care access to facilities other than emergency rooms and hospitals" (Curl A04). However, if the government does provide other facilities, ultimately these costs will be born by the taxpayers. As a health care crisis continues among the elderly, the poor, and the uninsured, the government will continue to create more of these facilities, and costs will continue to mount. If that is the case, it seems simpler to nationalize the entire system, allowing everyone to enjoy the same, high level of care, rather than creating special facilities dedicated to the poor and the uninsured who cannot afford health…
Author not Available. "Health Care is a Human Right." Physicians for a National Health Program. 2005. 25 Oct. 2005. http://www.pnhp.org/
Clark, Cal, and Rene McEldowney. "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A 'Good News, Bad News' Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review 17.4 (2000): 133.
Curl, Joseph. "Bush Decries National Health Care; Touts Creation of 1, 200 Centers in Needy Areas." The Washington Times 29 Jan. 2004: A04.
Felice, Clara, and Lambkros, Lista. "Medical Liability in Three Single-Payer Countries." Physicians for a National Health Program. 27 Sept. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005.
Yet, when you go beyond the generalities, it is obvious that this a taking a one size fits all approach when it comes to society. Where, you are assuming that everyone will react the same to the various rules / laws that have been established. However, the pessimists argue that such thinking does not take into account how various experiences and personal relationships will determine someone's morals and values. This is troubling because when you apply such thinking to the person who committed the act. They can be able to claim that they are excused from the different forms of punishment, because they qualify for a special consideration. This, the critics argue is the biggest flaw of determinism, where you are assuming that ample amounts of punishment / penalties would serve as a deterrent. Then, once someone breaks various laws you are allowing the special considerations to give them the…
Determinism. (2010). Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Free Dictionary website: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/determinism
Linder, D. (2002). The Trial of John Hinckley. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Famous American Trials website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/hinckley/hinckleytrial.html
Linder, D. (2008). The Trial of John Hinckley Jr. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Famous American Trails website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hinckley/hinckleyaccount.html
Strawson, P. (n.d.). Freedom and Resentment.
Writing in dissent, Chief Justice ehnquist argued that the CPPA was merely a natural extension of Ferber, and the new law seemed intended to be used only to prosecute those individuals distributing materials known to use real children.
Holding: Court's reasoning and policy implications:
Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for the majority, found in favor of the Free Speech Coalition, and affirmed the judgment of the Court of Appeals to strike down the relevant statutes. Critical to Kennedy's decision was the government's radical reformulation of the obscenity standard in Miller. To be banned under the CPPA standard, the materials in question "need not appeal to the prurient interest. Any depiction of sexually explicit activity, no matter how it is presented, is proscribed," even though there was no clear physical threat to a child, according to the Ferber standard. The government was suppressing lawful speech (speech not using children to produce sexual…
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition. (2002). University of Cornell. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
Classically, the dog's fear was a conditioned reflex to the sound -- in operant terms, the dog's climbing behavior was a conditioned by the "reward" of avoiding the shock.
Some critics of theories regarding conditioning suggest that it is distasteful to talk about conditioning humans, because this removes the idea that we have free will. It is possible to condition humans, of course. The purpose of spanking children, for example, is to try to condition them not to behave in certain way because it will result in pain. However, it is a misnomer to suggest that conditioning removes free will. It would be more accurate to suggest that conditioning is the outcome of free will combined with intelligence. Free will enables the animal or human to choose responses that are most rewarding, and conditioning teaches them what responses are likely to be most rewarding. It is always theoretically possible for…
Student Searches, Free Speech & Expression, and Privacy in the Wired Age
Student searches and in-school discipline for off-campus conduct
Free Speech and Expression on and off campus
Privacy in the wired age on and off campus. (Facebook, twitter, myspace, blogs, cellphones)
What are a students' constitutional rights when it comes to searches and seizures, on and off campus discipline, free speech, expression, and privacy in the wired age when on and off campus? How are students protected by the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights when it pertains to the three items listed above?
