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Gender Issues in Physical Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Middle School Performance
The purpose of this research proposal is an evaluation of the gender issues and problems that arise in physical education classes in middle school.
There is a large body of evidence supporting the notion that though childhood and adolescence are critical times to lay the foundation for physical activity for an individual's lifetime, "too many girls are insufficiently active" (Olasov & yan, 2000:37). The Surgeon General's report in 1996 reported that "more than half of young people aged 12 to 21 were not considered active on a routine basis," with young females disproportionately inactive as young males (Olasov & yan, 2000: 37; PCPFS, 1997).
There is also significant body of evidence suggesting that particularly in middle school regular participation in physical activities can help young women "weather the storms of adolescence" and eventually lead more grounded adult lives…… [Read More]
GENDE ISSUES & COMMUNICATION AT WOK
Gender & Communication
As with a number of changes in business, such as "going green," diversity in the workplace was not initially or always welcomed. Eventually, as the times change, there are some organizational changes that must be made across industries simply to keep current with the trends in business practice. Diversity with respect to culture and gender is certainly a change that came with intense resistance. Around the world in the 21st century, there are still a number of industries, cultures, and countries that have rampant imbalances in the workplace with respect to the gender representation within specific organizations. This is to say that gender diversity as well as diversity in general, is not a simple or quick change to be made. Furthermore, as with many changes, whether the intentions are positive or not, organizational change, even expanded diversity, comes with potential positives…… [Read More]
Gender Issues in Prison
omen now represent one of the fastest-rising segments in American prisons. In 2001, for example, the number of prison inmates has risen to 94,336, more than double the female prison population in 1990. omen now comprise 6.7% of the prison population, and the figure is expected to rise (Beck, Kerberg and Harrison 2002).
Corrections facilities, however, have been slow to respond to these changes. Many of these facilities were designed to incarcerate violent male inmates. They therefore remain unresponsive to the needs of female inmates.
This paper looks at prison experience from the point-of-view of the female inmate. First of all, this paper argues that the crimes most female inmates commit are quantitatively different from those committed by men. Because of these different reasons, prisons built around the need to contain violent male offenders are ill-equipped to meet the special needs of a growing female population.…… [Read More]
Gender Issues in Latin
American Economic Development
This essay attempts to present all new insight into the topic of gender concerns in regard to the Latin American nation of Mexico's economic development. The report is written with the notion that I have just been appointed as Minister of Gender Affairs for Mexico and our new President, who is a woman, ran on a platform that promised gender equality in all new and existing policies within her administration. As Minister of Gender Affairs in Mexico, the president has requested that I develop a new national plan that both addresses and ends the rampant discrimination against females in Mexico and in turn creates new generous gender equality policies. The essay will address: Family Legislation, Labor Market Legislation, Trade Policies, Educational Policies and Agrarian Legislation.
As the world continues to become a smaller place through the use of new technologies like…… [Read More]
This critic argues that plays such as Twelfth Night, Midsummer Nights Dream, and as You Like it merely serve to assert masculine authority and to rebuff practices like cross-dressing. esides, cross-dressing threatened the social order and the gendered hierarchies of power. The principles of subordination were challenged by the subversive potential of such practices which transgressed norms (Howard, 1988:418).
Regarding the motivation of disguise in Shakespearean plays, it assumes a wide variety of functions. In Viola's case, the circumstances are that she is shipwrecked in an unknown land, where she must protect herself. Viola must cross-dress in order to serve the duke. Such situational disguise exposes the constrictiveness of social gender roles by implying the danger and weakness a woman is subdued by (Windholz, 2004).
Consequently, Windholz asserts that Shakespeare's intend is to represent women's use of cross-dressing in response to the patriarchal constraints of Elizabethan society. Disguise may be…… [Read More]
Is Climate Change an Issue of omen's Rights?
