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Gender Differences in Leadersdhip
Gender Differences in Leadership
Is it possible to have different women and men leaders? This is a question surrounded with substantial controversy. However, the notion that there is a difference in the way men and women lead is dominant in management literature, which provides information for practicing managers. Some scholars who support this difference suggest that women have a "female voice" overlooked in theory and research. On the contrary, a significant percentage of the social science literature support the similarity stand, suggesting that, considering all things, men and women lead in the same manner (Eagly and Johnson, 1990). In addition, most of the empirical evidence for both positions accumulated through the years further contributes to confusion.
Currently, women are assuming a number of leadership responsibilities in various organizations owing to some "gender equality is gradually becoming a belief." Although there is a popular concept that men…
Carless, S.A., Wearing, A., J., & Mann, L.A. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 389-405.
Eagly, A.H., & Johnson, B.T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis.
Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233-256.
Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & Van Engen, M. (2003). Transformational,
, 2003, p. 84).
The authors go on to propose two changes in gender relations that impact relations in the family genre. The first (85) is that women and men would split the time each spends in the workplace and also split the time each spends conducting unpaid household duties as well. The second change would be to "…allocate…substantial parental time to the care of very young children" (Gornick, 85). In the Crompton strategy referenced by Gornick, both parents are working and the care for their children is expected to be conducted by childcare agencies; this is the "dual-earner-marketized-career" and the downside to that plan is that it has led to the growth of what Gornick calls "junk jobs" (93). Because of the low paying junk jobs and the fact that paid care work is so "…poorly remunerated" it increased inequality between men and women. Hence, often times the poor…
Deutsch, Francine M. Halving it All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press 1999.
Gornick, Janet C., and Meyers, Marcia K. Families that Work: Policies for Reconciling
Parenthood and Employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 2003.
On the one hand there was the view that gender or rather gender differences were something that had been created by man, culture and society. This was contrasted by the view that gender differences were not constructed but was in fact innate and part of the natural order to things. They were also linked to religious views and conceptions. This view however found it difficult to account for variations in gender preferences and homosexuality.
What became clear from the interviews was that these two interviewees represent very different views of gender that are possibly reflected in the larger society. They were however similar in some respects; for instance they both were subject to certain gender stereotypes. This also suggests that the meaning of gender is not clear and that it is obscured by stereotypes in the media and cultural views and ideas.
While the interviews provide insight they also raised…
The Social Construction of Gender. Retrieved 30 October, 2009, from http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/ARTH/ARTH200/gender.html
Appendix: Interview questionnaire
1. What in your view the meaning of gender?
2. What do you think is the main difference between male and female?
Men believed that a drinking woman was more likely than a sober woman to engage in illicit sex; they feared the sexuality of sober women, and the fears increased with each cup of wine or jug of beer. Nonetheless, women had their cups and their jugs. Some historians have failed to recognise the strong connection between drink and sexual activity in traditional Europe and have as a consequence attributed certain phenomena, such as the association between drinking establishments and prostitution, to other developments. (Martin, 2001, p. 136).
There are some other important gender-related distinctions found in the historical record as well. For example, historians have maintained that the beliefs regarding alcohol use were gender-specific, with men supposedly being less susceptible to the erotic effects of drink than their female counterparts. "True, misogyny or at least fear of female sexuality inspired some of the authors who condemned drinking women, but misogyny…
Allamani, A., Voller, F., Kubicka, L., & Bloomfield, K. (2000). Drinking cultures and the position of women in nine European countries. Substance Abuse, 21, 231-47.
Ammerman, R.T., Ott, P.J., & Tarter, R.E. (1999). Prevention and societal impact of drug and alcohol abuse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Anderson, B., Bjarnason, T., Choquet, M., Elekes, Z., Morgan, M. & Rapinett, G. (2003). Alcohol culture, family structure and adolescent alcohol use: Multilevel modeling of frequency of heavy drinking among 15- to 16-year-old students in 11 European countries. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(2), 200.
Bloomfield, K., Gmel, G., Neve, R., & Mustonen, H. (2001). Investigating gender convergence in alcohol consumption in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland: A repeated survey analysis. Substance Abuse, 22, 39-53.
Gender Differences in Communication
Men and women are different one from the other in looks, in sexuality, in their social roles and in their communication styles as well. This paper compares and contrasts how males and females are different in their styles of communication.
Gender Differences in Language
Since humans in this society spend approximately "70% of our working hours communicating" (and 30% of that time entails the spoken language), this is a vital topic to address. And the teacher emphasizes that how we say what we say is crucial to good communication. Women and men have "broadly different styles of speaking and establishing social status," the author states. And since nature is only responsible for 1% of the differences in communication approaches between men and women, that means the social and cultural environment plays a huge role in how men and women speak and communicate.
