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This does not mean, however, that money is not important, because having enough money for female recruitment and scholarships allows many more women to excel at sports programs at many different colleges and universities.
Some female coaches have also encountered difficulties when they speak out about perceived wrongdoing when it comes to the distribution of money (Fish, D1). Even though Title IX required gender equity, there are many places where this has not happened and women are still concerned with punishment if they complain. Since Title IX has not been enforced in many schools across the country this has made many people wonder whether there will ever be equity when it comes to gender, race, and other issues, and this problem is not just for colleges and universities.
It also extends to high schools and middle schools as well, where children should be taught that everyone is equal and deserves…
Fish, Mike. 1998, September 21. "Women in sports: growing pains." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, D1.
This paper will examine variations in gender inequality based on educational levels (and, subsequently, approximately on socioeconomic status) in case of the following three countries: America, Indonesia and the Netherlands, which are characterized by highly disparate female employment, societal welfare and family policies and circumstance. For every country, female hourly pay rates and employment rates for distinct educational levels are compared, besides work hours and employment rates for males with the same educational level. It is broadly hypothesized female employment increases with higher educational qualification; increased employment of qualified females results in improved gender equality in terms of pay, housework and job (Evertsson, England and Reci).
How is employment anticipated to differ with educational level among females? The conflicting factors of income and opportunity cost have been put forward by economic theory. Better educated females can earn more. Therefore, for such women, opportunity costs linked to unemployment (i.e., the monetary…
Cohen, Philip N., and Suzanne M. Bianchi. “Marriage, Children, and Women’s Employment: What Do We Know?” Monthly Labor Review (1999): 122:22–31.
Esping-Andersen, Go¨sta. “Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism.” Cambridge: Policy Press (1990).
Evertsson, Marie, et al. \\"Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.\\" Oxford University Press (2009): 210–241.
Garcia, Marisa, et al. \\"Women’s Workforce participation in Malaysia and Indonesia.\\" Nathan Associates Inc. (?2015).
Lewis, Jane. “Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes.” Journal of European Social Policy (1992): 2:159–73.
Lewis, Jane, and Susanna Giullari. “The Adult Worker Model Family and Gender Equality: Principles to Enable the Valuing and Sharing of Care.” In Gender and Social Policy in a Global Context: Uncovering the Gendered Structure of ‘the Social, eds. S. Razavi, and S. Hassim, 173–192. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (2006).
Misra, Joya, Michelle J. Budig, and Stephanie Moller. “Reconciliation Policies and the Effects of Motherhood on Employment, Earnings and Poverty.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis (2007): 9:135– 55.
Morgan, Kimberly J. Working Mothers and the Welfare State. Religion and the Politics of Work-Family Policies in Western Europe and the United States. Stanford: Stanford University Press (2006).
Gender Inequality in Japan
Social change is often slow. This is especially true concerning the shift of traditional gender roles in any society. Historically, however, once these roles do begin to change, women in specific seem to bear the brunt of the stress that these changes necessarily cause. Indeed, a vacuum seems to form where old societal rules once stood, and it is often women that find themselves unsure, unsupported, and floundering in the new, uncertain reality. In specific, the rapid changes that have occurred in Japanese society are an excellent example of this phenomenon, for changes in the roles of Japanese women -- where independent dreams, work, and identities are becoming more and more acceptable in theory, nonetheless still leave them charged with the full and untempered gender burdens of centuries past -- burdens of the "good wife," mother, and woman. In short, they are left with…
Daiwa Foundation. Gender, Equality and Family Life: Social and Policy Issues Facing Women in Japan. 21 February, 2003. Retrieved from Web site on April 15, 2004 http://www.daiwa-foundation.org.uk/_pdf/Iwao%20transcript.pdf
Jones, Randall S. Japan's Aging Population. The OECD Observer. No. 209. Dec/Jan. 1997. Retrieved from Web site on April 15, 2004 http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:mNpDcPsBFlwJ:www1.oecd.org/publications/observer/209/034-035a.pdf+%22Japan%22+and+%22average+age%22+population&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Kadri, Francoise. "Childless Japan." Retrieved from Web site on April 15, 2004 http://www.thingsasian.com/goto_article/article.2268.html
Kakuchi, Suvendrini. "Japan: Still a long way from gender equality." Asian Times Online. 6 June, 2000. Retrieved from Web site on April 15, 2004 http://www.atimes.com/japan-econ/BF06Dh01.html
Gendered Power and Parenting
Parenting styles can be incredibly diverse and come in many different ways. Many of us who are parents recognize a lot of the decisions we make as reflections of our own parents. For better or worse, our parenting styles have been greatly influenced by our parents, our culture, and our society. This paper aims to focus on some of the scholarly work that has been done in order to analyze different parenting styles, and also to observe the influences of the parental behavior on the child.
