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FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION plays an important role in the doctrines of human liberty. However not every country grants this right to its citizens. There are many countries in the world where freedom of expression is still a contentious issue and which have been categorized by Freedom House as not being entirely free. The United States of America is one country where the constitution gives every American the freedom of speech and expression. However there have been cases where American citizens have misused this law to their own advantage. Freedom of expression and speech is a right to use and not to abuse. Amongst some of these examples are the famous cases of Texas vs. Johnson, Reno vs. ACLU, and Rav vs. St. Paul. These were landmark decisions in deciding the parameters of free expression. One of the most famous cases was the case of Texas vs. Johnson.
This case pitted…
1. Article 19
2. South African Constitution
II. Three Important Factors:
ccording to the merican Civil Liberties Union (CLU) freedom of expression is the: 1. "Foundation of self-fulfillment"
2. "It's vital to the attainment and advancement of knowledge; and 3. "It's necessary to our system of self-government giving the merican people a 'checking function' against government access and corruption.
III. Oppression of Individual Expression:
China is a country that mericans would not be able to stay in for long without feeling very much violated in terms of their human rights and most particularly the freedom of expression. The violation of human rights has been witnessed in cultural oppression as well as religious and art oppression. In a recent EU statement the acknowledgement of "some positive developments" were mentioned in relation to China as to its reforms in the rule of law which are underway but the statement revealed that the EU was still very concerned by "the…
American Civil Liberties Union Web page [Online] at http://archive.aclu.org/library/pbp10.html
World Tibet Network News: EU hits China for Human rights abuses at U.N. talks (2003) [Online] located at http://www.tibet.ca/en/wtnarchive/2003/4/1_2.htm
Existing Humanitarian Law (2004) Human Rights watch [Online] located at http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/world/2940661 .
Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes
The article entitled "On Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes" discussed the importance and utilization of the society and people's freedom of speech in educational institutions. The article provides a thorough analysis of how the imposition of speech codes on campuses and other educational institutions can be detrimental to the implementation and proliferation of the very symbol and important element of democracy, which is the freedom of speech of individuals and groups in the society.
The article's analysis focus on two important points: first, the function of free speech in educational institutions, and second, the role of school and education administrators, faculty, and personnel in monitoring and assuming the responsibility of implementing effectively the right of people to express themselves freely. In the first main point of the article, the emotive and cognitive aspects of free speech are taken into consideration. While…
It is not the responsibility of the press to look after the well being of others. The responsibility of the press is to report information in as honest and objective a manner possible and let the readers make their own informed decisions.
One aspect to remember about these cases is that they were argued and decided in an age when the vast majority of news was published or broadcast after being scrutinized by several trained journalists, thus better ensuring objectivity. Today, with an increasingly larger portion of the news being published on the Internet without editorial guidance or broadcast on news channels that may have an unstated bias, news and media professionals need to remember that it more important than ever to be honest and objective. ithout such precautions, the press risks not only punishment in the courts but worse, a lack of trust from the public it is supposed…
Abrams, Floyd. Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. Print.
Kilkenny, Ryan. "Invasion of Privacy for the Greater Good: Why Barnicki v. Vopper Disserves the Right of Privacy and the First Amendment." Ohio State Law Journal Vol. 64: (2003) 999-1039. Law Journal
Landmark Communications, Inc. v. Virginia, 435 U.S. 829 (1978)
Smith v. The Daily Mail Publication Co. 443 U.S. 97 (1979)
Right to Freedom of Expression Within the Walls of Educational Institutions
Educational institutions, especially those that specialize on higher education, are considered bastions of excellence where academic freedom and intellectual development are highly valued. In line with these objectives, educational institutions also aim to provide students not only with academic excellence and freedom, but healthy, yet, competitive social interaction among other students. The pursuit for academic excellence, academic freedom, and a socially healthy and competitive environment are indeed ideals that any student would want to have. However, today's social landscape has characteristically changed the composition of these academic institutions. American educational institutions have become a venue for a culturally diverse population, where people of different race, nationalities, religious and political affiliations, and socio-economic classes are put together to achieve these academic ideals. Over the years, one common problem about the cultural diverseness of these institutions have abound: the conflict between…
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for people to freely express their views, share information, and interact. Indeed, as McGoldrick (2013, p. 49) observes, “Facebook and other internet-based social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized modern communications.” Some of the most popular social media platforms in the country include, but that are not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. It is important to note that unlike in the physical world where relations between people are governed by various social rules and etiquette standards, relations on social media tend to present a limitless and unrestricting facade. In recent times, some countries have attempted to limit the way people relate on social media – even closely monitoring content in an attempt to ensure that freedom of expression in social media is…
Promoting Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
Like the many other freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, freedom of expression is deemed to be a fundamental and inalienable human right. Towards this end, it is understood, within the said framework, to constitute the “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” (United Nations, 2010, p. 107). For this reason, freedom of expression ought to be granted and guaranteed protection by any jurisdiction that prides itself as a beacon of modern democracy. The United Kingdom is one such country, alongside other countries such as the United States and Canada. It is important to note that over time, social media has become a marketplace of sorts for the exchange, advancement, as well as promotion of ideas concerning a wide array…
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.
Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.
Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
Sonny's brother wakes up and states, "Freedom lurked around us and I understood, at last, that he could help us to be free if we would listen, that he would never be free until we did" (47). Sonny was more free and living a life more true than his brother realized.
The transformation in Sonny's brother is dramatic. Duncan writes, "By the end of the story, the narrator has gained much more than an astute musical ear. He has learned . . . To listen" (Duncan). Throughout the story, Baldwin designates the act of listening as the linchpin of this moral tale; by focusing on an often-overlooked component of communication, this early Baldwin story illustrates how Brother, initially deaf to what Sonny calls "all that hatred and misery and love," opens his ears to his culture, his brother, and himself. and, through Brother's example, readers might also become more willing…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Norton Anthology of Short
Fiction R.V. Cassill,
W. Norton and Company. New York: 1981. pp. 22-48.
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
freedom of association refers to the freedom to join a union or association without fear of outside interference. Australia does not guarantee freedom of association in her Constitution. As a result, Australia has ratified several international covenants on freedom of expression, and used international laws as a basis for the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993.
