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There can also be changes to the ways in which the body defends itself against these acidic secretions; increased acid exposure can seriously damage or even destroy portions which are given undo exposure. For example, in some patients, the stomach is unable to defend itself from the caustic nature of the acid, which creates lesions in the lining, called gastric ulcers.
How Age Might Impact the Pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and Gastritis?
Most patients with GERD suffer from symptoms of other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) which produces pain, abdominal distress, and the need for frequent bowel movements (Gasiorowska 2009,-page 1829). GERD is more prevalent with patients who are over the age of forty although it has been found in patients much younger than this. Pregnant women or those who have other medical conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as diabetes or hiatal hernia, are more…… [Read More]
Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility
The secretion of acid by the stomach is promoted by three phases. These, according to Huether and McCance (2017) are the cephalic phase, gastric phase, and the intestinal phase. As the authors further point out, while the cephalic phase is prompted by the smell, thought as well as taste of food, the gastric phase is prompted by stomach distention. The last phase, i.e. the intestinal phase, is prompted “by histamine and digested protein” (Huether and McCance, 2017, p. 888). It should be noted, from the onset, that in the words of Huether and McCance (2017), “gastric secretion is stimulated by the process of eating (gastric distention), by the actions of the hormone gastrin and paracrine pathways (e.g., histamine, ghrelin, somatostatin), and by the effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and other chemicals (e.g., ethanol, coffee, protein)” (888).
A significant amount of gastric juices are secreted…… [Read More]
Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility
According to Ramsay and Carr (2011), the stomach’s main function is food preparation for digestion as well as absorption by the intestines. In the words of the authors, “acid production is the unique and central component of the stomach’s contribution to the digestive process” (Ramsay and Carr, 2011, p. 977). The parietal cells are responsible for the secretion of acid in the stomach. As Lascelles and Donaldson (2012) point out, the relevance of gastric acid in the digestive process cannot be overstated. This is more so the case given that it comes in handy in the creation of a pH that is ideal or favorable for not only pepsin, but also gastric lipase. It is also important to note that the pancreatic bicarbonate secretion is stimulated by gastric acid. It is food that initiates the secretion of acid. In this case, the taste, smell, or…… [Read More]
Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine. This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late 1990s.Studies carried out in Iceland ( Tryggvason et al.,2005), Sweden (Nilsson et al.,2005), as well as Holland (Goettsch,2004) have indicated that close to 11,14.5 and 12.7 cases per million people per year respectively.Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. study by gaimy et al.,(2007) which was performed consecutively on autopsies indicated that small GISTs having between 1-10 mm in about 22.5% of the individuals aged above 50 years.These small GISTs…… [Read More]
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]
[hs130, section: ____ ]
Today, on the twentieth of August, I will take you on a trip inside the gastrointestinal tract, and beyond in the human body to observe the process of digestion and excretion. As simple as it may seem, this process is more than just moving down a hollow tube. To understand this more deeply, let's begin our journey!
EVIEW OF THE VIDEO TAPE:
Being reduced to eight microns in a hamburger holds the possibility of being chewed, grinded and dissolved in gastric acid. Even though I used special shield defenses, the slight possibility can still be a scary thought. Despite the risk, I felt motivated enough to allow myself to be amazed by the human body.
In about a moment, I was in the mouth of a 55-year-old man. Mixed with me, were fries, meat, lettuce, cheese, burgers and bear. Staying away from the teeth…… [Read More]
Mechanism's For Controlling Blood Sugar Levels:
The blood glucose level is the amount of sugar or glucose in the blood that is also referred to as plasma glucose level and expressed as millimoles per litre. While blood glucose levels are measured in order to diagnose and monitor diabetes, it's also important to monitor these levels in certain situations, especially with increasing age and during pancreatitis and pregnancy. Under normal circumstances, blood sugar levels usually stay within a daily narrow limit of between 4 and 8 millimoles per litre. In addition, the levels of blood glucose in the body are usually higher after meals and lowest in the morning. Nonetheless, the body has certain mechanisms that help in controlling blood glucose levels under normal and stress conditions.
