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Gender Issues in Physical Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Middle School Performance
The purpose of this research proposal is an evaluation of the gender issues and problems that arise in physical education classes in middle school.
There is a large body of evidence supporting the notion that though childhood and adolescence are critical times to lay the foundation for physical activity for an individual's lifetime, "too many girls are insufficiently active" (Olasov & yan, 2000:37). The Surgeon General's report in 1996 reported that "more than half of young people aged 12 to 21 were not considered active on a routine basis," with young females disproportionately inactive as young males (Olasov & yan, 2000: 37; PCPFS, 1997).
There is also significant body of evidence suggesting that particularly in middle school regular participation in physical activities can help young women "weather the storms of adolescence" and eventually lead more grounded adult lives…
Dollman, J. (2003). "A problem-based approach to teaching exercise physiology: Gender differences in athletic performance." The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 74(9): 37
Humberstone, B. (1990). "Warriors or wimps? Creating alternative forms of physical education." In G.E. Hutchinson, Gender fair teaching in physical education, JOPERD: 66(1).
Hutchinson, G.E. "Gender-fair teaching in physical education." The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 66(1): 42
Olasov, L. & Ryan, C.A. (2000). "Mentoring for success female university students and at risk middle school girls." The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 71(9): 37
GENDE ISSUES & COMMUNICATION AT WOK
Gender & Communication
As with a number of changes in business, such as "going green," diversity in the workplace was not initially or always welcomed. Eventually, as the times change, there are some organizational changes that must be made across industries simply to keep current with the trends in business practice. Diversity with respect to culture and gender is certainly a change that came with intense resistance. Around the world in the 21st century, there are still a number of industries, cultures, and countries that have rampant imbalances in the workplace with respect to the gender representation within specific organizations. This is to say that gender diversity as well as diversity in general, is not a simple or quick change to be made. Furthermore, as with many changes, whether the intentions are positive or not, organizational change, even expanded diversity, comes with potential positives…
Appelbaum, S.H., Audet, L., & Miller, J.C. Gender and leadership? Leadership and gender? A journey through the landscape of theories. Leadership & Organization, 24(1), 43 -- 51.
Barbuto, Jr., J.E., Fritz, S., Matkin, PhD, G.S., & Marx, D.B. (2007). Effects of Gender, Education and Age upon Leaders' Use of Influence Tactics and Full Range Leadership Behavior. Sex Roles, 56, 71 -- 83.
Choi, J.N., Price, R.H., & Vinokur, A.D. (2003) Self-efficacy changes in groups: effects of diversity, leadership, and group climate. Journal of Organizational Behavior 24, 1 -- 16.
Hambley, L.A., O'Neill, T.A., & Kline, T.J.B. (2007). Virtual team leadership: The effects of leadership style and communication medium on team interaction styles and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 1 -- 20.
Gender Issues in Prison
omen now represent one of the fastest-rising segments in American prisons. In 2001, for example, the number of prison inmates has risen to 94,336, more than double the female prison population in 1990. omen now comprise 6.7% of the prison population, and the figure is expected to rise (Beck, Kerberg and Harrison 2002).
Corrections facilities, however, have been slow to respond to these changes. Many of these facilities were designed to incarcerate violent male inmates. They therefore remain unresponsive to the needs of female inmates.
This paper looks at prison experience from the point-of-view of the female inmate. First of all, this paper argues that the crimes most female inmates commit are quantitatively different from those committed by men. Because of these different reasons, prisons built around the need to contain violent male offenders are ill-equipped to meet the special needs of a growing female population.…
Beck, A., Karberg, J., & Harrison, P. (2002). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2001. Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Bloom, Barbara, Barbara Owen, Elizabeth Piper Deschenes and Jill Rosenbaum (2002). "Moving toward justice for female juvenile offenders in the new millennium: Modeling gender-specific policies and programs." Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 18(1): 37-56.
MacDonald, John M. And Meda Chesney-Lind (2001). "Gender bias and juvenile justice revisited: A multiyear analysis." Crime and Delinquency, 47(2): 177-195.
