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Gender Equity in the Workplace
Words: 2429 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42537091
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Gender Equality: The United States versus the United Kingdom
Introduction
The United Kingdom is often called the mother country of the United States. However, in some ways, the countries still differ, including in their measures of gender equality. Perhaps the most notable example can be found in the leadership of the United Kingdom. Unlike the US, the UK has already had a female head of state, in the form of Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and Theresa May, and before that the UK was led by female monarchs as heads of state. The US has lacked such a female figurehead at such a prominent position, though Hillary Clinton did come close to securing the White House in 2016, and several female Congresswomen have risen to prominent positions, such as Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Ilhan Omar. Presidential hopeful Joe Biden has said on record that he will pick a female VP as his…

References
Codina, N., & Pestana, J. V. (2019). Time Matters Differently in Leisure Experience for Men and Women: Leisure Dedication and Time Perspective. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(14), 2513.
Covert, B. (2018). What the US can learn from Britain on equal pay. The New Republic. Retrieved from:  https://newrepublic.com/article/147882/us-can-learn-britain-equal-pay 
Gray. E. (2015). How the British suffragettes radicalized American women. Time. Retrieved from:  https://time.com/4084759/how-british suffragettes-radicalized-american-women/ 
Maybin, S. (2016). Four ways the gender pay gap isn't all it seems. Retrieved from  https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-37198653 
Porter, J. (2014). The gender leisure gap: Why women are losing their time to just chill out. Retrieved from  https://www.fastcompany.com/3034205/the-gender-leisure-gap-why-women-are-losing-their-time-to-just-chill-out 
United Kingdom. (2020). European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). Retrieved from:https://eige.europa.eu/gender mainstreaming/countries/united-kingdom
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.

Guaranteeing Equal Pay for Women
Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 60428227
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More than 30 years ago, the United Nations (UN) held the first Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women known as CEDAW (Ramdas, Janus, 2011). Since that time, nearly every single member nation of the UN has shown its support for the convention by ratifying the treaty associated with the convention and resolving to work with other member nations to ensure that gender equality is reached across the entire globe. What is surprising, however, is that the U.S. is not one of the member nations to support CEDAW. It is one of only 6 of the 191 UN member nations to have yet to ratify CEDAW. For more than three decades, the U.S. has failed to sign on to the treaty, while so many other countries around the world have acted with conviction to end gender discrimination. The story in the U.S. is one where discrimination…

References
Gould, E., Shieder, J., Geier, K. (2016). What is the gender pay gap and is it real?
Retrieved from  http://www.epi.org/publication/what-is-the-gender-pay-gap-and-is-it-real/ 
Holmes, K., Corley, D. (2017). International approaches to closing the gender wage gap.
Retrieved from  https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2017/04/04/429825/international-approaches-closing-gender-wage-gap/ 
Ramdas, K., Janus, K. (2011). Ratifying women’s rights. Retrieved from
 https://www.hoover.org/research/ratifying-womens-rights 
Sommers, C. (2011). Feminism by treaty. Retrieved from
 https://www.hoover.org/research/feminism-treaty

Deeds Not Words Emotional Appeals and Argumentation Theory in the Suffragette Movement
Words: 3256 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58545614
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The Women's Movement and the Right to Vote in England
Who Led the Suffragettes in England in the 20th Century
Introduction
After release from prison for militant suffragette activities (breaking windows, burning buildings), Christabel Pankhurst gave England to know that she was in no way mollified or subdued. Her recording of a speech asserting that now is the time for women to have the right to vote was made and disseminated and will serve as the text for analysis in this paper. The women’s suffragette movement of the early 20th century was pivotal in signaling a change in the political tide; it ushered in a new era for women’s rights, representation and social and political status. It set the wheels in motion for the subsequent waves of feminism and woman’s empowerment that swept across the Atlantic to the US. The movement was helmed and steered by a group of women…

