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esearch professionals find two principal groups of gender barriers that confront women in the science and technology classroom: disabling stereotypes regarding gender suitable behavior, and explicit and implicit gender partialities inside the classroom. In every category of gender barriers are present several practices that cumulatively dishearten women from joining these nontraditional spheres. (an Educator's Guide to Gender Bias Issues)
esearch professionals indicate that children possess an internal belief system regarding "suitable" careers in their favor to join at the youngest age's right from kindergarten. Thereafter they hold with them these belief systems all through their educational careers and also into their adult job phases. Every year these beliefs become more deep-seated. Thus it is crucial that these disparities within the current educational systems be looked at and removed so that every child is readied to fill our growing job demands. While during the pre-college stages disabling stereotypes which disqualify the…
An Educator's Guide to Gender Bias Issues. Retrieved at http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/access/gender.html. Accessed on 11 February, 2005
Gatta, Mary; Trigg, Mary. Bridging the Gap: Gender Equity in Science, Engineering and Technology. Rutgers University. 2001.
Retrieved at http://www.cww.rutgers.edu/dataPages/smet.pdf. Accessed on 11 February, 2005
Girls to the Lab Bench. Article faxed by the client.
If we reframe our general expectations of what a "good" worker is, redefine that expectation, then we can achieve a psychological parity - and where that begins is with simply paying women in the same job the same rate as men. As long as women earn less, they will be perceived as being "less." So, simply, clearly, the answer is found in a change at the highest levels - an adherence to the true spirit of the Equal Pay act, and a moral understanding that women earn less than men only because they are paid less than men - not because they deserve less, not because they contribute less, not because they are "less," but because of a very outdated perception of the capability of women to produce "value."
BNET. Study: omen Make Gradual Parity with Men in orkplace. 27 JAN 1997. 14-04 2008 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n10_v91/ai_19082478.
Bourdieu, Pierre. On…
BNET. Study: Women Make Gradual Parity with Men in Workplace. 27 JAN 1997. 14-04 2008 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n10_v91/ai_19082478 .
Bourdieu, Pierre. On Male Domination. 01 October 1998. 11-04 2008 http://mondediplo.com/1998/10/10bourdieu .
Brunner, Borgna. "The Wage Gap." 01-01 2007. Infoplease.com. 15-04 2008 http://www.infoplease.com/spot/equalpayact1.html .
Keller, Larry. Women and Men: Payday. 12 December 2000. 11-04 2008 http://archives.cnn.com/2000/CAREER/trends/12/12/womenpay/index.html .
Counter Attendants- Counter Attendants are people who work in cafeteria, coffee shops or food concessions and serve food to their clientele. The job is quite exhausting particularly for women as they need to stand long hours at the counter in shops or cafeteria. They get paid typically on an hourly basis of about sixteen thousand.
Farm Laborers - Farm Laborers are also thought to be worst paid in spite of the demanding work they do. They also do not have minimum pay policy which is one of the causes of them earning so less. Those working the farm typically earn about $9 per hour. They are involved in sowing the seeds, cultivating as well as harvesting vegetables, fruits, nuts or other crops. They mean annual salary amounts to about seventeen thousand (Croft, 2010).
There are certain occupations that are measured masculine by some people and women are not expectant to…
10 Surprising Statistics on Women in the Workplace. (2011). Retrieved from http://collegetimes.us/10-surprising-statistics-on-women-in-the-workplace/
Brunner, B. (2012). The Wage Gap. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/equalpayact1.html
Covert, B. (2012). How to Close the Gender Wage Gap in Just Seven Easy Steps. Retreived from http://www.thenation.com/blog/167423/how-close-gender-wage-gap-just-seven-easy-steps
Croft, S. (2010). 10 Worst Paying Jobs for Women. Retrieved from http://www.studentloaninfo.org/blog/worst-paying-jobs-women
Cose's article points out that, despite many inclusive attitudes in the academic and professional realms, inequality still exists. Women, he suggests, are motivated to succeed and get good jobs because they know that they are their and their children's sole providers (2). What, then, is motivating women? Black women may have had to emerge as leaders in the professional and academic realms as a result of necessity, but black men may not feel like society expects them to be similarly responsible. This could be easily extended to all men and women, as Cose points out that the "educational support system" favors girls (2), and Crosson's (2009) recent Dallas News article suggests that men are being disproportionately laid off in the current economic crisis. Although black men, white men, black women, and white women are able of achieving at the same levels, then, it appears that society somehow curbs this achievement…
Cose, Ellis. (2003, March 3). The Black Gender Gap. Newsweek. Retrieved Jan. 25, 2009 from www.newsweek.com/id/59790/output/pring
Crosson, Linda. (2009, Feb. 10). Big Layoffs Leave More Men Out of Work. The Dallas
News. Retrieved at http://economywatchblog.dallasnews.com/archives/2009/02/big-layoffs-leave-more-men-out.html
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…
Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered
Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.
The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.
Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p.…
Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.
Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Gender Wage Gap
There are many different types of bias within the working environment. At times, one had to be a white-male to be a manger in many organizations. The wage-gender gap, or the discrepancies between equally qualified men and women, has diminished in many career paths, but still exists. The "glass ceiling" clearly remains a powerful force within the workplace. Qualified women are blocked from upper-level managerial positions, but their absence at the very top skews the curve when they are clustered in the middle. It seems that it takes about 30% penetration of women managers to begin to more rapidly move the distribution effect, suggesting that now; women remain concentrated in workplace settings with lower wages -- in almost every industry (Cohen and Huffman, 2007, 699).
