938+ documents containing “gender gap”.
esearch professionals find two principal groups of gender barriers that confront women in the science and technology classroom: disabling stereotypes regarding gender suitable behavior, and explicit and implicit gender partialities inside the classroom. In every category of gender barriers are present several practices that cumulatively dishearten women from joining these nontraditional spheres. (an Educator's Guide to Gender Bias Issues)
esearch professionals indicate that children possess an internal belief system regarding "suitable" careers in their favor to join at the youngest age's right from kindergarten. Thereafter they hold with them these belief systems all through their educational careers and also into their adult job phases. Every year these beliefs become more deep-seated. Thus it is crucial that these disparities within the current educational systems be looked at and removed so that every child is readied to fill our growing job demands. While during the pre-college stages disabling stereotypes which disqualify the….
An Educator's Guide to Gender Bias Issues. Retrieved at http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/access/gender.html. Accessed on 11 February, 2005
Gatta, Mary; Trigg, Mary. Bridging the Gap: Gender Equity in Science, Engineering and Technology. Rutgers University. 2001.
Retrieved at http://www.cww.rutgers.edu/dataPages/smet.pdf. Accessed on 11 February, 2005
Girls to the Lab Bench. Article faxed by the client.
If we reframe our general expectations of what a "good" worker is, redefine that expectation, then we can achieve a psychological parity - and where that begins is with simply paying women in the same job the same rate as men. As long as women earn less, they will be perceived as being "less." So, simply, clearly, the answer is found in a change at the highest levels - an adherence to the true spirit of the Equal Pay act, and a moral understanding that women earn less than men only because they are paid less than men - not because they deserve less, not because they contribute less, not because they are "less," but because of a very outdated perception of the capability of women to produce "value."
BNET. Study: omen Make Gradual Parity with Men in orkplace. 27 JAN 1997. 14-04 2008 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n10_v91/ai_19082478.
Bourdieu, Pierre. On Male Domination.….
BNET. Study: Women Make Gradual Parity with Men in Workplace. 27 JAN 1997. 14-04 2008 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n10_v91/ai_19082478 .
Bourdieu, Pierre. On Male Domination. 01 October 1998. 11-04 2008 http://mondediplo.com/1998/10/10bourdieu .
Brunner, Borgna. "The Wage Gap." 01-01 2007. Infoplease.com. 15-04 2008 http://www.infoplease.com/spot/equalpayact1.html .
Keller, Larry. Women and Men: Payday. 12 December 2000. 11-04 2008 http://archives.cnn.com/2000/CAREER/trends/12/12/womenpay/index.html .
Counter Attendants- Counter Attendants are people who work in cafeteria, coffee shops or food concessions and serve food to their clientele. The job is quite exhausting particularly for women as they need to stand long hours at the counter in shops or cafeteria. They get paid typically on an hourly basis of about sixteen thousand.
Farm Laborers - Farm Laborers are also thought to be worst paid in spite of the demanding work they do. They also do not have minimum pay policy which is one of the causes of them earning so less. Those working the farm typically earn about $9 per hour. They are involved in sowing the seeds, cultivating as well as harvesting vegetables, fruits, nuts or other crops. They mean annual salary amounts to about seventeen thousand (Croft, 2010).
There are certain occupations that are measured masculine by some people and women are not expectant to enter these….
10 Surprising Statistics on Women in the Workplace. (2011). Retrieved from http://collegetimes.us/10-surprising-statistics-on-women-in-the-workplace/
Brunner, B. (2012). The Wage Gap. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/equalpayact1.html
Covert, B. (2012). How to Close the Gender Wage Gap in Just Seven Easy Steps. Retreived from http://www.thenation.com/blog/167423/how-close-gender-wage-gap-just-seven-easy-steps
Croft, S. (2010). 10 Worst Paying Jobs for Women. Retrieved from http://www.studentloaninfo.org/blog/worst-paying-jobs-women
Cose's article points out that, despite many inclusive attitudes in the academic and professional realms, inequality still exists. Women, he suggests, are motivated to succeed and get good jobs because they know that they are their and their children's sole providers (2). What, then, is motivating women? Black women may have had to emerge as leaders in the professional and academic realms as a result of necessity, but black men may not feel like society expects them to be similarly responsible. This could be easily extended to all men and women, as Cose points out that the "educational support system" favors girls (2), and Crosson's (2009) recent Dallas News article suggests that men are being disproportionately laid off in the current economic crisis. Although black men, white men, black women, and white women are able of achieving at the same levels, then, it appears that society somehow curbs this achievement….
Cose, Ellis. (2003, March 3). The Black Gender Gap. Newsweek. Retrieved Jan. 25, 2009 from www.newsweek.com/id/59790/output/pring
Crosson, Linda. (2009, Feb. 10). Big Layoffs Leave More Men Out of Work. The Dallas
News. Retrieved at http://economywatchblog.dallasnews.com/archives/2009/02/big-layoffs-leave-more-men-out.html
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that even….
The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.
Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p. 93)the….
Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.
Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the government that all people will be treated the same way throughout the nation and in all circumstances, no matter what. The….
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Gender Wage Gap
There are many different types of bias within the working environment. At times, one had to be a white-male to be a manger in many organizations. The wage-gender gap, or the discrepancies between equally qualified men and women, has diminished in many career paths, but still exists. The "glass ceiling" clearly remains a powerful force within the workplace. Qualified women are blocked from upper-level managerial positions, but their absence at the very top skews the curve when they are clustered in the middle. It seems that it takes about 30% penetration of women managers to begin to more rapidly move the distribution effect, suggesting that now; women remain concentrated in workplace settings with lower wages -- in almost every industry (Cohen and Huffman, 2007, 699).