The orkplace Relations Act of 1996, which specifically protected the freedom of association, and provided specific penalties for breaching the Act, superseded the 1993 Act. Recently, the war on terrorism has presented an unexpected threat to Australia's freedom of association laws. This renewed the argument that the freedom of association should be guaranteed, by law, within the body of Australia's constitution.
Freedom of association has taken an important place in international labor law and social justice. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has long had conventions that deal specifically with freedom of association, the importance of…
Amnesty International. Australia: Senate Must Consider Human Rights When Considering Terrorism Laws. Media release - 13 May 2002. 24 September 2002. http://www.amnesty.org.au/airesources/press-02-05-13.html
Australasian Legal Information Institute. COMMUNICATING WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE: A Guide to the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 24 September 2003. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/ahric/booklet/part3.html
Human & Constitutional Rights. Australian Laws of Freedom of Association. Site maintained by the Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School. 24 September 2002. http://www.hrcr.org/safrica/freedom_assoc/australia_law.html
International Labour Organization. Fundamental International Labour Standards on Freedom of Association. 24 September 2002. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/norm/whatare/fundam/foa.htm
In America, the great pragmatists John Dewey and William James are blamed for the American university's current fallen 'state,' a state of freedom from shared morality.
However, Arden provides no statistical evidence or even anecdotal as to why American universities are morally lacking, other than the fact he disagrees with their embrace of the right of the individual learner to choose his or her own path. He makes the assumption that the reader agrees with his contention that American universities are morally bankrupt. Pragmatism's benefits, such as academic freedom of expression are completely discounted as having any positive influence upon higher education. While some of Arden's contentious, that American undergraduates are insufficiently community-minded, may have some (highly debatable) merit as topics of discussion, his preference for Luther's ideal of a university as a place of spiritual and moral rather than intellectual learning, and for limits upon undergraduate self-expression, are not…
Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the West, physical and material world is the only world and spirit is only an illusion. For those in the east, like Hindus, physical world is the illusion and spirit is the only truth there is.
Western social, political and economic systems play an important role in the shaping of western concept of freedom. Freedom to choose, freedom of speech, freedom from bondage, freedom to vote, are some of the main ideals upheld by western society and thus freedom has become merely a hollow term used to describe a state of liberation in the physical world. Capitalism has also influenced the development of this concept as freedom to choose what one likes, build what one desires and move as and when one…
Frederic Spiegelberg. Living Religions of the World: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1956
Hedebro, Goran. Communication and Social Change in Developing Nations. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982.
Peter Heehs. Indian Religions: The Spiritual Traditions of South Asia: An Anthology/edited. Delhi, Permanent Black, 2002
People are free to decide whether they want to sacrifice their lives or whether they don't.
Humanity today is imperfect because of several motives. One of the aspects in which humanity fails from letting justice prevail is determining the value of life. Nowadays, life has a price, and people usually determine what that price is depending on the circumstances. Clearly, it would seem barbaric to try and decide the value of a human being. Truthfully, it is barbaric even to associate the words value and human because of the fact that in the civilized world the human life is meaning much more than something you can put a price on.
Even if a man was to decide the faith of another man, and the latter would be killed, the first man would certainly feel a drawback from taking the decision. This can happen because all people have a conscience and…
Conceptions of American Freedom
Freedom is an extremely important aspect of American culture, history, and identity. The European settlers that sailed to what would later become the United States of America, came for key reasons, one of which was freedom of religion. The concept of freedom was in one way very important to the people of the United States. Certainly, the concept of freedom in America is fraught with conflict, tension, and paradox. It is common knowledge that the freedoms of one particular group of Americans was increased with the elimination of the freedoms of other groups in the United States. While white males enjoyed the most freedoms, and declared to have build a country heavily predicated on guaranteed freedoms, the freedoms of women, enslaved Africans, and the indigenous tribes of natives who lived in the country for thousands of years did not have many freedoms relative to theirs.
Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]
Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html . 2012 November 18.
Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/ . 2012 November 16.
Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America . 2012 November 15.
(Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner, 2011).
Handling controversial social studies topics in the classroom setting is often not an easy undertaking. In the words of Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner (2011), "even though controversial issues are included in the curriculum, teachers face uncertainty on how to best teach the content" (42). As Byford, Lennon, and ussell (as cited in ussell, 2009) observe, teachers avoid controversial subjects in social studies because of lack of the relevant classroom management skills, discomfort when discussing some issues, restrictive district or school policies, and job security. To handle controversial subjects and topics appropriately, teachers can make use of a number of strategies and approaches.
To begin with, it helps to ensure that while at the same time seeking to ensure that one does not veer off the topic, learners are exposed to multiple perspectives with regard to the issue at hand. When there is a…
High, J.F. (1962). Teaching Secondary School Social Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Levstik, L.S. & Tyson, C.A. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of Research in Social Studies Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
National Council for the Social Studies. (2007, September). Academic Freedom and the Social Studies Teacher: A Position Statement of National Council for the Social Studies. Retrieved from: http://www.socialstudies.org/positions/academicfreedom
Philpott, S., Clabough, J., McConkey, L. & Turner, T.N. (2011). Controversial Issues: To Teach or Not to Teach? That is the Question! The Georgia Social Studies Journal, 1(1), 32-44.
"Howl" and "Guernica" Outline
The paper demonstrates the ways in which both pieces of art contemplate and express multiple themes, including those of religion, morality, happiness, life-affirmation, and freedom.
