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Gaza Conflict. It explores the causes of the conflict. This paper indicates that the military aggression of Israeli against Gaza begun in December 27, 2009. It however, notes that the conflict actually started much earlier. The aggression brought about the deaths of about 1,300 Palestinians. The paper also finds out that the aggression by Israel wasn't as a result of the launch of Qassam rockets by the Palestinians against Israeli; on the contrary, the conflict had several other causes which the paper has adequately looked at. Besides, the paper also explores the effects of the conflict. It indicates that a number of devastating effects were brought about by the conflict. The adverse effects affected several sectors such as educational sectors, health sectors among several other sectors which the paper has adequately looked at.
Those who took part in the Conflict
The Causes of Gaza Conflict
The effects of…
Ambrogi, S (2009). "U.S. says arms shipment to Israel not linked to Gaza." Reuters North American News Service.
Aboualouf, R. (2008). "Eyewitness: Chaos in Gaza." BBC. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
Al-Mughrabi, N (2009). "Israeli tanks, soldiers invade Gaza Strip." Reuters.
Bennis, P (2008). "The Gaza Crisis: Israeli Airstrikes & U.S. Complicity." IPS
The 2014 war in Gaza lasted for almost two months and resulted in thousands of casualties, remaining of course unresolved. However, as Espuelas (2014) puts it, "the first casualty of war is the truth," (p. 1). Nowhere is this adage more noticeable than the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, in which the truth is particularly multifaceted and complex. The principles of just war offer dictums for assessing the ethics of both the Israeli position and that of Hamas. War is considered a last resort in Israel; otherwise Israel would have used even greater force than it already has. Whereas Israel can be considered a legitimate authority because it operates as a democratic state, Hamas is less so. Hamas is legitimate to its supporters, but remains a spurious political organization dedicated to and predicated on the annihilation of Israel. Moreover, the the 2014 war in Gaza was fought to redress a clear wrong: it…
Espuelas, F. (2014). Israel's just war in Gaza. The Hill. Retrieved online: http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/international/212975-israels-just-war-in-gaza
"Israel's next Gaza war will be the last, defense minister vows," (2016). RT. Retrieved online: https://www.rt.com/news/363972-hamas-gaza-war-lieberman/
Landes, R. (2014). How the media helped Hamas in the third Gaza war. Missing Peace. Retrieved online: http://missingpeace.eu/en/2014/08/how-the-media-helped-hamas-in-the-third-gaza-war/
Melman, Y. (2016). Latest Gaza-Israel flare-up a war-game shift. The Jerusalem Post. Aug 23, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Analysis-A-war-game-shift-464801
Leadership style that Lt. Col. Yaron exhibited
When Lieutenant Colonel was Yaron was called upon to volunteer as the operation commander in the operation mission to evacuate Israeli Settlement in the Gaza strip, he led the design engineering unit in the Air Force. This proved to be a bigger challenge to him despite the fact that earlier n his career he had served as a deputy battalion commander in the Paratroopers. He referred to this as a personal challenge and lately accepted the responsibility. Yaron is in this context portrayed as a very flexible person who does not stick to his guns whatever what. When a challenge comes up he takes it. He seemed not to have a preferred style. He comes up with different approaches that suit the various needs of different situations. He is flexible and adaptable to situations that arise. He can recognize different demands of each…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F., & Webber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. Annual Review of Psychology 60, 421-449.
Laufer, A. (2012). Mastering the Leadership Role in Project Management: Practices that
Deliver Remarkable Results. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press.
Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Israeli occupation of the Gaza strip
Analyses of conservative and liberal editorials about the Israeli occupation of the Gaza strip
In the midst of debates surrounding the issue of the occupation and recent evacuation of Israelis in the Gaza strip, American newspapers had been filled with editorials reflecting American society's stand on this issue. It became apparent that this issue had been unanimously viewed by Americans as over-delayed, that Israel's decision to evacuate Gaza was not only right, but is also just. In effect, Americans criticized two important elements in the issue of Israeli evacuation at Gaza: the first element criticized was the overdue evacuation of Israelis, and the second element was that despite its evacuation of settlers, Israeli had gained more than it lost by "giving up" Gaza for the Palestinians.
In this paper, analyses of two editorials are conducted in order to illustrate how Americans perceived and reacted…
In 2003, when she wrote her book, this organization trained and deployed individuals from the U.S. And other countries to carry out nonviolent direct actions as a means to oppose and end Israel's occupation. ISM provided medical assistance, delivered food, escorted people, rebuilt homes and dismantled roadblocks in Palestine (412).
The Divest from Israel Campaign, made up of 50 major U.S. university campuses including Harvard, MIT, Princeton, Tufts and Cornell, served to inform many who were unaware of the university's holdings in Israel or of the Israeli/Palestinian occupation. There are also numerous boycott groups in Europe and activist Palestinian organizations. In short, she says, "a positive and just future for the Palestinians is intertwined with a better future for all the globe's citizens." (414)
Lastly, the late Edward Said, professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University and widely known as a representative of the post-structuralist left in America…
Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. "Gaza." 2001-2005. 29 September 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/ga/Gaza.html
Lerner, Michael. The Geneva Accord. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2004.
Makovsky, David. Engagement through Disengagement. Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2005.
Pravda Ru. "What Next?" 19 Aug., 2005. Front Page.
My heart is heavy. My blood runs cold. As I know you will not come to Sacramento. I know you will not leave Gaza. I've always known this. You ask me what blunted our enthusiasm for flight? For me it was knowing that I would be saying goodbye to you, that you would not be following me, that you were too much of the man I ought to be. My doubts had nothing to do with leaving Gaza, my doubts had to do with leaving my one true friend.
