Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Gas Prices Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Price Comparisons Vision of Prices
Words: 731 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12979100
Read Full Paper  ❯

Unleaded gasoline: Yes

pple Computer: Definitely.

Technological has affected quality of these products?

Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bar: Maybe. Upgrades in equipment that contribute to saving time, may potentially adversely affect quality, as with time savings, company may allocate increased responsibilities to employees.

Pepsi: $.99 for a 2 liter bottle: Maybe. Same reasons given for Hershey's Chocolate Bar.

McDonald's hamburger: Maybe. Same reasons given for Hershey's Chocolate Bar and Pepsi.

Unleaded gasoline: Yes.

Improve techniques, including robotics in refining oil contributes to improving the quality of the tickets.

pple Computer: Definitely. Today's computers have greatly improved to two technological advances fracturing them.

Based on what has happened to the purchasing power of people earning the minimum wage?

Hershey Bar: 1.45 oz - 40 cents; 1.65 oz cents/75 cent = 88% increase.

Pepsi: $.89 for a 2 liter bottle (historic food prices) = 11% increase.

McDonald's hamburger: 43 cents (historic food prices)…


Siddiqi, Moin a. "Oil Prices Hit New Highs as Winter Demand Bites." The Middle East Jan. 2000: 29. Questia. 3 Oct. 2007 .

Students Buy Texts Online to Save Money; Campus Bookstores' Prices Tripled since 1986." The Washington Times 12 Aug. 2006: A01. Questia. 3 Oct. 2007 .

macroeconomics and gas'stations
Words: 2265 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44342258
Read Full Paper  ❯

.....gas station owners have no control over the price that they pay for petroleum, and only limited control over what they will end up charging the customer. The base price for crude oil is set on the basis of global supply and demand. Local prices reflect a variety of factor -- the crude price, cost of refining, cost of transportation, oil company markups and taxes (EIA, 2016). The price that consumers pay therefore reflects a variety of factors, almost none of which either the consumer nor the gas station owner has control over. This paper will discuss these factors in further detail, in order to clarify the dynamics of the oil market to better prepare to make a decision on buying four gas stations.
GDP Growth Rate

There are two dynamics at play here. First, the GDP of the area in which the stations are located influences gasoline consumption, by…

Gas Turbine Systems a Gas Turbine Also
Words: 2756 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33684156
Read Full Paper  ❯

Gas Turbine Systems

A gas turbine, also known as a combustion generator, is a kind of inner combustion system. It consists of an upstream revolving compressor coupled to the downstream generator, as well as a combustion chamber amid the two. Power is included in the gas stream inside the combustor, where gas is combined with air as well as then ignited. Inside the high-pressure atmosphere of the combustor, burning of this gas raises the temperature. The various products of this combustion are pushed inside the turbine area. ight there, the higher velocity as well as quantity of the gas movement is redirected via the nozzle across the turbine's rotor blades, moving the generator which drives the compressor as well as, for a few turbines, propels their mechanical outcome. The power given up for the generator originates from the decrease in the heat as well as stress of the exhaust fuel…


Curtis, C.G. (1899). Patent US0635919. Available at: .

Eckardt, D. And Rufli, P. (2002). Advanced Gas Turbine Technology - ABB / BBC Historical Firsts. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, p. 124, 542-549

Kamps, T. (2005). Model Jet Engines. Traplet Publications.

Kay, A. (2002). German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930-1945, Airlife Publishing.

Gas & Oil Shortage Oil
Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96566889
Read Full Paper  ❯

All these factors have added too many variables to the Middle East, an important region for crude oil production" (Xuequan, 2008).

4. Conclusions

The improved standards of living have contributed significantly to an increase in the population's demands. And to satisfy these demands, with the ultimate scope of registering higher profits, the American corporations have abused the natural resources and are now moving towards the resources in other countries. Two such vital resources are crude oil and natural gas. The situation of gas is quite stable, but that of oil is critical. Based on limited natural resources, a weakening American dollar, speculative operations on the international market, but also the regulations implemented by OPEC and the conflicts in the Middle East, the price of oil has sky rocked - and it is likely to continue its ascendant trajectory.


Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, accessed on May…


Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, accessed on May 30, 2008

Wallace, E., May 13, 2008, the Reason for High Oil Prices, Business Week,  accessed on May 30, 2008

Xuequan, M., April 18, 2008, Weak Dollar Not Sole Reason for High Oil Prices, Xinhua News Agency, . Ast accessed on May 30, 2008

2004, Why are Oil Prices so High?, BBC News, accessed on May 30, 2008

Gasoline Prices the Mystery of
Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78248735
Read Full Paper  ❯

It could not be expected that these measures would have an immediate impact on gasoline demand. Changes are likely to take some time before the real impact is felt. However, this slowing of demand growth is indicative that the process has begun and that it will continue to grow in the future.

Exploring Alternatives

The answer to resolving the issue of gasoline price in the future is the same for both short- and long-term goals. In order to control gasoline prices, supply and demand must be kept in a near-equilibrium state. However, OPEC will never allow this to happen, as this means that they are unable to maximize their profits by using their intricate knowledge of price elasticity and the market. The only reaction that the U.S. government has is to find alternatives to OPEC gasoline and to continue to find ways to decrease U.S. demand. Decreases in U.S. demand…


Horsley, S. (2006). Q & a: What's Behind High Gas Prices? NPR. Business. 27 April 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2009 at

Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U S
Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41406672
Read Full Paper  ❯

Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas," by Clifford Krauss (Krass, 2013). There were four main points of distinction embedded within the article. The first and arguable most important element within the article was in reference to the growing conflict in Syria. The article was written in late August when unrest in the Middle East was near its height. During this period, Americans were concerned with the subsequent rising oil prices that might occur due in part to the civil unrest occurring in Syria. The article first explains how gas prices are unlikely to increase due to a litany of factors. First, Syria is a very small oil exporter. It exports roughly 1% of the world's oil. As such, even if the entire country were to be engaged in war, the resulting damage in regards to oil exports would be minimal. Many pundits believe that the rippling effect of…


1) Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, an how we can take it back, New York, Crown, 1997. ISBN 0-517-58702-5

2) Krass, Clifford. "Major Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas." New York Times. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

3) Seale, Patrick (1987). The Struggle for Syria. ISBN 978-0-300-03944-3

4) "New Billions In Oil" Popular Mechanics, March 1933. article on invention of water injection and detergents for oil recovery

Oil Prices The Economic Consequences
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41313984
Read Full Paper  ❯

Higher prices means a decrease in demand, and consumers who are already experiencing difficulty paying for basic goods and are even less apt to buy luxury items. Consumers are more likely to cut things out of their budget, and look for lower-priced items when shopping for necessities. Already, I find myself buying generic goods, looking for food on sale, and putting off replacing clothing and shoes with new items. Some people are even giving up beef, not for ethical reasons, but because it is lower in price than chicken and vegetables substitutes (Krauss 2008, p.1).

Not all industries are suffering because of higher fuel prices. Of course the oil and gas companies themselves are flourishing. Also, while the local middle-level chain restaurants in my town appear to be patronized less than they were, discount department stores seem to be doing well, as consumers can get all of their shopping done…

They less money I spend in general, but particularly on luxuries, the more manufacturers' inventories build up in warehouses, and the fewer new workers are employed. This economic 'spiraling' effect means that I face an increasingly competitive job market and the less likely I am apt to spend money on consumer goods, the more likely I am apt to face the difficulty of finding a high-paying job or any job at all, so I can pay for my student loans. In general, all workers may also have to reconsider the value of taking certain jobs, or a second job to make ends meet, because of the prohibitive costs of a long commute.

Because they too must deal with the concept of scarcity and finite resources, producers must raise prices on goods and services, because it costs more to transport all products across the country and overseas. Higher prices means a decrease in demand, and consumers who are already experiencing difficulty paying for basic goods and are even less apt to buy luxury items. Consumers are more likely to cut things out of their budget, and look for lower-priced items when shopping for necessities. Already, I find myself buying generic goods, looking for food on sale, and putting off replacing clothing and shoes with new items. Some people are even giving up beef, not for ethical reasons, but because it is lower in price than chicken and vegetables substitutes (Krauss 2008, p.1).

Not all industries are suffering because of higher fuel prices. Of course the oil and gas companies themselves are flourishing. Also, while the local middle-level chain restaurants in my town appear to be patronized less than they were, discount department stores seem to be doing well, as consumers can get all of their shopping done in one store, minimizing gas usage, and also look for bargains. I realize that I am lucky to live in an area of the country that is not suffering as much as some other regions. Not all regions of the U.S. are equally affected -- urban dwellers with access to public transportation and for whom car-pooling is more feasible are less cash-strapped than residents of extremely remote, rural areas dependent upon agricultural production. "Across broad swaths of the South, Southwest and the upper Great Plains, the combination of low incomes, high gas prices and heavy dependence on pickup trucks and vans is putting an even tighter

Heavier Environmental Regulation on Oil and Gas Drilling Activities
Words: 5303 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7385089
Read Full Paper  ❯

Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport

The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…

Works Cited

American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from

Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from .

Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global

Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from .

What Actions Governments Reduce Limit Price Fluctuations Oil
Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87182797
Read Full Paper  ❯

Oil Price Fluctuation

Actions adopted by the government to reduce or limit price fluctuation

Oil Price Fluctuation iii

This report will focus on the actions adopted by the government to reduce the fluctuation in oil prices. A brief introduction is discussed in the assignment. The reasons are also described in the assignment for which the oil prices fluctuate. This assignment also puts light on the price stability and why governments need to intervene to reduce the volatility in oil prices. Strategies adopted by the government to stable the oil prices are also discussed.

easons of price fluctuation

Price stability

Government intervention to stable the oil prices

Energy conservation


Strategic oil reserves

Adopt assistance



Actions adopted by the government to reduce or limit price fluctuation


The prices of oil were increased in 2007 to 2008. The oil prices were highly fluctuating in 2007 between the months January…


Bacon, R. & Kajima, M. (2008) Coping with Oil Price Volatility. ESMAP p.1-174.

Conerly, B. (2013) Oil Price Forecast for 2013-2014: Falling Prices. Yahoo Inc. p.1-2.

European Central Bank (2007) Price stability: why is it important for you? P.1-87.

Gillman, T. (2008) Why Oil and Gas Prices Fluctuate. Yahoo Inc. p.1-3.

Microeconomic Effects of an Increase in Gas
Words: 2035 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68440349
Read Full Paper  ❯

Microeconomic Effects of an Increase in Gas Prices

When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, it is striking how many firms continue to rely on fossil fuels (particularly gas) as a primary means of facilitating operations. The functional inputs of countless organizations in countless industries are at the mercy of gas providers. Transportation mechanisms, factory machinery, construction equipment and climate control systems almost always require a petroleum-based source of fuel. And such operational instruments are absolutely vital to the market success of a myriad of small and large businesses. While some businesses have recently begun to realize and actively combat the drawbacks of this type of critical dependence, the actual market share of such firms is truly miniscule. For the majority of companies, an increase in gas or fuel prices has the potential to cause massive profitability and sales damages. What is more, being that…


Berkmen, P., Ouliaris, S., & Samiei, H. (2005, September). The Structure of the Oil Market and Causes of High Prices. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from 

Cabedoa, J.D., & Moya, I. (2003). Estimating Fuel Price 'Value at Risk'. Energy Economics, 25 (3), 239-253.

Chevron Corporation. (2005-08, January 1). What Affects Fuel Pricing - Basics of Supply & Demand. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from The Price of Fuel: 

Dahl, C. (2001). Analysing Gasoline Demand Elasticities. Energy Economics, 13 (3), 203-210.