Ernst and Young, a major accounting firm, realizes that it is in their best interest to find new and innovative ways to…
Accounting for Good People: Talent Management. (July 21, 2007). Galegroup. Retrieved from: http://www.galegroup.com .
Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,
Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.
Hymowitz, C. (June 14, 2007). Coaching Men on Mentoring Women is Ernst and Young
esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of middle and high school, females have already begun to ghettoize themselves. The ghettoization of females is tacitly supported by educators. Attempts to reach out to female students has been criticized harshly as an attempt to "feminize" education and take something away from boys rather than give something to all students (Frawley 2005, p. 1). The very notion that helping girls would be detrimental to boys is a sexist belief. Gender biases also represent a fundamental failure to recognize the "middle ground" for children who "are not strongly gender-typed" at any age (Frawley 2005, p. 2).
Female students may be discouraged from reaching peak athletic performance because of gender bias too. Stereotypes are often reinforced in classrooms, as female students are "negatively sanctioned...for…
Banks, T.L. (1990). Gender bias in the classroom. 14 S. Ill U.L.J. 527 (1989-1990).
Chapman, a. (2010). Gender bias in education. Critical Multicultural Pavillion. Retrieved online: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html
Frawley, T. (2005). Gender Bias in the Classroom: Current Controversies and Implications for Teachers. Childhood Education. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3614/is_200507/ai_n14683848/
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
Gender and Critical Incident Management
In general, Critical incidents are those situations that have the potential to cause injury or loss of life, property damage, and can threaten the organization's standing, public image, or ability to perform its duties. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), is an intervention protocol that is developed for dealing with traumatic events, especial for use with military combat personnel who are typically first responders to stressful and serious situations. Of course, within any military action or organization, there will be situations that are often violent, chaotic, and unpredictable. From a command and control perspective, though, there are four major attributes that any critical incident response plan should have:
Anticipate and outline the means of detecting the emergency, collecting preliminary intelligence, assessing the seriousness of the situation (attack, systems affected, damage, protection, etc.).
Planning must include a means to easily contact all relevant employees and outside resources.…
Coppieters, B. And Fotion, N., eds. (2002). Moral Constraints on War. Lanham, MD:
Mohammad, Y. (August-September 2004). Eyewitness View of Women in Iraq. Theory Practice News & Letters. Retrieved from: http://www.newsandletters.org/Issues/2004/August-September/Iwomen_August2004.htm
Sterneckert, A.B. (2004). Critical Incident Management. New York: CRC Press.
Through this blind test, it is our hope to observe that there is a significant difference between the decision making of men and women when they are presented with different scenarios involving altruism.
The participants within this study will be comprised of students within the University Psychology Research class. In total there will be thirty three different students, with nineteen participating female students and fourteen male students. These students will be tested blindly and they are representatives of a collective pool of 321 University psychology students within the student population. The specific division in this case creates a random sampling based upon the N test population.
The primary material necessary for this test is the principle questionnaire given to participants. The questionnaire are given in two different groupings that will create a test variable. The two versions of the test will provide the same scenario where the…
Bolton, G., & Katok, E. (1995). An experimental test for gender differences in beneficent behavior. Economics Letters.
Nowell, C., & Tinkler, S. (1994). The influence of gender on the provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.
Cox, J. (2002). When are women more generous than men. CA Deck.
Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues contribute to feelings of passivity, negativism and lack of self-esteem, all of which contribute to depression.
In addition, women are more likely to be sexually abused as children (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006). And victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than are those who weren't abused. This means that female undergraduates who were sexually abused have a higher incidence of depression than their male counterparts.
This paper aims to analyze some of the fundamental cultural links to women's depression in college, and compare depression rates of females to males.
While most experts agree that understanding gender differences in depression is important, many believe that it is also important…
William E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Kathryn+E.+Kelly " Kathryn E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Franklin+C.+Brown " Franklin C. Brown, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Hillary+B.+Kelly " Hillary B. Kelly. (March, 1999). Gender Differences in Depression Among College Students: A Multi-Cultural Perspective.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (September 20, 2006). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/MH/00035.html.
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Girgus, Joan S. (May, 1994). The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 115(3), 424-443.
Shields, S.A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In a. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.
"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…
Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.management-issues.com/2008/10/21/research/gender-pay-gap-nothing-to-do-with-discrimination.asp
Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer01/blaukahn.html
Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom//pressreleases/042307_paygap.cfm
The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of education (Zohar, 1998). However, genetic influences only comprise a small portion of the available studies. Many other studies point out the tremendous influence stereotyping has on gender and education, and suggesting that males and females are traditionally assigned certain 'roles' within the classroom which they tend to live up to over time (Ayim, Diller, Houston & Morgan, 1996).
The most common of these beliefs is that males are more adept at mathematical and analytical tasks whereas females are better at achieving 'soft' skills including English, philosophy etc. (Ayim, et. al, 1996).
There is a body of evidence available which suggests that gender differentiation is evident in the classroom. The traditional views that males are more adept at analytical skills and…
Alsup, J.K & Sprigler, D.N. (2003). "An analysis of gender and the mathematical reasoning ability sub-skill of analysis-synthesis." Education, 123(4): 763
Ayim, M., Diller, a., Houston, B., & Morgan, K.P. (1996). "The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy, and politics." Boulder: Westview Press.