The body basically maintains a minimum level of glucose in the blood and also limits surges of glucose after a meal by about 70…… [Read More]
The blood in which we are traveling in is composed of red blood cells called hemoglobin, plasma, platelets, and white blood cells. Blood is transported through the body by the heart's pumping action. As we continue, we will enter the hepatic portal vein, which delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, into the ascending aorta, up towards the heart. As we approach the heart, it's pumping will pull us up into its chambers and through to the lungs where we will get oxygen and continue our journey to the kidneys. As we return to the heart, we will pass through the aortic arch and descend through the thoracic aorta continuing past the descending abdominal aorta until we reach the renal artery. We will make a left turn and pass through the glomeruli through the kidney's tubules and conclude this phase of our journey into the left kidney.
The…… [Read More]
74 per million Taiwanese." (Tzen, et al., 2007)
Summary and Conclusion
This work in writing stated an objective to examine both the incidence of and possible cause factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor in the Chinese population. There are two tumors that are often mistaken for GISTs and specifically those known as: (1) Fibromatosis; and (2) leomysarcoma. (Rubic, Heinrich, and Corless, 2007)
Findings in this study include that there apparently are genetic bases for development of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and that in the Chinese population that when comparing the U.S. And Hong Kong demonstrates that Hong Kong is comparable to the U.S. And lower than Finland. This is likely to be true for the entire Chinese population although this fact could not be confirmed in the present study. Findings in this study additional include the findings that the previous optimal treatment for GISTs is likely not to be the best method…… [Read More]
2003, p. 247).
The use of NSAID has been associated with increased risks of gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients, approximately five-fold for musculoskeletal pain and two fold for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with low-dose aspirin (Clinical Guideline 17: Dyspepsia 2004). Therefore, depending on the level of pain management required, a simple analgesic that can be used for pain management is paracetamol; this preparation does not cause bleeding of the stomach and it has been found to be highly effective in relieving mild to moderate pain; furthermore, it can be purchased without a prescription from chemists and supermarkets (Henderson & Wood 2000).
Discussion of Health Education Advice Required.
The U.K. Department of Health recommends the following educational advice and support for people suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding:
Patients and their relatives should be offered as much information as they want. GPs should ask what they would like to know, and give…… [Read More]
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]
Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).
However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150)…… [Read More]
Scientists are now discovering the potential benefits that Homeostatic Soil Organisms (HSO's) once provided for the body. These microbes used to be ingested by humans through plants grown in soil that was never sterilized or polluted. Nowadays, since this is no longer the case with the soil, the ingestion of HSO's by humans has dropped significantly. This has led scientists to believe that an increase in dysbiosis has begun occurring within humans, which is a condition in which the population of harmful organisms within the gastrointestinal tract increases significantly thus causing an imbalance to occur. This in turn has led to humans today suffering more frequently from certain immune and gastrointestinal disorders such as allergies, bowel diseases and chronic fatigue among others.
In his article, Dr. Paul A. Goldberg lists the various benefits HSO's provide to the body. They prevent the growth of harmful organisms, such as molds, yeasts,…… [Read More]
However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)
The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…… [Read More]
Despite major medical advancements over several decades, nearly 10 percent of births in the US continue to occur prematurely each year (Martin, Hamilton, Osterman, Driscoll, & Matthews, 2017). Creating a significant socioeconomic burden, preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States resulting in approximately $16.9 billion in medical care costs annually (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2007). After days, weeks, or even months of intensive care, weight gain becomes a major criterion for hospital discharge. Feeding intolerance (FI) is a common complication among these preterm infants, which disrupts enteral feeding, resulting in feeding advancement delays, prolonging adequate weight gain and growth, and increasing hospital stays (Carter, 2012). Additionally, FI is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal emergency and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this group of patients (Moore & Wilson, 2011). The underlying cause for these problems…… [Read More]
Guidelines for Enteral Feeding are important because it maintains the strength and viability of gut associated lymphoid tissue called GALT. This is important as the structure of the cells in the GALT or lymphoid tissue must remain stable. In addition this supports the mucus associated lymph tissues or MALT in order for function of lungs, kidneys, and liver. The criticality of proper nutrition to these organs is very time sensitive. Therefore clear guidelines as to Enteral Feeding are essential to aiding the sustenance of the life and viability of the patient (ASPEN, 2009). With proper Enteral Feeding the risk associated with bacterial infection is increased. This may trigger MODS or multiple organ dysfunctions. When a disease increases in severity, EN can provide sustenance to the organs to trigger immune response. Standardized guidelines ensures the same treatment for similar cases of illness. This reduces the uncertainty of prescribed treatment and also…… [Read More]
Article 14 claims centered on children's health and reduction of disease for a iomed probiotic called lactoral and its three strains. The submitted studies supported the health claim of the strains but not to the bacterial strains of the probiotic. iomed's phenotypic testing were not accepted as sufficient to properly identify the bacterial strains. The claim, "natural intestinal microflora during travel," had not been sufficiently characterized. On the four other claims, the panel said that in vitro trials cannot sufficiently predict in vivo efficacy in human subjects of experiment (Starling).