How do the article journals compare and contrast to the class readings?
Two separate child-care models were discussed in the first article. There is the more traditional approach in which the mother takes on the majority of the child-care responsibility while the father steps back and focuses on being a provider. The second model shows an equal collaboration between both…
Allen, K.R., Llyod, S.A., & Few, A.L. (2009). Reclaiming feminist theory, method and praxis for family studies. In S.A. Llyod, A.L. Few, & K.R. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of feminist family studies. (pp. 3-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Bermudez, M., Hunter, L., Stinson, M., & Abrams, B. (2014). I Am Not Going to Lose My Kids to the Streets: Meanings and Experiences of Motherhood Among Mexican-Origin Women. Journal of Family Issues, 3-27.
Bornstein, M.H., & Cote, L.R. (2003). Cultural and parenting cognitions in acculturating cultures: 2. Patterns of prediction and structural coherence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 350-373
Chao, R.K. (2000). The parenting of immigrant Chinese and Euro- American mothers: Relations between parenting styles, socialization goals, and parental practices. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 233-248
Although women have seen substantial progress as a group in the United States due to the women's rights movement, globally women still struggle to attain parity with men, particularly in the resource-poor developing world. Although women have assumed politically prominent leadership positions in the U.S., Germany, Canada, and other major national powerhouses, overall, females have struggled to attain parity with men in the world community as a whole. Globally, women make up "just 17% of parliamentarians" and "over the past 25 years only 1 in 40 women were peace agreement signatories" (Inequality statistics. 2014 Womankind Worldwide). There are significant health disparities regarding women's health: for example, "99% of maternal deaths occur in developing countries, with women continuing to die of pregnancy-related causes at the rate of one a minute" and while "women produce up to 80% of food in developing countries" they are "more likely to be hungry…
Abbate, L. What causes the feminization of poverty? World Politics. Retrieved from:
Aikman, S., Halai, A., & Rubagiza, J. (2011). Conceptualising gender equality in research on education quality. Comparative Education, 47(1), 45-60. doi: 10.2307/25800033
Eastin, J., & Prakash, A. (2013). ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER EQUALITY: Is There a Gender Kuznets Curve? World Politics, 65(1), 156-186. doi: 10.2307/42002201
(2003, p. 136)
Other manifestations of kastom also indicate the concept's gender-related impact on a modern Pacific state. For example, Gregor and Tuzin (2001) cite the kastom communities of South Pentecost as a good example of how male-dominated societal practices have been used to maintain the status quo. Described by Gregor and Tuzin as "a tiny traditionalist enclave in a pervasively Christian country," these authors report that "there are still tenacious patterns of sexual segregation -- exclusivist men's houses, or mal, separate from the household im and commensal separation therein, with men's and women's cooking fires" in South Pentecost (2001, p. 178). These long-held beliefs that have assigned Vanuatun men the long end of the social stick have somewhat morphed the original kastom concept into a more modern version that remains centered on protected the status quo. In this regard, Gregor and Tuzin emphasize that, "Such gendered patterns of spatiality…
Colchester, C. 2003 Clothing the Pacific. Oxford, England: Berg.