For the most of the world, climate change is one of the most pressing issues on the radar. It has become increasingly clear that anthropogenic activities are influencing the Earth's precious energy balance for quite some time; since industrialization primarily. hile the evidence has been mounting and the science has become increasingly sophisticated, it has also become clear that the impacts of climate change are not going to be equitably distributed throughout the entire world's population -- everyone will feel the impacts of climate change, but some groups will feel them significantly more than others. For example, the third-world countries are expected to feel the deepest impacts through drought and increased water issues, but we are also seeing water problems in advanced nations evident by any of the news related to Flint, MI. This analysis will look specifically at the…… [Read More]
Awakening by Kate Chopin
In "The Awakening", Chopin portrays a character, Edna Pontellier, who has identity issues with the traditional gender norms that are present in the Victorian society of the time. Edna is described in ways that would not fulfill the traditional feminine stereotype of the period, and that she is not content with the roles that she plays as a wife and mother. The author ascribes to Edna traits that seem more masculine in nature than descriptions of other characters in the story. The societies reliance on various social norms makes this story is relevant in today's contemporary period as gender issues are still a polarizing issue. However, today's issues are on a different scale by comparison, and comparing and contrasting the social norms of these two periods offers interesting insights in regards to how social norms have evolved, yet in some ways, things haven't changed as much…… [Read More]
Women are challenged to get enough from such a broadly focused sessions could replace the one on one services of a trained counselor in a dedicated women's organization. Alternately, women can seek information services from the automated information systems available through kiosks. This option requires substantial computer and reading literacy levels (Critoph, 2003).
Gender relations, like all social relations, are multi-stranded: they embody ideas, values and identities; they allocate labor between different tasks, activities and domains; they determine the distribution of resources; and they assign authority, agency and decision-making power. This means that gender disparities are multi-dimensional and cannot be compacted simply to the question of material or ideological restriction. It also proposes that these relationships are not always internally unified. They may surround contradictions and imbalances, particularly when there have been changes in the broader socio-economic environment. Some policy makers, advocates and researchers in the region identify the need…… [Read More]
The most prominent downsides of globalization are succinctly revealed below:
the populations in the highly developed economies loose their jobs as the corporations outsource positions to more cost-effective regions the populations in the less developed economies are exploited by outsourcing corporations companies that outsource transfer quality responsibilities to other countries, meaning that the quality of the final product could be compromised diseases are more rapidly transmitted from one region to the other there is a risk that the large corporations simultaneously conducting businesses in several global regions could come to rule the world due to their massive investments and gains (iloveindia)
the forces of globalization make it easier for national problems to take an international nature; the most relevant example in this sense is the emergence of the financial crisis in the United States and its expansion to the entire world globalization also increases the income gap between countries and…… [Read More]
displace all our social ills through psychology and advancing economic status, never quite filled the shoes which society expected. The modern image of life contained high amounts of anticipation and idealism. Yet as the industrial revolution took hold and transformed our culture socially, economically and politically, people discovered slowly that societal expectations were not as easily changed as a new factory was built at the end of the block. People still acted like people always had, wrestling with ideas that seem good at the moment compared to the ethics and values which ultimately held the individual and the community to solid ground.
In this time, the image of a woman and of a woman's place in modern culture also was undergoing considerable forces toward change. The woman's social image prior to the industrial revolution, and a modern mindset was that of a home maker and women who was, or should…… [Read More]
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…… [Read More]
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…… [Read More]
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…… [Read More]
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…… [Read More]
Gender and Islam Books
The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.
This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…… [Read More]
slavery is all about power and exploitation, it makes sense that the women depicted in the 2013 Steve McQueen movie Twelve Years a Slave are systematically abused, even the white women. In the film, Eliza, Patsey, and Harriet were all sexually abused by white men, revealing the intersectionality of power. However, it is also important to point out that Mistress Epps is also abused by Master Epps, showing how white males wield power in a hierarchical social system in which women of color are at the bottom. The role of women in Twelve Years a Slave is complicated because some understand that they need to submit and even pretend to enjoy the sex in order to stay alive and protect their own children.
Question 1: Did the male slaves defend the women and children, why or why not?
This question is difficult to answer because some men do try to…… [Read More]
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…… [Read More]
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]
Gender and Organizational Social Change Models
The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.