A Yakult spokesman, however, said that their products still had to be assessed
(Starling 2009). According to him, their company's claims for Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic strain had strong evidence for its health benefits from more than 70 human studies and more than 70 years of research (Starling). The World Health Organization itself recognized probiotics as "live micro-organisms & #8230;which…… [Read More]
History of Polio
Polio, also known as poliomyelitis, is a contagious viral illness that produces no symptoms in ninety-five percent of cases. While a plague to the human race for centuries, polio was never the devastating scourge that other diseases, such as bubonic plague and smallpox, were. Then, in the early 20th century, polio came into its own, and the largest outbreak of the disease ever seen began. It is from this large outbreak that our dread of polio largely comes from. From this outbreak, we have gotten the devastating images of children in wheelchairs and iron lungs, paralyzed from the ravages of polio, some never to walk again. And it is this outbreak of polio that led to the tremendous push from Western medicine to eradicate it once and for all.
While polio normally produces no symptoms, in the small percentage of cases that do produce symptoms, the disease…… [Read More]
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]
The Food and Drug Administration has published recommendations that warn pregnant women, nursing mothers, women who might become pregnant, and children not to ear swordfish, shark, tilefish, and king mackerel due to high methylmercury content. They also warn women and children to limit their consumption of tuna (DHHS/EPA, 2004). However, if guidelines are followed, these women and children are told that they can eat limited amounts of low mercury fish.
What Levels of methylmercury are safe?
There are many factors that help to determine how much mercury is considered to be safe. The EPA reference dose (fD) is the amount of mercury that a person can be exposed to on a daily basis over a lifetime without appreciable risk of effects from it. The EPA fD is 0.1 ?g mercury per kg body weight per day. This level translates into a blood mercury level 5.8?g/L or 5.8 parts per billion…… [Read More]
In conclusion, much academic attention has been spent on the role of serotonin deficiency and its role in depression and other mood disorders. There has been increasing attention on developing SSRIs that are target-specific in an attempt to reduce unwanted side effects. However, as we have seen too much serotonin many have lasting effects on the brain and contribute to elderly dementia, or permanent damage to the hippocampus.
It appears that maintaining the proper balance of serotonin in the system is the best method for the prevention of the immediate effects of depression and the long-term effects of dementia. Diet plays an important role in the ability of the body to maintain proper serotonin levels. However, there may be times when the body simply cannot maintain the balance on its own. That is when drug therapy such as MAOIs and SSRIs come into play. These drugs are good are relieving…… [Read More]
Pharmacokinetics -- Atenolol 50mg PO
Description and mechanism of action
Atenolol is a medication which comes in 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100mg tablets. It is described as "a synthetic, beta1-selective (cardioselective) adrenoreceptor blocking agent, may be chemically described as [a] benzeneacetamide" (Drugs.com, 2011). Another website says it is "without intrinsic sympathomimetic and membrane stabilizing activity" (Ogbru, 2006). The drug was developed as a treatment for hypertension that was developed as a replacement for Propranolol (Healthline, 2011). The advantage of Atenolol over Propranolol is that it does not cross the blood-brain barrier, and thus it does not have as many central nervous system complications.
The drug is unable to be completely absorbed as it travels the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. "Approximately 50% of an oral dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the remainder being excreted unchanged in the feces. Peak blood levels are reached between two (2) and four…… [Read More]
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…… [Read More]
Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure
egents Online Degree Program
Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.
M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Thyroid
What is the mechanism of action of insulin and what are the differences in insulin therapy for Type I and Type II diabetes mellitus?