But your doubts are anchored to something greater. Your pride in our people. You know that you are a great and noble man; you know that others look up to you; you know how you inspire men to dream and to hope. You stayed behind because they need you in Gaza. Our people need to know that no matter how many…
apid innovations in technology, particularly telecommunications and transportation, have accelerated the globalization process in recent years, and a number of positive outcomes have been associated with these trends, including increased levels of international commerce and improved cross-cultural understanding and communications. Despite these significant positive outcomes, the same globalization processes have also further exacerbated existing economic and political inequalities between developed nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom. These glaring disparities between the very rich and the very poor have also been cited as a major contributor to the incidence of international terrorism, making the need for informed and timely approaches to resolving these inequalities more important than ever before in human history. To this end, this dissertation/thesis provides a review of the relevant literature concerning political and economic inequalities that are attributable to globalization and how these inequalities have contributed to international terrorism in recent years, and…
Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers. 2011. World Trade Organization. [online] available:
Apostolov, M. 2004 The Christian-Muslim Frontier: A Zone of Contact, Conflict, or Cooperation. New York: Routledge Curzon.
Bartelson, J. (2000) 'Three Concepts of Globalization', International Sociology, vol. 15, no. 2,
Perhaps this is the fatal flaw in the oad Map, but according to President Abbas, "the Annapolis summit saw a resumption of talks between the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) and Israel after a seven-year hiatus. Both sides pledged to do everything possible to draft a peace settlement by the end of 2008, as well as to come to an agreement on the form of a future independent Palestinian state."
Unfortunately, the talks stopped when Hamas' launched rockets into Israel necessitating a destructive military retaliation.
United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan emphasized, "It is the view of the Quartet that all members of a future Palestinian Government must be committed to nonviolence, recognition of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements and obligations, including the road map."
VIEW OF HAMAS
The U.S. non-negotiation policy towards terrorist organizations also affects the prospect of successful negotiations with the Palestinians. After the 2006 democratic elections, Hamas…
Javier Solana, "The Council of the European Union: Comments by Javier SOLANA, EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, on the occasion of the International Conference for the Reconstruction of Gaza," European Comission External Relations (2 March 2009): under "Middle East Peace Process," ?
(accessed March 21, 2009).
The country of the individual must also adapt to the changing culture. Currently, the world's cultures, in regard to the information environment-shaping capabilities, continually change at an accelerating pace. Based on the rate of the increase of media outlets that disseminate the propaganda of Hamas, such as Filastin al-'An, Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Al-Aqsa TV, PALDF Forum and Sabiroon Websites, increases for this group will likely follow the same path of other technological advances.
It is likely, the researcher asserts, that these media mediums will simultaneously change and increase in the future with similar speed as the available technology. A greater number of more organized and highly technical groups, for instance, such as the "Digital Intifada," will likely materialize to meet the objectives of the Hamas. The increase in the use of and expansion of virtual worlds, such as Second Life, will further blur the lines of States and outpace…
Robert T. Marsh, "President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection before the Subcommittee on Technology of the Committee of Science," U.S. House of Representatives, 0, November 6, 1997. http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1997_hr/marsh_11-6.htm (accessed April 28, 2009).
Second Life, 2009, ?
Putin reiterated that ussia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and urged the global community to work with a Hamas-led Palestinian government.
"Hamas has arrived at the doors of power through legitimate elections," Putin said. "We must respect the Palestinian people and we have to look for solutions for the Palestinian people, for the international community, and also for Israel. Contacts with Hamas must continue," he added. (Hamas not a terror organization)
The leaders of Hamas have some chance to make an alliance with Israeli leaders that would allow them to gain an unencumbered claim to some territory and gain some support from Western leaders. There has been some attempt to do this. In 2008, former President Jimmy Carter worked with Hamas leader Khaled Meshal to reach an agreement that Hamas would agree to a truce with Israel if and when the Palestinian people agreed to a Palestinian…
Ayyash, M. (2010). Hamas and the Israeli state: A 'violent dialogue'. European journal of international relations 16 (1): 103-123.
Carter Says Hamas and Syria Are Open for Peace. (22 April 2008). New York times.
Hamas covenant. Retrieved 15 March 2010 from http://www.mideastweb.org/hamas.htm
Hamas is not a terrorist organization. Retrieved 16 March 2010 from http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3213707,00.html
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Henry Holt: New York
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,
Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
Citizens of a Stateless Nation
The emergence of stateless nations around the world and their impact on geopolitical issues, both on a regional and a global scale.
With ethnic minorities such as the Basque and Catalonian separatist movements of Spain, the Quebecois of Canada, the Palestinians of the Middle East, and the Kurds of Iraq and Turkey all staking their claim to autonomy through acts of civil protest, shows of electoral strength, and even militarized means, the issue of stateless nations has become a global priority. The currently hostile engagement between Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip, and their Israeli neighbors, demonstrates the consequences of ignoring the identity of culturally and ethnically unique groups. By studying the distinct circumstances underlying each of these four stateless nations, including their claims to sovereignty and grievances with their parent nation, it is possible to formulate effective solutions which may eventually effect the brokering…
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…
Alterman, Rachelle. Planning in the Face of Crisis: Land Use, Housing and Mass Immigration in Israel. London: Routledge, 2002.
Bird, Eugene. (1998, March). "With Oslo Accords in Shambles, a President Who Let it Happen Feels Shackled by Both Old and New Mistakes." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Special Report 15-16.
Details of the Oslo Peace Accords. (2008). Palestine Facts. [Online]. Available: http://Palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_oslo_accords.php.
Dunsky, Marda. (2001). "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly, 23(3), 1.
The geographic distinctions are important, as the Palestinians are divided geographically, with the Gaza Strip separated from the West ank by the country of Israel, with more Palestinians living within Israel.
The Fatah faction of the PLO emerged as the one group with sustainable political power, lead by Yasir Arafat. However, marked Islamic fundamentalism, as exemplified by Hamas was an important influence. Various groups had developed in Gaza and in the West bank, and even within the relatively effective Fatah, infighting between those who did not want to compromise with Israel in any way and those who believed gains could be made through compromise was quite marked (Emerson, 1997).