Girls learn through their…
ehavior and ias in Access
Two-thirds of all students receiving special education in the United States are boys and gender-based behavioral differences and gender bias are behind it (Rousso, 2003). Girls need to show more significant levels of disability than boys to receive service. When they do, they are assigned to more restrictive educational environments than boys. All available data show that women and girls with disabilities do not do as well as disabled men and boys and non-disabled women and girls. UNESCO studies found double discrimination towards women and girls with disabilities in all spheres, including employment, income level, health care, marriage and parenting. They are considered sick, helpless, immature, incompetent, dependent and asexual. This perception deprives them of valuable options and opportunities. A comprehensive study revealed that while students with disabilities had limited access to math and science courses, skills and knowledge, girls must content with steep obstacles…
CEC (2010). Gender differences impact learning and post-school success. Council for Exceptional Children: CEC.sped.org. Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=ICM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENT=6270
Connell, D and Gunzelmann, B. (2004). The new gender gap. Scholastic Instructor:
Teacher Scholastic. Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/instructor/March04_gendergap.htm
Dalen, M (2003). The relationship between disability, gender and education in the Norwegian context. Education for All Global Monitoring Report: United Nations
In a sociological aspect, men are perceived as the provider and women as part of the domestic world. Through the decades, however, we see the evolution of men and women's function in the society. There is a bridge closing the gap between women and men's role in different fields. Women are seen sharing seats in the government, excelling in corporate world and succeeding in different areas.
Aside from freedom of choice, we are also restrained by inherent factors of being a man or a woman, thus limiting us with physiological and psychological capacity.
Physically, men are generally taller, has more body hair, with thicker and oilier skin than women. On the other hand, women have smaller waist than their hips and on average their skin is 3-4% lighter than men. Scientists believe this is an adaptation required for increased production of Vitamin D during pregnancy. Vitamin D is necessary to…
Kay Bussy & Albert Bandura. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation. Retrieved April 28, 2007 from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura1999PR.pdf
Theory of Cognitive Development. (2007). Retrieved April 28, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget 's_theory
Theories of Gender II - Social/Environmental Theoies. Retrieved April 27, 2007 from http://psych.fullerton.edu/rlippa/gender/Gend_outline4.htm
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved April 28, 2007 from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html
Othe physical diffeences in the gendes affect thei pefeences and ae seen fom infancy as well.
Duing infancy, males have supeio visual acuity. In contast, female infants demonstate bette auditoy discimination and localization. This leads to males have a geate inteest in visual pattening and auditoy sequencing fo females. Even in adulthood, Kiegman (1999) cites Hutt, visual einfoces ae moe effective in male conditioning while females find auditoy stimuli moe effective. Evolutionay psychologists would see these physical adaptations of the sexes as pat of evolution, which then esulted in psychological dispositions and wee affected by a social component as well.
Genetics and evolution, in Dawinian fashion, come into play fo evolutionay psychologists consideing biological factos esponsible fo gende diffeentiation in abilities and inteests. Psychological gende diffeences, as sumised by Wood and Eagly (2002)
, wee ceated by the asymmetical paental investment of males and females. Ancestal women wee moe invested…
references and collective action. American Economic Review, 78(2). Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A. Man and woman, boy and girl. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1972.
Scarr, S. (Oct 1993). Biological and cultural diversity: The legacy of Darwin for development. Child Development, 64(5). Retrieved May 11, 2009, from JSTOR.
Wood, W. & Eagly, A. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128(5), p. 699-727.
Gender Differences in Mental Health Issues
Mental health can be defined in many ways. It consists of a health balance of self-esteem, as well as a rich and fulfilled life. Some would say it exists in a patient with a sense of purpose and fulfillment in life. When a patient has disordered mental health, this usually goes along with problems in problem solving, and life functions. It is reported that in the United States today, there are over 44 million adults who have been diagnosed with a mental illness or substance abuse disorder during any year you may pick (Robins & Regier, 1990). Generally, when you compare the prevalence of mental health problems between men and women you find the incidence rates are similar. The ways in which patient's manifest or response to treatment, as based upon gender, however, is remarkably different. For example, men tend to be much more…
Behl, C. Holsboer, F. The female sex hormone estrogen as a neuroprotectant. Trends Pharmacological Sci, 1999;20;441-444
Dennerstein, L. How Does Women's Mental Health Differ from That of Men? Medscape Women's Health. 2001 (First World Conference on Women's Mental Health.