The pancreas secretes insulin, and it is used for the regulation of glucose from the blood into the cells. Insulin assists in lowering blood glucose by causing peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells. The breakdown of fat, proteins, and manufacture of glucose is inhibited by insulin. Insulin will also increase protein synthesis and the conversion of excess glucose to fat. Patients suffering from diabetes are not able to produce enough insulin, and this leads to hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy for type I diabetes mellitus is aimed at increasing or providing insulin in the patient's body (Trauner, ichert, & Luddeke, 2013). For type II diabetes, insulin therapy is aimed at controlling blood sugar, increasing insulin levels, and lowering the patient's resistance to insulin.…… [Read More]
diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)
The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…… [Read More]
Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the…… [Read More]
Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis,…… [Read More]
Lemon balm is a member of the mint family, and it is native to Europe and Mediterranean. The herb grows to a maximum height of 28-59 inches, and its leaves have a mild lemon scent that is similar to mint. In the summer the herb produces small white flowers that are full of nectar. However, lemon balm should not be confused with bee balm, although its white flowers do attract bees. It is the leaves of the herb that are used for treatment and also for flavoring. The herb is also used by beekeepers to attract and keep bees in the hive. The herb is grown as an ornamental plant and also for its oil which is used in perfumery. Lemon balm tea, essential oil, and extracts are used in both traditional and alternative medicine including aromatherapy. The herb has been cultivated since the 16th century, but medical research on…… [Read More]
teaching and learning to patients with dysphagia. The situation involves the researcher's own personal experience teaching a Mom of 16-month-old diagnosis with dysphagia and how to learn how to feed him. This paper discusses the client's background, learning objectives, learning needs, outcomes, teaching strategies, and evaluation of outcomes and provides guidance for a mother facing these same issues.
Infants and children need to consume sufficient amount of nutrients in order to grow. Swallowing difficulties has an effect on dietary intake and affects a child's growth and development. For this reason, it is important to manage dysphagia in pediatrics.
Dysphagia is a disruption in swallowing that compromises safety, efficiency, or adequacy of nutritional intake. Swallowing and breathing share a common space in the pharynx, and problems in either of these processes can affect a child's ability to protect their airway during swallowing and ingestion of fluid or food safely.
About 1%…… [Read More]
Sometimes the baby will vomit, and it may feed poorly, be lethargic, have a distended abdomen, and have blood in the stool. Upon physical examination, abdominal tenderness may be seen in the baby and periumbilical darkening or redness is sometimes also seen. Occasionally, there is a fixed loop of bowel that can be felt when the abdomen is examined. Generally, if NEC is suspected an abdominal x-ray is done. This x-ray will show individuals whether there are distended or fixed loops of bowel that could possibly indicate some type of obstruction. Having air in the wall of the bowel can also be seen very early on in NEC but often resolves over a period of hours. Having air in the abdomen, however, is indicative of immediate surgery. If there is air anywhere in the abdomen this indicates that the bowel has torn or perforated and this is a life-threatening emergency,…… [Read More]
This is a 12 lead ECG taken for Mr. Long at the Emergency Department. He presented with a two hour history of chest pain radiating to his left arm. The ECG is suggestive of an antero-septal Myocardial infarction. Further scrutiny of the ECG displays a normal sinus rhythm, with a rate of 75 bpm that is regularly regular. There is no axis deviation with a P interval of 200 ms and normal qrs complexes. Leads I and aVL also show a q wave which may be suggestive of an old high lateral wall MI. Leads I, V1, V2, V3 and aVL show ST segment elevation of greater than 2 mm and ST segment depression in leads II and III. Mr. Long is suffering from a fully evolved ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
A correlation can be made with the area of myocardium involved and the vessel involved. The antero-septal…… [Read More]
Gum Chewing Following Cesarean
In their research article entitled "Gum-Chewing Speeds Return of First Bowel Sounds but Not First Defecation after Cesarean Section," Harma et al. (2009) explore a two-fold research question. First, they looked into the duration of postoperative ileus if gum was chewed following a cesarean section. Secondly they looked at whether there was a difference in the results when comparing patients who chewed sugar-free gum with the results of those who chewed gum with sugar substitute in it. In the experiment, 76 women were divided into three categories, the control group, the sugar-free gum group, and the group who were given sugar-substituted gum. The patients who got to chew gum did so every fifteen minutes starting two hours after their surgery. hat the researchers found was that there was no marked difference between the three groups in comparing the time it took to their first episode of…… [Read More]
Chromosomal Abnormality: Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is accompanied by both serious physical and mental developmental problems, and it is one of the most common genetic syndromes. According to Rebecca Saenz (1999), Down Syndrome occurs in one out of every 800 to 1,000 live births, which is an extremely high rate of incidence. This disorder occurs equally among both boys and girls. There are several genetic occurrences that can cause Down Syndrome to appear in a child, but all of them lead to the same chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome, which is the unit of genetic information that exists within each cell, appears in the genetic code of the affected person. When a baby is normally conceived, the egg cell of the mother and the sperm cell of the father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the genetic makeup of the child. In some cases, there may…… [Read More]
HG (Hyperemesis gravidarum) is a complicated pregnancy disease characterized by the intractable vomiting, nausea and dehydration. The HG is estimated affecting between 0.5 and 2% of pregnant women. However, malnutrition as well as other serious complications may lead to electrolyte or fluid imbalance. The HG is a rare pregnancy complication because vomiting and nausea during pregnancy exist among many pregnant women. Thus, it is often very difficult to distinguish between HG condition and common form of vomiting and nausea that most pregnant women experience.