Zohar, a.H. (1998). "Individual differences in some special abilities are genetically influenced." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(3): 431-432
Gender Bias in the Workplace
Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.
In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…
EEOC. 35 Years Of Ensuring The Promise Of Opportunity. Available on the address http://www.eeoc.gov/35th/history/index.html . Accessed on 22 Jul. 2003.
U.S Department Of Labor. Title IX, Education Amendments Of 1972. Available on the address
Gender Attitudes in Business Students
An Analysis of Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes Relative to Gender and Professions
Significance and Conclusion
There is a body of evidence that suggests many disparities in the representation of gender in certain segments of the academic and business professions. For example, previous research has indicated that women, on average, are less likely to attend business school than males and are also less likely to hold high-ranking positions in organizations. Although there are many factors that are involved in such trends, and many societies have made significant progress towards minimizing the gender gaps, there is still much to be understood about the challenges that women face into entering into certain professions. This research will consider whether there is differences inherent in the genders that could help explain the outcomes that have been observed in various professions. The proposal outlines a research plan that will investigate differences…
Brandt, T., & Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context: An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 44-66.
Copen, C. (2008). TRANSMISSION AND TRANSITIONS: YOUNG ADULTS' BELIEFS, VALUES AND LIFE COURSE TRANSITIONS IN FAMILIAL CONTEXT. University of Southern California, 1-47.
Kennedy, J., & Kray, L. (2014). Who Is Willing to Sacrifice Ethical Values for Money and Social Status?: Gender Differences in Reactions to Ethical Comprimises. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 52-59.
Mumford, M., Helton, W., Decker, B., Connelly, M., & Van Doorn, J. (2003). Values and Beliefs Related to Ethical Decisions. Teaching Business Ethics, 139-170.
Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3
This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.
urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…
Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
1. What are the barriers that keep men from seeking counseling or therapy? What can break those barriers?
One of the barriers that keeps men from seeking counseling is masculinity itself. Sometimes referred to as toxic masculinity, this aspect of being a man involves the ego and the need for the man to feel that he is strong, capable of figuring out his own problems, and able to overcome adversity through resilience. From an early age, boys go through rituals that lead up to their coming of age moment, that defining moment when they believe that they have entered into manhood. To admit in one’s adulthood that he is in need of counseling can almost seem like a shock to one’s sense of masculinity (Kupers, 2005).
Not all men are going to be susceptible to this shock, but those who are will need support and understanding if they are to…
Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166.
Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.
Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.
Dorak, M. T., & Karpuzoglu, E. (2012). Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Frontiers in genetics, 3, 268.
Maas, A. H., & Appelman, Y. E. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), 598-603.
Small Arms Survey. (2016). A Gendered Analysis of Violent Deaths. Small Arms Survey Research Notes • Number 63. Retrieved from http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-63.pdf
Thompson, A. E., Hart, J., Stefaniak, S., & Harvey, C. (2018). Exploring heterosexual adults’ endorsement of the sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors. Sex Roles, 79(3-4), 228-238.
American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
individual's gender is an important factor that influences their career, success, and even their subjective evaluation of their career (e.g., Orser & Leck, 2010; Schneidhofer, Schiffinger, & Mayrhofer, 2010). A number of different models have been proposed to explain how a person's gender influences one's vocational aspirations, career choice, and perceived success (see Schoon & Eccles, 2014). These influences affect both objective and subjective measures of career success/attainment.
For example, Orser and Leck (2010) examined how gender moderates objective career factors as well as subjective career factors. Data was collected from a large sample of male and female managers, executives, and CEOs (N = 521). Two objective dependent measures of success were collected: 1) total compensation (annual salary, bonuses, and other financial remuneration) and 2) ascendancy (defined by the number of reporting levels below the participant). One subjective dependent measure was also collected (personal opinion regarding how successful the participant…
Herrbach, O., & Mignonac, K. (2012). Perceived gender discrimination and women's subjective career success: The moderating role of career anchors. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 67(1), 25-50.
Orser, B., & Leck, J. (2010). Gender influences on career success outcomes.Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(5), 386-407.
Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2010). Mind the (gender) gap. Gender, gender role types, and their effects on objective career success over time. Management Revue, 437-457.
Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2011). Still a man's world? The influence of gender and gender role type on income in two business school graduate cohorts over time. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 31(1), 65-82.
Through statistical analysis of the data, it is expected that the following hypotheses will be revealed:
H1: Women are more likely than men to fill their free time with volunteer work.
H2: Women are more emotionally affected by their volunteer role than men, which causes them to devote more of their time to it.
H3: Extrinsic and controlled motivation factors will be more effective at recruiting, but not necessarily retaining, men in volunteer positions versus intrinsic factors.
Regarding the first hypothesis, that women are more likely than men to fill their free time with volunteer work, the statistical tests are predicted to reveal a statistically significantly larger number of women than men working at the animal shelters. After evaluating the difference between the before-intervention versus after-intervention, it will be shown that even after viewing the videos, the number of females will still outnumber males as volunteers at the…
The Women's Freedom Network, the Educational Equity Center and the AAUW all agree on one thing. They agree that women have made great strides in the educational arena. What they don't agree on is how the advancement of women in the education arena has affected men. Some believe that there is an effect while others don't.