AFTER THE INTIFADA
Unfortunately the disagreements between the various factions among the Palestinians has led to serious violence. In 1997 "death squads" went through neighborhoods executing those they felt were aiding the Israelis in some way. Some of these executions were…
Bligh, Alexander. 1999. "The Intifada and the New Political Role of the Israeli Arab Leadership." Middle Eastern Studies, January.
Emerson, Steven. 1997. "Meltdown: the end of the intifada." The New Republic, November 23.
Goell, Yosef. 1989. "Israel's Arabs: the 'intifada' comes home." The New Republic, October.
Kuttab, Daoud 1988. "Beyond the intifada: the struggle to build a nation (Palestine)." The Nation, October 17.
And this event came in the form of the tragic incident of first intifada on December 9, 1987.
Aruri, Occupation; Janet Abu-ughod. "The Demographic Transformation of Palestine," in Ibrahim Abu-ughod, ed., The Transformation of Palestine (Evanston, III.: Northwestern University Press, 1987).
Rodinson, Israel; Farsoun, "Settler Colonialism." See also Elia Zureik, The Palestinians in Israel: A Study in Internal Colonialism (ondon: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979).
J. Abu-ughod, "The Demographic Transformation."
Aruri, Occupation; I. Abu-ughod, George T. Abed, ed., The Palestinian Economy (ondon: Routledge Champan & Hall, 1988).
ea Tsemel, "Personal Status and Rights," in Aruri, Occupation, p. 64.
Aruri, "Dialectics of Dispossession," pp. 16-19.
Meron Benvenisti, 1987 Report: Demographic, Economic, egal, Social and Political Developments in the West Bank (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987), p. 40.
Muhammad Hallaj, "Israel's Palestinian Policy," in I. Abu-ughod, ed. Palestinian Rights, pp. 95-106;
Jan Abu-Shakrah, "The Iron Fist, October 1985 to January 1986," Journal…
Laurence Harris, "Money and Finance with Undeveloped Banking in the Occupied Territories," in Abed, Palestinian Economy, p. 191.
Joost Hiltermann, "The Dynamics of Mass Mobilization and the Uprising: The Case of the Labor Movement," paper presented at "The Palestinians: New Directions," Fourteenth Annual Symposium, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, May 4-5, 1989.P. 5
Hallaj, "Israel's Palestinian Policy," p. 99.
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…
The Anti-Terrorist Fence - an Overview." 9 July 2005 http://securityfence.mfa.gov.il/mfm/data/48152.doc.
Bregman, Ahron. A History of Israel. New York: Palgrove MacMillan, 2003.
Chomsky, Noam. "A Wall as a Weapon." The New York Times 23 February 2004. 9 July 2005 http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0223-02.htm .
Crock, Stan. "Israel's Wall: A Step toward Peace?" Business Week Online 18 July 2002. 9 July 2005 http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jul2002/nf20020718_1722.htm .
Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues -- Amnesty International
Cultural relativism is the contention that "…human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives," and that human rights -- though they must be protected whenever that is possible -- are often difficult to secure in a culturally diverse world (Ayton-Shenker, 1995). Every human being has the right to his or her culture, including, according to Ayton-Shenker, the right to "…enjoy and develop cultural life and identity"; however the right to one's culture is "limited at the point at which it infringes on another human right."
This paper delves into how Amnesty International approaches cultural issues -- the internationally recognized moral right every culture has to practice its political, religious, and social traditions -- through its interactions with many governments and cultures outside the United States.
Amnesty International -- Cultural Issues it Inquires Into
Amnesty International. (2013). A Life Lost in Pursuit of the Truth. Retrieved September 9, 2012,
from http://www.amnestyusa.org .
Amnesty International. (2013). Our Work / Our Mission / About Us. Retrieved September 6,
208). Begin could tell the Israeli community that the Egyptian made extreme demands and the Americans didn't handle the negotiations very well. Begin's more "militant supporters" in Israel would back him up no matter the outcome, Quandt explains (p. 208).
A for Sadat, he believed that he and Carter already had a preliminary agreement that would "force the Israelis to make significant concessions"; hence, Sadat would put "all his cards face up on the table before the president," helping Carter to "manage the inevitable confrontation with Begin" (Quandt, p. 208). Sadat told the American delegation "repeatedly" that an agreement between the U.S. And Egypt "was more important to him than an Egyptian-Israeli agreement."
The only worry that Begin had, Quandt asserts on page 208, is that if the talks failed, Carter "might blame him for the failure, go public with that judgment, and try to mobilize American public opinion against…
Bard, Mitchell G. (1990). How Fares the Camp David Trio? Orbis, 34(2), 227-241.
Carter, Jimmy. (2009). We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land: A Plan That Will Work. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (1978). Camp David Accords. Retrieved February 27, 2011,
From http://www.mfa.gov.il .
This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.
These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…
Anti-Defamation League (ADL). (2005). The 1973 Yom Kippur War. ADL.org.
Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). IRA + PLO = Terror. National Review Online. Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentehrenfeld082102.asp
Horovitz, D. (2005). The Iran-Hezbollah Nexus. Chicago Jewish Community Online. Online at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:6aPKBoRz9Q0J:www.juf.org/pdf/horovitz.pdf+iran+hezbollah&hl=en
Israel 1967-1991. (2004). Israel-Egypt Peace. Palestine Facts.
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…
Bush, George W. "Joint Understanding Read by President Bush at Annapolis Conference." WhiteHouse.gov. 2007. 9 June 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/11/print/20071127.html
Editors. "A Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." 2002. UN.org. 9 June 2008. http://www.un.org /media/main/RoadMap122002.html
Migdalovitz, Carol. "Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference." 2007. U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/98093.pdf
Rice, Condoleezza. "Press Conference." U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2007/12/97945.htm
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)
When you put these different elements together, this…
Deeb, Dennis. "Brief Overview of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict." The Collapse of Middle East Peace. Lincoln, NE: I Universe, 2003. 1 -- 7. Print.
Freedman, Robert. "The Arab Israeli Conflict." The Middle East and the Peace Process. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1998. 348 -- 352. Print.