McClellan, Dorothy S., David Farabee and Ben M. Crouch (1997). "Early victimization, drug use and criminality: A comparison of male and female prisoners." Criminal Justice and Behavior, 24(4): 455-476.
Gender Issues in Latin
American Economic Development
This essay attempts to present all new insight into the topic of gender concerns in regard to the Latin American nation of Mexico's economic development. The report is written with the notion that I have just been appointed as Minister of Gender Affairs for Mexico and our new President, who is a woman, ran on a platform that promised gender equality in all new and existing policies within her administration. As Minister of Gender Affairs in Mexico, the president has requested that I develop a new national plan that both addresses and ends the rampant discrimination against females in Mexico and in turn creates new generous gender equality policies. The essay will address: Family Legislation, Labor Market Legislation, Trade Policies, Educational Policies and Agrarian Legislation.
As the world continues to become a smaller place through the use of new technologies like…
Chant, Sylvia. Gender in Latin America. n.p.: n.p., 2003.
Deere, Carmen Diana, and Leon Magdalena. Empowering Women: Land And Property Rights In Latin America. n.p.: n.p., 2001.
This critic argues that plays such as Twelfth Night, Midsummer Nights Dream, and as You Like it merely serve to assert masculine authority and to rebuff practices like cross-dressing. esides, cross-dressing threatened the social order and the gendered hierarchies of power. The principles of subordination were challenged by the subversive potential of such practices which transgressed norms (Howard, 1988:418).
Regarding the motivation of disguise in Shakespearean plays, it assumes a wide variety of functions. In Viola's case, the circumstances are that she is shipwrecked in an unknown land, where she must protect herself. Viola must cross-dress in order to serve the duke. Such situational disguise exposes the constrictiveness of social gender roles by implying the danger and weakness a woman is subdued by (Windholz, 2004).
Consequently, Windholz asserts that Shakespeare's intend is to represent women's use of cross-dressing in response to the patriarchal constraints of Elizabethan society. Disguise may be…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990
Howard, Jean. 'Cross-dressing, the Theatre, and Gender Struggle in Early Modern England', Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Winter, 1988), pp. 418-440
Jardine, Lisa. Still Harping on Daughters: Women and Drama in the Age of Shakespeare. Brighton: Sussex University Press, 1983. 9-36
Kimbrough, Robert. 'Androgyny Seen Through Shakespeare's Disguise', Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring, 1982), pp. 17-33
Is Climate Change an Issue of omen's Rights?
For the most of the world, climate change is one of the most pressing issues on the radar. It has become increasingly clear that anthropogenic activities are influencing the Earth's precious energy balance for quite some time; since industrialization primarily. hile the evidence has been mounting and the science has become increasingly sophisticated, it has also become clear that the impacts of climate change are not going to be equitably distributed throughout the entire world's population -- everyone will feel the impacts of climate change, but some groups will feel them significantly more than others. For example, the third-world countries are expected to feel the deepest impacts through drought and increased water issues, but we are also seeing water problems in advanced nations evident by any of the news related to Flint, MI. This analysis will look specifically at the…
Diep, F. (2015, September 30). Four Ways Climate Change Affects Women More Than Men. Retrieved from Pacific Standard: https://psmag.com/four-ways-climate-change-affects-women-more-than-men-4ea0750c23b9
Mann, C. (2014, September). How to Talk About Climate Change So People Will Listen. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/09/how-to-talk-about-climate-changeso-people-will-listen/375067/
Milne, W. (2005). Climate Change, Uncertain Future: Considering Rural Women in Climate Change Policies and Strategies. Canadian Woman Studies, 49-54.
Nhamo, G. (2017). Addressing women in climate change policies: A focus on selected east and southern African countries. Agenda, 156-167.
Awakening by Kate Chopin
In "The Awakening", Chopin portrays a character, Edna Pontellier, who has identity issues with the traditional gender norms that are present in the Victorian society of the time. Edna is described in ways that would not fulfill the traditional feminine stereotype of the period, and that she is not content with the roles that she plays as a wife and mother. The author ascribes to Edna traits that seem more masculine in nature than descriptions of other characters in the story. The societies reliance on various social norms makes this story is relevant in today's contemporary period as gender issues are still a polarizing issue. However, today's issues are on a different scale by comparison, and comparing and contrasting the social norms of these two periods offers interesting insights in regards to how social norms have evolved, yet in some ways, things haven't changed as much…
Chopin, K. (2012). The Awakening and Selected Short Stories. Amazon Digital Services.