The AAUW believes that women have made great strides over the past years but this success has not come at the expense of the men (Where the girls are, n.d.). Educational achievement is not a zero-sum proposition, in which a gain for one group consequences in a corresponding loss for the other. If girls' success comes at the expenditure of boys, one would expect to see boys' scores go down as girls' scores rise, but this has not been the case. I agree that just because women are beginning to succeed in…
Kleinfeld, J.S. (1998). The myth that schools shortchange girls. Retrieved from http://www.menweb.org/kleinful.htm
Raising and educating healthy boys. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.edequity.org/files/Raising%20and%20Educating%20Healthy%20Boys%2
Gap Pesti and SWOT Analysis
In this section, I am doing a PESTI and SWOT analysis of GAP Inc. The goal of a PESTI and SWOT analysis is to evaluate the performance of a firm by using their financial statements[footnoteef:1]. In a PESTI and SWOT analysis you can determine the value of a firm by looking at its profitability and its growth. I will be using SWOT analysis and cash flow analysis to assess GAP's performance. After analyzing GAP I will forecast the next ten years based on our findings. [1: AmCham, eal Economy-Egypt. (Source: MoFT, January 2003 and Central Egyptian BankCEB, February 2002).]
I can either look at SWOT for GAP over several years to determine the success of the firm or I can compare the SWOT of GAP to other firms in the same industry. These SWOTs allow us to relate the financial numbers to the business…
1. AmCham, Real Economy-Egypt. (Source: MoFT, January 2003 and Central Egyptian BankCEB, February 2002).
2. Al-Ahram Weekly Online: "Inadequate Remedies," April 5-11, 2001, issue 528, Mona ElFiqi.
3. Al-Ahram Weekly Online: "Stalling in Troubled Waters," November 15-21, 2001, issue
650, Mona El-Fiqi.
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…
Ahmed, Leila, 1992. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University.
Bass, Laura R. And Wunder, Amanda, 2009. The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima. Hispanic Review, Vol. 77, No. 1, Re-Envisioning Early Modern Iberia: Visuality, Materiality, History (Winter, 2009), pp. 97-144.
Berkey, Jonathan P. 1996. Circumcision Circumscribed: Female Excision and Cultural Accommodation in the Medieval near East. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 19-38.
Martin Riesebrodt. Review of Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate by Leila Ahmed. The Journal of Religion, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 453-454.
While it was not found that there are significant differences in one's gender and his/her altruistic behavior, it is important to note that the respondents' responses demonstrated that it is not empathy that is the main criterion that one uses in determining one's propensity to become altruistic towards others, but rather, more about feeling "at one with the other" (that is, the other person) (Cialdini et. al., 1997:483).
The feeling of being "at one with the other" is an important concept that must be taken into consideration in understanding altruism. What the findings showed is that altruism is best assessed not by the degree of help that one gives to the other, nor the feeling of empathy that is generated from the situation or scenario presented. The concept of oneness is found to be significant with the assessment of altruistic behavior (Maner et. al., 2002:1605). In the scenarios mentioned earlier,…
Cialdini, R., S. Brown, B. Lewis, C. Luce, and S. Neuberg. (1997). "Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: when one into one equals oneness." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 73, No. 3.
Maner, J., C. Luce, S, Neuberg, R. Cialdini, S. Brown, and B. Sagarin. (2002). "The effects of perspective taking on motivations for helping: still no evidence for altruism." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 11.
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?
In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…
Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.
Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
Nonetheless, the example is similar. An entire nation of people is in an uprising against a powerful dictator, led by one man, defeats their enemies to get to victory. There are echoes here of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s in the United States led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It is only when testimonial literature comes onto the scene that we understand how important both of these former points are. Testimonial narrative makes real the pain of poverty.
Gustavo Gutierrez's preferential option for the poor definitely becomes a misnomer when testimonial literature is introduced into the picture. The problem with preferential option for the poor is that it is a term specifically designed for the vocabulary of academics which seek to side with the poverty-stricken Other which they, the academics, most likely have little to no contact with on a daily basis.
However, they wish to have…
Bucur, Maria. "Between the Mother of the Wounded and the Virgin of Jiu: Romanian Women and the Gender of Heroism during the Great War." Journal of Women's History 12.2 (2000): 30-56.
Cockburn, Cynthia. "On The Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men, and Technical Know-How." WSQ:
Women's Studies Quarterly 37.1-2 (2009): 269-273. Project MUSE.
Gap is a major American retailer of casual apparel. This industry is mature, and highly fragmented. As such, the Gap and its competitors each have a relatively small market share. There are over 400 significant industry players (Global Industry Analysts, 2010). There are some generalizations, however, that can be made with respect to this market and Gap's position within the casual apparel market.