Gregor, T.A. & Tuzin, D. 2001 Gender in Amazonia and Melanesia: An Exploration of the Comparative Method. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kapferer, B. 2003 Beyond Rationalism: Rethinking Magic, Witchcraft, and Sorcery. New York:
society without families, the basic needs of people in that society would have to be addressed by the State or whatever authority or system of government is in place. Children would be cared for by administrators put in place by the governing authority, whether chosen on a local scale -- by the community -- or at a much larger centralized level. Training and values would be instilled through state-run education systems, and the child's need for love and care would have to be fulfilled through surrogacy, with peers and/or guardians put in place to provide the emotional and cognitive stimuli associated with love/care. Parents would meet the needs of their growing children by supplying them with basic necessities (food, shelter, clothing) but would have no say in education, love, affection, interaction, etc. -- normal actions associated with family life. The types of adults that this society would create would probably…
Gender Equality: The United States versus the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is often called the mother country of the United States. However, in some ways, the countries still differ, including in their measures of gender equality. Perhaps the most notable example can be found in the leadership of the United Kingdom. Unlike the US, the UK has already had a female head of state, in the form of Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and Theresa May, and before that the UK was led by female monarchs as heads of state. The US has lacked such a female figurehead at such a prominent position, though Hillary Clinton did come close to securing the White House in 2016, and several female Congresswomen have risen to prominent positions, such as Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Ilhan Omar. Presidential hopeful Joe Biden has said on record that he will pick a female VP as his…
Codina, N., & Pestana, J. V. (2019). Time Matters Differently in Leisure Experience for Men and Women: Leisure Dedication and Time Perspective. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(14), 2513.
Covert, B. (2018). What the US can learn from Britain on equal pay. The New Republic. Retrieved from: https://newrepublic.com/article/147882/us-can-learn-britain-equal-pay
Gray. E. (2015). How the British suffragettes radicalized American women. Time. Retrieved from: https://time.com/4084759/how-british suffragettes-radicalized-american-women/
Maybin, S. (2016). Four ways the gender pay gap isn't all it seems. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-37198653
Porter, J. (2014). The gender leisure gap: Why women are losing their time to just chill out. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3034205/the-gender-leisure-gap-why-women-are-losing-their-time-to-just-chill-out
United Kingdom. (2020). European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). Retrieved from:https://eige.europa.eu/gender mainstreaming/countries/united-kingdom
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
Globalization can be loosely defined as trade networks between disparate geographic regions, leading to the exchange of goods, people, and ideas. Improved technology and transportation tools, industrialization, and advancements in market economies have created a world in which globalization has become inevitable. As Held & McGrew (2003) point out, the evolution of physical, normative, and symbolic infrastructure has facilitated globalization since the industrial age, giving rise to banking systems, normative trade policies including tariffs, and the use of English as a global language (p. 3). Globalization has entered public discourse relatively recently, and is "a relatively new idea in the social sciences," (Sklair, 1999, p. 1) but globalization has been a part of human civilization for over a thousand years, as the Silk oad and other long distance trade routes have created links between cultures that have been transformative as well as irreversible.
Defining globalization can be tricky, as there…
Held D. & McGrew, A. (2003). "The Great Globalization Debate." Excerpt from The Global Transformations Reader.
Sklair, L. (1999). "Competing Conceptions of Globalization." Journal of World Systems Research. V (2). 143-163.
TedTalks: Pankaj Ghemawat -- actually, the world isn't flat [Video file]. (2012). Retrieved January 22, 2017, from http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx ? wID=16071&xtid=53051
More than 30 years ago, the United Nations (UN) held the first Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women known as CEDAW (Ramdas, Janus, 2011). Since that time, nearly every single member nation of the UN has shown its support for the convention by ratifying the treaty associated with the convention and resolving to work with other member nations to ensure that gender equality is reached across the entire globe. What is surprising, however, is that the U.S. is not one of the member nations to support CEDAW. It is one of only 6 of the 191 UN member nations to have yet to ratify CEDAW. For more than three decades, the U.S. has failed to sign on to the treaty, while so many other countries around the world have acted with conviction to end gender discrimination. The story in the U.S. is one where discrimination…
Gould, E., Shieder, J., Geier, K. (2016). What is the gender pay gap and is it real?
Retrieved from http://www.epi.org/publication/what-is-the-gender-pay-gap-and-is-it-real/
Holmes, K., Corley, D. (2017). International approaches to closing the gender wage gap.
Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2017/04/04/429825/international-approaches-closing-gender-wage-gap/
Ramdas, K., Janus, K. (2011). Ratifying women’s rights. Retrieved from
Sommers, C. (2011). Feminism by treaty. Retrieved from
The Women's Movement and the Right to Vote in England
Who Led the Suffragettes in England in the 20th Century
After release from prison for militant suffragette activities (breaking windows, burning buildings), Christabel Pankhurst gave England to know that she was in no way mollified or subdued. Her recording of a speech asserting that now is the time for women to have the right to vote was made and disseminated and will serve as the text for analysis in this paper. The women’s suffragette movement of the early 20th century was pivotal in signaling a change in the political tide; it ushered in a new era for women’s rights, representation and social and political status. It set the wheels in motion for the subsequent waves of feminism and woman’s empowerment that swept across the Atlantic to the US. The movement was helmed and steered by a group of women…
Altman, Dennis. "Discontents: Identity, politics, institutions." Griffith Review 57 (2017): 80.
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. University of California Press, 1969.
Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis. Penguin, 1975.
Laible, Deborah, et al. "Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents’ adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors." Developmental psychology 52.6 (2016): 922.
Kim, Claire Heeryung, et al. "Political identity, preference, and persuasion." Social Influence 13.4 (2018): 177-191.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media, critical edition, edited by W.Terrence.
Gordon. Berkeley, California: Gingko Press, 2013.
Pankhurst, Christabel. “Speech.” https://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item126861.html
Gender Equality in the Gulf
Historically, there has been a marked dearth of gender equality and women’s empowerment in the countries compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There are a number of reasons responsible for this situation. Firstly, these countries are all predominantly Muslim. Traditional gender roles (and stereotypes) largely exist in Islam and in countries which adhere to this faith as their national religion. Women are supposed to remain covered up in their raiment and relegated to domestic roles. The problem is that women account for approximately 50 percent of the population in the GCC countries, yet only constitute approximately 25 percent of the labor force in those countries (World Bank). Therefore, these countries are disadvantageously affected in certain aspects of economics and society because of the lack of female contributions in both of…
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
There has been a lot of progress when it comes to gender diversity. However, a lot of work remains to be done. Indeed, there is a cacophony of issues that keep cropping up including talk about the glass escalator vs. the glass ceiling, the myth that women are on equal status with men to this very day, the historical role of gender and diversity over the course of the history of the United States, the very different definitions of sex and gender and so forth. The recent Supreme Court of the United States decision that ensconced gay marriage as being an equal right that people in the LGBT community should enjoy as a civil right was a milestone moment. While this is an encouraging event and people in the workplace should not allow sexual behavior or gender/sexual identity to become an issue, there is still a lot of ignorance and…
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…
Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010 [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…
Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered
Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.
Gender and Islam Books
The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.
This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…
Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open
hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).
But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…
Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.
New York: Viking, 2000.
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
Moreover, since 1981 "five macro-level comparative tests of the traditional feminist hypothesis that gender inequality is positively associated with rates of rape have been published. Contrary to expectations, they "failed to support the traditional gender inequality hypothesis" and instead supported the "backlash hypothesis" that greater social mobility of women leads to a corresponding increase in violence (haley, 2001: 535). Regardless, in comparing these studies there is some difficulty in defining precisely what is meant by 'gender equality,' whether it mean sex disparities in earnings, education, employment, or less definable and quantitative variables like perceptions of what it means to be 'male' and 'female' (haley 2001:535).
Britton, Dana M. (Sep., 2000). "Feminism in Criminology: Engendering the Outlaw."
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 57-76.
haley, Rachel Bridges (Aug, 2001). "The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender I nequality and…
Britton, Dana M. (Sep., 2000). "Feminism in Criminology: Engendering the Outlaw."
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 57-76.
Whaley, Rachel Bridges (Aug, 2001). "The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender I nequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory." Gender and Society. 15. 4: 531-555.
Women are just mere followers of what the males would decide.
Taoism is a combination of psychology and philosophy and evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers. About 30,000 Taoists live in North America, 1,720 in Canada (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005).
Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices include (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005):
Tao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. "The Tao surrounds everyone and therefore everyone must listen to find enlightenment."
Each believer's goal is to become one with the Tao.
Taoists strongly promote health and vitality.
Taoists believe that the five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.