"Howl" is a poem that is both a mourning and a celebration of life.
"Guernica" is an expression of pain and war.
oth works of art have many themes and many of the same themes.
Ginserb, the 1950s, and "Howl"
He composed the poem in the middle of the 1950s, one of the greatest decades in history for mainstream America.
He is heavily influenced by previous poets and by his own lived experiences.
Howl" shows readers how they can be connected to spirituality, religion, and what is sarcred or holy with, and without the use of the formal church.
Poetry is another form of storytelling that is best when read/performed aloud.
Howling, Expression, and Jazz
A. If we are howling,…
1. Raento, P., & Watson, C.J. "Gernika, Guernica, Guernica?: Contested meanings of a Basque place." Political Geography, Vol. 19, Pgs 707 -- 736, 2000.
The authors discuss the many ways to interpret "Guernica." The authors focus upon why and how Picasso created such a dense work of art. The authorts furthermore explore and offer various ways for readers to interpret the painting from a historical and contemporary perspective.
2. Ginsberg, Allen. Howl. City Lights Books: San Francisco. 1956. Print.
This is the entirety of the poem. There is a foreword, preface, and afterword. The majority of the book consists of the poem "Howl," although there are other poems. Some of the other poems in the book are directly related to "Howl" in subject and style, and some are more obtusely related to the title poem.
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
FACIAL EXPESSION & EMOTION
From the perspective of many psychologists, there is no set formal definition for emotion. We know that emotion is universal insofar as all humans experience and express emotion. There have been many studies, specifically over the past several decades that demonstrate that some emotions are expressed universally across time and culture. Just because there is not a universal definition for emotion, does not mean that there are not working definitions of what is emotion is, as a means to do the job in the meantime, until the global psychological field comes to a more overall agreement. On a very basic level, emotion is an affective change from a person's previous emotional state as a result of a huge spectrum of stimuli. There are a number of physical representations of emotion in the human body. Emotion occurs on a neurological level. Emotions show up in parts…
Abelson, R.P., & Sermat, V. (1962). Multidimensional scaling of facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(6), 546-554.
Adolphs, R. (2002). Recognizing Emotion From Facial Expressions: Psychological and Neurological Mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1(1), 21 -- 62.
Browndyke, PhD, J.N. (2002). Neuropsychosocial Factors in Emotion Recognition: Facial Expressions. Telepsychology Solutions, Web, Available from: www.neuropsychologycentral.com. 2012 December 04.
Dimberg, U., Thuberg, M., Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions. Psychological Science, 11(1), 86 -- 90.
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
n fact, the Court distinguished between Pickering's rights as citizen and his rights as an employee of an institution. Subsequent related Supreme Court decisions have continued to distinguish between an employee's rights as a citizen vs. The member of an institution (243).
2. What requirements must be observed in the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries?
"Wide discretion" is offered to public and private institutes of higher learning regarding the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries (213). The Courts are "less likely to become involved in disputes concerning the substance of standards" than the way those standards are enforced (214). nstitutions are constrained by First and Fourteenth Amendment considerations and due process of law. Vagueness and overbreath decisions also impact an institution's decision for awarding (or denying) rank, tenure, and salaries: decisions must…
In public institutions, tenure and other issues related to employee or staff status are irrelevant because of equal protection guarantees embedded in the Bill of Rights. The First Amendment right to free expression may be constrained by institutional concerns such as possible impediments to the educational mission of the school. For example, in Pickering v. Board of Education (1968) the Supreme Court found in favor of the state institution when "maintaining an efficient educational system" is a priority (240). In fact, the Court distinguished between Pickering's rights as citizen and his rights as an employee of an institution. Subsequent related Supreme Court decisions have continued to distinguish between an employee's rights as a citizen vs. The member of an institution (243).
2. What requirements must be observed in the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries?
"Wide discretion" is offered to public and private institutes of higher learning regarding the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries (213). The Courts are "less likely to become involved in disputes concerning the substance of standards" than the way those standards are enforced (214). Institutions are constrained by First and Fourteenth Amendment considerations and due process of law. Vagueness and overbreath decisions also impact an institution's decision for awarding (or denying) rank, tenure, and salaries: decisions must be based on clear institutional guidelines.
Mind, Freedom and Knowledge
Descartes argued that that all humans had both a body and mind, and that the mind was eternal while the body was subject to physical and material laws. The universe was divided between the mind and matter, and the physical world could be explained by mathematical and scientific laws. Hobbes, Locke and other political and philosophical theorists of the 17th Century were also influenced by the new scientific thought of Descartes, Galileo and William Harvey to one degree or another, and had to incorporate them into philosophy (Ryle, p. 251). Ryle denied that any "ghost in the machine" existed, of that the immortal soul somehow operated the physical body. He admitted that explaining the link between bodies and minds was very difficult, although behaviorists had come to understand that expressions indicate moods and emotions, while vision, hearing and motion are all based on sensory inputs being…
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
A cannot live on tomorrow's bread." (Langston Hughs)
The poem of Hughs ends by expressing that freedom comes to be needed by those who are deprived the most of freedom.
CULLEN: UNCLE JIM
In the work of Cullen entitled "Uncle Jim" the entirety of understanding this poem is in the first line which states:
White folks is white," says Uncle Jim" (Countree Cullen)
In just the first line of this poem it is expressed how all the blacks were not ready at the time of this poem for feeling or accepting that they were, just as the white people, Americans.