Overall, the casual apparel market in the United States is worth an estimated $195.6 billion as of 2007, with an annual growth rate of 3% (Business ire, 2008). Given the economic slowdown, it is reasonable to assume that growth has stagnated since that point in time, so that the market is roughly the same size today as it was three years ago. The Gap's annual sales are approximately $14.195 billion (MSN Moneycentral, 2010), but 21% of that revenue is from outside North America. This leaves North American…
Global Industry Analysts. (2010). Global branded apparel industry. Global Industry Analysts. Retrieved October 21, 2010 from http://www.reportlinker.com/p090549/World-Branded-Apparel-Market.html
MSN Moneycentral. (2010). The Gap, Inc. MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved October 21, 2010 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/hilite.asp?Symbol=GPS
Townsend, M. (2010). Gap's sales growth to come from markets outside the U.S., CEO Murphy says. Bloomberg. Retrieved October 21, 2010 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-10-14/gap-s-sales-growth-to-come-from-markets-outside-the-u-s-ceo-murphy-says.html
Yahoo! Finance. (2010). Industry: Apparel stores. Yahoo! Retrieved October 21, 2010 from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/in?s=GPS
Gender Bias in Job Fair
Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
Terminology and Definitions
Permission to Conduct Study
Transmittal Letter/Survey Instructions
Gender Bias in the Recruitment Process at Job Fairs
Administrative Research Problem
Gender bias is problematic for organizations that wish to increase innovation and avoid legal problems due to their hiring practices. Federal law requires that organizations should not exclude persons in their hiring practices based on their gender, race, or ethnicity. Hiring must be based solely on the person's ability and suitability for the job. Avoiding bias helps organizations to increase innovation due to the different perspectives that each person will add to the organization. Bias in hiring practices can be intentional or unintentional. Regardless of the motive, it is necessary to avoid bias in hiring practices. This research intends to explore the question surrounding job fairs. The study will explore the question of whether bias exists during…
"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)
These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one…
Anthis, Kristine. "The role of sexist discrimination in adult women's identity development." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. November 2002, p.1-4. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_Nov/ai_97728461/pg_1
Mindi D. Foster and Kenneth L. Dion. "The role of hardiness in moderating the relationship between global/specific attributions and actions against discrimination." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August 2004, p.1-5. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_3-4_51/ai_n6212699
Renzetti, Claire M. & Daniel Curran, Women, Men, and Society. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002
Gender and Jim Crow - Political Activism by Middle Class, African-American omen
Conventional wisdom paints the period between the late 19th century to the 1950s as a time of racial discrimination and violence for African-Americans in the southern states. However, in Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore presents an account of how white supremacist politics were also mediated by gender, and how this period of racial discrimination was also marked by political activism on the part of middle class African-American women.
In the early parts of the book, Gilmore illustrates how gender was used as a tool in Jim Crow segregation. hite men in North Carolina, for example, justified white supremacy and disenfranchised black men by raising the specter of the black rapist and appealing for the safety of white women in their homes. This pushed black men into what Gilmore termed a "vortex of silence" (134).
Black women, on…
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996
The 1964 film Dr. Strangelove uses the context of Cold ar brinksmanship in order to uncover a more fundamental problem with patriarchy and the maintenance of a destructive masculinity. This masculinity is under threat as a result of sexual frustration, and the characters of Ripper, Turgidson, and Kong embody three different kinds of this frustration. Ripper's sexual frustration is the most explicit, and leads to the most overtly violent reaction. Turgidson's sexual frustration is not the result of a physiological problem but rather due to pent-up energy, and thus his reaction is to cheer on the violence perpetrated by Ripper, even if he cannot engage in it himself. Finally, Kong, who is denied the kind of sexual immediacy granted Turgidson, nonetheless is able to overcome the frustration experienced by the other two men when he finally succeeds in dropping a nuclear bomb. Thus, the film suggests that the true threat…
Bingham, Dennis. "I do Want to Live!": Female Voices, Male Discourse, and Hollywood
Biopics." Cinema Journal 38.3 (1999): 3,3-26
Cardullo, Bert. "Why we Fight, Or Men, War, the Movies, and Metaphor." The Midwest
Quarterly 52.3 (2011): 239,239-255.
ace and Gender
Sociological Principles/Perspectives of ace
ace is the physical difference that various cultures and groups think are socially different. Principles of sociology seek to establish how ethnicity and race are constructed socially; including how each individual identifies with them. Sociology principles explain that interaction at the social level forms the cornerstone for societal interaction. The way of interaction with others demonstrates people's beliefs and what they hold as valuable as members of a group. Behavior patterns show social relationships that are unequal. These are the elements that trigger ethnicity and racial issues. The issues overlap with elements of yet another principle. For instance, social relationships that are unequal are connected to what people see as true about each other as both individuals and as members of social groups. People frequently generate beliefs about others around them; which often comprise of discrimination and prejudice.
USA constitutes people from various…
Brague, J. A. (2011, October 21). Elderly stereotypes. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Applied Social Psychology: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/10/elderly-stereotypes.html
Hegewisch, A., & Dumonthier, A. (2016). Pay Equity & Discrimination. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Institute for Women's Policy Research: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination/#about
Randall, V. R. (2010, October 3). Why Race Matters? Retrieved October 3, 2016, from University of Dayton: https://academic.udayton.edu/health/03access/data.htm
Perez, A. D., & Hirschmann, C. (2009). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population: Emerging American Identities: Vol 35, Issue 1, 1-51. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/
This gap suggests that men commit the majority of crimes. While the gap exists for all crimes, it is the largest for violent crime, such as homicide, rape, and robberies, and the smallest for property crime. Unlike self-report data, official statistics and victimization reports generally describe the gender-gap as most apparent, as these types of crime reporting suggest large gaps in the number of crimes committed by men and women. Official statistics and victimization reports probably show the largest gender gaps both because they deal more with violent crimes, whose perpetrators tend to be men and because self-report data allows researchers to choose samples that have equal amounts of men and women to study similarities and differences across gender. In other words, self-report data generally has a lower sex-gap because researchers can have a great deal influence in manipulating the data set.
Many crimes are not reported to the police…
Psychology of Gender in usiness
Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…
Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.
Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.
Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.
Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.
It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…
America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.
Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."
Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,
Wage Equity for Women
Compensation and Gender Pay Gap
Compensation is one of the main functions of human resource management (HM), with the goals of meeting an organization's objectives, maximizing an organization's investment in a labor force, and rewarding employees for their contribution. Ideally, HM should implement a compensation policy that provides equitable and consistent treatment for all employees, thereby improving productivity, employee retention, and loyalty. The term 'procedural justice' has been used to describe this process and represents, for example, whether an employee perceives a compensation policy as equitable and fair.
Based on Taylor's (1989) analysis, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 fails to address procedural justice because it ignores jobs with 'comparable worth.' The Equal Pay Act requires equal compensation for equal work, but Taylor (1989) points out that jobs with equal value to an employer or society also deserve equivalent rates of compensation, regardless of whether comparable…
National Women's Law Center. (2013). 50 Years & Counting: The Unfinished Business of Achieving Fair Pay. Retrieved from http://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/final_nwlc_equal_pay_report.pdf.
Perry, J., & Gundersen, D.E. (2011). American women and the gender pay gap: A changing demographic or the same old song. Advancing Women in Leadership, 31, 153-9.
Taylor, S.H. (1989). The case for comparable worth. Journal of Social Issues, 45(4), 23-37.
"Greater freedom has increased female participation in the public sphere," which would expose greater numbers of women to criminal behaviors and the opportunities to commit crimes (Steffensmeier & Allan1996, p. 469). Combined with social control theory, opportunity theory offers a plausible explanation for the gender gap in criminal behavior. Social control theory and opportunity theory share in common the basic assumption that deviance is a natural human instinct; that left to their own devices both men and women are predisposed to crime. Criminal behavior is always an option, according to social control theory and opportunity theory. The two sociological theories suggest that deterrents to committing crime, such as a lack of opportunity or strong social bonds, determine patterns of criminal behavior. Moreover, social control theory and opportunity theory emphasize sociological variables at the expense of psychological or personality-based ones.
The opportunity theories such as theories of routine activities present deviance…
Chapple, C.L., McQuillan, J.A., & Berdahl, T.A. (2004). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: a comparison of boys' and girls' models. Social Science Research 34(2005): 357-383.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005). Crime in the United States: Ten-Year Arrest Trends. Table 33. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_33.html
Smith, D.A. & Paternoster, R. (1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: Issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 24(2): 140-172.
Steffensmeier, D. & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology. 22: 459-487.
An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…
Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).
However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.
The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of
females. For example, joining a gang would be a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male vs. female criminality. Males may also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and commit gang-related crime in order to sustain the deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different trajectories due to their differential parental and peer social bonding.
Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime. One potential reason why boys are exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime is their different methods of social bonding. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as being expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more opportunities to commit crime is related…
What Needs to Be Done
The research quite clearly suggests that something needs to be done about the gender gap in literacy rates and the lower comprehension and skill levels of male students. What is somewhat less clear is exactly what needs to be done or how to go about implementing the necessary changes. This is not to say that certain strategies and methods have not been suggested, many of which have even been studied and demonstrated to have a positive impact, but developing a full teaching strategy that addresses this gap in many ways requires an overhaul of general teaching practices that is complex and difficult to concretely define let alone implement. Certain entrenched policies and practices also increase the difficulty of implementing the necessary adjustments to curricula and methodologies.
Education has tended towards greater freedom for independent exploration and less rigid instruction, and while this can lead…
.....social injustice and inequality. First, literature related to the fundamentals of discrimination and descriptions of gender discrimination are discussed in the literature. Following a detailed discussion of what the literature says about gender discrimination, the literature review shifts toward the quantifiable effects of gender discrimination in the workplace. Effects are examined both in terms of measurable effects on organizations and individuals.
Fundamentals of Discrimination
Discrimination is unfortunately pervasive in the workplace. Described as an "inaccurate perception of differences," discrimination can be based on independent variables like race, gender, language, and other demographics (Cleveland, Vescio & Barnes-Farrell, p. 149). The differences perceived are "inaccurate," and also have a direct impact on status, access to power, and access to avenues of promotion or pay increases. Most literature frames discrimination as being "subtle and covert," well concealed from the realms of legal scrutiny, and often difficult to define precisely (Marchiondo, Ran & Cortina,…
gender-based wage disparities still reflect serious issues of concern (Hirsch 2008). Major disparities remain for women. A 2008 article captured a good deal of interest with its simple declaration that "Across-the-board figures from February this year indicate that full-time female employees earned an average $1,004 a week compared to fulltime male average weekly earnings of $1,190" (The Lamp). Others too have sought to use drama as a way of heightening the reality of some of the disparities. Noting that for those who earn upwards of $1,000,000 annually the ratio of men to women is 13:1 is as profound a comment as is the fact that income equality doesn't even begin to appear until one looks at earnings of about $25,000 and $30,000 (Lips, 2003, pp. 87).
Baron and Cobb-Clark (2009, pp. 229) express concern that, as they put it, "Forty years after the 1969 Equal Pay Case there continues to…
Baron, JD & Cobb-Clark, WA (2009). 'Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis.' The Economic Record, vol. 86, no. 273. pp. 227-246.
Bertrand, M. (2010). 'New perspectives on gender.' Handbook of Labour Economics. Vol. 4b. DOI 10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02415-4. 1545-1592.