Works Cited
Altman, Dennis. "Discontents: Identity, politics, institutions." Griffith Review 57 (2017): 80.
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. University of California Press, 1969.
Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis. Penguin, 1975.
Laible, Deborah, et al. "Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents’ adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors." Developmental psychology 52.6 (2016): 922.
Kim, Claire Heeryung, et al. "Political identity, preference, and persuasion." Social Influence 13.4 (2018): 177-191.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media, critical edition, edited by W.Terrence.
Gordon. Berkeley, California: Gingko Press, 2013.
Pankhurst, Christabel. “Speech.”  https://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item126861.html

Gender and Communication
Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43528571
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Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace

Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…

References

Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from:  http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women  %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from:  http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010  [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from:  http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction  [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge

Gendered Criminology Theory the Authors
Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25317278
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A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.

A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…

References

Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered

Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.

Gender and Islam Books the War in
Words: 2440 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 47869654
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Gender and Islam Books

The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.

This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.

Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…

Gender Studies -- the World Split Open
Words: 2036 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43732110
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Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open

hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).

But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…

Works Cited

Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.

New York: Viking, 2000.

Gender in Sports in the
Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9741790
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Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…

Works Cited

Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard

Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.

"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4

Gender Equity Model Discuss the
Words: 359 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49631547
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Moreover, since 1981 "five macro-level comparative tests of the traditional feminist hypothesis that gender inequality is positively associated with rates of rape have been published. Contrary to expectations, they "failed to support the traditional gender inequality hypothesis" and instead supported the "backlash hypothesis" that greater social mobility of women leads to a corresponding increase in violence (haley, 2001: 535). Regardless, in comparing these studies there is some difficulty in defining precisely what is meant by 'gender equality,' whether it mean sex disparities in earnings, education, employment, or less definable and quantitative variables like perceptions of what it means to be 'male' and 'female' (haley 2001:535).

orks Cited

Britton, Dana M. (Sep., 2000). "Feminism in Criminology: Engendering the Outlaw."

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 57-76.

haley, Rachel Bridges (Aug, 2001). "The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender I nequality and…

Works Cited

Britton, Dana M. (Sep., 2000). "Feminism in Criminology: Engendering the Outlaw."

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 57-76.

Whaley, Rachel Bridges (Aug, 2001). "The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender I nequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory." Gender and Society. 15. 4: 531-555.

Gender and Religion Women Are
Words: 2305 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42256509
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Women are just mere followers of what the males would decide.

In Taoism

Taoism is a combination of psychology and philosophy and evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers. About 30,000 Taoists live in North America, 1,720 in Canada (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005).

Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices include (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005):

Tao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. "The Tao surrounds everyone and therefore everyone must listen to find enlightenment."

Each believer's goal is to become one with the Tao.

Taoists strongly promote health and vitality.

Taoists believe that the five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.

Each person…

Reference List

Buddhism." 2005.  http://www.fwbo.org/buddhism.html 

Buddhism and Gender Equality." 2006. http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm

Inglehart, Ronald. 2002. "Islam, gender, culture, and democracy." International Journal of Comparative Sociology. E.J. Brill

Kohn, Livia. 2006. "Are Women in Daoism Different From Women in Chinese Society." Department of Religious Studies. Queen's University Kingston, ON Taoism."2005. http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/

Gender in Television
Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53121479
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Gender Portrayals in Media

Since the advent of the television during the latter part of 1920s, men and women have been portrayed differently in movies, television, radio, music videos, news, and social media. Stereotyping men and women aided in developing sustainability strategies for marketing and advertising efforts. Essentially, it is about appeal and influencing the consumer. Unfortunately, the various mediums are fraught with sexism and racial disparities, which are difficult to overcome since the mediums are controlled by those in power. This level of control may be disguised as marketing techniques for certain target groups. By devising an appealing image for a consumer in which he or she may identify, advertisers establish a connection, thus building loyalty and developing a following. Hence, gender portrayals are fundamental practices to reach a large group of consumers by creating categorical images.