Buddhism." 2005. http://www.fwbo.org/buddhism.html
Buddhism and Gender Equality." 2006. http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm
Inglehart, Ronald. 2002. "Islam, gender, culture, and democracy." International Journal of Comparative Sociology. E.J. Brill
Kohn, Livia. 2006. "Are Women in Daoism Different From Women in Chinese Society." Department of Religious Studies. Queen's University Kingston, ON Taoism."2005. http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/
Gender Portrayals in Media
Since the advent of the television during the latter part of 1920s, men and women have been portrayed differently in movies, television, radio, music videos, news, and social media. Stereotyping men and women aided in developing sustainability strategies for marketing and advertising efforts. Essentially, it is about appeal and influencing the consumer. Unfortunately, the various mediums are fraught with sexism and racial disparities, which are difficult to overcome since the mediums are controlled by those in power. This level of control may be disguised as marketing techniques for certain target groups. By devising an appealing image for a consumer in which he or she may identify, advertisers establish a connection, thus building loyalty and developing a following. Hence, gender portrayals are fundamental practices to reach a large group of consumers by creating categorical images.
Gender Socializer: Television
Several of the popular radio soap operas made the…
It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001).
During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk…
Beauty Business, the. (2000, August). Business Asia, 8(12), 36.
Cavendish, R. (2001, April). The First Miss World Contest. History Today, 51(4), 64.
Cooke, R. (June 14, 2004). Girls, girls, girls. New Statesman, 133(4692), 38.
David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen. (2002). You Look Mahvelous: An Examination of Gender and Appearance Comments in the 1999-2000 Prime-Time Season. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 429.
Gender Bias in the Workplace
Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.
In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…
EEOC. 35 Years Of Ensuring The Promise Of Opportunity. Available on the address http://www.eeoc.gov/35th/history/index.html . Accessed on 22 Jul. 2003.
U.S Department Of Labor. Title IX, Education Amendments Of 1972. Available on the address
Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3
This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.
urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…
Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…
Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.
One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…
Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/
Societies are organized in an exceedingly gendered manner; that is, the “natural” difference between females and males and attributing distinct traits to both genders lies at the heart of all social institutions’ structures, right from families to job structures, to the private-public division, to power accessibility. Hence, resource access and the enjoyment of secure property rights remain highly gendered within several areas across the globe. Females, both minor and adult, suffer particularly due to unfair land rights, besides encountering obstacles when it comes to accessing resources and even their own inheritance. That is not to say that males (adult as well as minor) are never faced with such challenges (consider the example of first sons inheriting more as compared to their younger brothers). Furthermore, right to resource access can also end up impacting people’s ability of accessing other services. For instance, a female’s limited rights or lack of property ownership…
Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Gender and Sex in Anthropology
A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Defining Sex and Gender
The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…
Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.
Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
Latin American woman who is interested in a cultural studies program. This has not changed, and in fact, this course has helped me to deepen my understanding of diversity and helped me to understand more about gender roles and norms from a cross-cultural perspective. I have learned that there are no universal constants, and that even within cultures there can be a great diversity of experience as we saw with Monday's Girls and the difference between Florence and Azikiye. Likewise, the differences between the rich and poor gay men in Manila shows how even within the same culture, there can be a great variety of experiences and points-of-view. The most difficult concept for me as I continue my studies will be cultural relativism or ethical relativism. It is difficult to withhold judgments, especially when we believe that a way of life or worldview is harmful. On the one hand, there…
Cairoli, M.L. "Factory as Home and Family."
"Gender and the Global Economy." Chapter 11.
Response One: Liam
It is true that capitalism has generally benefitted the "owners of the means of production," as Marx had put it. Since the age of imperialism, Western Europe has been exploitative. More specifically, the men in positions of power have exploited laborers. This is as true for men as for women. Capitalism has allowed for tremendous innovations and greater overall productivity, but it has resulted in anomie and a detachment between the labor and the finished product. Few workers have shareholding capacities in the companies they work for, creating a system in which the laborer who creates the product does not share in the fruits of the very work that he or she performs.
