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Immanuel Kant uses a far more complex argument in defining and defending his ethical framework in "Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals," but its application to this scenario is actually remarkably simple. Kant basically asserts that all acts are either ethically good or bad, and that this judgment does not depend upon the scenario in which the action is taking place or the ultimate effects of the action. Killing someone, for example, must be considered morally wrong, otherwise killing would always be right and we would all be dead very quickly. The campaign in Gallipoli, then, and indeed all warfare and any other situation wherein one man kills another, whether in a state-sponsored and approved manner or not, is inherently wrong and ethically unacceptable. This moral absolutism runs into problems when others aspects of the situation come into consideration -- it is wrong to disobey orders, for instance, and the…
Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under, by Phyllis Edelson. Specifically, it will contain an analysis of "The First Days in the Trenches" and the section on WWI in the introduction.
WOLD WA I
World War I was a crucial time for Australia, and Australian independence. Australia gained independent status in 1901, but they were still under the protective wing of Great Britain, and many Australians liked it that way.
The Australians always seem to "get along," no matter where or what they are doing. They have an easygoing attitude that is charming and disarming at the same time. This attitude prevails in the stories about World War I. Only once does the author really berate the British, and that is when the officer insists men risk their lives to recover the bodies in "No Man's Land." The author says "I was disgusted to think that…
Edelson, Phyllis Fahrie. Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under. New York: Ballentine Books, 1993.
Poison gas was regarded by many as a weak way to fight and anyone who thought of utilizing it was quickly dismissed. "…any power that used poison gas would inevitably be branded as beyond the pale of civilization for all the time and Cochrane's idea was quietly buried." (Stokesbury 94) However the British did use poison gas during orld ar I with some success, albeit at the cost of their advancement in the battle. "In their assault, which coincided with that of the French to the south, the British employed poison gas themselves for the first time. It helped gain some initial successes, though in places it blew back and hampered their own advance." (Stokesbury 95) Other things were also of concern to the British and Germans as their need for new allies became a primary objective. Their desire to generate new alliances was for effort to open up new…
"Dardanelles Campaign." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 22 June 2014. .
Stokesbury, James L. A short history of World War I. New York: Morrow, 1981. Print.
"The Ottoman Empire Enters WWI on the side of the Central Powers." Ottoman Empire enters WWI: 1914. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 June 2014. .
However, the trenches were often muddy and filled with water, and they were no match for the newly designed tanks that became a standard part of warfare.
This was a very different war than the world had been used to. There were many more inventions, such as airplanes, tanks, and new types of explosives and weapons helped turn both sides into very efficient killing machines, and hundreds of thousands of lives were lost before the war was over. Industrialization also meant that the men fighting could be transported quickly and efficiently from area to area, and they could receive continual supplies, as well. Another historian writes, "A century of industrialization meant that the Germans, French and British could each keep millions of men under arms on the Western Front - clothed, fed and free from lethal epidemic diseases, day and night, all the year round without respite" (Badsey). Thus, World…
Badsey, Stephen. "The Western Front and the Birth of Total War." BBC.uk. 3 March 2003. 12 Jan. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/total_war_01.shtml
Bourne, J.M. Who's Who in World War One. London: Routledge, 2001.
Sheffield, Gary. "The Origins of World War One." BBC.uk. 3 March 2003. 12 Jan. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/origins_01.shtml
While much of the Empire's expansion can be attributed to military success invasion was often unnecessary. Political tactics for expansion were sometimes more effective; Sultan Orhan received the Gallipoli peninsula through his marriage to the daughter of a pretender to the Byzantine thrown, while half the land belonging to the Turcoman ruler of Germiyan in Anatolia was acquired through Prince Bayezit's marriage. Through swift political tactics the Ottoman Empire would often come to possess an over-lordship of their former allies, in effect absorbing them into the Empire (Quataert, 2000). Newly acquired subjects rarely detested the new occupation. The economic power of the Empire improved their conditions immensely in relation to previous Christian feudalism and control was peacefully maintained through symbiotic fiscal relationships (Kamrava, 2005).
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
As the center of gravity of the Western world moved from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic seaboard, a series of…
Chau, a. (2007). Day of empire. New York: Doubleday.
Herrin, J. (2003, June). The fall of Constantinople. History today, Vol. 53, Issue 6. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=18c4eb2b-0f2b-47b2-8761-1491b5d64d13%40sessionmgr113&vid=4&hid=111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9974556
Kamrava, M. (2005). The modern Middle East: A political history since the First World War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Owens, J. (2009, August 6). The rise of the Ottoman empire. Helium: middle ages. Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://www.helium.com/items/119470-the-rise-of-the-ottoman-empiretrieved
Turkey and Iran
In the early 1920s both Turkey and Iran found themselves in an identity crisis. Formerly famous for their respective empires that were now crumbling, they found themselves in need of resurgence after the previous institutions of government had failed them. Mustafa Kemal (1923) or Ataturk, which means father of Turks, and Reza Shah (1925) came to power and contributed to the formation of the modern day national identity. They are both celebrated leaders who generated the feelings of nationalism and brought their people together to acknowledge and be proud of their national identity.
It was a revolutionary time for the Turks and Ataturk was determined to bring the nation from a "backward" land (compared to the developed est) to a more "respectable" nation of sophisticated and progressive ideals and culture. As a true nationalist he aimed to create a homogeneous, ethnically Turkish state. Likewise in Iran, the…
Cook, Steven A. "How happy is the one who says, I am a Turk,'" Foreign Policy, March
28, 2016. Web.
Fradkin, Hillel; Lewis Libby. "Erdogan's Grand Vision: Rise and Decline," World
Affairs, March/April 2013 File
The shots in the scene reuniting Indy and Marian are impersonal, long shots and medium shots.
The scene introducing the relationship between Indy and Marian quickly cuts in to the Nazi whose expertise is one of torture. He has come for the same thing Indy has, and the close ups are Marian's facial expression of fear as she's about to lose her eye to a red hot poker. Indy comes to the rescue and the final Nepal scene is a montage of dynamic action where Indy and Marian make their escape.
The film cuts to the Middle East, where Indy and Marian have traveled, as have the Nazis, in search of the ark. The first part of this Act II, so to speak, introduces Indy's good friend and his Middle Eastern contact. The scenes in the Act II employ a series of medium and long shots as Indy and Marion…