Gender Socializer: Television

Several of the popular radio soap operas made the…

Gender and Power in Beauty
Words: 2160 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48796584
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It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001).

During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk…

References

Beauty Business, the. (2000, August). Business Asia, 8(12), 36.

Cavendish, R. (2001, April). The First Miss World Contest. History Today, 51(4), 64.

Cooke, R. (June 14, 2004). Girls, girls, girls. New Statesman, 133(4692), 38.

David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen. (2002). You Look Mahvelous: An Examination of Gender and Appearance Comments in the 1999-2000 Prime-Time Season. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 429.

Gender Bias in the Workplace
Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21421843
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Gender Bias in the Workplace

Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.

In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…

References

EEOC. 35 Years Of Ensuring The Promise Of Opportunity. Available on the address  http://www.eeoc.gov/35th/history/index.html . Accessed on 22 Jul. 2003.

U.S Department Of Labor. Title IX, Education Amendments Of 1972. Available on the address

Gender Success in the Classroom
Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84222937
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Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3

This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.

urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…

Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.

gender neutrality in the military women combat
Words: 3211 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40810926
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Introduction

According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).

Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…

gender roles and norms article
Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 24877131
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Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.

One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…

References

Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work.  http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/

Gender Status Impact Access to Social Political and Economic Resources
Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59358537
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Societies are organized in an exceedingly gendered manner; that is, the “natural” difference between females and males and attributing distinct traits to both genders lies at the heart of all social institutions’ structures, right from families to job structures, to the private-public division, to power accessibility. Hence, resource access and the enjoyment of secure property rights remain highly gendered within several areas across the globe. Females, both minor and adult, suffer particularly due to unfair land rights, besides encountering obstacles when it comes to accessing resources and even their own inheritance. That is not to say that males (adult as well as minor) are never faced with such challenges (consider the example of first sons inheriting more as compared to their younger brothers). Furthermore, right to resource access can also end up impacting people’s ability of accessing other services. For instance, a female’s limited rights or lack of property ownership…

Gender and Sex in Anthropology
Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2216076
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Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Gender and Sex in Anthropology

Anthropology 203

A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Defining Sex and Gender

The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…

Works Cited

Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.

Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

Gender Sexuality Economics and Sociology
Words: 2266 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 85328477
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Latin American woman who is interested in a cultural studies program. This has not changed, and in fact, this course has helped me to deepen my understanding of diversity and helped me to understand more about gender roles and norms from a cross-cultural perspective. I have learned that there are no universal constants, and that even within cultures there can be a great diversity of experience as we saw with Monday's Girls and the difference between Florence and Azikiye. Likewise, the differences between the rich and poor gay men in Manila shows how even within the same culture, there can be a great variety of experiences and points-of-view. The most difficult concept for me as I continue my studies will be cultural relativism or ethical relativism. It is difficult to withhold judgments, especially when we believe that a way of life or worldview is harmful. On the one hand, there…

References

Cairoli, M.L. "Factory as Home and Family."

"Gender and the Global Economy." Chapter 11.

Response One: Liam

It is true that capitalism has generally benefitted the "owners of the means of production," as Marx had put it. Since the age of imperialism, Western Europe has been exploitative. More specifically, the men in positions of power have exploited laborers. This is as true for men as for women. Capitalism has allowed for tremendous innovations and greater overall productivity, but it has resulted in anomie and a detachment between the labor and the finished product. Few workers have shareholding capacities in the companies they work for, creating a system in which the laborer who creates the product does not share in the fruits of the very work that he or she performs.

Gender Differences and Disparities in Science and Engineering Fields and Children
Words: 1901 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57110938
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For example, The Council on Gender Parity in Labor, which is concerned with gender equality, has found that that "...gender inequity in science, engineering and technology fields is a workforce problem that inhibits the full utilization of the labor force. "(Gatta M. And Trigg M. 2001)

orks Cited

Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical ork: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html

Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks

Impeding omen Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm

Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the omen's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html

Dehyse M.P. Educated oman: The Grad School Adventures of Micella

Phoenix Dehyse. 2004. July 4, 2006. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/previous_issues/articles/2800/educated_woman_the_grad_school_adventures_of_micella_phoenix_dewhyse_chapter_23_grad_school_and_the_single_soul

Etzkowitz H. Barriers to omen in Academic Science and Engineering. 1994.