Rise in Global Oil Prices
Words: 2548 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31728148
Read Full Paper  ❯

Because the cost associated with fueling the cars will increase, individuals might come up with ways of reducing the consumption of fuel, they will thus use public transportation. When a rise in the prices of gas results into an increase in transportation ridership, the revenues from fare are likely to rise, and the extra costs of fuel for the transport operator will be offset partly. Numerous news reports in the United States are indicating that transportation ridership has gone up with the increase in the prices of the gases; however, little research has been done to prove this association. When there is an effect on ridership, it will be fascinating to notice whether the result is short-lived or a long lived phenom-enon. Therefore, a rapid price increase is capable of resulting into a jump in transport ridership. To become accustomed to the high prices of gas, transporters might buy additional…


American Drycleaner (2006). Rising gas prices may be due to speculation. Rising gas prices may be due to speculation. American Drycleaner, 00028258, Apr2006, Vol. 73, Issue 1

Bradley Jr.,RL (2006) Market Forces Only Cure for Oil Prices. Available online at 

British Broadcasting Corporation (2008,September). Oil prices rise on hurricane fear.Available

online at

Surging Oil Prices on the U S Economy
Words: 2233 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45989389
Read Full Paper  ❯

Surging Oil Prices on the U.S. Economy

Although the lingering effects of the Great ecession of 2007-2009 continue to dissipate and economic growth resumes, volatile global oil prices remain a source of concern for economists and consumers alike. While the experts debate the precise date at which peak oil will be reached and the search for alternative energy sources has assumed new importance and relevance, it is clear that the world's commercial infrastructure will depend on fossil fuels well into the foreseeable future. Indeed, some authorities caution that unless drastic steps are taken today, the world will deplete its fossil fuel resources long before commercially viable alternatives become available. In this environment, determining how surging oil prices affect the U.S. economy represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to determine the impact of surging oil prices…


Casey, W.H. & Murray, M.M. (2009). Import and export price trends, 2007: Prices for imports and exports increased in 2007 as global demand for raw materials expanded faster than supply and the U.S. dollar lost value against the currencies of trading partners. Monthly Labor Review, 132(2), 15-17.

Cohan, P. (2011, February 23). What do rising oil prices mean for U.S. economic growth? Daily

Finance. Retrieved from . Retrieved from  / economy/energy_price.html.

Earley, R. & Smith, K. (2011). Energy price impacts on the U.S. economy. U.S. Department of Energy: National Energy Information Center.

Gasoline Prices -- Oil Issues
Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11598851
Read Full Paper  ❯

S. provided important intelligence from a spy plane (SR-71 Blackbird). Thanks to the spy plane pinpointing where the enemy forces were gathering, Israel could pound those forces from the air and in time -- thanks also to U.S. military equipment being shipped to Israel -- the war was won by Israel.

But the OPEC nations knew how much the U.S. depended on Arab oil supplies; as Rudiger Graf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Diplomatic History, the use of an embargo to punish America and the Netherlands was "…watershed in history, signifying the growing dependency of industrialized nations on foreign oil and a power shift in the global economy" (Graf, 2012, 185). The "oil weapon" had never been used by Muslim nations against the est, and the point was to for America and other "…economically powerful countries to comply with their political demands" (Graf, 185).

Meanwhile the embargo caused gasoline prices…

Works Cited

Graf, Rudiger. "Making Use of the 'Oil Weapon': Western Industrialized Countries and Arab

Petropolitics in 1973-1974." Diplomatic History, 36.1 (2012): 185-208.

History Learning Site. "The Yom Kippur War of 1973." Retrieved April 26, 2013, from . 2013.

Souder, Elizabeth. "Fueling the Frustration: Get used to higher gas prices, experts say, but don't expect long-term shortages." Dallas Morning News. 2005.

Shale Gas Production Processes
Words: 3643 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 76368198
Read Full Paper  ❯

Shale Gas Analysis

What is shale gas?

According to Alexander et al., (2011), shale gas refers to a natural gas that stored in organic-rich, fine-grained rocks, including shale, laminated siltstone, or mudstone. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, majorly ethane, and methane. The gases are tightly locked within the pore spaces of the sedimentary rocks. The reservoirs of the shale gas have features such as low impermeability to clay content and, small grain sized contents. The term shale does not focus on a specific rock, but rather the rocks that have fine-grained particles that are smaller than the coarse-grained particles such as siltstone and carbonate rocks among other rocks. The generation of the shale occurs through various processes that include primary and secondary thermogenic degradation alongside biogenic degradation of the organic matter. The occurrence may also occur in a combination of all of the above mechanisms. The formation of…


Alexander, T. et al., 2011. Shale Gas Revolution. Oilfield Review, 23, pp.40 -- 55. Available at: .

Andrews, I.J., 2013. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Report, p.64pp.

Bakshi, V. 2012. Shale gas: a practitioner's guide to shale gas & other unconventional resources. London, United Kingdom: Globe Law and Business.

Berman, A., 2009. What's new in exploration? Shale plays and lower natural gas prices: A time for critical thinking. World Oil, 230, pp. 15 -- 16. Available at: .

Gasoline Prices on the Rise
Words: 1105 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47316705
Read Full Paper  ❯

3.2. The chart

At this level of the research endeavor, emphasis would be placed on the secondary sources of information. These reveal the benefit of presenting the reader and the researcher with vast information on the historic evolution of the gas prices. The most reputable source in this sense is represented by the Energy Information Administration, which has recently issued a report on the energy outlook. According to the researchers and editors at EIA, the five-year evolution of the gasoline prices in the United States is represented as follows:

Massive price increases in 2007 and the first half of 2008

Dramatic price decrease in the second half of 2008

Slow, but steady increase starting with 2009 and continuing through 2012

The growth in prices commenced in 2009 and expected to continue through 2012 would not lead to the same high gasoline prices as registered in the first half of 2008.…


2011, Short-term energy outlook, Energy Information Administration,  / last accessed on February 28, 2011

The p-value, University of the West of England,  last accessed on February 28, 2011

Gasoline Prices Why Do Gasoline Prices Fluctuate
Words: 763 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99575681
Read Full Paper  ❯

Gasoline Prices

hy do gasoline prices fluctuate so wildly and frequently? One month the price of gasoline is around $3.50 and the next month prices have jumped to $4.00. hy does this happen? There are several reasons that are given by authorities and other sources and they will be presented in this paper.