Peters, J., Becker, J., & Davis, J. (2017, Febuary 22). Bathrooms for Transgender Students. Retrieved from New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/22/us/politics/devos-sessions-transgender-students-rights.html
Women are challenged to get enough from such a broadly focused sessions could replace the one on one services of a trained counselor in a dedicated women's organization. Alternately, women can seek information services from the automated information systems available through kiosks. This option requires substantial computer and reading literacy levels (Critoph, 2003).
Gender relations, like all social relations, are multi-stranded: they embody ideas, values and identities; they allocate labor between different tasks, activities and domains; they determine the distribution of resources; and they assign authority, agency and decision-making power. This means that gender disparities are multi-dimensional and cannot be compacted simply to the question of material or ideological restriction. It also proposes that these relationships are not always internally unified. They may surround contradictions and imbalances, particularly when there have been changes in the broader socio-economic environment. Some policy makers, advocates and researchers in the region identify the need…
Critoph, Ursule. (2003). "Who wins, who loses: The real story of the transfer of training to the provinces and its impact on women."
In Cohen, M. Training the excluded for work.
Vancouver: UBC Press.
Fenwick, Tara. (2006). Control, Contradiction and Ambivalence: Skill Initiatives in Canada.
The most prominent downsides of globalization are succinctly revealed below:
the populations in the highly developed economies loose their jobs as the corporations outsource positions to more cost-effective regions the populations in the less developed economies are exploited by outsourcing corporations companies that outsource transfer quality responsibilities to other countries, meaning that the quality of the final product could be compromised diseases are more rapidly transmitted from one region to the other there is a risk that the large corporations simultaneously conducting businesses in several global regions could come to rule the world due to their massive investments and gains (iloveindia)
the forces of globalization make it easier for national problems to take an international nature; the most relevant example in this sense is the emergence of the financial crisis in the United States and its expansion to the entire world globalization also increases the income gap between countries and…
Abed, G.T., Challenges of Growth and Globalization in the Middle East and North Africa, International Monetary Fund, 2003, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/med/2003/eng/abed.htm last accessed on May 14, 2009
MacKinnon, C., Middle East Trade: Globalization Puts New Pressure on the Region, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Edition of June-July, pp.73-92
Pros and Cons of Globalization, iloveindia, http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/pros-and-cons-of-globalization-3507.html last accessed on May 14, 2009
displace all our social ills through psychology and advancing economic status, never quite filled the shoes which society expected. The modern image of life contained high amounts of anticipation and idealism. Yet as the industrial revolution took hold and transformed our culture socially, economically and politically, people discovered slowly that societal expectations were not as easily changed as a new factory was built at the end of the block. People still acted like people always had, wrestling with ideas that seem good at the moment compared to the ethics and values which ultimately held the individual and the community to solid ground.
In this time, the image of a woman and of a woman's place in modern culture also was undergoing considerable forces toward change. The woman's social image prior to the industrial revolution, and a modern mindset was that of a home maker and women who was, or should…
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…
references to at least two of the texts read
Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far
Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned
Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
Gender and Islam Books
The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.
This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…
slavery is all about power and exploitation, it makes sense that the women depicted in the 2013 Steve McQueen movie Twelve Years a Slave are systematically abused, even the white women. In the film, Eliza, Patsey, and Harriet were all sexually abused by white men, revealing the intersectionality of power. However, it is also important to point out that Mistress Epps is also abused by Master Epps, showing how white males wield power in a hierarchical social system in which women of color are at the bottom. The role of women in Twelve Years a Slave is complicated because some understand that they need to submit and even pretend to enjoy the sex in order to stay alive and protect their own children.
Question 1: Did the male slaves defend the women and children, why or why not?
This question is difficult to answer because some men do try to…
McQueen, Steve. Twelve Years a Slave. [Feature Film], 2013.