Objective of this study is to prepare an analysis of the HG (hyperemesis gravidarum). The study provides the root causes of the disease to enhance a greater understanding of the strategy to address the problem.
oot Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Numerous theories have been put forward for the causes of the HG. The health theory suggests that the root cause of the HG is the combination…… [Read More]
Indeed, the drawing and expulsion of air is driven by muscular action; in early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles, whereas in reptiles, birds and mammals a more complicated musculo-skeletal system is used. In the mammal, a large muscle, known as the diaphragm, manages to drive ventilation by periodically altering the intra-thoracic volume and pressure; by increasing volume and decreasing pressure, air is sucked into the airways, and by reducing volume and increasing pressure, the reverse occurs.
Absorption in the intestines occurs mainly in the small intestine. This is evidenced in the fact that the small intestine has a particular folded texture in order to increase the surface area available for diffusion of nutrients through the intestinal wall so they can be absorbed. These microscopic folds are called microvilli. In an adult human, the small intestine is, on average, about seven meters long - which…… [Read More]
Salvia Officinalis a Literature eview
Introduction and History of Use
Salvia officinalis, or sage, is also called garden sage or common sage. It is a perennial, evergreen shrub (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). The leaves are grayish in color, and the flowers are purple or blue (Watters, 1901). Stems are woody, and the plant is native to the Mediterranean (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). However, it has now been naturalized in a number of places throughout the world. Its history is long, mostly detailing both culinary and medicinal uses. Modern times have also seen its popularity rise as an ornamental garden plant (Kintzios, 2000). There are many other species that also carry the common name "sage." Some are related and some are not. Sage was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, and has been grown for centuries (Sutton, 2004). Its healing properties are impressive, and it is also used in the…… [Read More]
"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" (IBD, 2013, CDC). Ulcerative colitis affects the large colon; Crohn's usually affects the small colon and the beginning portion of the large colon. egardless in both manifestations of IBD, the body attacks the cells of the intestine, mistaking 'good' things like food and bacteria for dangerous invaders and thus causing chronic inflammation.
The effects of IBD can be extremely severe because of the nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss and malnutrition that they cause. Crohn's is particularly dangerous because it can cause intestinal blockage from severe swelling and scaring. Ulcers can cause fistulas which become infected. Unlike lupus, both forms of IBD can be treated with surgery as well as various anti-inflammatory drugs.…… [Read More]
How do cells in a multicellular organism communicate with one another?
Cells communicate by chemical signals. Chemical signals are passed from one cell to another for example saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast of bread; wine identifies potential mates by chemical signaling.
Direct contact, cell to cell.
Through formation of connections or cellular junctions to neighboring cells.
By use of receptors whereby signaling molecules bind.
Forming groups' i.e. group together in a colony.
Communicate using light.
Through chemical and physical touch.
Through use of cell junctions, signal transduction pathways and cell to cell recognition.
Communicate with the aid of junctions holding cell firmly together.
Through production and receiving of chemicals and electric signals.
What are the usual physiological changes of aging and how are these differentiated from diseases?
According to Suzanna and Jennifer, (2006) these changes include; sensory changes, digestion, circulation and sexuality.
Diminishing sense of tastes, smell and touch.…… [Read More]
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]
It normalizes blood pressure by dilating the blood pathways throughout the body, destroys poisonous carbon dioxide, releases free oxygen and promotes higher metabolism and stimulated enzyme systems. Consuming chlorophyll from wheatgrass has been shown to be a very highly successful way to alkalize and energize the body (Wheatgrass Juice Benefits, 2010).