Reasons hy Gasoline Prices Fluctuate

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (IEA), the price of crude oil on the world market is a "major reason" for the changes in gasoline prices and ultimately crude oil prices are the reason for the extremely high prices of gasoline in the U.S. The price of crude oil is "greatly affected by levels of supple relative to actual and expected demand…" for the various petroleum products that are made from crude oil including gasoline.

In 2012, for example, oil prices went up and down on a wild roller coaster ride…

Works Cited

Amadeo, Kimberly. (2013). Why Are Gas Prices So High? Retrieved May 18, 2013,

from .

Forbes, Randy J. (2013). FAQs: Gas Prices. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18,

2013, from: .

Housing Price Dynamics Within a
Words: 7112 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4880131
Read Full Paper  ❯

Houston's large supply of land means that demand growth primarily results in more construction, not higher prices" (McCullagh & Gilmer, 2008).

However, it is important to realize that land supply is only one part of the reason that new home construction formed such a large part of the Houston housing market. Yes, Houston has more available surrounding land than almost any other major metropolitan area in the United States, but it also applies different rules to its surrounding areas, making development more of a possibility than in other areas:

In Houston, developers can create a munici-pal utility district, or MUD, to provide these [water, sewage, and drainage] services on their properties and can finance these with tax-free bonds. Houston requires developers to build MUDs in such a way that they eventually could be connected to the city's corresponding infra-structure, but they begin as self-sufficient enterprises.

In other cities, develop-ments must…


Amromin, G., Huang, J., Sialm, C., & Zhong, E. (2010, Oct. 31). Mortgage complexity and house price dynamics. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from University of Maryland Robert H. Smith School of Business Website: 

Aydin, R. & Smith, B.A. (2008), Evidence of the dual nature of property value recovery following environmental remediation. Real Estate Economics, 36: 777 -- 812. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6229.2008.00230.x

Bajari, P., Chu, C.S., & Park, M. (2010). An empirical model of subprime mortgage default from 2000 to 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2011 from the National Bureau of Economic

Research Website:

Oil and Gas Industry
Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30232233
Read Full Paper  ❯

structure o the global oil industry b. The structure of the global gas industry.

The integrated oil and gas companies (IOCs) are vertical, tall, or centralized structures where producers refined 100% of their production and then marketed refined products through their retail outlets. Production and distribution was downward. Today many of these IOCs combine verticality with a certain horizontalness with many spreading their tasks over various fields and involved in various simultaneous activities. They operate in many segments, whilst also buying and selling oil and gas to and from other firms. The companies are therefore centralized around a certain core management with specialists in each field clustered in tiers underneath.

The vertical structure denotes uses a hierarchical structure with downward directives and management span of control where underneath tiers are controlled by and responsible to upper levels of management. Again, each of the firms demonstrate this vertical structure in diverse…


Charon Advantages & Disadvantages of the Vertical Functional Organizational Structure 

Inkpen, A The Global Oil and Gas Industry -- 2010. Thunderbird.

Rising Price of Gasoline Gas
Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45176950
Read Full Paper  ❯

While domestic demand has decreased in recent months in response to the price increases, demand in international markets, particularly in China and India, has continued to grow. The nature of demand in those markets means that demand there continues to be inelastic. With expanding economies that are increasing the wealth of the populace en mass, those countries are essentially creating millions of middle class consumers with middle class needs where they didn't exist before. There is no elasticity to the creation of new consumers, as few would reject the opportunity to join the middle class simply because gas prices are on the rise. Twenty years ago, global demand reflected almost entirely demand in the West, which was inelastic. Now that demand in the West is becoming elastic, some clearly feel that this should be the case for global demand as well. But demand in emerging markets is still inelastic, which…


Boyon, Nick. (2008). As Gas Prices Near $4.00 a Gallon Nationally, Two-Thirds of American Say they have Changed their Driving Habits. Ipsos. Retrieved June 18, 2008 at

Carey, Nick. (2008). FedEx Posts Loss; Gives Low Forecast; Blames Fuel. Reuters. Retrieved June 18, 2008 at 

Kaiser, Emily. (2008). Fuel Spike Curbs Vacations, Dining Out. Reuters. Retrieved June 18, 2008 at 

Douglass, Elizabeth & Gaouette, Nicole & Simon, Richard. (2008). Are Commodities Traders Bidding Up Food, Fuel Prices? LA Times. Retrieved June 18, 2008 at,0,2916861.story

Coal Gas Switching From Coal
Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34343931
Read Full Paper  ❯

Emissions have dropped at a faster rate in the United States vs. Europe within the past several years precisely because of the shift from coal to natural gas, which has led to an initially dramatic decrease. The rate of decrease will shrink as coal power plants are shut down. However, the goals set by the Obama administration have already been reached, long before the 2020 goal. China remains the key player in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as the United States has made measurable progress. This is in large part due to the dismantling or retrofitting of old coal-fired power plants, as they make the transition to renewable, gas, and mixed-use facilities. The shifts are becoming financially feasible, especially over the long haul. Short-term gains are remarkable, and long-term gains are set to be even more lucrative for the vertically integrated industries. The shift from coal to natural gas does not…

Fuel and Economy the Price of Fuel
Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34005604
Read Full Paper  ❯

Fuel and Economy

The price of fuel affects every citizen in one way or another, thus, it can have profound consequences on not only the United States, but the global economy as a whole.

On April 28, 2005, President George . Bush expressed concern about the economy due to higher energy prices, and stressed the need to take measure to boost oil output and lower prices (Bush pp). In a primetime press conference, Bush said the small business owners and families are paying higher prices at the gas pump, and that higher gas prices is like a tax and "I do think it's affected the economy" (Bush pp). His comments followed a report that same day from the Commerce Department that stated that the United States "economy grew at an annualized 3.1% in the first quarter in terms of real gross domestic product, decelerating from the previous quarter's 3.8% and…

Work Cited

Gray, John. "Books: Goodbye globalisation? The World Is Flat."