Frankiewicz EJ, Sramek JJ, Cutler NR. Gender differences in depression and antidepressant pharmacokinetics and adverse events. Ann Pharmacotherapy. 2000;34:80-8.
Hankin BL, Abramson LY. Development of gender differences in depression: description and possible explanations. Ann Med. 1999;31(6):372-379.
Gender Differences Observed With Learning Disabilities
Are girls with learning disabilities being addressed in schools and clinic settings as much as boys are? If not, then what is the cause for this? What are the solutions?
We need to first look at the cause for girls getting overlooked when it comes to learning disabilities, or LD. When LD is mentioned, most people think of boys. Why is that? Most of the symptoms that have been identified with LD shows up in boys, such as rebellious behavior, defiant, and sometimes, hyperactive. To a lesser degree, most boys act like this. Girls do not act like this as much, and if they have LD, it often gets overlooked, due to the fact that they don't "act out" as much as boys. They may behave well, but don't do well in school. They may daydream in school or at home, when they are…
Sokal, L. (2001). Help Wanted: Boys' Reading. Retrieved November 18, 2002, from The Learning Disabilities Association of Canada -- Research Web site:
Nadeau, K. (2002). Is Your Daughter a Daydreamer, Tomboy, or "Chatty Kathy?." Retrieved November 18, 2002, from Learning Disabilities Online web site:
Most of the studies stressed the need for additional research in their given area of investigation, and gender differences it would seem remain better described than understood.
The research showed that there were some documented biological differences in the incidence of heart disease among American men and women, and these differences were further accentuated by a number of gender-related behaviors that may account for some of the disparity between the incidence of heart disease among men and women. It is reasonable to conclude that there are some innate biological differences between men and women that contribute to various health problems, with women being at higher risk of breast cancer for example than their male counterparts, but there were also some important psychological factors involved as well. Perhaps the most important finding to emerge from the review of the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning biological and psychological differences between men…
Benrud, Lisa M. And Diane M. Reddy. (1998). "Differential Explanations of Illness in Women and Men." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 38(5-6):375.
Callahan, Sidney. (2000, September 22). "Gender Differences: Chemistry or Culture?" Commonweal 127(16):9.
Courtenay, Will H. (2000). "Behavioral Factors Associated with Disease, Injury, and Death among Men: Evidence and Implications for Prevention." The Journal of Men's Studies 9(1):81.
Dresser, Rebecca. (1992). "Wanted: Single, White Male for Medical Research." The Hastings Center Report 22(1):24.
Differences in Words
We never fail to hear these two similar sentences as one gender regards to the other.
Women are so hard to understand."
Men are so hard to understand."
One reason that causes one gender to say such perception about the other gender is the differences in words that both gender has. Perhaps, one best example where differences in words cause miscommunication between men and women is in the topic of relationships and love.
When it comes to relationships, psychologists suggest that one must know how to read between the lines because there are instances when words are not said directly nor said straight to the point. Rather, the real meaning of what has been said can be found in the actions done. However, due to differences in words, where one fails to understand what the other really means, miscommunication starts to exist.
Previous studies and researches conducted…
gender differences in autonomic functioning and anti-social personality disorder features. Thus, the authors are not actually examining autonomic functioning in persons who have been diagnosed with anti-social personality disorder. The sample size is a small one -- one hundred undergraduates, the majority of which are white. Therefore, the results of the study have low generalizability and are basically invalid. The greatest value in the research is the fact that the authors suggest that there may be some gender differences in the way features of anti-social personality disorder find expression. These features of antisocial personality disorder include aggression. The authors validate the research by claiming that it fills gap in the literature related to anti-social personality disorder, even though the sample used in this study did not have anti-social personality disorder per se. Namely, the authors say that no published studies have examined autonomic correlates of anti-social personality disorder in women…
Sylers, P., Brennan, P.A., Lilienfeld, S.O. & Alden, S.A. (2010). Gender Differences in Autonomic Indicators of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 1(2): 87-96
Real and Perceived Gender Differences in Nonverbal Communication
The degree to which people communicate with nonverbal cues can have a great effect on the reception of their message. Such important factors as body language, gestures and facial expressions can have as big an impact on communication delivery as content does. Many researchers have found that, in fact, nonverbal communication carries with it more information to the audience than does strictly verbal communication. The extent to which nonverbal communication is affected by gender as well as the perceived effect that gender has is an important area of research in understanding communication.
The distinction between real and perceived communication differences is a significant component of this study. I will be examining the interpretation of nonverbal communication based upon surveys conducted with people who attend the same (verbal) lecture delivered by either a man, or a woman. As the verbal content will be…
Hall, J., & Friedman, G. (1999). Status, gender, and nonverbal behavior: a study of Structured interactions between employees of a company. Personality & Social
Psychology Bulletin. Vol 25(9), 1082-1091.