Lochery, Neill. "Security Arrangement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip." The Difficult Road to Peace. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1999. 41 -- 60. Print.
Massoulile, Francois. "What is the Future of the Middle East." Middle East Conflicts. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Publishing, 2003, 152-155. Print.
The cause of Palestinian violence against Israel is the illegal occupation by that nation of Palestinian territory, leaving Palestinians with no choice but to defend themselves against their hostile occupiers. During World War II, the Allies praised the efforts of the European partisans and the armed resistance against the Nazis, but today, the world condemns the same efforts of Palestinian civilians fighting against their illegal occupiers and oppressors.
The Palestinian people deserve their rightful territories and violence against Israel will continue until Israel returns all the land taken from Arab countries since 1967 and also allows all Palestinian refugees the right of return to Israel. Just like the Nazis,
Israel conducts military operations against their neighbors and does so without any regard for civilian casualties" (Evans, 2008).
Subject #1 is an American-born Jew whose parents survived the Nazi Holocaust during World War II. Her parents took her to Israel…
Evans, H. (2008). Poisoning Minds in Bethlehem. U.S. News & World Report, Vol.
145, No. 14 (p. 76).
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
McWilliams, N. (2004) Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
This first collection of poetry relates of these experiences of dislocation, refuge and identity crisis, as Abinader, one of the reviewers of Handal's work, points out: "Nathalie Handal's new collection of poetry, the Lives of Rain, places us in gritty scenes of exile, occupation, dislocation, refuge, and solitude -- scenes that are often associated with poets of Palestinian background."(Abinader, 256) These themes are obviously common with Palestinian poets due to the fact that they generally experience violence and political conflict more closely and therefore more poignantly. As Abinader emphasizes, the people who are depicted in Handal's poems are invariably the victims of history itself and the pressure it puts on the individual: "Handal's heroes are the survivors not only of war but of the mutability of time and the volatility of history."(Abinader, 256) One of the very significant poems in this collection is Gaza City, a text which describes a…
Abinader, Elmaz. "The Lives of Rain.(Book review)." MELUS 31.4 (Winter 2006): 256(3)
Dao, Bei. "Bei Dao and Modern Chinese Poetry. http://www.lingshidao.com/hanshi/beidao.htm
Handal, Nathalie. "Gaza City." The Literary Review 46.2 (Wntr 2003): 330(2).
James, a. Bei Dao. "The Answer and Declaration." The Democracy Reader (Edition 1992): 270(2).
Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.
The breakup of the U.A.. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan iver to…
The 1967 Six-Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/67_War.html
Six Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/history/six_day_war/SixDayWar.html
Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.
he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…
The next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. This was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However, the next official act of war began on October 6, 1973, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. This attack exacerbated the existing religious tensions, because it was launched on the high holy day of Judaism, Yom Kippur. Israel managed to repel the Egyptian and Syrian forces, but suffered territorial losses. In the late 1970s, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and began negotiating its withdrawal from occupied Palestine. The withdrawal never occurred, and in 1982 Israel because involved in the Lebanese Civil War so that it could destroy Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) bases, which had been used to attack Israel. Israel's involvement transformed the Lebanese Civil War into the First Lebanon War. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon. In 1987, Palestinians again protested the Israeli occupation, with six years of violence in occupied territories that is now referred to as the First Intifada.
The 1990s brought hopes of peace to Israel. First, in 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, giving Palestinians a limited right to self-government and formal recognition of the state of Israel. Israel later withdrew from Hebron, and gave even more autonomy to the Palestinian National Authority. In the early 2000s, Israel withdrew forces from southern Lebanon, unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip, and began constructing the Israeli West Bank barrier. However, peace was short-lived. When two Arab groups, Hamas and Hezbollah, kidnapped Israeli soldiers, Israeli launched the Second Lebanon War, which lasted five weeks.
Israel currently is bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel continues to control the West-Bank, though its government is ostensibly Palestinian. Israel continues to occupy some Arab territories, including the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Golan Heights. Golan Heights and East Jerusalem are treated as a future part of Israel, while the Arab territories, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, are part of the proposed future independent state of Palestine. The United Nations is currently attempting to work with Israel and the Arab nations to negotiate an Independent Palestine.
What is significant about the Oslo Accords? When did they take place? Who represented whom? What were the issues?
On September 13, 1993 the Oslo Accords were signed at a ceremony in Washington by: Yasser Arafat (representing the Palestinian Authority) and Yitzhak Rabin (representing Israel). The significance of this agreement is that is it established a basic framework for creating a lasting peace between the two sides. As, the Israelis agreed to the creation of an entity that would represent the Palestinian people called the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). They would have the power for the administration of territories under their control. While the Israelis agreed to withdraw Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) from parts of the Gaza Strip and the West ank. At the same time, the agreement called for a five-year plan that would be negotiated no later than 1996. As, a host of various issues would…
Brown, N. (2003). Palestinian Politics after the Oslo Accords. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Isseroff, A. (2003). The Peace Process is Dead. Mew Views. Retrieved from: http://www.mideastweb.org/oslofailed.htm
Jones, D. (1999). Cosmopolitan Mediation. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Lieberfeld, D. (2008). Secrecy and Two Level Games. International Negotiation, 13, 133 -- 146.
Palestine under Occupation: Reaching the ‘Other’ through Bearing Witness and Citizen Journalism
The conflict in Palestine is largely portrayed in the mainstream media as a complex issue (Chomsky & Pappe, 2015). A theoretical reason for this portrayal of the conflict is rooted in what Robinson (2002) has described as the ‘CNN effect’—the special relationship that exists between the state and the media, which facilitates the construction of a narrative that supports the aims of the state, particularly when it comes to foreign intervention. Al-Ghazzi (2017) has described, for example, how CNN uses embedded reporting to foster a narrative supportive of the U.S.’s aims in the Middle East. With a particular focus on the Palestinian conflict, Western mainstream media and states partake in the CNN effect by framing the conflict as ‘complicated’. This complication, however, is not represented in the largesse unevenly distributed between the two sides of the conflict.…
The est may even become addicted to you and your PLO (Pacepa 1987, 25)
The above conversation occurred in the early Carter administration, although the Romanian dictator first began advising and consorting with Arafat in 1972 (ibid, 37). Ceau-escu was not a prophet. Rather, he was just a shrewd dictatorial leader who knew how to use image, propaganda and the repetition of the same information over and over again until his viewpoint became the accepted one.