The Independent (London, England); 4/29/2005; pp.

Marshall, Randi F. "War's ripple effects set city businesses back."

January 27, 2005

Society's Continuing Concern About Gas
Words: 2548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98688702
Read Full Paper  ❯

As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.

IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints

As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…

Works Cited

(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.

Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.

Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.

Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.

Gas-Burning and Wood-Burning Fireplaces Now That Colder
Words: 990 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63358972
Read Full Paper  ❯

Gas-Burning and Wood-Burning Fireplaces

Now that colder weather is bearing down, many people are turning to their fireplaces for warmth and comfort, as they have done for centuries. But while building a fire was once a necessary skill to achieve the glowing warmth of a blaze in the fireplace, modern technology has now made creating a roaring fire as easy as flipping a switch. Homeowners now have the choice between gas-burning and wood-burning fireplaces in their homes, but what are the differences between the two and is there a clear advantage of one over the other?

The essential difference between the two is obvious: the material used to build the fire. Wood-burning fireplaces rely on cured fire logs and kindling, whereas gas fireplaces are filled with fake logs and rely on a connection to a gas line for burning fuel.

Because of the difference between the burning materials, the construction…


"Burning Wood Is More Expensive Than Gas?! " Retrieved from 

Guttman, George. "Wood vs. Gas Fireplaces." Sound Home Resource Center. Retrieved from

High Oil Prices and Effect on the
Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13738274
Read Full Paper  ❯

High Oil Prices and Effect on the Economy

Global oil prices have maintained a creeping trend since 2004, following the 2001 initial oil crisis (Pahl & ichter, 2009). The increase in oil prices and the expected further increase in the future pose a serious threat to the stability of the global economy. This study looks at how high oil prices affect the economies of both developed and third nations, which makes them remain vulnerable following an unstable period of fluctuating oil prices. It draws and contributes to the existing literature carried out by researchers globally. This study is based on the most recent dynamics of high oil prices and the effect on the global economy. Oil is a significant factor of production in many countries; the fluctuation of its price to a high level has a significant negative effect in the growth of global economy.

High oil prices and effect…


Pahl, N., & Richter, A. (2009). Oil Price Developments - Drivers, Economic Consequences and Policy Responses. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Ye-pez-Garcia, R.A., & Dana, J. (2012). Mitigating vulnerability to high and volatile oil prices: Power sector experience in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

United Nations (2008). World economic situation and prospects 2008. New York: United Nations.

Business That Sells Price Elastic
Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37893680
Read Full Paper  ❯

Producing inexpensive restaurant meals for McDonald's has been highly profitable, given its ability to sell many burgers quickly and to create standardized franchises all over the world. Having the ability to produce in large volume also buffers a firm against the danger of a price-elastic good getting into a price war with other firms. In the case of Mattel and McDonald's, both firms are so large and have such brand recognition, they are protected to some extent of being forced to sell at such a low price they cannot cover their overhead.

Occasionally, pricing low does not achieve the desired objective: during boom times in some instances, the cheapest goods and services will sometimes experience a drop in demand, while higher-end purveyors will see the goods and services they sell become more in-demand. But selling price-elastic goods always requires clever and deliberate strategizing upon the part of the producer, unlike…


Price-elastic goods. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved November 3, 2009 at

Future Norwegian Oil and Gas
Words: 4262 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32112919
Read Full Paper  ❯

It was from this lesson that legislators began to understand the need to put away large percentages of their oil profits and to not depend so much on spending that cash flow.

After the recession of the 1980s, Norway drastically re-examined its oil policy from both a fiscal and regulatory perspective. Up into the late 1980s, "foreign oil policy followed what was called a 'purely commercial line.' That is, it was not desirable to declare officially that political evaluation were included in its design," (Austvik 1989, p.1). This lead Norway to be established as a "free rider" within the global oil market. According to research, "As a 'free rider' in the market, Norway was then also in the best possible position; she could increase her production and at the same time reap the price benefits deriving from other counties' production reductions," (Austvik 1989, p.1). The recession of the 1980s lead…


Austvik, Ole Gunnar. 1989, "Norwegian oil and foreign policy." Norwegian Foreign Policy Studies. No. 68. Retrieved July 28, 2009 at .

Davis, Jerome D. 2006, the Changing World of Oil: An Analysis of Corporate change and Adoption. Ashgate Publishing.

Engebretsen, Marit. 2007, "The Norwegian energy sector and Europe." Norway: Official Site. Retrieved July 27, 2009 at

Erikson, Tore. 2006, "The Norwegian petroleum sector and the Government Pension Fund -- global." Ministry of Finance. Retrieved July 27, 2009 at .

Exogenous Effects of Oil Price
Words: 2574 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 93809198
Read Full Paper  ❯

This invariably means reducing the profit margin for the producers, which economists feel has long-term implications. That is the lack of smooth inflationary shock transmission leads not only to reduction in production output but also contributes to reduction in future investments. Thus, inflationary shocks due to oil price hikes are more long lasting in China. [Tang, 2009]

Sub-Saharan Countries

The impact of Oil price explosion is nowhere as pronounced as in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular the oil importing countries. Among the lower economies those that are oil intense such as the sub-Saharan countries are bound to suffer more -- as much as 3% of their GDP. Oil dependence has not change much with only 6% reduction between 1990 and 2005. This is because these countries have a total dependency on oil as their major source of energy compared with other developing countries in Asia. For instance, India and…


1) Jad Mouawad, 2009, 'Rising Fear of a Future Oil Shock', retrieved Nov 18th 2009, from, 

2) Tom Doggett, (2009), 'U.S. Sees OPEC 2010 Oil Export Earnings at $750 Billion', retrieved Nov 18th 2009, from, 

3) Christopher Johnson, (2009), 'OPEC Oil, Gas income tops 1 Trillion, Reserves Up', retrieved Nov 18th 2009, from, 

4) OECD, 'Unemployment in OECD Countries to approach 10% in 2010, says OECD', retrieved Nov 19th 2009, from,,3343,en_2649_33927_43136377_1_1_1_1,00.html

Citizen's Gas Discuss the Criteria
Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 218786
Read Full Paper  ❯

For each item identified, explain why the data item is important, and describe the level of detail that would be necessary for the data to be useful.