ROWN: "ITTER FRUIT OF THE TREE"
Many of Sterling rowns first works have been called "...lighthearted narratives...' To be followed by "itter Fruit of the Tree" which has been termed to be a "...spiteful vendetta..." In which he speaks of the suffering of his family, specifically his grandmother and grandfather…
Claude McCay (1919) Review of "If We Must Die" Online available at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/mckay.html
Langston Hughs - "Democracy" Online available at http://www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poet=6691&poem=32573
Countree Cullen - "Uncle Jim" http://www.ragistan.com/cgi-bin/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=next_topic&f=7&t=002198&go=newer
The Poets: Sterling Brown (1901-1989) Online available at http://education.yahoo.com/homework_help/cliffsnotes/american_poets_of_the_20th_century/56.html
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed on them if they feel that those limits are too restrictive. Others do not even recognize the limits that are placed on them and feel as though the limit-placer has no right to do so in the first place. Despite these things, however, it usually does not end well from an organizational standpoint for people who continue to 'break the rules.' Being fired is one of the implications of ignoring limits, and getting into trouble with the law can also be an implication of this. Usually people either leave of their own accord or are brought into line before any of this takes place, but that's not always the case.
For the people who ignore limits there are other problems, as…
" Both of these statements are quite arguably true, yet both also smack of the immature self-assuredness that belies the innocence of the speaker, and it is this aspect of the girl -- her very pretensions to adulthood that, in effect, render her a more honest adult than most real adults -- that the narrator of the story seems to find the most interesting and appealing. As the girl is only beginning to glimpse the lack of innocence that accompanies growing up, and appears to be enjoying it, the narrator is able to travel the reverse course and rediscover an innocence thought lost.
This rediscovery happens in a far more direct way at the end of the story, when the narration has switched primarily to a third person, until Sergeant X -- who is obviously embittered, somewhat shattered, and generally disconnected from his life -- receives a letter form Esme.…
Eger, Christopher. "The Military Service of J.D. Salinger." Accessed April 2010. http://ww2history.suite101.com/article.cfm/the-military-service-of-jd-salinger
Salinger, J.D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.
Salinger, J.D. "For Esme -- With Love and Squalor." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.
Salinger, J.D. Franny and Zooey. New York: Back Bay Books, 2001.
America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.
So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…
Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions. New York: classic Books. 2000.
Madison, James. Federalist paper #10. 1775
De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, essays on freedom. 1835. Accessed 21 May 2004. Website: http://www.tocqueville.org
Anonymous is one of the groups that can be seen as participating in this form of hacktivism, as is ikileaks.
ikileaks is probably the best know hactivist site to the general public because of the sheer volume of political information that it has made public and because of the unapologetic nature of the owner of the site. This is unfortunate in many ways because it has given individuals a false view of what hacktivism is because Julian Assange seems to have been motivated more often by pique than by genuine political concerns for making the world a better place. This is not, as one might guess, how the ikileaks founder sees the nature of his mission.
ikileaks, like Anonymous, is based on the idea that information -- all information -- should be available to everyone. This is a radical claim, and indeed resembles radical claims made by groups in the…
"Analysis: WikiLeaks -- a new face of cyber-war?" Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/12/09/us-wikileaks-cyberwarfare-amateur-idUSTRE6B81K520101209 . Retrieved 8 May 2012.
The Atlantic Wire. http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2011/07/did-lulzsec-trick-police-arresting-wrong-guy/40522/ . Retrieved 10 Mary 2012.
Castells, Manuel. The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. Oxford: Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001.
Old-time hacktivists: Anonymous, you've crossed the line. CNET News March 30, 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states use their power? Give detailed examples from three country-cases.
The state is the central institution in comparative politics because it represents the group of institutions and agencies that exercise authority over the people subordinate to it. The state mediates disputes and serves to unite the individual will and the collective will under one umbrella. The state is recognized as the legitimate authority by the people and thus they comply with the state’s rules without needing to be coerced. To understand comparative politics, one has to understand the central role of the state.
State power can take numerous forms. In America it takes the forms of the courts, the Congress, and the police—for starters. The government has three branches of government—the executive,…
The metanoetic goal of reaching beyond the mind's cognitive limitations is not regarded as attainable through art, yet the Dutch author envisions that new figuration presents the potential of temporarily short-circuiting self-referential faculties and unleashing otherwise confined awareness. Previous modern figuration is described as anchored in mimesis and therefore strived for comprehension, whereas new figuration feigns an allegorical representation, subject to comprehension, in order to trick the viewer into overcoming nous, the mind (Esmann).
Under these terms, two courses of action might be employed, namely presenting two mutually exclusive narratives or excluding any narrative from the action, and thereby deconstructing comprehension. "There is no story, no meaning, no allegory; only metanous" (Esmann), therefore the mind either rejects the installment as devoid of meaning, or stills into a perceptive ideal characterized by non-conceptual awareness of being. Interestingly, abstract expressionism is incompatible with expressing metanoesis due to the fact that the phenomenon…
Esmann, Jan. "The New Figurative Painting. An Essay on Metanoetic Art." Copenhagen: 1998. Available at www.janesmann.com [Retrieved on 20 May 2013]
Hart, Jane. "From Traditional to Contemporary: The Evolution of Figurative Art." Art Business News 2009 February. Vol. 36, No. 2
Owens, Craig. "The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism." October, Vol. 12, 1980 Spring: 67-86
Speed, Julie. "Under the Chinaberry." 2012. Nicolaysen Art Museum, Casper, WY.
esponding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
Over the years, growing tension concerning freedom of speech governed by the bill of rights in the constitution of many countries' and the act of flag burning has surfaced. In as much as there is a need to protect and guarantee the citizenry rights, its s imperative also to protect the national symbols that accord a country respectful status and a sense of identity. Among the world countries, a country's flag symbolizes an identity of the peoples of the country. Its significance is rooted in the symbolic nature that the flag accords to the country.
The flag is a symbol of the people's culture, their customs and values and to some countries, religion. The worldwide greater participation of individual and groups in the fight for human rights has seen to the spiking up of the number of demonstrations and group actions. Among the demonstrations include acts of flag…
hat will future hold for the hot rod and all those who love them so dearly?