Popp, D., Donovan, R., Crawford, M., Marsh, K., & Peele, M. (2003) Gender, race, and Speech style stereotypes. Sex roles, 48 (7/8), 317-326.
Tannen, D. (1994). Talking from 9 to 5: How women's and men's conversational styles affect
There is a gender difference in attitudes toward spending too much money on halting crime rate.
There is a gender difference in attitudes toward spending too much money on law enforcement.
There is a direct relationship between amount spend on halting crime rate and amount spent on law enforcement.
There is a gender differencet in attitudes toward spending too much money on halting crime rate that is directly moderated by amount spent on law enforcement.
Control Variable Question
100) We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. E. Law enforcement (NATCRIMY).
QUESTION 3 -- Please refer respective chart and table
The article by Bode (2017) looks at gender differences in social media communication and particularly in how different genders engage in political discourse on social media. Bode (2017) notes that historically there have always been gender differences in political engagement and in online content creation. The study combines to the two realms of research and examines whether any clear differences emerge in terms of how men and women communicate about politics on social media platforms. While the study did find some slight differences, the main takeaway was that these differences generally only occurred in the most visible political behaviors—i.e., men were more likely to post political information on their social media pages, and women were more likely to unfriend or unfollow people based on political reasons (Bode, 2017).
The researcher tested data obtained from the Pew Internet & American Life ‘Social networking sites and politics’ survey, from 2012.…
Bode, L. (2017). Closing the gap: Gender parity in political engagement on social media. Information, Communication & Society, 20(4), 587-603.
GENDER DIFFERENCE AMONG VETERANS
Does Gender Affect the Utilization of Mental Health Care Services among Veterans?
The decision one takes when choosing a career poses a lifelong effect on his own life as well as of his family members. The deployment decision of a career that the person has to face sometimes harms his mental health and family both (Brooks & Chopik, 2020). For example, if the person belongs to the army, he might be deployed in a war zone, which later would have disastrous impacts on his mental health in the form of stress, depression, and excessive use of alcohol, etc. The intensity of trauma might increase if the diagnosis is not done on time and may lead to family problems like divorce, social dysfunction, substance abuse, difficulties in future employment, legal complications, and, most of all, physical health troubles.
Recently, women's inclusion in almost all areas of life…
relational research question; directional hypothesis) and why you are using that type.
This research study is an inquiry into the role of gender in marital conflict. The purpose of the study is not to assess the nature of the role of gender in marital conflict, for it is not presumed that such a role exists. Rather, the answer we seek is a Boolean one; we will accept the null hypothesis that gender does not play a role in marital conflict. In as much, this is a directional hypothesis; we question whether or not the independent variable, "gender," results in a change in the dependent variable, "marital conflict." We will assume all marital relationships to have two people.
It is important to be specific when we say gender. For instance, studies have been done to show how the acceptance of feminist values has influenced a couple; these are referred to as…
Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues contribute to feelings of passivity, negativism and lack of self-esteem, all of which contribute to depression.
In addition, women are more likely to be sexually abused as children (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006). And victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than are those who weren't abused. This means that female undergraduates who were sexually abused have a higher incidence of depression than their male counterparts.
This paper aims to analyze some of the fundamental cultural links to women's depression in college, and compare depression rates of females to males.
While most experts agree that understanding gender differences in depression is important, many believe that it is also important…
William E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Kathryn+E.+Kelly " Kathryn E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Franklin+C.+Brown " Franklin C. Brown, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Hillary+B.+Kelly " Hillary B. Kelly. (March, 1999). Gender Differences in Depression Among College Students: A Multi-Cultural Perspective.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (September 20, 2006). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/MH/00035.html.
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Girgus, Joan S. (May, 1994). The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 115(3), 424-443.
Shields, S.A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In a. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.
). Women, because they have a cooperative approach, may offer advice even when that advice has not been sought. These basic differences can lead to some of the major communications problems between men and women. When women offer unsolicited advice to men, the men may feel as if their competence or ability is being questioned (vom Saal, unk.). On the other hand, when a man offers solutions to a woman, a woman may feel as if he is revealing a lack of empathy (vom Saal, unk.).