The major data items that Citizen's Gas should be incorporating into their system include: the number of customers they are working with, the customer rate structure and the heating factors. As far as the number of customers is concerned, this is when the company is estimating future usage among based on current demand. The reason why this data is important, is because it helps executives to determine, how much natural gas they will need to meet customer demand throughout the year. ("20.1 Adapted from CMA Exam," n.d.)

The customer rate structure is when monthly data is collected and sent to managers about changes in revenues. This helps everyone to determine if there are sudden shifts in usage. As a result, the level of…


20.1 Adapted from CMA Exam. (n.d.).

Citizen's Gas. (n.d.).

Comparison of Efficiency and Cost Hybrid vs Gas-Powered Cars
Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8330445
Read Full Paper  ❯

Hybrid vs. Gas Powered Cars

Currently, global warming and a shrinking natural resource base are two of the greatest headaches for governments and regulators alike the world over. The price of gas in the U.S., for instance, almost doubled over the last decade, from $1.86 in 2004 to $3.62 on average in the first half of 2014; and given that more than half of the country's oil consumption is taken up by motor vehicles, one question looms -- what will the situation on our roads be like when our oil reserves can no longer sustain our consumption needs? Then there is the even greater problem of greenhouse emissions and global warming. The transport sector accounts for approximately 17%-18% of total CO2 emission globally, and automakers have been under intense pressure to roll out emission-free automobiles, and thereby reduce the damage resulting from the Greenhouse effect. More and more regulators are…


IIHS. (2014). Hybrid Models have Lower Injury Odds than their Conventional Counterparts. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Retrieved 5 November 2014 from 

Markel, T. & Simpson, A. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. WEVA Journal, 1(1), 1-8.

Pavan, R.S. (2013). A Review on Hybrid Vehicles. International Journal of Research and Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 59-64.

Reddy, S.S. & Tharun, K.S. (2013). Eco-Friendly Vehicle: Hybrid Electric Vehicle. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4), 957-960.

Oil and Gas Trends in 2018
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94113057
Read Full Paper  ❯

The problem which the oil and gas industry is currently experiencing is similar to the issues confronting most industries today—volatility. The year 2018 has been one of the most economically volatile years on record. At present, oil prices are rising, although they are considerably lower than their record highs of 2011. Oil and gas companies must find ways to continue to exploit current price trends while hedging their risks.



The great strength of the industry is that much of the world remains dependent upon oil. Recent oil prices are expected to remain in place in the short term but over the next ten years they are predicted to rise (Biscardini, et al., 2017). The world continues to industrialize at a rapid pace, likewise driving the level of demand.


However, most oil companies remain historically very expensive to operate, both in terms of supply chain delivery as well…

Oil Prices & Global Economy
Words: 2790 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99577164
Read Full Paper  ❯

The implications of this vulnerability to volatile oil prices is simple; 'high crude prices must encourage European governments to make investments in energy sources other than oil' (Wielaard, 2005, p.1).

The negative economic impact of rising oil prices is typically more severe for developing countries than for OECD (Birol, 2004, p.2). This is currently the case as high oil prices 'are badly affecting many developing countries' (Schlein, 2005, p. 1). The U.N. Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) recently stated that 'the high cost of oil is placing a heavy burden on poorer nations that spend around five-percent of their gross domestic product on oil. This, compared with the two-to-four percent that wealthier nations pay' (Schlein, 2005, p.1).

There are several reasons why oil-importing developing countries struggle more over high oil prices than their developed counterparts. Energy dependency and intensity is greater in developing nations than developed ones; this is…


Birol, Fatih (2004). Analysis of the Impact of High Oil Prices on the Global Economy. Retrieved September 8, 2005. Web site: .

Economist, The (2005). Counting the Cost; Oil and the Global Economy. The Economist, 376

8441), 56-58.

Ellson, Andrew (2005, Sept. 6). Oil Price 'A Shock to Global Economy'. Times Online.

Change in Oil Prices across the Globe
Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69568949
Read Full Paper  ❯

Oil prices across the globe are characterized by major swings and fluctuations, which have attracted considerable attention from scholars, policymakers, and practitioners. The increased attention in oil prices are attributable to the fact that they have significant impacts on the global economy. Based on academic literature, oil prices fluctuate for various reasons including supply disruptions, changes in global demand, and precautionary intentions. For instance, in the aftermath of the 2008 global economic recession, oil prices fell because of an overall decline in global demand (Lee & Huh, 2017). Fluctuations in oil prices have been evident since 2012 to the end of 2016 because of various factors that contribute to changes in these prices. Despite these various factors, there are several measures that are utilized to predict oil prices in the future. This paper discusses the reasons for changing oil prices, oil price fluctuations between 2012 and 2016, and prediction of…


Amadeo, K 2017, Oil Prices Forecast 2017-2040, The Balance, viewed 6 April 2017,

Arab News 2017, Oil Prices to Average $50 and $70 through 2022: Report, Arab News, viewed 6 April 2017,

Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre 2016, The Effect of the Crude Oil Price Drop on the Global Energy Market, Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, viewed 6 April 2017,

Baumeister, C & Kilian, L 2015, Forty Years of Oil Price Fluctuations: Why the Price of Oil May Still Surprise Us, University of Michigan, viewed 6 April 2017,

Oil and Gas Industry in
Words: 19369 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 13266410
Read Full Paper  ❯

A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).

Other signs that clearly point to…


About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from .

Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.

Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from ;

oil and gas algorithms
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 84760228
Read Full Paper  ❯

Exxon Mobile and Game Theory Analysis

ExxonMobil is the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company that operates in an industry that is dominated by several large firms (Exxonmobil, N.d.). On the international level, there are barriers to entry that make it difficult for new entrants to emerge, the product is considered a commodity, and as a result many have argued that this industry most likely follows the oligopoly market structure. The oil and gas industry as a whole is made up of three main types of activities in either upstream, midstream, or downstream industry segments which include such functions as exploration, extraction, transporting unprocessed raw materials, processing the materials in refineries, and further downstream conversions which will eventually lead to the finish products.