The car has been long an emblem or icon of freedom. ith the invention of automobile and later the mass production of the car, the lifestyle for the average American definitely changed. No longer was anyone tethered to the location in which they were raised. People were now free to explore, in comfort, the world at large. It didn't take long at all for the car to become integrated with all facets of popular culture. However, various subcultures also developed right along with the automobile. One of these subcultures also found another form of freedom -- freedom of expression.
After II, the United States developed a strong middle class. In fact, this was arguably the strongest middle class in all of history. As a result of this development there were…
Hardin, D. "Can They Outlaw Hot Rodding?" 10 December 2010. Hot Rod Magazine. Web. 1 May 2012.
IBIS World. "Auto Customization Shops in the U.S. - Industry Market Research Report." 1 February 2012. Market Research. Web. 1 May 2012.
SAN. "Promoting Legislative Solutions for the Automotive Hobby." 2012. SEMA Action Network. Web. 1 May 2012.
SEMA. "Leading Manufactures Pitch in Parts for Charity Mustang GT." 2010. SEMA. Web. 1 May 2012.
In recognition that these t-shirts might be found to be objectionable to many young women, who are among our best customers, we contacted Heather Arnet, Executive Director of the omen & Girls Foundation, and offered to discuss the issue with them. e recognize that the shirts in question, while meant to be humorous, might be troubling to some." Despite, or perhaps, one could argue, because of, the controversy generated by the sexually explicit t-shirts, on November 15, 2005, CEO Mike Jeffries stated that the company had enjoyed record third quarter profits. "These strong results reflect the broad momentum and successful differentiation of our brands, confirming our entire organization's dedication to building dominant iconic brands. e are uniquely positioned as the top of mind premium provider of sportswear with brands that appeal to a broad spectrum of customers in the pre-teen through post-collegiate demographic. This is a position we have worked…
Abercrombie & Fitch Issues Joint Statement with Women & Girls Foundation of Southwest Pennsylvania." Press Release. Abercrombie & Fitch. 4 Nov 2005.
27 Mar 2008. http://www.abercrombie.com/anf/lifestyles/html/investorrelations.html
Abercrombie & Fitch Reports Third Quarter Results."(4 Nov 2005). Press Release.
Abercrombie & Fitch. 15 Nov 2005. 27 Mar 2008 at http://www.abercrombie.com/anf/lifestyles/html/investorrelations.html
However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…
A comedian named Tommy Smothers, member of the Smother's Brothers comedy team and target of a battle over censorship, once said "The only valid censorship of ideas is the right of people not to listen." (Smothers) This notion also applies to watching, and viewing artistic expression as well. hile some in the United States have tried to impose their view of morality upon the nation through the censoring of what they consider "objectionable," others have fought back to maintain the right of free expression. In 1989, there was a case where a sitting Senator objected to the subject of a work of art that was awarded a government grant. This Senator wrote to the president complaining about the National Endowment for the Arts and it's support of this particular artist. In response the artist defiantly defended his right of artistic expression and warned of the dangers of censorship.…
Andreas Serrano, letter to Hugh Southern (1989), acting chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts. In Stilesk, and Selz. "Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art, A sourcebook of Artists Writings." University of California Press, 1996.
"Senator Helms Objects to Taxpayers' Funding for Sacrilegious Art." Congressional Record. Washington D.C., 18 May 1989, vol. 135, no 64.
Smothers, Tommy. "Quotations About Censorship." The Quote Garden. Web 22 May, 2011. http://www.quotegarden.com/censorship.html
first amendment of the Constitution addresses both freedoms of speech and religion (Constitution Bill of Rights). ithin these two broad themes, there are various clauses (First Amendment Online). The First Amendment restricts government from passing laws aimed against free excersise of any religion, and also restricts the government from "establishing" or favoring a particular religion (First Amendment Cyber Tribune). In addition to allowing freedom of speech, the amendment also allows freedom of the press, the right to petition government, and the right to assemble (First Amendment Online).
For the purposes of this paper (and survey), I am going to focus on the issue of free speech within the context of the First Amendment. My survey consisted of 4 questions regarding speech in America. Firstly, I asked the individual if he or she believed it was a fair law. The consensus regarding this question was that the First Amendment was not…
1st Amendment." Grolier. (Electronic Version). Accessed 2 July 2003. http://gi.grolier.com/presidents/aae/side/01amend.html
Anderson, Mary Jo. "Gay Threat to First Amendment." World Net Daily
Electronic Version). Accessed 2 July 2003. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=23422
Associated Press. "Free Speech Arguments Fall on Deaf Ears." The First
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the PATIOT ACT), there has been a growing debate concerning the proper role of the government in protecting Americans while balancing their right to free expression. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the line between an individual's right to expression and the role of the government to protect its citizens from harm, including some salient examples of this conflict in the nation's past. An analysis concerning whether Americans have come any closer to reconciling these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, the First Amendment to…
Berg, C. (2013, September). Free speech lost in translation. Review - Institute of Public Affairs, 67(3), 18-23.
Munger, M. 92015, Spring). No place to hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. surveillance state. Independent Review, 19(4), 605-609.
Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47, 51-52, 1919.
Youm, K.H. (2004, Summer). The four freedoms of the First Amendment. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 446-450.
In other words, World War II produced an important shift in both mentality and reality. Although many of the women who had been employed during the war returned to being homemakers, there was also a significant percentage which managed to reconcile being a mother and a wife with work. Also, despite the fact that their wages were far from being equal to those of men, their contribution to the income of the household was welcome and in most cases, made a real difference as far as the economic demands of the family (essler-Harris: 280). Moreover this shift paved the way for the 1950s when a new set of ideas entered American society and seriously challenged both the labor market and social conventions. Gay bars started to appear, and although they were underground and hard to find even for members of the homosexual community, their emergence favored freedom of expression even…
Kessler-Harris, Alice. (1983). Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tully Carol T. (2000). Lesbians, Gays & the Empowerment Perspective. Columbia University Press.