Wheatgrass has been used to treat a number of conditions including the common cold, coughs, bronchitis, fevers, infections, and inflammation of the mouth and throat. Many years ago, wheatgrass was used to treat cystitis, gout, rheumatic pain, chronic skin disorders, and constipation. Even though most people use wheatgrass juice as a dietary supplement, some proponents claim that a dietary program frequently called the wheatgrass diet can cause cancer to retreat and can actually extend the lives of people who have cancer. They believe that the wheatgrass diet strengthens the immune system, kills harmful bacteria in the digestive system, and…… [Read More]
This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their children. Some of these children were even part of Wakefield's original study. (Schreibman, 2005)
This disclosure may have laid some doubts to rest but is still not enough to answer the question whether there is actually a link between MM and autism. Firstly, there is a doubt amongst parents and scientists whether MM may cause measles, encephalitis or a depression of the immune system in general. However, numerous studies have looked into this possibility and have concluded that the chance is extremely less at the rate of… [Read More]
GMO producers also feel that this would give consumers the impression that GMOs are unhealthy or unsafe and that non-GMO crops are preferred (aab & Grobe, 2003).
Valid scientific evidence is lacking as to whether GMOs are healthy or unhealthy in the long run. However, support is building for the position that regardless of the outcome, consumers have the right to know and to make an informed decision. Producers in the U.S. have placed pressure on Europe to withdraw their requirements for the labeling of GMO foods, as they claim that this attitude towards GMO foods will influence decisions in the U.S. (aab & Grobe, 2003). However, so far, these challenges have been met with resistance and labeling practices continue to spread.
On a national level, the battle still rages, but on an international level, the scales seem to tip towards the pro-labeling side and the right of the consumer…… [Read More]
If left untreated it may lead to tetany, seizures and decreased mental status. It also decreases coronary blood flow and predisposes persons to refractory arrhythmias. This condition may also cause hypoventilation, leading to hypoxemia and impair weaning from mechanical ventilation. This is also associated with hypokalemia and may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy in susceptible patients.
Third simple acid-base disorder is respiratory acidosis. This is a clinical disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. The production of carbon dioxide increases and there is a failure of ventilation, which increases the partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide. This in turn decreases the HCO3-/PaCO2 and decreases pH. This condition can either be acute or chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs, whereas, chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. This disorder can be manifested depending on the severity and on the rate of development of hypercapnia. Patients…… [Read More]
ecovery Plan: Biological Attack in the U.S. Congress
The havoc and deaths caused by the weaponized anthrax spores that were mailed to members of the U.S. Congress following the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the repeated attempted uses of botulinum toxin on U.S. Naval bases make it abundantly clear that governmental offices are vulnerable to biological pathogens. These agents have been and likely will be used by terrorists again to achieve their goals of bringing harm to the United States and it interests at home and abroad. The hypothetical comprehensive recovery plan developed in this project is in response to this type of food-borne pathogen attack and takes place in the cafeteria situated in the ayburn House Office Building in the U.S. Congressional complex in Washington, D.C. which serves members of Congress, staff members and visitors. The scenario begins with the telephonic notification to the Capital Police that all…… [Read More]
Dermatology- The dermatology department deals mostly with skin related illnesses. The most common issues within this department pertain to skin, scalp, hair and nails. Many of our clients are female with more cosmetic needs. Many would like to retain their youthful appearance and believe minor surgery is the best solution. As such, our departments offer many cosmetic treatments including hair removal, hair transplants, laser therapy and tattoo removal. This past fiscal year has been quite difficult as many of our affluent clients have postponed treatment due to economic concerns with the U.S. We believe this trend to be transitory in nature, with a steady increase in treatments to occur in early 2012.
Oncology- The oncology department pertains mostly to cancer, its detection and diagnosis. The most common diseases in this department are various forms of cancer with the most common being breast cancer. We have recently overhauled our…… [Read More]
Synthroid, Drug Profile
SYNTHROID® (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP) is an important drug, used to treat hypothyroidism. Synthroid has been extensively studied for over 42 years. It is the most widely prescribed thyroid medicine in the United States. Currently, over eight million people are using Synthroid for thyroid replacement therapy. [Abbott, 2001]
Synthetic Levothyroxine (T4 ) is identical in chemical composition and molecular weight to naturally secreted T4. Synthroid tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: acacia, confectioner's sugar, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, talc, and color additives.[Abbott, 2001].