In Pacepa's narrative, Ceau-escu and Arafat were very close. Arafat saw Ceau-escu as a model and this model set the tone for the next more than two decades of Arafat's leadership of the PLO after their secret March, 1978 meeting in Bucharest. This meeting is so very important to understanding the development and history of the PLO and the Palestinian Authority from Oslo to the leader's death in 2004.
hile agreeing with Ceau-escu on…
Cefery, H. And Brexel, B. 2004. Yasser Arafat. New York: Rosen Group.
. (1 April 2010).
Ilsemann, Siegesmund von. 2007. "The checkered history of American weapons deals."
Spiegel Online International.
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…
Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."
Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:
Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm
O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
achieving peace in the Middle East. The writer explores the problems between Israel and Palestine and looks at possible solutions. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The dispute between Palestine and Israel is long standing and difficult. Each side believes that it is in the right and both sides accuse various nations including the United States of taking sides against them. "Palestinians want an independent state with its capital in East Jerusalem - but hardliner Sharon will accept only small Palestinian territories and no Israeli withdrawal from East Jerusalem."
The conflict began in 1917 at the time Britain conquered Palestine. It was during World War II. It was called the Jewish homeland. During the United Nations talks of 1947 a plan was designed that divided the land between the Jews and the Arabs. That plan called for the founding of the State of Israel about a year…
Special Report: After the war is over - Israel and Palestine; Israel and Palestine
Date: 04/13/2002; Publication: The Economist; Author:
Profile: Propaganda from Israel and Palestine
Date: 10/17/2000; Publication: All Things Considered (NPR); Author: NOAH ADAMS
Israel vs. Palestine Conflict
The author of this report has been asked to write an essay about the conflict between the Israeli people and the Palestinians as it has existed over time. Much of the conflict has actually extended over millennia when it comes to the stretch of land that is involved. However, this report will focus on the last century or so. The first question to be answered is simply a summary of the conflict that has existed between the two groups over the last century. The second question talks about sovereignty and nationalism in the context of the conflict that is being discussed. The conflict is then to be analyzed in terms of power and statecraft. Finally, there will be the prisoner's dilemma discussion from a realist and from a neo-liberal understanding.
Basically, the gist of the Palestinian gripe is that they have gone from controlling…
ERS. (2015). Comparatively Assess Neo-realism and Neo-liberalism. Whose Argument
do you Find the More Convincing and Why?. E-International Relations. Retrieved 11 May 2015, from http://www.e-ir.info/2007/12/21/comparatively-assess-neo-realism-and-neo-liberalism-whose-argument-do-you-find-the-more-convincing-and -
If Americans Knew. (2015). A Synopsis of the Israel/Palestine Conflict.
Armed Conflicts & Environmental Politics
Davenport, Coral, and Parker, Asley. "Environment Is Grabbing Big Role in Ads for Campaigns." Te New York Times. Te New York Times 21 October 2014. Web. 9 November 2014.
Political advertising focused on climate cange, energy, and environmental issues overwelmed te pre-midterm election campaigns. Surging past a record level of 125,000 ad spots on te Senate side in October 2014, tese campaigns reflect te interests and priorities of wealty donors for bot parties. Indeed, te environment and energy ranked as te tird most popular topic mentioned in political ads, wit ealtcare and jobs running first and second. Wealty donors sowing teir partisan ands include Tomas F. Steyer, te liberal California environmental activist billionaire, and Carles G. Koc and David H. Koc, billionaire conservative rigt-wingers.
Political pundits see te popularity of environmental issues as a arbinger of te 2016 presidential race. Te ad campaigns demonstrate…
It is not immediately clear who is responsible for the explosions that took place on November 7, 2014, in the Gaza strip. The explosions occurred just days before the 10th anniversary celebration of the death of Yasir Arafat, the leader of the Fatah, the mainstream Palestinian party currently led by President Mahmoud Abbas. The last such rally occurred in 2007, at the time of the celebration of the third anniversary of Arafat's death, when six Fatah supporters were killed and many others were wounded when they clashed with Hamas members.
Hamas officially condemned the recent bombings and set its Gaza security forces in motion to investigate. However, the timing of the explosions does not lend credibility to Hamas' condemnation. This skepticism about Hamas' actual position is strengthened by the fact that the car of Fayez Abu Aitah, a Fatah spokesman, was destroyed in a blast. Just days earlier, Aitah had strongly criticized Hamas, citing his efforts of incitement and damaging national interests through critical remarks aimed at the functioning of the Palestinian Authority government.
The 11-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was formed. In the end, the majority of the members recommended that Palestine be divided into an Arab State and a Jewish State. Jerusalem would be awarded special international status.
On November 29th, 1947, the General Assembly adopted resolution 181 (III) the Plan of Partition with Economic Union, per the UNSCOP. This resolution included an attached four-part documented, which included the termination of the Mandate for Palestine, progressive withdrawal of ritish forces, and border creation between the Arab state, Jewish state and Jerusalem. The creation of Arab and Jewish states were to be done by October 1st, 1948. Palestine would be divided into eight parts. Three parts would be allocated to the Arab state; three would be allocated to the Jewish state. The seventh part would be the town of Jaffa, which would be an Arab enclave, within the Jewish state. The eight…
"The Balfour Declaration." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs . http://www.mfa.gov.il /MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/the+Balfour+Declaration.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
BBC News (London), "Israel Confirms Settlement Growth," March 21, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4367787.stm (accessed November 22, 2010).
Berger, Robert. "Opposition Mounts to U.S. Plan for Israeli Settlement Freeze." Voice of America (Washington ), November 21, 2010. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Opposition-Mounts-to-U.S.-Plan-for-Israeli-Settlement-Freeze-109692414.html (accessed November 22, 2010).
"Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." Mideast Web. www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
Negotiations here went on for thirteen days non-stop which "apparently would have failed without the mediation of Carter and his advisers." 15
On eptember 17, 1979, adat and Begin came to an agreement which is now known as the Camp David Accords in which the two adversaries agreed to a number of conditions, such as "establishing an elected, self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza," the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the West Bank and Gaza "except for specified security locations," and having all negotiations based upon the U.N. ecurity Council Resolution 242. 16 This agreement between Egypt and Israel effectively put an end to the hostilities between the two nations and brought about a lasting peace, one which has held to this day. However, after the peace treaty at Camp David, the focus of the Arab-Israeli conflict shifted to Israel's northern borders with Lebanon.
In April of 1981,…
Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. New York:
Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2004.
Silberstein, Laurence J., ed. New Perspectives on Israeli History: The Early Years of the State. NY: New York University Press, 1991.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?
Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.
The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:
"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…
Adas, J., 2010. Mazin Qumsiyeh on the History and Practice Of Nonviolent Palestinian Resistance, s.l.: s.n.
Akram, M., 2008. Pakistan, Terrorism and Drugs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/19/opinion/lweb22pakistan.html?_r=1&ref=opinion [Accessed 17 October 2009].
Anon., 1988. Hamas Charter. [Online]
esolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
This is a proposal argument for resolution of the Israel-Palestine problem. It uses 5 sources in MLA format.
As violence escalates in the Palestine, the intractable problem becomes even more intractable. Intense fighting between Israelis and Palestinians, the most intense inside the borders of the former Palestine since Israel's creation in 1948 are claiming a daily toll in double digits. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's increasingly tough tactics are exacerbating the conflict. A war of attrition is going on that has the potential to escalate into an all out region al war.
Apart from the human tragedy, serious danger to peace and stability in the region is developing from this continued conflict. Any escalation would seriously jeopardize the American 'war against terrorism' both by focusing world attention on the Middle East and giving the anti-American forces and the 'terrorists' fresh justification for targeting American interest…
Author Not Available: "Watching the War." The Washington Post. March 7, 2002; Page A20.
Ratnesar, Romesh: "Season of revenge: Inside story of how Israel imprisoned Arafat and why the rage keeps burning." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 16-27.
Luttwak, Edward: "Worst Case Scenario." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 28-29.
The Economist: "Too Bloody to Ignore." March 16th, 2002.
Community outreach and counterterrorism with efforts towards exploitable weaknesses.
Community Outreach and Terrorism
International and domestic terrorism have reached levels previously believed to be impossible. hether fueled by profits they get from trafficking drugs or whether they are fueled by religious ideologies, a series of communities express particular interest in wanting to get actively involved in performing activities characteristic to terrorist organizations. Many governments have the tendency to focus on fighting them directly and fail to understand the significance of addressing factors that influence these people to take up arms against the system. Focusing on underlying concepts encouraging individuals to become terrorists is likely to destabilize terrorist institutions and to make it increasingly difficult for them to recruit people.
The intelligence community in the contemporary society plays an important role in detecting terrorist threats and in making it less likely for individuals to engage in terrorist acts. Even with…
Coolsaet, R. (2011). "Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American Experiences." Ashgate Publishing.
Johnson, J.A. Ledlow, G.R., & Cwiek, M. (2005)."Community Preparedness and Response to Terrorism: Communication and the media." Greenwood Publishing Group.
Nikbay, O. & Hancerli, S. (2007). "Understanding and Responding to the Terrorism Phenomenon: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective." IOS Press.
Spalek, B. (2012). "Counter-Terrorism: Community-Based Approaches to Preventing Terror Crime." Palgrave Macmillan.
Turkey Security Threats
Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.
The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…
Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481
Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7
Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf
Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.
Israeli "Settler" Housing in the West Bank of Israel/Palestine
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has often been a major problem in the Middle East. Particularly, at the heart of the conflict lies the controversial question regarding territories, as well as who owns them. In the aftermath of the holocaust, and the collision of Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalist colonization, the Israelis and the Palestinians started laying claim to the same territories, which marked the beginning of the long conflict that goes on to date (Global Policy Forum, 2013). In 1947, the United Nations (UN) attempted to resolve the conflict by partitioning land - although this failed to provide a lasting solution. By 1967, Israel had confiscated land in boundaries that had been set by the UN, and it was focused on occupying remaining territories namely the West bank, east Jerusalem, and Gaza strip. Since then, Israel went on with the policy of…
American Friends Service Committee (2012). Israel's settlement policy in the occupied Palestinian territory. AFSC. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from https://www.afsc.org/resource/israel%E2%80%99s-settlement-policy-occupied-palestinian-territory
Dowty, A. (2012). Israel / Palestine. Malden, MA: Polity Press
Global Policy Forum (2009). Land and Settlement Issues. GPF. Retrieved 21 April 2015 from https://www.globalpolicy.org/security-council/index-of-countries-on-the-security-council-agenda/israel-palestine-and-the-occupied-territories/land-and-settlement-issues.html
International Labour Office (2009). The Situation of Workers of the Occupied Arab Territories. Geneva: International Labour Office
Analyzing the Global Boycott Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) Movement
In Favor of BDS (Anecdote)
As an individual with friends in Palestine, I have heard the stories and seen firsthand the immoral acts committed by Israel against the Palestinian people in Gaza and in the West Bank. I have seen the bulldozed homes, the illegal Israeli settlements, the victims of Israeli aggression, the loved ones buried—killed by soldiers or burned and murdered by Israel’s use of white phosphorous, which others have also reported on (Kaposi, 2016). The BDS Movement is a movement that aims to draw attention to these crimes and to hold Israel accountable. It aims to put pressure on the state—economically—so that the state begins to realize the enormity of its crimes and makes amends.