However, the emotions and motivations behind communication are only one part of the communication complex. Communication is more than simply what people say; it includes listening and non-verbal communication in addition to verbal communication. Women seem more cued to societal prompts signaling politeness. This means that women are more likely to listen to what another person is saying and are less likely to interrupt.…
Miller, M. And Buchanan, H. (2008). Gender-based communication styles. Retrieved March 8,
2011 from Baby Shop Magazine. Website: http://www.babyshopmagazine.com/fall08/gender-based-communication-styles.htm
vom Saal, W. (unk.). Gender differences in communication styles. Retrieved March 8, 2011
from the State University of New York College at Oneonta
The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).
The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated…
Babl, F. (2008). "Procedural pain and distress in young children as perceived by medical and nursing staff." Pediatric Anesthesia, Vol. 18.
Carlson, K. (2000). "Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, and behavioral distress in children and adolescents: a multisite study." JSPN, Vol. 5, No. 2.
Hama, a. (2004). "Sex differences in pain perception: a biological perspective." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLIV, Nos. 3 & 4.
Ibid., (2000). "Racial differences in pain perception: a biological basis." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLI, No. 1.
Gender Attitudes in Business Students
An Analysis of Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes Relative to Gender and Professions
Significance and Conclusion
There is a body of evidence that suggests many disparities in the representation of gender in certain segments of the academic and business professions. For example, previous research has indicated that women, on average, are less likely to attend business school than males and are also less likely to hold high-ranking positions in organizations. Although there are many factors that are involved in such trends, and many societies have made significant progress towards minimizing the gender gaps, there is still much to be understood about the challenges that women face into entering into certain professions. This research will consider whether there is differences inherent in the genders that could help explain the outcomes that have been observed in various professions. The proposal outlines a research plan that will investigate differences…
Brandt, T., & Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context: An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 44-66.
Copen, C. (2008). TRANSMISSION AND TRANSITIONS: YOUNG ADULTS' BELIEFS, VALUES AND LIFE COURSE TRANSITIONS IN FAMILIAL CONTEXT. University of Southern California, 1-47.
Kennedy, J., & Kray, L. (2014). Who Is Willing to Sacrifice Ethical Values for Money and Social Status?: Gender Differences in Reactions to Ethical Comprimises. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 52-59.
Mumford, M., Helton, W., Decker, B., Connelly, M., & Van Doorn, J. (2003). Values and Beliefs Related to Ethical Decisions. Teaching Business Ethics, 139-170.
1. What are the barriers that keep men from seeking counseling or therapy? What can break those barriers?
One of the barriers that keeps men from seeking counseling is masculinity itself. Sometimes referred to as toxic masculinity, this aspect of being a man involves the ego and the need for the man to feel that he is strong, capable of figuring out his own problems, and able to overcome adversity through resilience. From an early age, boys go through rituals that lead up to their coming of age moment, that defining moment when they believe that they have entered into manhood. To admit in one’s adulthood that he is in need of counseling can almost seem like a shock to one’s sense of masculinity (Kupers, 2005).
Not all men are going to be susceptible to this shock, but those who are will need support and understanding if they are to…
Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166.
Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.
Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.
Dorak, M. T., & Karpuzoglu, E. (2012). Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Frontiers in genetics, 3, 268.
Maas, A. H., & Appelman, Y. E. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), 598-603.
Small Arms Survey. (2016). A Gendered Analysis of Violent Deaths. Small Arms Survey Research Notes • Number 63. Retrieved from http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-63.pdf
Thompson, A. E., Hart, J., Stefaniak, S., & Harvey, C. (2018). Exploring heterosexual adults’ endorsement of the sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors. Sex Roles, 79(3-4), 228-238.
American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender
For example, The Council on Gender Parity in Labor, which is concerned with gender equality, has found that that "...gender inequity in science, engineering and technology fields is a workforce problem that inhibits the full utilization of the labor force. "(Gatta M. And Trigg M. 2001)
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical ork: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding omen Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the omen's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Dehyse M.P. Educated oman: The Grad School Adventures of Micella
Phoenix Dehyse. 2004. July 4, 2006. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/previous_issues/articles/2800/educated_woman_the_grad_school_adventures_of_micella_phoenix_dewhyse_chapter_23_grad_school_and_the_single_soul
Etzkowitz H. Barriers to omen in Academic Science and Engineering. 1994.
July 2, 2006. http://people.mills.edu/spertus/Gender/EKNU.html
Gatta M. And Trigg M. BRIDGING THE GAP: GENDER EQUITY IN SCIENCE,
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 2001.…
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical Work: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the Women's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Man and Woman, Casual Sex and Jealousy:
Insight from the Field of Evolutionary Psychology
'Our modern skulls house a stone age mind."