The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…… [Read More]
There is a chapter entitled "Getting Even" which talks about many films that have rape as a story line and the victim gets even. This chapter was the most obscure to me, because many of the films the author mentioned did not seem to fit into the horror genre, or were pretty much unknown films (at least to me). I understand the problem with rape-related horror films, and how they often make the victim appear as if she subconsciously wanted to be raped, but I do not think the examples the author uses are the most effective. I did not relate to this chapter as much because I did not know the films, and I think that weakened the book for me. It would have helped if the films were more well-known, or there were other examples that proved the point. The other point of this chapter, that women have…… [Read More]
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…… [Read More]
Human Trafficking-Quali tool
Qualitative Study on Human Trafficking (with Gender Analysis)
For the data collection mini-project, the researcher is proposing two qualitative tools (in-depth interview guides) for two kinds of informants: first, victims of human trafficking, with equal number of interviews between males and females; and second, experts on the issue of human trafficking to provide insights on the reliability, validity, and usefulness of data on the topic, published and shared in the public fora.
Proposed guide questions for human trafficking victims:
Introduction to the interviewee/key informant.
Establishing rapport with key informant: Can you share with us a little background about yourself? About your family?
Understanding of the concept of human trafficking, framing the mind of the key informant towards his/her experience: Can you share with me, what do you think about when you hear the word, "human trafficking"?
ecall of abduction/recruitment into human trafficking: Can you tell me what…… [Read More]
Latin American woman who is interested in a cultural studies program. This has not changed, and in fact, this course has helped me to deepen my understanding of diversity and helped me to understand more about gender roles and norms from a cross-cultural perspective. I have learned that there are no universal constants, and that even within cultures there can be a great diversity of experience as we saw with Monday's Girls and the difference between Florence and Azikiye. Likewise, the differences between the rich and poor gay men in Manila shows how even within the same culture, there can be a great variety of experiences and points-of-view. The most difficult concept for me as I continue my studies will be cultural relativism or ethical relativism. It is difficult to withhold judgments, especially when we believe that a way of life or worldview is harmful. On the one hand, there…… [Read More]
Elder's (2016) "Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy" is a qualitative study of gender identity in an elder population. The research focuses exclusively on elder transgender and also gender nonconforming elders in their experiences of psychotherapy. The goal of the study is to trace any differences between psychotherapeutic experiences across the life span, to see if there have been changes in the field of psychology and also changes in the perceptions of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Elder (2016) argues that relatively few studies have examined the experiences of transgender individuals in psychotherapy at all, and this research seeks to fill that gap in the literature too.
The author approaches the subject from a transaffirmative model, which validate and support the individual's self-determined gender identity without leading to pathologies like gender dysmorphia. There are several established theoretical viewpoints mentioned in the research including Lev's transgender emergence…… [Read More]
Gender and Career Success
As Perrewe and Nelson (2004) note, "women who enter the managerial and executive ranks are the first of their gender to do so, and they experience token status" (p. 368). Token status is something that both genders must deal with as barriers between gender-specific roles and career development and success are broken. The problem is that token status still means that individuals who have broken this barrier for the first time for their specific gender must deal with "isolation, stereotyping and discrimination" (Perrewe, Nelson, 2004, p. 368). Thus, it is hard for individuals to achieve career success by breaking down gender walls, though it can be done.
esearch shows that by the 21st century, in fact, gender barriers will be significantly less than a century before, as "almost half the workforce will be comprised of women" (Ibaria, Chidambaram, 1997, p. 63). That means much advancement has…… [Read More]
The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.
Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…… [Read More]
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…… [Read More]
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…… [Read More]
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…… [Read More]
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…… [Read More]
Gender is an institution that people either widely accept as one way or another. Within any given society there are cultural norms that people identify with and that help shape their behaviors, values and beliefs. Gender differences thus can be easily created as an institution and can be representative of inequality when that inequality is supported or constructed by society at large (Kimmel, 2000). Kimmel suggests that inequalities are created as norms and arise within relationships, within families and even in the workplace or any other environment in which people work intimately (Kimmel, 2000).
Because gender is an institution according to Kimmel certain behaviors or actions are easily identified and labeled as appropriate or wrong (such as homosexuality) (Kimmel, 2000). If people adopt and follow social norms they will enjoy all the benefits associated with accepting the institution of gender correctly. When they do something incorrectly however people can expect…… [Read More]
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…… [Read More]
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…… [Read More]
Even Freud believed that girls have penis envy, which is only fully resolved by marrying a male and having a male child. This desperate longing to have a man as a way of finding one's identity and place in society is parodied and mocked in Pink's video "Stupid Girls."