Weeks, Jeffrey. (2003). Sexuality. New York: Routledge.
Frank La ue presented a report to the United Nations General Assembly on the twenty-third session of the Human ights Council. Though it was a late submission, the report was regarding the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of expression and opinion. Generally, the main agenda for the report is the promotion and protection of all human rights such as economic, civil, social and cultural, political, and the right to development. It was presented based on resolution 16/4 of the Human ights Council of the United Nations. The focus of the submission is analyses of the impacts of States' surveillance of communications in light of human rights to freedom of opinion and expression and privacy. However, the analyses recognize the impact of major technological developments in communications. The need for further study of new surveillance techniques and to amend national legislation regarding these practices based on human rights…
Rue, F.L. (2013, April 17). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Frank La Rue. Human Rights Council -- United Nations General Assembly.
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty members and the institution in the higher education context?
There are really two key principles that must be satisfied. The first is that the court determines whether the speech in question hinges on a matter of public concern. If it does, the court takes further criteria into consideration such as:
Whether the statement impairs discipline in school or harmony amongst superiors or amongst cookers.
Whether the statement has a negative impact on close working relationships
Whether the speech interferes with the way the operator usually conducts his business,
Yes, these criteria take the interests of faculty members and school into consideration.
Specifically, what was the fatal flaw in the instructor's speech? Was it the profanity itself? Or was it the belittling…
roots of Southern literature and how the authors view moral freedom in their works. It has 5 sources.
When the Puritans of Europe left their homeland for the vast and wild continent of America they envisioned social and religious freedom. For them American had been a deserted place and the only enemy they have had been the Natives. However, they did not envision the fact that they would undergo severe battle of the inner self as well as the harsh external environment. As they spend more of their time on the continent they realized that the promise of a free new land has been a dream and that in order to survive they have abandon their old ways to become more focused and adapt to the environment. The pervasive and massiveness of the diversified American culture at the time posed a mixture of excitement as well as danger for them.…
Blair, John. "Mexico and the Borderlands in Cormac McCarthy's All the Pretty Horses." Critique 42.3, Spring 2001: 301-07.
Arnold, Edwin T. "Horseman, Ride On." World & I Oct. 1998: 259-67.
Paine, Albert Bigelow. Mark Twain: A Biography, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1912; BoondocksNet Edition, 2001. http://www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/biography/ (Aug. 1, 2003).
Lewis, R.W.B. "The Hero in the New World: William Faulkner's 'The Bear'." Bear, Man and God, 306-322.
egardless, this type of commitment to promoting women's involvement does not guarantee that they are empowered to participate. Indeed, the case of Iraq exemplifies that gender concerns may be sacrificed to "greater priorities" as security and the political agendas of different actors.
As long as the Western occupation continues, there will be Islamist forces that, in the name of fighting the occupation, will greatly restrict women's participation in public life. Although the author (Al Ali) is not under any illusion that the violence will end or women's lives will improve immediately after troop withdrawal, this has to be a necessary step on the way to create a sovereign state where women's rights can be discussed without creating a bigger backlash for women inside Iraq.
Al-Ali, N. (2007) Iraqi Women -- Four years after the Invasion. Foreign Policy.
Coleman, I. (2006) Women, Islam, and the New Iraq
Al-Ali, N. (2007) Iraqi Women -- Four years after the Invasion. Foreign Policy.
Coleman, I. (2006) Women, Islam, and the New Iraq
Foreign Affairs (85)1: 24.
Some of them embraced this message of fear and hatred so much so that they drove west along the highway (in cars driven by adults, of course) to Geselltown, pelting the teens that they saw out of the car windows with rocks and calling them names. Other teens silently listened to the speeches of the elders, but still wished they had the freedoms of the teens in Geselltown. When they grew up they went to Geselltown and got a job in the Mitsubishi plant, but the other teens married others from Gemeintown and taught their children to be afraid and to hate their neighbors.
In effect, the inhabitants of Gemeintown mirrored the theories of Communism, who ranted and raved against the liberals in the West. Communism was born of an attempt to keep the old system of family ties, which honored the elders of a clan or country above themselves…
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine.
Cohen, a.P. (1985). The Symbolic Construction of Community. Edited by Peter Hamilton. Key Ideas. London: Routledge.
A de Benoist, a. translated by Tomislav Sunic. (1994). Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: a Toennies, Ferdinand.  1963. Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft). Translated and edited by Charles P. Looomis. New York: Harper & Row.
Viskovatoff, a. (1999). Foundations of Niklas Huhmann's theory of social systems. Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Vol. 29(4). Dec 1999. Pp 481-517.
Ethics of Accommodating Religion
As the diversity within businesses increases at an alarming pace with the entire world transforming into a global village, employers, employees and legislators are all concerned about accommodating religious beliefs and observances. ith the signing of Title VII that permits employees to observe the tenets of their religion at workplace, employers are planning how to obey the laws and utilize the religious accommodation as a growing strength for their profitable businesses. This research paper addresses the most debatable issue of accommodating religious beliefs in commercial, professional and industrial dealings. Furthermore, the paper will outline the ways in which religious accommodation can be made possible and positive for both employees and the employers. The paper will also highlight the implication of religious accommodation in the workplace and will present the future direction.
Ethics of accommodating religion
The reason for being at work is to perform a job.…
Murphy H., Hildebrandt W. & Thomas J., Effective Business Communications, Seventh Edition, McGraw Hill Publishers, ISBN: 0-07-114507-9
Mallory M. Balancing faith with work Employees, firms must weigh beliefs vs. offending others., The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 04-08-2001,-Page: R1.