Cobb-Clark, D. And Tan, M. (2010). 'Noncognitive skills, Occupational attainment, and relative wages.' HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
Coelli, M. (2011). Occupation differences and the gender wage gap in Australia: a detailed re-assessment. HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
There has been a lot of progress when it comes to gender diversity. However, a lot of work remains to be done. Indeed, there is a cacophony of issues that keep cropping up including talk about the glass escalator vs. the glass ceiling, the myth that women are on equal status with men to this very day, the historical role of gender and diversity over the course of the history of the United States, the very different definitions of sex and gender and so forth. The recent Supreme Court of the United States decision that ensconced gay marriage as being an equal right that people in the LGBT community should enjoy as a civil right was a milestone moment. While this is an encouraging event and people in the workplace should not allow sexual behavior or gender/sexual identity to become an issue, there is still a lot of ignorance and…
. Health insurance is compulsory in Japan and all citizens are covered by health insurance either through an employee health insurance or through the national health insurance (Reid, 2008). In the U.., the Census Bureau reports that citizens 65 years old and older are the most health insured and that the lowest proportion of people who are not covered by health insurance are those who have higher incomes.
The relationship of status to age and gender differs in terms of country. Perhaps one plausible reason is that the difference between the two countries can be a function of other factors such as difference in culture and in value system.
DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B.D., & mith, J.C. (2009). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United tates: 2008. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/p60-236.pdf
Doogue, G. (Interviewer) & Marmot, M. tatus yndrome -- How Your ocial tanding Directly Affects Your Health and…
Status. (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary
The Conference Board of Canada 2009. Society: Gender Income Gap. Retrieved from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/HCP/Details/society/gender-income-gap.aspx
United Nations Statistics Division. Statistics and Indicators on Women and Men. Retrieved from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm/ww2005/tab5g.htm#fn
Gap Inc.'s Social Media: Selling Feminism and Equality, Not T-Shirts
Forbes 9/30/2014 -- Clare O'Connor
This article highlights Gap's new media campaign which is less about selling any of its items and more about selling a progressive brand image. The company has taken a stand on feminism and equality in the workplace. If you take a look at the social media accounts of parent company Gap GPS Inc. And you'll see the 45-year-old retail giant has been carefully cultivating a web presence focused on feminism, equal pay and progressive values (O'Connor, 2014). Gap's competitors, such as Old Navy or Banana Republic offer content about styling tips by contrast.
The company is attempting to pick up and be associated with a larger social movement that is known as #HeForShe which was introduced and is backed by the United Nations. They have also embraced other similar campaigns that call for equal…
O'Connor, C. (2014, October 30). Gap Inc.'s Social Media: Selling Feminism And Equality, Not T-Shirts. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2014/09/30/gap-incs-social-media-selling-feminism-and-equality-not-t-shirts/
gap, problem, purpose, Q's, method, design, and analysis?
According to Hickman (et al.) in the 2008 article "The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates" from the Journal of Educational esearch, the concern about the gap in achievement between high school graduates and non-graduates has long been a concern of educators and educational policy-makers alike. The peer-reviewed study posed two essential research questions to address the problem of low high school retention rates: first, do differences in the educational development of high school graduates and dropouts exist early on in their elementary school careers and secondly, if differences do exist, "where in time and across which variables do these differences occur" (Hickman et al. 2008: 2). The study attempts to address a 'research gap' in the existing literature regarding the focus on the secondary school careers of high school graduates. Focusing on the problems students encounter in high…
Hickman (et al. 2008). The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates. Journal of Educational Research
Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) indicate that the quasi-experimental design allows researchers the opportunity to use intact comparison groups and "straight forward comparative statistical analyses" to explore variables and their correlations. In an effort to better understand the continuing and persistent social problem of high school dropouts, Hickman, Bartholomew, and Mathwig (2005) conducted a quasi-experiment contrast group design with purposive random sampling to explore the differential developmental pathways of high school graduates and those who drop out. Hickman, et al., (2008) focus their research on the development process over an extended period of time, attempting to locate "markedly different" patterns related to academic performance and experiences in the educational
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
gap for L2?
It is popularly thought that adults may be less capable than children or adolescents in mastering a second language. Investigation of studies, however, show that this may not be so clearly the case and that in fact language constraint of acquiring L2 may be as ore even more likely attributable to situational limitations. The following proposal draws up a literature review on the subject whilst elaborating with a proposed qualitative study that aims to test the hypothesis that situational rather than age factors may determine age characteristics of acquisition of L2.
It is well-known that a critical age exists for L1 acquisition and that beyond that it is much harder for the individual to learn / acquire the language (Marinova-Todd et al., 2000). Existence of this same situation for acquisition of L2, would necessitate that teachers / instructor prefer to teach L2 up to and rarely beyond…
Champagne-Muzar, C., Schneiderman, E.I., & Bourdages, J.S. (1993). Second
language accent: The role of the pedagogical environment. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 143-1-60.Lenneneberg (1967)
McLaughlin, B. (1985). Second-language acquisition in childhood: Vol. 2. School-age children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Marinova-Todd, S. et al., (2000). Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning, TESOL Quarterly, 34,, pp. 9-34.