The oil and gas industries is arguably the most important industries in the world given the fact that it fuels much of the energy…

Works Cited

Castillo, L., & Dorao, C. (2013). Decision-making in the oil and gas projects based on game theory: Conceptual. Energy Conversion and Management, 48-55.

ExxonMobil. (N.d.). About Us. Retrieved from Exxon Mobil: 

Roy, A. (2003). Game Theory in Strategic Analysis. Journal of Management Research, 127-138.

Moves in Energy Prices Are
Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98402716
Read Full Paper  ❯

("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)

The impact of wind farms on the natural landscape is troubling. This is because some communities think that the sight of large fields is destroying the scenery. Evidence of this can be seen in Martha's Vineyard. What happened is many residents began to oppose these kinds of projects out of concerns about how this will impact their views. This led to animosity about where to place wind farms. As a result, proponents argue that establishing these fields in different locations will be challenging. This is when the project will face increased delays and higher costs. ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)

Advantages of Wind Power

Despite the claims of opponents, the reality is that the use of wind power is a viable resource. A good example of this can be seen with Denmark (who produces 20% of their total energy…

Reference Page

Fossil Fuels and Minnerals. (n.d.).

Renewable and Nuclear Energy. (n.d.).

Deal, W. (2010). Wind power: An emerging energy source. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70 (1), 9-15.

Comparing Wood vs Gas Heat
Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63124152
Read Full Paper  ❯

I-Button Experimental Design Project

Many people often take our environmental temperatures in our homes for granted. A majority of us have automated heating and cooling systems, electric or gas systems for example, that regulate temperature within a range of a roughly a couple of degrees. However, some individuals, either through choice or through necessity, must rely on alternate heating systems such as a wood burning fireplace. The proposed experiment will compare the temperature ranges that are observed by an iButton temperature logger in different heating system designs.

Statement of Need

Heating and cooling costs can be one of the greatest expenses relative to maintaining a house. Furthermore, in the future, these costs could grow substantially as energy prices rise due to the fact that many sources of energy are non-renewable or for the fact that policies may be introduced to greenhouse gas emissions that are driving climate change. Whatever the…

African Americans in Oil & Gas Industry
Words: 3999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40023298
Read Full Paper  ❯


I have two observations- one small but interesting and one for which I would like a response.

The first- you have transposed the authors names as Ingram and Schneider- in deed this is small but important - you will want to cite them as Schneider and Ingram going forward- as I said - small but important

Next I think you can develop your response to item 3 regarding your research interest.(my research interest is African-American women in the gas and oil field and how minority set aside programs fail them)

You have made a few claims that public policy is weak and that public policy fails- What is the weakness you have identified? How are you understanding failure? What kind of policies are you including in these statements and what is the connection to your research? I ask that you spend a bit more time on this section and…


Auer, M. R. (2014). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms: The Principled

Optimism of Elinor Ostrom. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(4), 265-

271. Retrieved from ?

Baytop, C. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Programs to Improve Educational

Drp What Is Wrong With
Words: 6080 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7540662
Read Full Paper  ❯

An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."

This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…

Roberts, P., Bad Sports, Harper's Magazine. April 2001

Snead, M.C. And Martinez, R.D., Energy Prices and the Oklahoma Economy, Center for Applied Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, September 2004

Yetiv, S.A., America benefits from high oil prices, retrieved from Internet on 21st May 2006, , February 6, 2006

Rising and Falling of Gasoline
Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24461431
Read Full Paper  ❯

hen gasoline prices are low, as they were in July 2003, families spend an average of 4.6% of their median incomes on gasoline; but when prices spike, as they did in July 2008, households spend more like 11.5% on gasoline (Ma, 18).

So what can consumers do vis-a-vis shopping for groceries when gasoline prices take away significant portions of their disposable incomes? Firstly, on page 21 Ma explains that smart shoppers go to warehouse club centers and "supercenters" where prices are lower due to the mass volumes of products sold there. Yes, Ma admits, supercenters and warehouse clubs may be further away than local grocery stories, causing more gasoline to be used; but on the other hand, customers buy in bulk at those outlets, reducing "the number of shopping trips" necessary (21). Secondly, smart grocery shoppers turn to "private labels" on food products that are as a rule 20% to…

Works Cited

Courtemanche, Charles. "A Silver Lining? The Connection Between Gasoline Prices and Obesity." Economic Inquiry, 49.3 (2011): 935-957.

Kilian, Lutz. "Explaining Fluctuations in Gasoline Prices: A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil

Market and the U.S. Retail Gasoline Market." The Energy Journal, 31.2 (2010): 87-111.

Ma, Yu, Ailawadi, Kusum L., Fauri, Dinesh K., and Grewal, Dhruv. "An Empirical Investigation

Supply Demand and Pricing of a Particular Product or Service
Words: 817 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41556774
Read Full Paper  ❯

Natural Gas Supply, Demand and Pricing

Over the past 15 years there has been a significant transformation both in natural gas supply and natural gas consumption. Wellhead price deregulation has permitted natural gas prices to adjust freely to prevailing supply and demand conditions, and open-access transportation has allowed natural gas volumes to move freely from producers to consumers. As a result of industry restructuring, natural gas supply, demand, and prices are now subject to competitive market forces, which are largely responsible for recent efficiency gains in natural gas production.

The weather is the largest single factor affecting natural gas cost and it is also the most difficult to predict ("America's Natural Gas Supply Challenge").

Most utilities use storage as a hedge against higher prices as gas purchased and stored in the summer is typically lower priced than gas purchased during cold winter months. Storage gas can then be used in…


"America's Natural Gas Supply Challenge." American Gas Association. 2004. American Gas

Association. 16 June 2005


"Natural Gas Price in Canada." National Energy Board. 2005. National Energy Board. 16 June

Kinder Morgan the Enclosed Project Contains a
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42000454
Read Full Paper  ❯

Kinder Morgan

The enclosed project contains a summary of operations for Kinder Morgan's Earnings, Cost of Capital, Target Multiples, and various assumptions that were used to construct pro forma financial statements and valuation summaries.