Religion in the workplace: liabilities and opportunities. Available at: http://www.orcinc.com/readroom/WI-12.pdf (November 15, 2002)
Lynn J., Your Business: Management. Vol. 27, Entrepreneur Magazine, 08-01-1999, Pages: 69-71
Everyone is under suspicion, according to the eye of the camera. Everyone is treated as if they are a likely criminal. This has a negative psychological affect on the general population who are not criminals.
For those who are not criminals, they feel as if their privacy is being invaded for no reason. They are reduced to being under suspicion and scrutinized even though they are upstanding citizens. They feel as if they are being treated as a criminal and that their freedoms are being slowly eaten away one by one. More and more the general population expresses concerns about the trend toward and Orwellian world. The telescreens in Orwell's world broadcast propaganda and continually exaggerated positive production numbers and lied about the failing state of the economy. The telescreens made the economy sound like a growth economy, when it was slowly slipping away, sound familiar?
In Orwell's novel, inston…
Froomkin, D. Obama Hasn't Entirely Abandoned the Bush Playbook. February 18, 2009. the
Washington Post. < http://voices.washingtonpost.com/white-house-watch/bush-rollback/obama-hasnt-entirely-abandoned.html >. Accessed December 6, 2010.
London Evening Standard. George Orwell, Big Brother is watching your house. March 31, 2007.
< http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23391081-george-orwell-big-brother-is-watching-your-house.do > . Accessed December 5, 2010.
Justice in Society According to awls and Hampshire
This is paper contrasting the political philosophies of awls and Hampshire according o their views in 'Political liberalism' the Law of Peoples' and 'Justice as Conflict'. 4 sources are given.
Very few alternatives to the prevalent utilitarianism, dominant in most of the Western world, have emerged and made any significant impact. The theories of John awls however have made an important contribution to political philosophy and if not unanimously agreed upon they nevertheless have led to a revival in the academic study of political philosophy. His work has provoked debate amongst economists, legal scholars, political scientists, sociologists, and theologians alike. His Theory of Justice and subsequent additions and modifications to this hypothesis in the form of 'Political liberalism' and 'The Law of Peoples' is a comprehensive and detailed proposal that evolved over decades.
The 'Justice as Conflict' theory put forward by another…
Hampshire, Stuart. "Justice Is Conflict." Princeton University Press. 2001.
Martin, Rex. "Rawls's New Theory of Justice," Chicago-Kent Law Review, Volume 69: 737-761, 1994.
Rawls, John. Political Liberalism, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Rawls, John. The Law of Peoples: with "The Idea of Public Reason Revisited" Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999.
ACLU v Reno:
A definitive victory for free speech
The First Amendment in the United States of America's Constitution is perhaps the hallmark of what current President ush refers to continually as our "freedom." It represents the fundamental difference between America and so many other countries that do not offer their citizens rights to freedom of speech, religion and the press.
Specifically, the First Amendment of the United States Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion and freedom of expression without government interference. See U.S. Const. amend. I. Within that, the concept of freedom of expression consists of the rights to freedom of speech, press, assembly and to petition the government for a redress of grievances, and the implied rights of association and belief. The Supreme Court and the lower courts interpret the extent of the protection afforded to these rights. The Supreme Court has interpreted the First Amendment…
ACLU v. Reno
Legal Information Institute, 2005
ACLU Press Release, 1996
Citroen DS3 is a small car that is marketed by the French automaker Citroen. The DS3 was originally launched in 2010. It comes in two main variants, the regular DS3 and the Cabrio. The car is in the supermini class, wherein it competes with the likes of the Mini Cooper, the Smart Fortwo and other very small passenger cars. This paper will examine the marketing of the DS3, with particular reference to the Australian context. The marketing will include the 4Ps of price, promotion, place, and product. The analysis will also determine the target market and market segmentation for this car. The core value proposition and other key marketing elements will be discussed as well. The analysis will be based on the marketing materials provided by the company online, with analysis rooted in marketing theory.
The automobile industry uses extensive segmentation of its products. Most companies in the…
Ad copy from http://www.Citroen.co.uk/new-cars-and-vans/ds-range/ds-3
Kay, B. (2013). Citroen DS3: The French car brand is sending mixed messages with this Apple-esque execution. Marketing Magazine. Retrieved September 22, 2015 from http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/1174915/Citroen-ds3-french-car-brand-sending-mixed-messages-apple-esque-execution
Meiners, J. (2014). French invasion: Citroen ponders U.S. return using stylish DS brand. Car and Driver. Retrieved September 22, 2015 from
520). Viewpoint neutrality ensures that funding is equally allocated to all registered student groups, and that registered student groups use their allocated funds in neutral ways.
or instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted…
For instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted to instate an opt-out policy for the collection of student funds, but are not obliged to do so. Courts have determined that obliging a university to permit opting out would be seriously disruptive to achieving First Amendment objectives.
Student organizations are prohibited from discriminatory practices, and universities are not obliged to recognize or fund student organizations that practice discrimination. In rare cases, student organizations are permitted to use affirmative action policies if such policies can be shown to serve the ultimate function of increasing minority student participation. Similarly, religious student organizations are permitted to restrict membership to those who profess belief, protected by the First Amendment freedom of expression clause that guarantees religious organizations the right to exist and practice their religion freely (Kaplan & Lee p. 528). However, religious student organizations may not discriminate against persons on the basis of race, gender, or sexual orientation simply by claiming a right to do so under the freedom of religion or the freedom of speech clauses (Kaplan & Lee p. 528).
Religious organizations sometimes claim protection under the freedom of speech clause rather than the freedom of religious expression clause, however. In Widmar v. Vincent (1981), a religious student organization vied for the use of public campus facilities for the purpose of prayer: which was framed as freedom of speech more so than freedom of religious expression. The Court also ruled that equal access to the school's public facilities trumped the need for strict separation of church and state (Kaplan & Lee p. 530). Simply using campus facilities was not deemed to be an endorsement of any particular religion.