Schafer, Judith K. "Open and Notorious Concubinage": The Emancipation of Slave Mistresses by Will and the Supreme Court in Antebellum Louisiana. Louisiana History, Vol 28, No. 2, Spring 1987, pp. 165-182.
Solorzano, Daniel G. "Critical race theory, race and gender microaggressions, and the experience of Chicana and Chicano scholars." International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, Volum 11, Number 1, pp. 121-136, 1998.
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…
Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.
Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.
Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gender and Organizational Social Change Models
The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.
The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…
Aaltio, L. And Huang, J. 2007. Women managers' careers in information technology in China: high flyers with emotional costs? Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 2, pp. 227-244.
Akgun, a., Byrne, J., Lynn, G., and Keskin, H. 2007. Organizational unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 6, pp. 794-812.
American Psychological Association (APA). 2006. When the Boss is a Woman. March 22, 2006. Psychology Matters. Available at http://www.psychologymatters.org/womanboss.html
Diefenbach, T. 2007. The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 1., pp. 126-144.
There is a chapter entitled "Getting Even" which talks about many films that have rape as a story line and the victim gets even. This chapter was the most obscure to me, because many of the films the author mentioned did not seem to fit into the horror genre, or were pretty much unknown films (at least to me). I understand the problem with rape-related horror films, and how they often make the victim appear as if she subconsciously wanted to be raped, but I do not think the examples the author uses are the most effective. I did not relate to this chapter as much because I did not know the films, and I think that weakened the book for me. It would have helped if the films were more well-known, or there were other examples that proved the point. The other point of this chapter, that women have…
Clover, Carol J. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…
Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.
Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.
Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
Human Trafficking-Quali tool
Qualitative Study on Human Trafficking (with Gender Analysis)
For the data collection mini-project, the researcher is proposing two qualitative tools (in-depth interview guides) for two kinds of informants: first, victims of human trafficking, with equal number of interviews between males and females; and second, experts on the issue of human trafficking to provide insights on the reliability, validity, and usefulness of data on the topic, published and shared in the public fora.
Proposed guide questions for human trafficking victims:
Introduction to the interviewee/key informant.
Establishing rapport with key informant: Can you share with us a little background about yourself? About your family?
Understanding of the concept of human trafficking, framing the mind of the key informant towards his/her experience: Can you share with me, what do you think about when you hear the word, "human trafficking"?
ecall of abduction/recruitment into human trafficking: Can you tell me what…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9087-7
Latin American woman who is interested in a cultural studies program. This has not changed, and in fact, this course has helped me to deepen my understanding of diversity and helped me to understand more about gender roles and norms from a cross-cultural perspective. I have learned that there are no universal constants, and that even within cultures there can be a great diversity of experience as we saw with Monday's Girls and the difference between Florence and Azikiye. Likewise, the differences between the rich and poor gay men in Manila shows how even within the same culture, there can be a great variety of experiences and points-of-view. The most difficult concept for me as I continue my studies will be cultural relativism or ethical relativism. It is difficult to withhold judgments, especially when we believe that a way of life or worldview is harmful. On the one hand, there…
Cairoli, M.L. "Factory as Home and Family."
"Gender and the Global Economy." Chapter 11.
Response One: Liam
It is true that capitalism has generally benefitted the "owners of the means of production," as Marx had put it. Since the age of imperialism, Western Europe has been exploitative. More specifically, the men in positions of power have exploited laborers. This is as true for men as for women. Capitalism has allowed for tremendous innovations and greater overall productivity, but it has resulted in anomie and a detachment between the labor and the finished product. Few workers have shareholding capacities in the companies they work for, creating a system in which the laborer who creates the product does not share in the fruits of the very work that he or she performs.
Elder's (2016) "Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy" is a qualitative study of gender identity in an elder population. The research focuses exclusively on elder transgender and also gender nonconforming elders in their experiences of psychotherapy. The goal of the study is to trace any differences between psychotherapeutic experiences across the life span, to see if there have been changes in the field of psychology and also changes in the perceptions of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Elder (2016) argues that relatively few studies have examined the experiences of transgender individuals in psychotherapy at all, and this research seeks to fill that gap in the literature too.