July 2, 2006. http://people.mills.edu/spertus/Gender/EKNU.html

Gatta M. And Trigg M. BRIDGING THE GAP: GENDER EQUITY IN SCIENCE,

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 2001.…

Works Cited

Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical Work: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006.  http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html 

Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks

Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm

Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the Women's Report. July 4, 2006.  http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html

Gender and Sexuality
Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79425446
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Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).

The Link between Gender and Sexuality

The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…

Gender Sections I Specifically Agreed
Words: 2060 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89726749
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271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.

Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…

Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.

I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.

The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.

They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.

College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.

Gender Back in History the Only Roles
Words: 1899 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80052891
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Gender

Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…

Gender Identity Defined the Purpose
Words: 3232 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5786708
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Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…

References

Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.

Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.

Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.

Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.

Gender Women Occupy Conflicted and Ambiguous Roles
Words: 1687 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55478888
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Gender

Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…

References

Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online:  http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html 

Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/

Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online:  http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html 

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online:  http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf

Gender Race and Constitutional Change
Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83041050
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The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)

Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…

Bibliography

Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at  http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html 

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),

Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)

Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)

Gender Bias in the U S Court System
Words: 2961 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84999901
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Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System

Statistics regarding male and female criminality

Types of cases involving women and men

Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities

Feminists say women should get less jail time

Number of women vs. men arrested

omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time

Death penalty cases

10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women

Leniency of juries on women defendants

Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries

Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children

omen are always given less punishment than men in this area

Reaction of judges towards female defendants

Male judges

Female judges

Body

a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators

Body

Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators

Conclusion

In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…

Works Cited:

Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from  http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568 

Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice

Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.

Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.

Gender Politics and the Nation
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73509222
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Gender Politics and the Nation

The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.

Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).

Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…

Works Cited

Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.

Gender Over the Course of
Words: 1344 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85903874
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Without their guidance, the world be empty of the poetry of Maya Angelou, the courage of Clara Barton, the genius of Pearl . Buck, the leadership of Rosalynn Carter, the great voice of Ella, and the practical inventions of Temple Grandin. Though not warmly received across the board at first, the movement changed history.

ociety derives its gender roles from the religious doctrines it holds sacred; it is also important to note the anthropological perspectives which, frequently false, have also been factored into the social consciousness of a culture over time. Among these in the world of gender definitions are the ideas of Darwin, whose plebian social scope promoted an idea in which the best genes were transferred to males over females, programming men psychologically to be the better species. Fortunately, the age of social Darwinism that separated whites from their inferior racial peers has also brought the end to…

Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy. New York: Cornell University Press, 2002. p. 13.

Freedman, Estelle. No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003. Introduction.

Dennett, Daniel C. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. VI.

Gender Expectations for Children I
Words: 885 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39675567
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I use the above family as an example that I think that the socialization of children remains the primary job of the parent and that parents can help determine how external society influences impact their children. Whether society freaked out because of an image of a little boy with pink toenails is not nearly so important as how a family reacts if a little boy wants to paint his toenails pink. The little boy in the family I described accompanies his mom and sister to the salon and I have seen him with green painted toenails (his favorite color) and know there would be no objections if he wanted pink ones. His sister has rejected the "girl" Legos in favor of "boy" sets, but will vehemently argue with you if you suggested that Ninjago was marketed towards boys.

I do not think that there was less gender stereotyping in toys…

References

Klein, M. (2011, April 13). J. Crew's toenail-painting ad causes pink scare. Retrieved March

9, 2012 from Ms. Magazine blog website:  http://msmagazine.com/blog/blog/2011/04/13/j-crews-toenail-painting-ad-causes-pink-scare/ 

Melanie. (2008, October 5). Gender socialization in the media from childhood to adulthood.