One story that I can share that will illuminate the reason why BDS should be supported is this: not to long time ago, my…
Immediately after Israel declared its independence, a coalition of Arab states invaded Israel, starting the first Arab-Israeli War. Israel prevailed, and conquered territories beyond those claimed in the original UNSCOP partition. Israel gained control of 77% of Palestinian territories and the remainder was divided between Jordan and Egypt (Beinin & Hajjar).
Thus, the UNSCOP proposal for a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict was dismissed and a Palestinian state was never created: leading to the subsequent decades of resentment and violence throughout the entire Middle East. Jewish residents of Arab countries throughout the region were persecuted violently and most fled to Israel. Palestinians were forced into refugee camps. Palestinians living in Israel are Israeli citizens but experience systematic discrimination (Beinin & Hajjar).
The conflict in the Middle East escalated further as Egyptian leader Gamal Abder Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and restricted Israeli movement through it. By also joining military…
Arab-Israeli Conflict." Retrieved dEc 15, 2008 at http://www.historyteacher.net/Arab-Israeli_Conflict.htm
The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History." Guardian. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,720353,00.html
Beinin, J. & Hajjar, L. "Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Primer." Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intro-pal-isr-primer.html
Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories." BBC. 28 October 2008. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/803257.stm
The shift from socialism to capitalism also dismantled religion from the state. Many acts, considered immoral in Judaism, have been legalized, including homosexual marriages. Sexuality, once an intimate aspect of Jewish lives, can now be discussed openly in television programs and classrooms. Such changes are being welcomed neither by the right-wing political parties nor by the orthodox Jews. The religious orthodoxy along with several moderate factions within the Israeli Jewish community is annoyed and feel left out in the current climate. All in all, the transformation from socialism to capitalism, in the post war era, has given mixed results to the Israelis (Colin, 2008).
The 1967 six-day war between the Israelis and the Arabs had several grave political and social implications for not only the Israelis but also its neighbors. Some major implications have been discussed in this paper. It is noteworthy that both leftwing and right wing political…
Colin Shindler, a History of Modern Israel, Cambridge University Press, New York, paperback edition 2008, pp 1-50
Gazit Shlomo. The Carrot and the Stick: Israel's Policy in Judea and Samaria, 1967-1968. Washington, DC: B'nai B'rith Books, 1985.
Gordon Haim. Dance, Dialogue and Despair: Existentialist Philosophy and Education for Peace in Israel. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1986.
Morris Benny. 1948 and After: Israel and the Palestinians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
Many times Israel's leader has agreed to specific peace negotiations with the United States and with Palestine, only to turn right around and do the exact opposite of what he said he would do. There has been no peace made, because Israel will not compromise. It will not back down to any degree and let Palestine have anything, and it intends to make the country into a wasteland if it does not submit. The numbers that it provides regarding killing and such are also not found to be accurate.
The article addressed here looked at the numbers, and there have been many, many more Palestinians killed by Israelis than the other way around. The bombings and the rocket attacks have not ceased. Israel insists that it is doing this because of Palestinian rocket attacks, but none of these started at all until Israel started bombings and border closings and other…
S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama in Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.
The fight against terrorism has to be based not on destroying a certain group of terrorists but as a campaign of human rights. Geneva Conventions and international human rights law specifically establish that terrorism is not a legitimate act of war or politics. These rules specify that civilians should never be deliberately killed or abused, regardless of the cause. Mr. ush's refusal to condemn Israel's bombing of civilian targets in an impotent Lebanon may be politically expedient but it says that United States considers it all right to deliberately bomb civilian…
Reisman, W.M., International Legal Responses to Terrorism, Houston Journal of International Law, Volume 22, Issue 1, 1999
Grebinar, J., Responding to Terrorism: How Must a Democracy Do It? A Comparison of Israeli and American Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Volume 31, Issue 1, 2003
Roth, K., Misplaced Priorities: Human Rights and the Campaign against Terrorism, Harvard International Review. Volume 24, Issue 3, 2002
Charters, D.A. (Editor), The Deadly Sin of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 1994
Camp David Accords
THE CAMP DAVIDS ACCORDS: A CASE STUDY ON INTERNATIONAL NEGOTITAON
There are several tools of statecraft which can be classified as economic, military or political in nature. Negotiations, International laws, alliances and public diplomacy are the main instruments of politics used by the politicians to resolve the issues and problems at national and international levels. This paper discusses how the political tool of statecraft was used by nations to solve the problems.
Negotiations take place when two or more than two parties use the diplomatic means instead of military means to settle a problem, issue or conflict that is shared by both of them[footnoteRef:1]. Negotiations should not be confused with the reconciliation or compromise, in which one party wins and other losses, but it is actually a bargaining process, conducted by both parties in order to get the economic and territorial gains. [1: Hopman, Terrence.…
Caplan, Neil and Eisenberg, Laura. 1998. Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, p.39.
Hopman, Terrence. 2001. Bargaining and Problem-Solving: Two Perspectives on International Negotiation. Washington. Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. p. 457
Stein, Janis Gross. 1993. "The Political Economy of Security Agreements." Double-Edged Diplomacy. Ed. Peter B. Evans, Harold K. Jacobson, and Robert D. Putnam. Berkeley: California UP. pp.77-103.
Telhami, Shibley. 1992. "The Camp David Accords." Pew Case Studies in International Affairs. Washington, DC:
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
The Hebrews do not actually appear in history until about 1224-1211 B.C.E. during the reign of Marniptah, king of Egypt (Ancient pg). Marniptah was the son of Raamses I, 1290-1223 B.CE, who is thought to be the kind of Egypt at the time of the Hebrew exodus (Ancient pg). In an account of Marniptah's military campaign in Asia, 1220 B.C.E., inscribed in granite is listed all the conquered peoples including the Israelites, who are mentioned as "now living in Canaan" (Ancient pg). Before this, the only history is that which was written by the Hebrews themselves who trace their origins to a "single individual, Abraham, who comes originally from Mesopotamia" (Ancient pg). This pre-Egyptian Hebrew history is referred to as the age of the patriarchs, which means father-ruler (Ancient pg). More than a thousand years had passed before this era of history was written down, and although it…
Ancient Jewish History
Davidmann, Mandred. "History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees." http://www.solbaram.org/articles/fn2.html
Department for Jewish Zionist Education
Role of Information Systems in Marketing
The objective of this study is to examine the role of information systems in marketing in terms of the information that is necessary for decision making. Additionally this work will examine the role of IS for this function within the organization and the benefits of IS for the functional users at the operational level, the use of data at all levels of the organization and how IS has affected processes for this functional perspective.