For example, The Council on Gender Parity in Labor, which is concerned with gender equality, has found that that "...gender inequity in science, engineering and technology fields is a workforce problem that inhibits the full utilization of the labor force. "(Gatta M. And Trigg M. 2001)
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical ork: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding omen Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the omen's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Dehyse M.P. Educated oman: The Grad School Adventures of Micella
Phoenix Dehyse. 2004. July 4, 2006. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/previous_issues/articles/2800/educated_woman_the_grad_school_adventures_of_micella_phoenix_dewhyse_chapter_23_grad_school_and_the_single_soul
Etzkowitz H. Barriers to omen in Academic Science and Engineering. 1994.
July 2, 2006. http://people.mills.edu/spertus/Gender/EKNU.html
Gatta M. And Trigg M. BRIDGING THE GAP: GENDER EQUITY IN SCIENCE,
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 2001.…
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical Work: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the Women's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf
The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)
Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…
Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html
Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),
Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)
Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…
Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.
Without their guidance, the world be empty of the poetry of Maya Angelou, the courage of Clara Barton, the genius of Pearl . Buck, the leadership of Rosalynn Carter, the great voice of Ella, and the practical inventions of Temple Grandin. Though not warmly received across the board at first, the movement changed history.
ociety derives its gender roles from the religious doctrines it holds sacred; it is also important to note the anthropological perspectives which, frequently false, have also been factored into the social consciousness of a culture over time. Among these in the world of gender definitions are the ideas of Darwin, whose plebian social scope promoted an idea in which the best genes were transferred to males over females, programming men psychologically to be the better species. Fortunately, the age of social Darwinism that separated whites from their inferior racial peers has also brought the end to…
Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy. New York: Cornell University Press, 2002. p. 13.
Freedman, Estelle. No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003. Introduction.
Dennett, Daniel C. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. VI.
I use the above family as an example that I think that the socialization of children remains the primary job of the parent and that parents can help determine how external society influences impact their children. Whether society freaked out because of an image of a little boy with pink toenails is not nearly so important as how a family reacts if a little boy wants to paint his toenails pink. The little boy in the family I described accompanies his mom and sister to the salon and I have seen him with green painted toenails (his favorite color) and know there would be no objections if he wanted pink ones. His sister has rejected the "girl" Legos in favor of "boy" sets, but will vehemently argue with you if you suggested that Ninjago was marketed towards boys.
I do not think that there was less gender stereotyping in toys…
Klein, M. (2011, April 13). J. Crew's toenail-painting ad causes pink scare. Retrieved March
9, 2012 from Ms. Magazine blog website: http://msmagazine.com/blog/blog/2011/04/13/j-crews-toenail-painting-ad-causes-pink-scare/
Melanie. (2008, October 5). Gender socialization in the media from childhood to adulthood.
Retrieved March 9, 2012 from FeministFatale website: http://www.feministfatale.com/2008/10/gender-socialization-in-the-media-from-childhood-to-adulthood/
Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking
The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.
Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…
Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.
Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge
Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.
Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.
In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.
Men in Islam
As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.
The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…
Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.
Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.
What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter? http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…
Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.management-issues.com/2008/10/21/research/gender-pay-gap-nothing-to-do-with-discrimination.asp
Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer01/blaukahn.html
Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom//pressreleases/042307_paygap.cfm
Women in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia is religiously and socially conservative. There is a relatively high level of cultural homogeneity inspired by tribal and Islamic factors. In these circumstances, it is not easy to differentiate between Arabic and Islamic cultures in these circumstances. Some cultural beliefs including the view that women should not be lawyers or engineers have nothing to do with Islam but have increasingly become part of the cultural values of the communities which happen to be largely Islamic. The function of women in the wider society is restricted. Saudi Arabia, thus, has one of the lowest numbers of women in public work places; especially those who are graduates. The government has recently embarked on gender sensitization programs aimed at discouraging gender-based discrimination. Stake holders have also undertaken to make sure that there is more participation of women in education. They seek to increase the number…
Julia Ismael. (2013). The Islamic Influence on the Role of Women and Girls in the United States. Writing 406-1, Writing and Inquiry,. Seattle: Antioch University.
Madeleine K. Albright. (2006). The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other. Pew Global Attitudes Project.
Shakir Ahmed Alsaleh. (n.d.). Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia: Myth and Reality. University for Health Sciences Riyadh.