Cosmides and Tooby, 1997
If questioned today, many people might agree with what seems to be an illogical coupling of statements: (1) A man is more likely than his female mate to feel comfortable about having casual sex with multiple partners, but (2) the same man is likely to feel jealous about his mate having sex with someone else. Yet, when the underlying causes for a male's apparently inconsistent behavior are explored from the perspective of evolutionary psychology, a logical explanation emerges.
Evolutionary psychology is a branch of study focused on the problems and stress factors that ancestors of humans faced, the "psychological mechanisms" that natural selection developed to address these problems and stresses, and the ways in which these ancient mechanisms work today (Crawford and Anderson, 1989,…
Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. (1997). Evolutionary psychology: A primer. Web site: http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/primer.html [Accessed: October 13, 2005].
Crawford, C.B. And Anderson, J.L. (1989). Sociobiology: An environmentalist discipline? American Psychologist, 44, 1449-1459. Cited in Crawford and Salmon (2004).
Crawford, Charles and Salmon, Catherine (2004). Evolutionary psychology, public policy and personal decisions. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harris, Christine R. (2004). 'The evolution of jealousy: Did men and women, facing different selective pressures, evolve different brands of jealousy? Recent evidence suggests not.' American Scientist, Volume: 92. Issue: 1, January-February 2004
Because these issues have become more pronounced in recent years, it is not surprising that efforts have been made to define these differences in an effort to measure them. In this regard, Hofstede (1980) identified five basic dimensions of culture as follows:
1. Power distance (focusing on the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally);
2. Individualism-collectivism (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships -- highly individualist cultures believe individual is the most important unit, whereas highly collectivistic cultures believe group is the most important unit);
3. Uncertainly avoidance (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, uncertainty and ambiguity within the society)
4. Masculinity-femininity (focusing on the extent to which a society emphasizes achievement or nurturing -- masculinity emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles, whereas…
Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Hartford, B.S. (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mann, GA. (2006). A motive to serve: Public service motivation in human resource
management and the role of PSM in the nonprofit sector. Public Personnel Management
Sociology and Socialization: Gender Differences Examined
Go to any card shop and take a look at the birthday cards. Birthday cards display numerous messages about society's attitudes toward gender, age, mental status and more. Most of the birthday cards available in a typical Hallmark store, the store examined, display what might be considered gender 'norms'. For example, girl's birthday cards are mostly offered in pink, showing pictures of flowers or bunnies or other soft items. Male birthday cards often depict pictures of sporting items, blue colors, or even women. The cards available suggest that differences exist between what men and women like, and emphasize that these 'norms' have become social institutions. The messages provided in cards suggest that women want to hear flowery messages of love and caring, whereas men would rather here a good joke or look at a picture of a member of the opposite sex.…
Shepard, J.M. (2001). Sociology, 9th ed. West Publishing Company.
usiness Culture -- Gender Differences
Identifying Gender Communication Styles: ridging the Gap between the Male-Female Diversity for Increasing Performance in the Workplace Setting
One of the best and most essential assets that a business organization has is its workforce, composed of members/employees that use their knowledge and skills about a specific task in order to perform well for the production of goods and services of the organization. Human resources are crucial elements in improving the efficiency of an organization because they are the first people to experience and determine the organization's strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, ascertaining the nature of each member's personality is vital to better communication and interaction within the organization, leading to higher productivity and efficiency in his or her work performance.
ecause of the importance of human resources in organizational management, this paper discusses an issue that is of vital importance in the politics of workplace environment…
Ng, C. (1998). Do women and men communicate differently at work? Women in Management Review, Vol. 13, Issue No. 1.
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…
Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."
Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gender and Smell ecognition
There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…
Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.
Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: verbal vs. sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chem. Senses, 18(1), 17-26.
Lenochova, P., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Human body odour individuality. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 11(3), 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73945-8_18
McGivern, R., Mutter, K., Anderson, J., Wideman, G., Bodnar, M., & Huston, P. (1998).
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
Gender is an institution that people either widely accept as one way or another. Within any given society there are cultural norms that people identify with and that help shape their behaviors, values and beliefs. Gender differences thus can be easily created as an institution and can be representative of inequality when that inequality is supported or constructed by society at large (Kimmel, 2000). Kimmel suggests that inequalities are created as norms and arise within relationships, within families and even in the workplace or any other environment in which people work intimately (Kimmel, 2000).
Because gender is an institution according to Kimmel certain behaviors or actions are easily identified and labeled as appropriate or wrong (such as homosexuality) (Kimmel, 2000). If people adopt and follow social norms they will enjoy all the benefits associated with accepting the institution of gender correctly. When they do something incorrectly however people can expect…
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kleinfeld, J.S. (2002). "Could it be a big world after all? The Six Degrees of Separation
Myth." 2, Nov. 2005: http://www.judithkleinfeld.com/ar_bigworld.html
Napierkowski. "Six Degrees of Separation." Enotes. October 2003. 2 November 2005. http://www.enotes.com/six-degrees/18787 .