Retrieved March 9, 2012 from FeministFatale website:  http://www.feministfatale.com/2008/10/gender-socialization-in-the-media-from-childhood-to-adulthood/

Gender Work and Global Economy The Impact
Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40671198
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Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking

The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.

Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…

References

Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.

Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge

Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.

Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.

Gender and Islam Religion Is
Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2441196
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In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.

Men in Islam

As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.

The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…

Works Cited

Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.

Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.

Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.

What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter?  http://hnn.us/articles/934.html

Gender and International Relations International
Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58775378
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57).

Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…

Bibliography

Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gender Pay Discrimination in the
Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 52051105
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"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…

Bibliography

Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at  http://www.management-issues.com/2008/10/21/research/gender-pay-gap-nothing-to-do-with-discrimination.asp 

Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at  http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer01/blaukahn.html 

Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at  http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom//pressreleases/042307_paygap.cfm

Gender Roles
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43798718
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Gender oles

Women in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is religiously and socially conservative. There is a relatively high level of cultural homogeneity inspired by tribal and Islamic factors. In these circumstances, it is not easy to differentiate between Arabic and Islamic cultures in these circumstances. Some cultural beliefs including the view that women should not be lawyers or engineers have nothing to do with Islam but have increasingly become part of the cultural values of the communities which happen to be largely Islamic. The function of women in the wider society is restricted. Saudi Arabia, thus, has one of the lowest numbers of women in public work places; especially those who are graduates. The government has recently embarked on gender sensitization programs aimed at discouraging gender-based discrimination. Stake holders have also undertaken to make sure that there is more participation of women in education. They seek to increase the number…

References

Julia Ismael. (2013). The Islamic Influence on the Role of Women and Girls in the United States. Writing 406-1, Writing and Inquiry,. Seattle: Antioch University.

Madeleine K. Albright. (2006). The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other. Pew Global Attitudes Project.

Shakir Ahmed Alsaleh. (n.d.). Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia: Myth and Reality. University for Health Sciences Riyadh.

Yahya Al Alhareth, Yasra Al Alhareth, & Ibtisam Al Dighrir. (2015). Review of Women and Society in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research, 121-125.

Gendering of Medicine How Have
Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99472731
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The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.

ibliography

Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.

Accessed December 1, 2010.

http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_17/b4081104183847.htm

Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,

Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6366/is_5_14/ai_n28952672/

Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.

Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do

Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60

Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals

with Vertical, Lateral, and…

Bibliography

Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.

Accessed December 1, 2010.

 http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_17/b4081104183847.htm 

Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,

Nationalism Gender and the Nation
Words: 5424 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31370211
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ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.

The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…

Bibliography

Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004

Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at:  http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf 

Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004

Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at:  http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P  oland/Dizard_Korte_Z

How Gender Identity Is Construed Today
Words: 3403 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56429676
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Gender Identity

hat is gender? Is it a biological condition or a social construction? In today's modern world, it appears that it can be one or the other or even a mixture of both. Transgender people like Caitlyn Jenner (formerly Bruce Jenner, an Olympian) have raised awareness about the issue of gender, and so have others, like the achowski siblings, famous Hollywood directors, who have brought attention to the issue through their exploration of sexual and gender identity issues. Researchers have also added to the debate about what is gender identity by performing both qualitative and quantitative studies about it, ranging from discussions of the difference between sex and gender to neurobiological brain scans of brain wave patterns in men, women, straight and transgender. Results, findings and conclusions remain contested and controversial, suggesting that even today little is known about why gender identity is an issue for some and not…

Works Cited

Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Print.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:

Routledge, 1990. Print.

Women and Gender International Human Rights
Words: 5450 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39241588
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International Human ights, Women and Gender

International Human ights: Women and Gender

Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).

Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).

The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…

References

Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.

Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.

CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.

CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.