Yahya Al Alhareth, Yasra Al Alhareth, & Ibtisam Al Dighrir. (2015). Review of Women and Society in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research, 121-125.
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…
Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004
Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf
Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004
Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
hat is gender? Is it a biological condition or a social construction? In today's modern world, it appears that it can be one or the other or even a mixture of both. Transgender people like Caitlyn Jenner (formerly Bruce Jenner, an Olympian) have raised awareness about the issue of gender, and so have others, like the achowski siblings, famous Hollywood directors, who have brought attention to the issue through their exploration of sexual and gender identity issues. Researchers have also added to the debate about what is gender identity by performing both qualitative and quantitative studies about it, ranging from discussions of the difference between sex and gender to neurobiological brain scans of brain wave patterns in men, women, straight and transgender. Results, findings and conclusions remain contested and controversial, suggesting that even today little is known about why gender identity is an issue for some and not…
Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:
Routledge, 1990. Print.
International Human ights, Women and Gender
International Human ights: Women and Gender
Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).
Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).
The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…
Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.
Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.
CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.
CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.
As in most other places around the world, the demands of family - caring for children, keeping house, obtaining and preparing food for meals - fall predominantly on women. In the case of Cuba this situation is made worse by the distortions of the communistic economy:
People's motivation to work waned as there was little to work for. Money came to have little meaning in the legal economy - but not by design as, according to Marxism, it was supposed to do in a utopian communist society. There simply was little to buy through officially sanctioned channels, and the government provided most social needs gratis or for minimum fees. Under the circumstances, material as well as moral incentives became ineffective in the legal economy. The burdens of sheer survival and transport difficulties also led people to miss work with increased regularity, above all women on whom the burdens fell most.…
Choudhury, Nusrat. "From the Stasi Commission to the European Court of Human Rights: L'affaire Du Foulard and the Challenge of Protecting the Rights of Muslim Girls." Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 16.1 (2007): 199+.
Cross, Mdire Fedelma. "4 Women and Politics." Women in Contemporary France / . Ed. Abigail Gregory and Ursula Tidd. New York: Berg, 2000. 89-106.
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…
Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?
Definition of keywords
Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.
Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.
Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.
Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)
Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…
Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music
Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books [Accessed 29 November 2014].
Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.
Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
Psychology of Gender in usiness
Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…
Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.
Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.
Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.
Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.
The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's
Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…
Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,
2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
racial gender constituency a fact-finding committee major American party choice: My choice marked astrids. This paper introduction conclusion. •******Outside consultant hired party advise inclusive*****
To ensure there is equality in society, the party should ensure that encompasses women in its agenda. The role of women in society cannot be overlooked, and any American party should include them when discussing society matters. Women play an important role and addressing their issues together with other issues is vital for the party's success. Having women in the party's leadership will also ensure that the women agenda is addressed and women will feel represented. Considering the constituency has more women than men, it is vital that the party attracts them to its side. This will not only ensure victory to the party, but will ensure that the party is more inclusive and sensitive to women affairs. Encouraging women to participate within the party affairs…
Keremidchieva, Z. (2012). Legislative Reform, the Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues, and the Crisis of Women's Political Representation. [Article]. Women & Language, 35(1), 13-38.
Sedgh, G., Bankole, A., Singh, S., & Eilers, M. (2012). Legal Abortion Levels and Trends By Woman's Age at Termination. [Article]. International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 38(3), 143-153. doi: 10.1363/3814312
Women: Still Number Two But Trying Harder. (1975). [Article]. Time, 105(22), 48.
One of the major issues that have characterized international relations (IR) discourse is the role and significance of gender. Steans (2006) states that gender issues in international relations (IR) are usually very controversial and highly political. The controversy associated with this issue is attributable to the fact that gender IR is an increasingly political issue. This paper focuses on examining the role and significance of gender in international relations given the increased controversy and politics surrounding it. This paper demonstrates that gender is an important issue in IR, especially with the increased role of men and women in world politics. The first part shows that gender relations are crucial in international law and politics. The second part shows that incorporating both genders in IR discourse helps in establishing fair social policies and inclusive peace strategies. The third part will demonstrate that gender plays a major role in formulating policy agenda…
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
omen and Gender Studies
Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female
Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):