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…
Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010 [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
Through this blind test, it is our hope to observe that there is a significant difference between the decision making of men and women when they are presented with different scenarios involving altruism.
The participants within this study will be comprised of students within the University Psychology Research class. In total there will be thirty three different students, with nineteen participating female students and fourteen male students. These students will be tested blindly and they are representatives of a collective pool of 321 University psychology students within the student population. The specific division in this case creates a random sampling based upon the N test population.
The primary material necessary for this test is the principle questionnaire given to participants. The questionnaire are given in two different groupings that will create a test variable. The two versions of the test will provide the same scenario where the…
Bolton, G., & Katok, E. (1995). An experimental test for gender differences in beneficent behavior. Economics Letters.
Nowell, C., & Tinkler, S. (1994). The influence of gender on the provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.
Cox, J. (2002). When are women more generous than men. CA Deck.
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Gender and Crime
How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.
The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…
Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/
Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.
Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p.…
Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.
Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…
Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered
Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
Gender and Counseling
The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.
Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.
The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.
The next part then examines how…
Allen, Jo Ann and Sylvia Gordon. 1990. "Creating a Framework for Change." Men in Therapy: The Challenge of Change. Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick. New York: The Guilford Press.
Connell, Robert W. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Eckert, P. 1989. "The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation," Language Variation and Change (Cambridge), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 245-267
Grant, J. 1988. "Women as managers: What they can offer to organizations," in Organizational Dynamics (New York), Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 56-63.
It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001).
During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk…
Beauty Business, the. (2000, August). Business Asia, 8(12), 36.
Cavendish, R. (2001, April). The First Miss World Contest. History Today, 51(4), 64.
Cooke, R. (June 14, 2004). Girls, girls, girls. New Statesman, 133(4692), 38.
David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen. (2002). You Look Mahvelous: An Examination of Gender and Appearance Comments in the 1999-2000 Prime-Time Season. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 429.
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…
Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.
In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.
According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…
Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.
Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.
Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Gender and Organizational Social Change Models
The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.
The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…
Aaltio, L. And Huang, J. 2007. Women managers' careers in information technology in China: high flyers with emotional costs? Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 2, pp. 227-244.
Akgun, a., Byrne, J., Lynn, G., and Keskin, H. 2007. Organizational unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 6, pp. 794-812.
American Psychological Association (APA). 2006. When the Boss is a Woman. March 22, 2006. Psychology Matters. Available at http://www.psychologymatters.org/womanboss.html
Diefenbach, T. 2007. The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 1., pp. 126-144.
"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…
Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.management-issues.com/2008/10/21/research/gender-pay-gap-nothing-to-do-with-discrimination.asp
Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer01/blaukahn.html
Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom//pressreleases/042307_paygap.cfm
The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of education (Zohar, 1998). However, genetic influences only comprise a small portion of the available studies. Many other studies point out the tremendous influence stereotyping has on gender and education, and suggesting that males and females are traditionally assigned certain 'roles' within the classroom which they tend to live up to over time (Ayim, Diller, Houston & Morgan, 1996).
The most common of these beliefs is that males are more adept at mathematical and analytical tasks whereas females are better at achieving 'soft' skills including English, philosophy etc. (Ayim, et. al, 1996).
There is a body of evidence available which suggests that gender differentiation is evident in the classroom. The traditional views that males are more adept at analytical skills and…
Alsup, J.K & Sprigler, D.N. (2003). "An analysis of gender and the mathematical reasoning ability sub-skill of analysis-synthesis." Education, 123(4): 763
Ayim, M., Diller, a., Houston, B., & Morgan, K.P. (1996). "The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy, and politics." Boulder: Westview Press.
Zohar, a.H. (1998). "Individual differences in some special abilities are genetically influenced." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(3): 431-432
Jamieson explains that the phrase Catch-22, serves as another synonym for double bind. Paula Caplan, a psychologist, notes, "Mothers are caught in a perfect Catch-22. They are supposed to be concerned with emotions and closeness in relationships, but because autonomy has been designated by the white male middle class in North America as the pinnacle of emotional health,"
Mothers in the workplace, however, who do what comes natural to them are sometimes treated as they are immature or even sick.
The gender of the leader does matter to perceivers who filter judgments to the demands of cultural expectations. "Applause from the same sensitive and collaborative leadership is more likely to go to a man than a woman."
In addition, women, particularly leaders frequently experience greater scrutiny for errors, even small ones they make, and are more likely to be criticized than men in leadership positions.