The author approaches the subject from a transaffirmative model, which validate and support the individual's self-determined gender identity without leading to pathologies like gender dysmorphia. There are several established theoretical viewpoints mentioned in the research including Lev's transgender emergence…
Elder, A.B. (2016). Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy: A Qualitative Study. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity 3(2): 180-186.
Gender and Career Success
As Perrewe and Nelson (2004) note, "women who enter the managerial and executive ranks are the first of their gender to do so, and they experience token status" (p. 368). Token status is something that both genders must deal with as barriers between gender-specific roles and career development and success are broken. The problem is that token status still means that individuals who have broken this barrier for the first time for their specific gender must deal with "isolation, stereotyping and discrimination" (Perrewe, Nelson, 2004, p. 368). Thus, it is hard for individuals to achieve career success by breaking down gender walls, though it can be done.
esearch shows that by the 21st century, in fact, gender barriers will be significantly less than a century before, as "almost half the workforce will be comprised of women" (Ibaria, Chidambaram, 1997, p. 63). That means much advancement has…
Igbaria, M., Chidambaram, L. (1997). The impact of gender on career success of information systems professionals. Information Technology and People, 10(1): 63-86.
Ng, T., Eby, L., Sorensen, K., Feldman, D. (2005). Predictors of Objective and Subjective Career Success: A Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 58: 367-408.
Perrewe, P., Nelson, D. (2004). Gender and Career Success: The Facilitative Role of Political Skill. Organizational Dynamics, 33(4): 366-378.
Orser, B., Leck, J. (2010). Gender influences on career success outcomes. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(5): 386-407.
The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.
Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…
Hines, M. (2006). Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S115-S121.
Hines, M. (2008). Early androgen influences on human neural and behavioural development. Early Human Development, 84(12), 805-7.
Wilson, J.D. (1999). The role of androgens in male gender role behavior. Endocrine Reviews, 20(5), 726-37.
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Lynskey, Dorian. "Blurred Lines: The most controversial song of the decade." The Guardian.
The Guardian, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
Gender is an institution that people either widely accept as one way or another. Within any given society there are cultural norms that people identify with and that help shape their behaviors, values and beliefs. Gender differences thus can be easily created as an institution and can be representative of inequality when that inequality is supported or constructed by society at large (Kimmel, 2000). Kimmel suggests that inequalities are created as norms and arise within relationships, within families and even in the workplace or any other environment in which people work intimately (Kimmel, 2000).
Because gender is an institution according to Kimmel certain behaviors or actions are easily identified and labeled as appropriate or wrong (such as homosexuality) (Kimmel, 2000). If people adopt and follow social norms they will enjoy all the benefits associated with accepting the institution of gender correctly. When they do something incorrectly however people can expect…
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kleinfeld, J.S. (2002). "Could it be a big world after all? The Six Degrees of Separation
Myth." 2, Nov. 2005: http://www.judithkleinfeld.com/ar_bigworld.html
Napierkowski. "Six Degrees of Separation." Enotes. October 2003. 2 November 2005. http://www.enotes.com/six-degrees/18787 .
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Even Freud believed that girls have penis envy, which is only fully resolved by marrying a male and having a male child. This desperate longing to have a man as a way of finding one's identity and place in society is parodied and mocked in Pink's video "Stupid Girls."
Individuals look to culture, including the media, as a way of defining themselves. A thirteen-year-old girl who is told that it is normal to make one's body sexually desirable to men and not to seek self-empowerment through personal growth will be extremely anxious about how she presents herself to the world in a physical manner. Even a 3rd grade boy receives messages that affect his perceptions of gender. For example, if the little boy is told that he cannot wear a pink t-shirt because 'pink is for girls,' even though his young sister wears 'boyish' blue, or if he is told…
Gender and Smell ecognition
There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…
Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.
Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: verbal vs. sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chem. Senses, 18(1), 17-26.
Lenochova, P., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Human body odour individuality. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 11(3), 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73945-8_18
McGivern, R., Mutter, K., Anderson, J., Wideman, G., Bodnar, M., & Huston, P. (1998).
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…
Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."
Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
As I walked down the pedestrianized shopping mall, I immediately took note of the configurations of people on the sidewalk. There were many groups of females together -- either in twos, or groups of four or more. There were also some lone females, too, of course. There were many couples, and also a few groups of male friends. When looking at these different configurations of people and individuals, the way they "do" gender became almost immediately apparent. The most obvious and glaring sign of "gendered" identity is clothing. Women on this shopping street tended to dress quite nicely. Many were wearing high heels, and those who were in flats were in stylish ones as opposed to sneakers. Some of the men were dressed nicely too, but many were wearing sloppy clothing such as old T-shirts, shorts, and flip-flops. In addition to the differences in what men and women were…
Gender as a Role
The first stage of analysis as to whether gender plays a role in society and to what degree it does so begins with the classification and distinguishing of the terms "sex," "sexual category," and finally "gender." ne may be in a sex category even if the sexual characteristics are lacking. Gender activities are thus a furthering of and derived from "sexual categories." Therefore, the emphasis is not so much on the chromosomes of the individual but the set of actions that humans involve themselves in during social interactions.
Since society is categorized by physiological differentiation, gender can dictate relationships in the sense that gender speaks to who you are and so in essence results in being an identifier to those who wish to bear responsibility for their actions. Here the authors argue that gender is not an accurate identifier for the reason that gender is much…
Only reconditioning of our basic assumptions will remedy the failure of "doing genders."
Works Summarily Cited
West and Zimmerman, Do. 1987. "Doing Gender." Gender and Society 1:125-51
hom it May Concern
Gender Analysis of olverine Image
Media presentations of gender nearly always cater to stereotypical depictions of either male or female. They seldom showcase individuals who do no prescribe to the gender binary, but rather exploit preconceived notions of what it means to be either wholly male or wholly female. Advertisements which are targeted to female audiences will usually portray symbols with traditionally female appeal, such as flowers or pastel colors in pink or light yellow. They endorse the highly feminine aspect of womanhood and encourage the consumer to buy into that definition of woman. Femininity is equaled to being a woman and unfeminine women are therefore considered other. According to this same set of rules, males must prescribe to the stereotypes of masculinity, such as lack of emotion, oneness with nature and manual labor, and authoritativeness above all things (Beckwith 130). It…
Beckwith, Karen. "A Common Language of Gender." Politics and Gender. 1(1), 2005. 128-37.
"Gender Analysis." English 100 Writing Communities and Identities. 8th ed. 43-71.
Lorber, Judith. "Believing is Seeing: Biology as Ideology." The Gendered Society Reader. Ed.
Kimmel, Michael S., Aronson, Amy, and Kaler, Amy. Toronto, ON: Oxford UP, 2011. 11-18.
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…
A model of marriage must be created for women that do not polarize the two genders into conventional roles, regardless of who works outside the home. Masculine and feminine ideals of power must become blended, and the very notion of what constitutes masculinity and femininity must be questioned, otherwise the idea if a 'real woman' or a 'real man' makes a better leader will forever render the debate schematic and unnecessarily polarized in American culture.
What do you think are the main sources of homophobia in American culture? What is the situation today regarding homophobia, and what do you predict for the future -- and when?
Is it the idealization of the 'John Wayne' cowboy stereotype of masculinity that makes homophobic such an intransigent part of American culture? On one hand, gay people have made considerable encroachments into the American mass media and culture. Ellen hosts the Oscars; Rosie…
There is no male equivalent of Sugar Cane in Some Like it Hot. Unlike the unequivocally feminine Sugar Cane, neither Joe nor Jerry plays the role of the cad or the cowboy. In fact, Joe shows genuine emotion and caring for Sugar as his feelings for her deepen. Joe and Jerry, like Sugar Cane, are musicians. All three are therefore portrayed as social equals regardless of gender.
Gender and sexuality are treated differently in Some Like it Hot. The key scenes in Some Like it Hot with allusions to homosexuality are the ones in which Osgood pursues Daphne. Osgood challenges conventional gender roles and stereotypes. He has been married "six or seven times" and only his mama has kept track. His inability to remain in a stable heterosexual relationship may be viewed as a typically male, cavalier attitude toward marriage. However, given the last line of Some Like it Hot,…
Wilder, Billy (Dir.). Some Like it Hot. Feature film. 1959.