Women's Studies Gender and the
Words: 2891 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73045139
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As in most other places around the world, the demands of family - caring for children, keeping house, obtaining and preparing food for meals - fall predominantly on women. In the case of Cuba this situation is made worse by the distortions of the communistic economy:

People's motivation to work waned as there was little to work for. Money came to have little meaning in the legal economy - but not by design as, according to Marxism, it was supposed to do in a utopian communist society. There simply was little to buy through officially sanctioned channels, and the government provided most social needs gratis or for minimum fees. Under the circumstances, material as well as moral incentives became ineffective in the legal economy. The burdens of sheer survival and transport difficulties also led people to miss work with increased regularity, above all women on whom the burdens fell most.…

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020460643 

Choudhury, Nusrat. "From the Stasi Commission to the European Court of Human Rights: L'affaire Du Foulard and the Challenge of Protecting the Rights of Muslim Girls." Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 16.1 (2007): 199+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102439965

Cross, Mdire Fedelma. "4 Women and Politics." Women in Contemporary France / . Ed. Abigail Gregory and Ursula Tidd. New York: Berg, 2000. 89-106.

The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes
Words: 4863 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20538188
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Introduction

By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…

Communication Style and Gender
Words: 2438 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 74963573
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Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?

Definition of keywords

Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.

Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.

Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.

Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)

Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…

Bibliography

Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from:  http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music 

Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at:  http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books  [Accessed 29 November 2014].

Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.

Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281

Women and Gender Bias the
Words: 13238 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41373850
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Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?

If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).

ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…

Bibliography:

"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from  http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html 

Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005

"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/ 

"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from  http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html

Psychology of Gender in Business
Words: 2497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37458156
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Psychology of Gender in usiness

Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…

Bibliography

Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.

Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.

Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.

Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.

Women's Rights Cases for Gender
Words: 4162 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90558822
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The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.

The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's

Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…

REFERENCES

Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,

2009, from  http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li 

erti+v.+York&lr=&ei=ub3YScLeEIqKNKT3vIAD&pgis=1

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.

Racial Gender Constituency a Fact-Finding Committee Major
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racial gender constituency a fact-finding committee major American party choice: My choice marked astrids. This paper introduction conclusion. •******Outside consultant hired party advise inclusive*****

To ensure there is equality in society, the party should ensure that encompasses women in its agenda. The role of women in society cannot be overlooked, and any American party should include them when discussing society matters. Women play an important role and addressing their issues together with other issues is vital for the party's success. Having women in the party's leadership will also ensure that the women agenda is addressed and women will feel represented. Considering the constituency has more women than men, it is vital that the party attracts them to its side. This will not only ensure victory to the party, but will ensure that the party is more inclusive and sensitive to women affairs. Encouraging women to participate within the party affairs…

References

Keremidchieva, Z. (2012). Legislative Reform, the Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues, and the Crisis of Women's Political Representation. [Article]. Women & Language, 35(1), 13-38.

Sedgh, G., Bankole, A., Singh, S., & Eilers, M. (2012). Legal Abortion Levels and Trends By Woman's Age at Termination. [Article]. International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 38(3), 143-153. doi: 10.1363/3814312

Women: Still Number Two But Trying Harder. (1975). [Article]. Time, 105(22), 48.

Importance of Gender in International Relations
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One of the major issues that have characterized international relations (IR) discourse is the role and significance of gender.  Steans (2006) states that gender issues in international relations (IR) are usually very controversial and highly political.  The controversy associated with this issue is attributable to the fact that gender IR is an increasingly political issue.  This paper focuses on examining the role and significance of gender in international relations given the increased controversy and politics surrounding it.  This paper demonstrates that gender is an important issue in IR, especially with the increased role of men and women in world politics.  The first part shows that gender relations are crucial in international law and politics.  The second part shows that incorporating both genders in IR discourse helps in establishing fair social policies and inclusive peace strategies.  The third part will demonstrate that gender plays a major role in formulating policy agenda…

Sociological Theories Sociology of Gender
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Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies

Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"

In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.

Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…

Women's and Gender Studies
Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70447437
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omen and Gender Studies

Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…

Works Cited

Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins

Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.

Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female

Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):