His rejected and criticized Montaigne's self-indulgence. He stressed the need to be concerned for others and to temper one's self-expression so that it more closely resembled an ordered society.
Reading these three authors gives the reader a feeling for the changes in society that dictated a sense of identity and self from the 16th to 18th Centuries. Society went through some radical changes during this time that can be characterized by the ability and acceptability of indulging in self-expression. During the 16th century, one was free to express themself in almost any way possible. By the 18th Century, one had to temper what they had to say so that it fit within society's rules.
The rebellious self-indulgence of the 16th century was confined to within certain limits by the 18th century. As time progressed, even these limits were tightened and society dictated more of what a persons was allowed to…
Addison, Joseph. "The Spectator No. 476." 1712. Quotidiana. Ed. Patrick Madden. 12 Mar 2007. http://essays.quotidiana.org/addison/spectator_no_476/ . Accessed June 2, 2008.
Addison, Joseph. "The Spectator No. 562." Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=loE0AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=+the+Spectator+no.+562&source=gbs_similarbooks_r&cad=2_1#PPA214,M1 .
Montaigne, (2005) Saggi ii, Milano, Adelphi, pp. 1543-1544.
Montaigne. The Complete Essays of Montaigne. Donald M. Frame (trans). Stanford University Press. 1958.
The Bureau appears to have backed down under public pressure, adverse criticism compelling the Bureau to realize that its stance was indefensible. Clearly, the Orlando Code Enforcement Bureau could not justify the use of a public safety ordinance to force a local businessperson to remove the American flags displayed in her windows.
Thus, code enforcement in Florida, as in many other locations across the United States, is shaped by a variety of practical and theoretical considerations. Zoning laws are generally intended to maintain community uniformity. Community uniformity, especially where such homogeneity produces an image of wholesomeness, cleanliness, security, trendiness, etc. is usually considered an aid to increasing property values. If standards are maintained, property values will be maintained or even increased. Local communities commonly enact local controls that either reflect specific local conditions or augment state standards. The Orlando Code Enforcement Board attempted to enforce a hurricane safety ordinance against…
Arbuckle, Mark R. "Vanishing First Amendment Protection for Symbolic Expression 35 Years after United States V. O'Brien." Communications and the Law 25.2 (2003): 1+.
Korn, Donald Jay. "Choosing a Home That Has Value: How to Make Sure You Profit from Life's Biggest Investment." Black Enterprise Aug. 2003: 65+.
Liberty Counsel. "Displaying the American Flag Comes Under Fire." Life, Liberty and Family. 8 Sept. 2005. URL: http://libertyblogs.blogspot.com/2005/09/displaying-american-flag-comes-under.html .
Posner, Richard A. "Pragmatism vs. Purposivism in First Amendment Analysis." Stanford Law Review 54.4 (2002): 737+.
It is the pursuit of happiness that the Constitution guarantees with respect to a person's right to pursue a free life. The words are written this way (Von Eckardt, Ursula M., 1959, p. 2):
e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are empowered by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
These words should dissuade the most adamant lawmaker from proposing, or creating a federal law that would ban same-sex unions. Likewise, those seeking same-sex unions should look long and hard at the legalities involved in what they are seeking. "One way to destroy the spirit of anything is to sanctify that thing. Sanctify the code, the institution, the constitution, or the doctrine, and it is thereby arrested. It becomes unchangeable, incapable of development, resistant to new influences, rigid (Maclver, R.M., 1955,…
S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama in Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.
The fight against terrorism has to be based not on destroying a certain group of terrorists but as a campaign of human rights. Geneva Conventions and international human rights law specifically establish that terrorism is not a legitimate act of war or politics. These rules specify that civilians should never be deliberately killed or abused, regardless of the cause. Mr. ush's refusal to condemn Israel's bombing of civilian targets in an impotent Lebanon may be politically expedient but it says that United States considers it all right to deliberately bomb civilian…
Reisman, W.M., International Legal Responses to Terrorism, Houston Journal of International Law, Volume 22, Issue 1, 1999
Grebinar, J., Responding to Terrorism: How Must a Democracy Do It? A Comparison of Israeli and American Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Volume 31, Issue 1, 2003
Roth, K., Misplaced Priorities: Human Rights and the Campaign against Terrorism, Harvard International Review. Volume 24, Issue 3, 2002
Charters, D.A. (Editor), The Deadly Sin of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 1994
In my judgment, the statutory provisions on which these prosecutions are based, abridge freedom of speech, press and assembly in violation of the 1st Amendment" ("Black, J, Concurring in Part").
Hence, the Yates decision was a precursor of the things to come. In 1964, the Court declared in the New York Times v. Sullivan that public officials could not recover civil damages for libel unless they prove the libel was committed intentionally or with malice and held that making seditious libel a crime conflicted with the central meaning of the First Amendment ("Fighting ords"). In New York Times v. United States (1971) the Court prevented the federal government from exercising "prior restraint" to stop a newspaper from printing information about the Vietnam ar that it wanted to withhold from the public. In Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) it ruled that advocacy of violence or revolution may be prohibited only if it…
Adoption and Common Law Background." Find Law for Professionals: Freedom of Expression -- Speech and Press. 2008. April 17, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/06.html#1
Black, J, Concurring in Part: Supreme Court of the United States -- Yates v United States." Cornell University Law School. 1957. April 17, 2008. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0354_0298_ZX.html
Fighting words." Indiana University Newsroom. November 17, 2004. April 17, 2008. http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1725.html
Opinion of the Court: Supreme Court of the United States -- Yates v United States." Cornell University Law School. 1957. April 17, 2008. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0354_0298_ZO.html
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.