They cannot fight their biological destiny, no matter how hard they try, and that is another reason that I believe sex and gender are biological, and not simply psychological or mental.
However, I firmly believe that how society looks at gender is social, and has nothing to do with biology or nature. Society has placed certain "rules" about sex and sexuality on men and women. Men are supposed to be manly, strong, the providers, and most of all, supremely "male" and all that means. It means men are supposed to be unemotional, not show their feelings, enjoy sports and violence, and never show weakness. Women are supposed to be feminine, weak and dependent, good-looking, and emotional, and a man who shows these tendencies is labeled "gay" or "weird" by other men. These are all social constructs that most of society firmly believes in and abides by. Thus, anyone who is…
Transamerica. Dir. Duncan Tucker. Perf. Felicity Huffman, Kevin Zegers. The Weinstein Company, 2005.
Vincent, Norah. Self-Made Man: One Woman's Journey Into Manhood and Back. New York, Penguin, 2006.
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…
Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010 [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
In the Calvin Klein jeans ad, it is he who is chased and who resists and fends off the female. The imagery is opposite to that of typical gender roles, in which female sexuality is restrained. The man's body is toned, muscular, and hairless. Even if he were more interested in the female behind him, he controls his passion admirably.
The Calvin Klein advertisement allows the female to unleash a deep sexual hunger. Her open mouth, biting action, wet hair, and grabbing motion all show she possesses an animalistic hunger and passion. The wet hair increases the elemental, wild feel of the advertisement. The background is a nebulous dark area, allowing the viewers to imagine any kind of scenario and put themselves into the ad. Target audiences will relate to the imagery on multiple levels: perceiving Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans as intensifying a man's innate sexuality and creating desire…
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Renzetti, C.M.; Curran, D.J. & Maier, S.L. (2012). Women, Men & Society. Allyn & Bacon.
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Bryce, J.O., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal
of adolescence, 27(1), 23-39.
Namco Bandai (2009). Tekken 6 [videogame]. Tokyo: Katsuhiro Harada.
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
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Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; Baup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and Bipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer B, Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…
Ahmed, Leila, 1992. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University.
Bass, Laura R. And Wunder, Amanda, 2009. The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima. Hispanic Review, Vol. 77, No. 1, Re-Envisioning Early Modern Iberia: Visuality, Materiality, History (Winter, 2009), pp. 97-144.
Berkey, Jonathan P. 1996. Circumcision Circumscribed: Female Excision and Cultural Accommodation in the Medieval near East. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 19-38.
Martin Riesebrodt. Review of Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate by Leila Ahmed. The Journal of Religion, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 453-454.
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Gender in omeo and Juliet
Judith Lorber, author of "Night to his Day: The Social Construction of Gender" asserts that gender is not biologically determined, but is a construct of society. This would indicate that the process of socialization is a prime determinant in the development of gender. In other words, how a child is raised will determine his or her gender-based behavior. With this theory in mind, it is interesting to examine traditional gender roles in literature; to examine how literature of the past treated the traditional roles of male and female. William Shakespeare's omeo and Juliet is one of the most famous works of literature in Western culture. It was written around the end of the 1500's, at a time when actors were exclusively male, and therefore all the women's roles would have been played by men. This alone would be enough to base a discussion on the…
Lorber, Judith. "Night to his Day." Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale UP. 1994.
Shakespeare, William. "Romeo and Juliet Script." Scribd. Web. 13 July 2011. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13433084/Romeo-Juliet-Script
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…
Baldwin, James. "Blues for Mister Charlie." New York: Vintage, 2001.
Robinson, Marilynn. Housekeeping. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1981.
3. Where did you find it? (Book, article, URL, etc.)
The information was found at http://www.religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Sx/S_5.htm, and it was actually presented in a very sensitive and informative way.