Students are often subject to rules and regulations that are associated with school codes of conduct and those rules and regulations are sometimes not reflective of constitutional rights to free speech and free action inside the laws. These long list of potential violations are printed by institutions and are made available to students, in…
In short students and especially minor students and their parents should make themselves aware of the codes of conduct the student is expected to uphold and live within those guidelines even if they feel the guidelines are overreaching as students have little recourse because even most public institutions such as public schools are still considered voluntary and enrollment in them requires certain standards to be upheld. This is not to say it is likely that all new students will read and memorize a code of conduct but they must beware that violations especially that hurt others will not likely be tolerated. It is not likely that the constitutional protection of students will be expanded, rather to the contrary laws that protect others from immoral, unethical and/or illegal or harmful behaviors in a public forum such as the internet, across email, and cell phones will likely be expanded. It also must be made clear that the intent to harm another does not have to be present for that harm to be done or for the individual(s) responsible to be held accountable for it. In other words consider yourself under public scrutiny when you are enrolled in any institution and act accordingly, upholding the law and the moral and ethical standards associated with your role as a student.
Wheeler, T. (2011). Facebook Fatalities: Students, Social Networking, and the First Amendment. Pace Law Review, 31(1), 182-227. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Williamson, L. (2009). Private Rants Become Public When Aired Online. InsideCounsel, 20(211), 67-68. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Arthur Schopenhauer and Free Will - Philosophy
Arthur Schopenhauer's concept of free will is built on Georg Hegel's concept of the "thing in itself." For Schopenhauer, the will is noumena, the part of the world that exists regardless of whether or not it is perceived by humans. In fact, Schopenhauer believes that the will is not "at all affected by life and death." An individual person's life is phenomenal, perceived by the senses. All life exists as the mirror of the will, the way a shadow exists for a body.
Everything an individual does or thinks, all a person's experiences, are but a corporeal manifestation of this Will. Schopenhauer posits that the will is the human form assumed by an inner nature universal to all beings in space and time. More than an individual representation, Schopenhauer thus believes that the Will is an inner reality common to all individuals. The…
After the initial clash, police arrested Elton Cox and charged him with "disturbing the peace," (the Ovex Project, "Cox v. Louisiana"). In 1965, the Court decided that none of the student's activities were criminal. They were rightfully engaging in their right to free speech.
However, cases like the 1966 decision of the Adderley v. Florida case (the Oyex Project, "Adderley v. Florida"), represented the unsupportive view of the Court towards students and their cases. During the chaos of the 1960's, Harriet Louis Adderley and around 200 of her associates were arrested; charged with "trespass with a malicious and mischievous intent" after gathering a protest the jailing of other students on a "non-public" jail facility, (the Oyex Project, "Adderley v. Florida"). The students appealed the case on the grounds that it was a violation of their First Amendment ights. This appeal was denied after a 5-4 decision, showing the closeness of…
The Oyez Project, Adderley v. Florida, 385 U.S. 39 (1966), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1966/1966_19/ (last visited Saturday, February 16, 2008).
The Oyez Project, Cox v. Louisiana, 379 U.S. 536 (1965), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1964/1964_24/ (last visited Saturday, February 16, 2008).
artists be given free rein in the producing and displaying of works that are offensive, objectionable, or disparaging of certain people's beliefs and values? What responsibilities do artists have to their society? What responsibilities does the society have to its artists?
The job of artists is to hold up a mirror to society and comment on both the beauty and ugliness that exists in the real world. It is easy to showcase things that are beautiful. The museums of the world are full of pretty pictures which depict landscapes and lovely people in fancy dresses. However, there are also works of art in museums or galleries which are controversial, unsettling, and perhaps even downright ugly. Some works of art show things that most people do not want to see, such as material which is offensive, or objectionable, or even disparaging of the beliefs and values of others. Such works are…