Synthroid is pregnancy category A. Studies have shown that Synthroid increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if given during pregnancy. The possibility of fetal harm does appear to be remote, however, Synthroid should only given during pregnancy if it is clearly needed [Abbott, 2001]. In addition Abbot Laboratories reports that thyroid hormones do cross the placental barrier to some extent. T4 levels in the…… [Read More]
The Japanese government has taken measures to prevent this from happening again, settlements have been reached, and today the national government is the body that certifies a person as afflicted by the disorder.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html)."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
The Chisso Minamata Disease Kansai Lawsuit. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www1.odn.ne.jp/~aah07310/english/index-e.html).
Unknown. "Supreme Court holds state responsible for Minamata Disease." Kyodo orld News Service. (2004): 15 October.… [Read More]
For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.
The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."
Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…… [Read More]
A cohort of approximately one hundred participants recently diagnosed and not yet treated for neuroendocrine tumors will eventually be selected for this study, providing an adequate sample size to produce significant validity, reliability, and generalizability (Gabriel et al., 2007). A control group of approximately twenty-five individuals recently given negative results on conventional scintigraphy and/or dedicated CT diagnostic measures for neuroendocrine tumors will also be included in this study. All study participants will undergo imaging/diagnostic testing for neuroendocrine tumors using each of the three target methodologies -- [68Ga]-DOTATOC-based PET imaging, conventional scintigraphy, and dedicated CT (111ln-octreotide scintigraphy), with all tests completed on each patient within a four-day timeframe and all testing for the study completed in a three-month period. Follow-up documentation of treatments, neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis confirmation or rejection using histopathology, CT and MI, and an ultimate determination of neuroendocrine tumor at the time of initial testing will also be conducted…… [Read More]
Many plants are grown because they look pretty or because they grow heartily. Landscapers choose certain species based on their environmental needs. The oleander, or nerium oleander, has a multitude of uses both from an aesthetic and holistic perspective. Besides an attractive flower for gardens or streets, the plant has been used for medicines and for crimes. This makes it one of the most dynamic plants of all flowers.
The oleander originated in northern Africa, the eastern Mediterranean Basin, and Southeast Asia. As a nonnative plant, the oleander has had little difficult in adapting. Indeed since the oleander is such a sturdy plant, once a plant has taken root it is very difficult to remove it completely. Because of its high adaptability, the plant can take over once it has been planted in an area, killing off the native plants if it is environmentally unequivalent.
Oleander can grow up…… [Read More]
woman entered the National Institutes of Health esearch Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-esistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.
The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…… [Read More]
diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Food, Diet and Cancer
Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:
There is a correlation between diet and cancer
Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer
There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…… [Read More]
Amidation of Peptides in Humans
Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…… [Read More]
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
The condition, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is named after Hakaru Hashimoto, a Japanese scientist, who uncovered the disease in the year 1912. Amino, DeGroot, and Akamizu (2013) write that Hashimoto explained the conditions of four types of individuals having a chronic thyroid disorder, that he labeled as "struma lymphomatosa." These individuals' thyroid glands had diffused lymphocytic infiltration, parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis, and eosinophilic acinar-cell change. Pathological as well as clinical researches of Hashimoto Thyroiditis have been conducted frequently since Hashimoto first described the affliction.
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is an autoimmune syndrome wherein a person's immune system attacks body tissues, organs and cells. Persons suffering from this affliction have a thyroid malfunction, a condition known as hypothyroidism, wherein the thyroid gland ceases to secrete sufficient hormones to meet the needs of the body. This gland, situated at the anterior part of the…… [Read More]
Asthma has emerged as one of the most common health problems and chronic diseases that affect children worldwide. Healthcare practitioners have become concerned with the increased prevalence of asthma among children. This study focuses on examining the role of vitamin D in prevention and/or control of asthma among children. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that vitamin D has been positively linked with enhanced control of asthma and decreased exacerbations of the condition. The study seeks to fill gaps in knowledge regarding the role of vitamin D in asthma, which remains relatively unclear. The discussion also demonstrates the clinical implications relating to the use of vitamin D in treatment of asthma.
Background and Significance
Asthma is regarded as one of the most common diseases and long-term health conditions that affect children. This condition is basically defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways involving several cells and cellular…… [Read More]