Viewpoints Regarding Genders
Booker, Stacie Kress. 1 May 2006. Perking up: progressive businesses try to offer a range of benefits and policies that help retain employees and make them more productive. Florida Trend. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-145982865.html .
Case Studies. 2008. Colorado State University. 21 Feb. 2008. http://writing.colostate.edu/index.cfm .
Charting the U.S. Labor Market in 2006. 28 Sept. 2007. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics United States Department of Labor. Section 6: Families. 23 Feb. 2009. http://www.bls.gov/LaborForceStatistics fromthe CurrentPopulation Survey>.
Chin, Jean Lau, Bernice E. Lott, Joy K. Rice, and Janis Sanchez-Hucles. 2007. Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices Blackwell Publishing. 21 Feb. 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZyhRWzTm_RwC .
Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3
This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.
urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…
Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
The referent methods of collecting data are summative to the two key positions of the same sex in the society. Some of the methods used included sampling, interviews, issuance of questionnaires and used of printed or secondary data.
Samples were collected from different members of the society. The samples collected were directed reactions to the issue of the same sex in the society. Most approaches of collection that were used aimed at establishing a common ground and avoiding bias from the concerned members. The samples were collected from a diverse society. The researchers ensured that the samples came from different members with regard to religion, race, social meanings and avenues, and social classes. Furthermore, the samples were collected from a diverse society in order to ensure that they were a true reflection of the real state of matter in the world as concerns same sex marriage.
Cantor, D.J. (2006). Same-sex marriage: The legal and psychological evolution in America.
Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.
Corvino, J. (1999). Same sex: Debating the ethics, science, and culture of homosexuality journal. Vol. 5, Issue 1, Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Corvino, J., & Gallagher, M. (2012). The great debate: Debating same-sex marriage journal. Vol. 5
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…
Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.
Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.
Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…
Societies are organized in an exceedingly gendered manner; that is, the “natural” difference between females and males and attributing distinct traits to both genders lies at the heart of all social institutions’ structures, right from families to job structures, to the private-public division, to power accessibility. Hence, resource access and the enjoyment of secure property rights remain highly gendered within several areas across the globe. Females, both minor and adult, suffer particularly due to unfair land rights, besides encountering obstacles when it comes to accessing resources and even their own inheritance. That is not to say that males (adult as well as minor) are never faced with such challenges (consider the example of first sons inheriting more as compared to their younger brothers). Furthermore, right to resource access can also end up impacting people’s ability of accessing other services. For instance, a female’s limited rights or lack of property ownership…
Employees' job satisfaction and success is tremendously influenced by managers. Studies show that men and women have varying preferences for the choice of the gender of their manager. Several studies have concentrated on this matter. Unfortunately, the outcomes of the studies are inconsistent. This paper, therefore, seeks to review past findings of research with the intention of exploring and casting light on the relationship between the variables in the modern workplace (Jackson, Alberti, & Snipes, 2014).
Effect of Gender on Leadership Style
Available research shows that men and women face different evaluation parameters in their leadership roles. Success in performance for a man is often attributed to the internal characteristics of the man and his skills and abilities. On the other hand, success for a woman is attributed to external factors that relate to a situation. These include the simplicity of the task or chance. There is a general perception…
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Gender and Sex in Anthropology
A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Defining Sex and Gender
The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…
Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.
Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
individual's gender is an important factor that influences their career, success, and even their subjective evaluation of their career (e.g., Orser & Leck, 2010; Schneidhofer, Schiffinger, & Mayrhofer, 2010). A number of different models have been proposed to explain how a person's gender influences one's vocational aspirations, career choice, and perceived success (see Schoon & Eccles, 2014). These influences affect both objective and subjective measures of career success/attainment.
For example, Orser and Leck (2010) examined how gender moderates objective career factors as well as subjective career factors. Data was collected from a large sample of male and female managers, executives, and CEOs (N = 521). Two objective dependent measures of success were collected: 1) total compensation (annual salary, bonuses, and other financial remuneration) and 2) ascendancy (defined by the number of reporting levels below the participant). One subjective dependent measure was also collected (personal opinion regarding how successful the participant…
Herrbach, O., & Mignonac, K. (2012). Perceived gender discrimination and women's subjective career success: The moderating role of career anchors. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 67(1), 25-50.
Orser, B., & Leck, J. (2010). Gender influences on career success outcomes.Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(5), 386-407.
Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2010). Mind the (gender) gap. Gender, gender role types, and their effects on objective career success over time. Management Revue, 437-457.
Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2011). Still a man's world? The influence of gender and gender role type on income in two business school graduate cohorts over time. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 31(1), 65-82.