Individuals look to culture, including the media, as a way of defining themselves. A thirteen-year-old girl who is told that it is normal to make one's body sexually desirable to men and not to seek self-empowerment through personal growth will be extremely anxious about how she presents herself to the world in a physical manner. Even a 3rd grade boy receives messages that affect his perceptions of gender. For example, if the little boy is told that he cannot wear a pink t-shirt because 'pink is for girls,' even though his young sister wears 'boyish' blue, or if he is told…… [Read More]
Gender and Smell ecognition
There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…… [Read More]
As I walked down the pedestrianized shopping mall, I immediately took note of the configurations of people on the sidewalk. There were many groups of females together -- either in twos, or groups of four or more. There were also some lone females, too, of course. There were many couples, and also a few groups of male friends. When looking at these different configurations of people and individuals, the way they "do" gender became almost immediately apparent. The most obvious and glaring sign of "gendered" identity is clothing. Women on this shopping street tended to dress quite nicely. Many were wearing high heels, and those who were in flats were in stylish ones as opposed to sneakers. Some of the men were dressed nicely too, but many were wearing sloppy clothing such as old T-shirts, shorts, and flip-flops. In addition to the differences in what men and women were…… [Read More]
Gender as a Role
The first stage of analysis as to whether gender plays a role in society and to what degree it does so begins with the classification and distinguishing of the terms "sex," "sexual category," and finally "gender." ne may be in a sex category even if the sexual characteristics are lacking. Gender activities are thus a furthering of and derived from "sexual categories." Therefore, the emphasis is not so much on the chromosomes of the individual but the set of actions that humans involve themselves in during social interactions.
Since society is categorized by physiological differentiation, gender can dictate relationships in the sense that gender speaks to who you are and so in essence results in being an identifier to those who wish to bear responsibility for their actions. Here the authors argue that gender is not an accurate identifier for the reason that gender is much…… [Read More]
hom it May Concern
Gender Analysis of olverine Image
Media presentations of gender nearly always cater to stereotypical depictions of either male or female. They seldom showcase individuals who do no prescribe to the gender binary, but rather exploit preconceived notions of what it means to be either wholly male or wholly female. Advertisements which are targeted to female audiences will usually portray symbols with traditionally female appeal, such as flowers or pastel colors in pink or light yellow. They endorse the highly feminine aspect of womanhood and encourage the consumer to buy into that definition of woman. Femininity is equaled to being a woman and unfeminine women are therefore considered other. According to this same set of rules, males must prescribe to the stereotypes of masculinity, such as lack of emotion, oneness with nature and manual labor, and authoritativeness above all things (Beckwith 130). It…… [Read More]
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…… [Read More]
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…… [Read More]
A model of marriage must be created for women that do not polarize the two genders into conventional roles, regardless of who works outside the home. Masculine and feminine ideals of power must become blended, and the very notion of what constitutes masculinity and femininity must be questioned, otherwise the idea if a 'real woman' or a 'real man' makes a better leader will forever render the debate schematic and unnecessarily polarized in American culture.
What do you think are the main sources of homophobia in American culture? What is the situation today regarding homophobia, and what do you predict for the future -- and when?
Is it the idealization of the 'John Wayne' cowboy stereotype of masculinity that makes homophobic such an intransigent part of American culture? On one hand, gay people have made considerable encroachments into the American mass media and culture. Ellen hosts the Oscars; Rosie…… [Read More]
There is no male equivalent of Sugar Cane in Some Like it Hot. Unlike the unequivocally feminine Sugar Cane, neither Joe nor Jerry plays the role of the cad or the cowboy. In fact, Joe shows genuine emotion and caring for Sugar as his feelings for her deepen. Joe and Jerry, like Sugar Cane, are musicians. All three are therefore portrayed as social equals regardless of gender.
Gender and sexuality are treated differently in Some Like it Hot. The key scenes in Some Like it Hot with allusions to homosexuality are the ones in which Osgood pursues Daphne. Osgood challenges conventional gender roles and stereotypes. He has been married "six or seven times" and only his mama has kept track. His inability to remain in a stable heterosexual relationship may be viewed as a typically male, cavalier attitude toward marriage. However, given the last line of Some Like it Hot,…… [Read More]
They cannot fight their biological destiny, no matter how hard they try, and that is another reason that I believe sex and gender are biological, and not simply psychological or mental.