Decision Making and the Marketing Information System
The work of Ismail (2011) entitled "The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision Making: An Applied Study on Royal Jordanian Air Lines (RJA)" reports a study that has the objective of emphasizing the importance of the utilization of the marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making through making clear the requirement for decision-making that is both "quick and effective…due to time saving and…
Bahloul, MY (nd) The Role of Marketing Information System Technology in the Decision Making Process Case Study: The Banking Sector in Gaza Strip. Islamic University of Gaza. Retrieved from: http://library.iugaza.edu.ps/thesis/98936.pdf
Chapter 9: Marketing Information Systems (nd) FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w3241e/w3241e0a.htm
Hansen, W, (2000). Internet Marketing, Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western Publishing.
Harmon, RB (2003) Marketing Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.iped-uk.com/marketing_information_system.pdf
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict
The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…
Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.
Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.
Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.
Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East
The land where Israel is currently established has been characterized by fierce fighting and change in control over this region for centuries. These battles have been in existence since the period before World War II as Palestinians and Israelis continue to fight for control of this region. The historical war between Israel and Palestine and the situation in the Middle East has escalated to become a major security issue across international borders, particularly to the United States. Actually, Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Middle East have relatively been regarded as the source of terrorism in the United States and other parts of the world. This implies that the most significant source of terrorism facing the United States is the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. This conflict has been characterized by fights between Israel and Palestine in attempts to gain control over this region. Therefore,…
Abo-Sak, C.M. (1999). U.S. Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Solution or Complication? Retrieved September 28, 2015, from http://www.alhewar.com/LtCol.htm
Gordon, P.H. (2007, November 1). Can the War on Terror be Won? Retrieved September 28, 2015, from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2007-11-01/can-war-terror-be-won
"Middle East." (2015). The Heritage Foundation -- 2015 Index of U.S. Military Strength. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from http://index.heritage.org/militarystrength/chapter/threats/assessing-threats-to-us-vital-interests/
Mitchell, G. (2014, September 8). Israeli-Palestinian Peace is Needed Now. Boston Globe. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2014/09/07/israeli-palestinian-peace-needed-now/xhBUr7GXi3EVSdFR6TVD9M/story.html
United States in the United Nations
hen the United Nations was first formed, it was done with noble ideas and motives. Indeed, many of the actions and deeds executed or supported by the United Nations over the years have mostly been positive and productive. However, there has been a consistent and startling degradation. It has gotten to the point where the United Nations and its member states aside from the United States have gotten into the game of talking down to the United States for something of things it has done with the United Nations itself is implicitly or explicitly condoning some depraved actions and/or there are member states that are engaging in some questionable if not unconscionable behavior. hile the United Nations has and still serves a good purpose, there are some patterns and behaviors going on from the body itself and/or its member states that need to change…
Bayefsky, Anne. "You Can't Make It Up. UN Names Democratic Israel As World'S Top Human Rights Violator -- Fox News." Fox News. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Booker, Christopher. "Climate Change: This Is the Worst Scientific Scandal of Our Generation." Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Matthews, Christopher. "United Nations Diplomat Corruption Case Presents Challenges." WSJ. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
OHCHR. "UN Human Rights Council Recommends Suspension Of Libya." Ohchr.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Washington on August 28-29
On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show
On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…
Carlson, P. (2010). K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist. Read How You Want. pp. 408 -- 412.
Churchill, R. S., & Churchill, W. S. (1967). The six-day war (Vol. 5). Houghton Mifflin.
Cyr, A. I. (2012). Cyr: Cuban missile crisis offers lessons relevant today. Newsday. Retrieved from: http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/cuban-missile-crisis-offers-lessons-relevant-today-arthur-i-cyr-1.4133202
Haas, R. (2011). 9/11 Perspective. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/911-impact/911-perspective/p25735
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
A Documentary Filmmaking Experience
Aim and Accomplishment
Renov (1993) states that there are four fundamental purposes of a documentary: “1) to record, reveal, or preserve; 2) to persuade or promote; 3) to analyze or interrogate; and 4) to express” (p. 21). In my documentary, Palestine, her story, my aim was to observe—i.e., to record, reveal and preserve—the stories of the Palestinian women who served as the subject of my film. The film is therefore an observational documentary.
Looking back on my original proposal, I can say that I have completed at least a portion of my original project. The focus of my 20-minute film is on the three Palestinian women who live a successful life in London. Each woman is of a different generation and thus each one has a different experience to share, a different story to tell. Yet they also have one thing in common, which is Palestine.…
Next, they'll attempt to take over all of Jerusalem and then all of Israel" (Briglia 2). There is a slippery slope fallacy in this statement. The writer bolsters his initial exaggeration which was simple by putting forth further exaggerations with the eventual claim that Jerusalem and Israel will be taken over by the Palestinian's.
In straw man, the opponent's is attacked through attributing the opponent to an implausible position which is weak when actually it's not the opponent's position. The opponent's position is summarized inaccurately and easily dismissed. In response to the question regarding the troops pullout from Iraq President George Bush says, "e've heard some people say, pull them out right now. That's a huge mistake. It'd be a terrible mistake. It sends a bad message to our troops, and it sends a bad message to our enemy, and it sends a bad message to the Iraqis."…
Briglia, Joesph. Letter. New York Post 20 September 2005: 2
Norris, Floyd. A Lack of Rigor Costs MBIA. 12 Nov. 2009. 6 April.
Papson, Betty. Letter. Baltimore Sun 20 September 2005: 1