Financial Analysis

The natural gas industry has changed dramatically, and is much more open to competition and choice. Wellhead prices are no longer regulated; meaning the price of natural gas is dependent on supply and demand interactions. Interstate pipelines no longer take ownership of the natural gas commodity; instead they offer only the transportation component, which is still under federal regulation.

There are about 160 pipeline companies in the United States, operating over 300,000 miles of pipe. Of this, 180,000 miles consist of interstate pipelines. This pipeline capacity is capable of transporting over 148 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of gas per day from producing regions to consuming regions?, and 123 natural gas storage operators, which control…

Shaping the Future of Energy
Words: 6370 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 77643617
Read Full Paper  ❯

As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…


Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission

Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-


Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>

Supply Demand the Product Being Studied Is the
Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23778648
Read Full Paper  ❯


The product being studied is the Prius, the hybrid car from Toyota. The automobile industry is one the largest industries in the world. The major players are Ford, General Motors, Chrysler, Honda, Mitsubishi, Hyundai, several European companies and regional players as well (Investopedia, 2011). These firms all contribute to intense competition among rivals, especially given the size of the industry. The result is an industry characterized by competition both along the lines of differentiation and cost leadership. Firms must sell high volumes of cars at low margins in order to earn revenues, but must also load those cars with features and demonstrate technological leadership in order to attract business.

The large number of firms has an impact on the supply conditions within the industry. Supply is determined by expected sales and by the capacity of manufacturing facilities. In general, the global automobile industry suffers overcapacity. There are high costs…

Works Cited:

AAAT. (2011). Auto transport business in auto industry slow down. All America Auto Transport. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from

AP. (2008). Hybrid sales, led by Prius, up 38% in '07. MSNBC. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from 

Hirsch, J. (2011). Toyota Prius dealers see demand rise and inventories fall. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from 

Investopedia (2011). The industry handbook: Automobiles. Investopedia. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from

Cuevas-Cubria & Beaini 2010 Discuss
Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 19395932
Read Full Paper  ❯

he line graph suggested a linear relationship between the price of oil and political events. he increases in the price of oil were linked to negative political events. Negative political events are events that threatened the political stability of regions or of specific countries. When these events occurred there was a tendency for the price of oil to increase along with the conflict or instability. Additionally, there was a decline in the price of oil when there was a fall in the economies of countries. A reduction in the demand for consumer goods would reduce the demand for oil and oil-based products. When there was worldwide negative phenomenon such as a recession, this would also reduce the demand for oil and consequently the price.

he relationship between these variables while not measured in the study was clearly described. Based on the description it would be reasonable to conclude that there…

The final element of the study that will be discussed is that of the hypothesis. A hypothesis is a statement of the relationship between the two or more variables. This statement is usually tested statistically to show whether the hypothesis should be accepted or not accepted. There are two hypotheses the null and the alternate. The null hypothesis suggests that there is no relationship between the variables, or no difference between groups. The alternative is the opposite of the null and is generally the hypothesis that the researcher wants to prove or support.

In this study there was an implicit hypothesis suggesting that there would be no significant increase in the production of oil between the years 2009 and 2010. The use of the term significant suggests that any increase must be demonstrably higher than chance. In most research this risk is placed at 5%. The level of significance is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis if the hypothesis is true. An example of this is the determination that oil production in Nigeria increased significantly. This significant increase means that the events discussed in the article such as the improvements to the pipeline system and the political stability are statistically linked to the increase in oil production.

The article suggested many of the statistical principles as it described the changes in oil price globally. The relationships suggested in the article demand further explication through research. The line graphs clearly showed how the fluctuations in prices are related to external global events and internal political challenges.

Promoting Fuel Efficient Cars Establishing Green Spaces
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4937518
Read Full Paper  ❯

promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.

Fuel efficient cars

Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.

Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.

Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(

The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…


Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution.

The benefits of alternative transportation 

Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology

Marathon This Question Would Be Better Answered
Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3592561
Read Full Paper  ❯


This question would be better answered either a) if the case had been supplied or b) if I was a petroleum production engineer.

In order to determine the impact of changes in the price of crude on the price of gasoline at retail, the different cost components need to be considered. The U.S. Energy Information Administration outlines the different components that contribute to the retail price of gasoline. The four key drivers of gasoline prices are the price of crude; refining costs and profits; distribution and marketing costs and profits; and taxes. There are also profit margins to retailers and possibly other actors in the industry as well that need to be considered. All told, as of 2009 the breakdown of the different components assuming an average price per gallon of $2.34 at retail was as follows: 61% crude oil, 18% taxes, 11% refining costs and 10% distribution and…

Works Cited:

Clayton, M. (2010). Offshore drilling moratorium: Good for the Gulf, bad for the economy? Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from 

CIA World Factbook: United States. (2011). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from (2010). Factors affecting gasoline prices. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from /energyexplained/index.cfm?page=gasoline_factors_affecting_prices

Goldfarb, Z. (2011). Obama slams oil company profits as gas prices surge. Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from

Production and Operations Management
Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 74434560
Read Full Paper  ❯

Marathon Oil's product process appears to be a well functioning and smooth operating system. Their revenues and incomes, noted in the billions of dollars, represents the hard work of the management and its contributions to the company and is ultimately demonstrated in this pipeline system. Marathon has six phases of transforming crude oil into a deliverable product that takes approximately 5 weeks to accomplish. The six phases include: Crude oil, Crude oil Pipeline, Refining, Production Pipelines, Terminals, and the final stage Stations. During these six separate events the true efficiency of the system is tested.

It is worthwhile to analyze and dissect each of these phases in order to test for weaknesses and investigate ways to improve efficiency that will contribute to the profits of this organization. Each one of these phases has, in my opinion, certain strengths and weaknesses. Some phases seem to have more moving parts than others…