4. Further thoughts:
The understanding of human sexuality has perhaps served to bring a dimension of maturity to my own thinking about human sexuality. Often times these things are taken for granted, but when we begin exploring them at an academic level, we find that we probably were not so well informed as we might have at first believed ourselves to be. It is incredibly interesting to me that the brain and the skin are two of the most significantly involved organs in the sexual act, and yet they have so much to do with the pleasure derived from intimacy that it almost makes one feel kind of silly to have overlooked it, or to have let it go without great thought.…
A Massachusetts woman was raped by her boyfriend's brother, but because she thought she was having sex with her boyfriend, the brother could not be charged with rape because the Hampton County woman had consensual sex, and was not forced to have sex with the man. The details of the case are this: the woman and boyfriend lived in the boyfriend's family home, in the basement. While her boyfriend was at work, the brother entered the basement bedroom that the couple shared, naked, and when the woman called to him by name, the man did not respond, but got into bed with her, undressed her and engaged in sex. When the act was completed, the man got out of bed to leave the room and when he opened the door, the woman was able to see that it was not her boyfriend.
Massachusetts law (see http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/265-22.htm ) says that an act of rape is one that is accomplished by force; it does not have a clause for rape by "fraud." Even though the man is alleged to have allowed the woman to believe he was someone he was not, he did not use force to accomplish the sexual act. Therefore, at that time, there was no statute under Massachusetts State law by which to prosecute the defendant, and he was released.
In 2006 when this event occurred, the jury that heard the case ended with a hung jury, no verdict. The defendant maintains that he did not pose as his brother, and that the sexual act was consensual. Massachusetts lawmakers said they planned to update the law, but as of this date, it remains unchanged via internet search.
If the individual's personality and cognitive processes gear him or her up to be rebellious, then he or she might become attracted to persons with different ethnic features. Other cognitive factors such as memory or ethnic and gender stereotypes may come into play when viewing arousing imagery. For instance, if a woman was once raped by a man with a mustache, she might respond negatively to a photo of a man in a mustache, even if the man is found alluring to other women. Likewise, a person who is prejudiced against African-American people might not find potentially arousing images of Blacks stimulating.
Finally, physical traits such as gender play a key role in the way people respond to images that are potentially arousing. Gender and sexual orientation affect one's view of physical beauty and attractiveness. A gay man will not find Angelina Jolie's photo to be sexually arousing, whereas a…
Gender and Critical Incident Management
In general, Critical incidents are those situations that have the potential to cause injury or loss of life, property damage, and can threaten the organization's standing, public image, or ability to perform its duties. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), is an intervention protocol that is developed for dealing with traumatic events, especial for use with military combat personnel who are typically first responders to stressful and serious situations. Of course, within any military action or organization, there will be situations that are often violent, chaotic, and unpredictable. From a command and control perspective, though, there are four major attributes that any critical incident response plan should have:
Anticipate and outline the means of detecting the emergency, collecting preliminary intelligence, assessing the seriousness of the situation (attack, systems affected, damage, protection, etc.).
Planning must include a means to easily contact all relevant employees and outside resources.…
Coppieters, B. And Fotion, N., eds. (2002). Moral Constraints on War. Lanham, MD:
Mohammad, Y. (August-September 2004). Eyewitness View of Women in Iraq. Theory Practice News & Letters. Retrieved from: http://www.newsandletters.org/Issues/2004/August-September/Iwomen_August2004.htm
Sterneckert, A.B. (2004). Critical Incident Management. New York: CRC Press.
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…
Duron, L. (2013) Raising My Rainbow. New York: Random House.
Kuhn, S. (2014). Breaking free of gender stereotypes. She Knows. Retrieved online: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1033051/raising-a-gender-neutral-child
Lucas-Stannard, P. (2012). Gender Neutral Parenting.
Martin, K.A. (2005). William wants a doll. Gender and Society 19(4), 456-479.
easons to hear victim experiences.
The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:
A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.
B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.
C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…
AFROL (2011). Sierra Leone: Gender Profile. Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sierraleone_women.htm
Asencio, M., (1999). Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents. Blackwell Publishing.
Dothaneagle.com, (2011). Apologies issued for unprosecuted rape of black woman in 1944.
Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www2.dothaneagle.com/news/2011/mar/21/apologies-issued-unprosecuted-rape-black-woman-194-ar-1607570/