However, I firmly believe that how society looks at gender is social, and has nothing to do with biology or nature. Society has placed certain "rules" about sex and sexuality on men and women. Men are supposed to be manly, strong, the providers, and most of all, supremely "male" and all that means. It means men are supposed to be unemotional, not show their feelings, enjoy sports and violence, and never show weakness. Women are supposed to be feminine, weak and dependent, good-looking, and emotional, and a man who shows these tendencies is labeled "gay" or "weird" by other men. These are all social constructs that most of society firmly believes in and abides by. Thus, anyone who is…… [Read More]
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…… [Read More]
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…… [Read More]
In the Calvin Klein jeans ad, it is he who is chased and who resists and fends off the female. The imagery is opposite to that of typical gender roles, in which female sexuality is restrained. The man's body is toned, muscular, and hairless. Even if he were more interested in the female behind him, he controls his passion admirably.
The Calvin Klein advertisement allows the female to unleash a deep sexual hunger. Her open mouth, biting action, wet hair, and grabbing motion all show she possesses an animalistic hunger and passion. The wet hair increases the elemental, wild feel of the advertisement. The background is a nebulous dark area, allowing the viewers to imagine any kind of scenario and put themselves into the ad. Target audiences will relate to the imagery on multiple levels: perceiving Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans as intensifying a man's innate sexuality and creating desire…… [Read More]
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…… [Read More]
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B.,…… [Read More]
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…… [Read More]
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…… [Read More]
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…… [Read More]
Gender in omeo and Juliet
Judith Lorber, author of "Night to his Day: The Social Construction of Gender" asserts that gender is not biologically determined, but is a construct of society. This would indicate that the process of socialization is a prime determinant in the development of gender. In other words, how a child is raised will determine his or her gender-based behavior. With this theory in mind, it is interesting to examine traditional gender roles in literature; to examine how literature of the past treated the traditional roles of male and female. William Shakespeare's omeo and Juliet is one of the most famous works of literature in Western culture. It was written around the end of the 1500's, at a time when actors were exclusively male, and therefore all the women's roles would have been played by men. This alone would be enough to base a discussion on the…… [Read More]
Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners
ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION
On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
The…… [Read More]
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…… [Read More]
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…… [Read More]
3. Where did you find it? (Book, article, URL, etc.)
The information was found at http://www.religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Sx/S_5.htm, and it was actually presented in a very sensitive and informative way.
4. Further thoughts:
The understanding of human sexuality has perhaps served to bring a dimension of maturity to my own thinking about human sexuality. Often times these things are taken for granted, but when we begin exploring them at an academic level, we find that we probably were not so well informed as we might have at first believed ourselves to be. It is incredibly interesting to me that the brain and the skin are two of the most significantly involved organs in the sexual act, and yet they have so much to do with the pleasure derived from intimacy that it almost makes one feel kind of silly to have overlooked it, or to have let it go without great thought.…… [Read More]
If the individual's personality and cognitive processes gear him or her up to be rebellious, then he or she might become attracted to persons with different ethnic features. Other cognitive factors such as memory or ethnic and gender stereotypes may come into play when viewing arousing imagery. For instance, if a woman was once raped by a man with a mustache, she might respond negatively to a photo of a man in a mustache, even if the man is found alluring to other women. Likewise, a person who is prejudiced against African-American people might not find potentially arousing images of Blacks stimulating.
Finally, physical traits such as gender play a key role in the way people respond to images that are potentially arousing. Gender and sexual orientation affect one's view of physical beauty and attractiveness. A gay man will not find Angelina Jolie's photo to be sexually arousing, whereas a…… [Read More]
Gender and Critical Incident Management
In general, Critical incidents are those situations that have the potential to cause injury or loss of life, property damage, and can threaten the organization's standing, public image, or ability to perform its duties. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), is an intervention protocol that is developed for dealing with traumatic events, especial for use with military combat personnel who are typically first responders to stressful and serious situations. Of course, within any military action or organization, there will be situations that are often violent, chaotic, and unpredictable. From a command and control perspective, though, there are four major attributes that any critical incident response plan should have:
Anticipate and outline the means of detecting the emergency, collecting preliminary intelligence, assessing the seriousness of the situation (attack, systems affected, damage, protection, etc.).
Planning must include a means to easily contact all relevant employees and outside resources.…… [Read More]
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…… [Read More]
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…… [Read More]