McIntosh (1988) puts it, the primary issue with privilege and the power that comes with it is that those who are privileged rarely realize or acknowledge it. Denial of power and privilege perpetuates problems, because when men display "unwillingness to grant that they are over privileged," it becomes impossible to engage in meaningful dialogue or generate change (McIntosh, 1988, p. 22). One example of how dialogue is systematically shut down is the backlash against feminism, and the fear of "feminization" of society that is commonly heard among the most powerful and privileged. In the same way, whites fail to recognize white privilege, going so far as to make accusations of "reverse racism" when any attempt is made to reverse structural inequality.
Flagg (1993) also raises a crucial concern about the need for race consciousness, not racial erasure or "color blindness." To be color blind is to deny not only the…
Flagg, B.J. (1993). "Was Blind, but Now I See": White Race Consciousness and the Requirement of Discriminatory Intent. Michigan Law Review, Vol. 91, No. 5 (Mar., 1993), pp. 953-1017.
McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege. In Bender & Braverman, Power, Privilege And Law: A Civil Rights Reader.
For example, The Council on Gender Parity in Labor, which is concerned with gender equality, has found that that "...gender inequity in science, engineering and technology fields is a workforce problem that inhibits the full utilization of the labor force. "(Gatta M. And Trigg M. 2001)
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical ork: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding omen Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the omen's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Dehyse M.P. Educated oman: The Grad School Adventures of Micella
Phoenix Dehyse. 2004. July 4, 2006. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/previous_issues/articles/2800/educated_woman_the_grad_school_adventures_of_micella_phoenix_dewhyse_chapter_23_grad_school_and_the_single_soul
Etzkowitz H. Barriers to omen in Academic Science and Engineering. 1994.
July 2, 2006. http://people.mills.edu/spertus/Gender/EKNU.html
Gatta M. And Trigg M. BRIDGING THE GAP: GENDER EQUITY IN SCIENCE,
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 2001.…
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical Work: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the Women's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Gender Bias in Coverage of the 2016 Rio Olympics
Over the past centuries, gender bias has been one of the dominant issues in the Olympic games. hile there has been a noticeable increase in the women participation in the Olympic games, nevertheless media bias has been largely remarkable where men receive more media attentions than female counterparts. In the recent 2016 concluded Olympic game in Rio, media have been found using the sexiest languages to refer the female athletes. Based on the tone of the commentators, it is clear that women athletics are treated differently compared with the male counterpart in sport. The commentators lay emphasize on clothing and physique rather than their abilities and performances.
Analysis of more than 160 million words from academic papers, newspapers, and social media reveals that men are three times mentioned than women referring men as big, strong, fastest, or real. However, women are…
Angelini, James R., Paul J. Macarthur, and Andrew C. Billings. "What's The Gendered Story? Vancouver's Prime Time Olympic Glory on NBC." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56.2 (2012): 261-79. Print.
Billings, Andrew C., James R. Angelini, and Andrea H. Duke. "Gendered Profiles of Olympic History: Sportscaster Dialogue in the 2008 Beijing Olympics." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 54.1 (2010): 9-23. Print.
Bates, Claire. "Is some Olympic commentary sexist?" BBC News Magazine 11 Aug. 2016: 1+. Web. 19 Sept. 2016. .
Kornienko, O., Santos, C. E., Martin, C. L., & Granger, K. L. (2016). Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence. Developmental psychology, 52(10), 1578.
I. Statement of the Problem
a. Research Topic
The topic of the research is the impact of peer influence on the development of gender identity amongst adolescents
b. Research Question and Hypothesis
The article investigates peer influence on gender identity through the use of panel data on gender identity and friendship networks gathered from students in the 7th and 8th grade from an ethnically diverse public middle school. The main hypothesis of the study is that adolescents would alter their gender identity self-concepts to become akin to their friends and that such effects would take place even when network selection impacts were controlled. The second hypothesis of the study is that stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of gender identity than within-gender dimensions of…
Following on the heels of Michel Foucault, Butler situates the dichotomous conceptualization of gender as a product of discourse, just as Foucault (1990) realized that homo- and heterosexuality were both discursive products. The maintenance of coherent norms in the realm of gender through cultural discourse is intertwined with the positing of heterosexuality as the norm. This is why, for example, when a young boy "dresses up" as a girl and/or plays with dolls, his parents frequently express concern that this is a sign of burgeoning homosexuality and punish the child.
Butler would interpret the child's act as a "performance" and the parents' intervention as a means of correcting that performance in order to condition the child towards "acting the right way" - that is, enacting the role of maleness as it is rigidly codified by the heterosexual norms upon which our society is based:
The notion that there might…
Bornstein, K. (1995). Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us. New York: Vintage.
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge.
Clausen, J. (1999). Apples and Oranges: My Journey to Sexual Identity. New York: Houghton
Elder's (2016) "Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy" is a qualitative study of gender identity in an elder population. The research focuses exclusively on elder transgender and also gender nonconforming elders in their experiences of psychotherapy. The goal of the study is to trace any differences between psychotherapeutic experiences across the life span, to see if there have been changes in the field of psychology and also changes in the perceptions of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Elder (2016) argues that relatively few studies have examined the experiences of transgender individuals in psychotherapy at all, and this research seeks to fill that gap in the literature too.
The author approaches the subject from a transaffirmative model, which validate and support the individual's self-determined gender identity without leading to pathologies like gender dysmorphia. There are several established theoretical viewpoints mentioned in the research including Lev's transgender emergence…
Elder, A.B. (2016). Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy: A Qualitative Study. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity 3(2): 180-186.
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.