Ernst and Young, a major accounting firm, realizes that it is in their best interest to find new and innovative ways to break the….
Accounting for Good People: Talent Management. (July 21, 2007). Galegroup. Retrieved from: http://www.galegroup.com .
Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,
Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.
Hymowitz, C. (June 14, 2007). Coaching Men on Mentoring Women is Ernst and Young
esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of middle and high school, females have already begun to ghettoize themselves. The ghettoization of females is tacitly supported by educators. Attempts to reach out to female students has been criticized harshly as an attempt to "feminize" education and take something away from boys rather than give something to all students (Frawley 2005, p. 1). The very notion that helping girls would be detrimental to boys is a sexist belief. Gender biases also represent a fundamental failure to recognize the "middle ground" for children who "are not strongly gender-typed" at any age (Frawley 2005, p. 2).
Female students may be discouraged from reaching peak athletic performance because of gender bias too. Stereotypes are often reinforced in classrooms, as female students are "negatively sanctioned...for….
Banks, T.L. (1990). Gender bias in the classroom. 14 S. Ill U.L.J. 527 (1989-1990).
Chapman, a. (2010). Gender bias in education. Critical Multicultural Pavillion. Retrieved online: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html
Frawley, T. (2005). Gender Bias in the Classroom: Current Controversies and Implications for Teachers. Childhood Education. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3614/is_200507/ai_n14683848/
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the….
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
Through this blind test, it is our hope to observe that there is a significant difference between the decision making of men and women when they are presented with different scenarios involving altruism.
The participants within this study will be comprised of students within the University Psychology Research class. In total there will be thirty three different students, with nineteen participating female students and fourteen male students. These students will be tested blindly and they are representatives of a collective pool of 321 University psychology students within the student population. The specific division in this case creates a random sampling based upon the N test population.
The primary material necessary for this test is the principle questionnaire given to participants. The questionnaire are given in two different groupings that will create a test variable. The two versions of the test will provide the same scenario where the primary test is how….
Bolton, G., & Katok, E. (1995). An experimental test for gender differences in beneficent behavior. Economics Letters.
Nowell, C., & Tinkler, S. (1994). The influence of gender on the provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.
Cox, J. (2002). When are women more generous than men. CA Deck.
Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues contribute to feelings of passivity, negativism and lack of self-esteem, all of which contribute to depression.
In addition, women are more likely to be sexually abused as children (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006). And victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than are those who weren't abused. This means that female undergraduates who were sexually abused have a higher incidence of depression than their male counterparts.
This paper aims to analyze some of the fundamental cultural links to women's depression in college, and compare depression rates of females to males.
While most experts agree that understanding gender differences in depression is important, many believe that it is also important to study the….
William E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Kathryn+E.+Kelly " Kathryn E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Franklin+C.+Brown " Franklin C. Brown, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Hillary+B.+Kelly " Hillary B. Kelly. (March, 1999). Gender Differences in Depression Among College Students: A Multi-Cultural Perspective.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (September 20, 2006). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/MH/00035.html.
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Girgus, Joan S. (May, 1994). The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 115(3), 424-443.
Shields, S.A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In a. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.
"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market….
Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.management-issues.com/2008/10/21/research/gender-pay-gap-nothing-to-do-with-discrimination.asp
Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer01/blaukahn.html
Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom//pressreleases/042307_paygap.cfm
The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of education (Zohar, 1998). However, genetic influences only comprise a small portion of the available studies. Many other studies point out the tremendous influence stereotyping has on gender and education, and suggesting that males and females are traditionally assigned certain 'roles' within the classroom which they tend to live up to over time (Ayim, Diller, Houston & Morgan, 1996).
The most common of these beliefs is that males are more adept at mathematical and analytical tasks whereas females are better at achieving 'soft' skills including English, philosophy etc. (Ayim, et. al, 1996).
There is a body of evidence available which suggests that gender differentiation is evident in the classroom. The traditional views that males are more adept at analytical skills and females more adept….
Alsup, J.K & Sprigler, D.N. (2003). "An analysis of gender and the mathematical reasoning ability sub-skill of analysis-synthesis." Education, 123(4): 763
Ayim, M., Diller, a., Houston, B., & Morgan, K.P. (1996). "The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy, and politics." Boulder: Westview Press.
Zohar, a.H. (1998). "Individual differences in some special abilities are genetically influenced." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(3): 431-432
Gender Bias in the Workplace
Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.
In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a workplace through….
esearch professionals find two principal groups of gender barriers that confront women in the science and technology classroom: disabling stereotypes regarding gender suitable behavior, and explicit and implicit…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
If we reframe our general expectations of what a "good" worker is, redefine that expectation, then we can achieve a psychological parity - and where that begins is…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Counter Attendants- Counter Attendants are people who work in cafeteria, coffee shops or food concessions and serve food to their clientele. The job is quite exhausting particularly for women…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Cose's article points out that, despite many inclusive attitudes in the academic and professional realms, inequality still exists. Women, he suggests, are motivated to succeed and get good jobs…Read Full Paper ❯
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and…Read Full Paper ❯
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System Statistics regarding male and female criminality Types of cases involving women and men Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities Feminists say women should get…Read Full Paper ❯
Gender Wage Gap There are many different types of bias within the working environment. At times, one had to be a white-male to be a manger in many organizations. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of…Read Full Paper ❯
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Through this blind test, it is our hope to observe that there is a significant difference between the decision making of men and women when they are presented…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to…Read Full Paper ❯
The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Gender Bias in the Workplace Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture…Read Full Paper ❯