Gender elations and the Experience of African-American Women under Slavery
ace has grown to be a serious matter in politics and social life. Not only it is an issue in the United States of America but many other parts of the world have faced and are facing this matter as a crucial one. To classify people based on their complexion is alright but dividing them into clear separate races is not. Biological variations tend to fade out when two or more different races live together for a few generations. With the passage of time, people of mixed blood mingle characteristics and attributes from the other existing races increasingly. The same can be considered true for the United States where white-skinned and black-skinned people have lived side by side for about 300 years. When it comes to the institution of slavery, there is nothing peculiar about it. Its existence is evident…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, ordinary experience is enough to demonstrate how often that dynamic encourages deceptive behavior by men in the pursuit of sex. Put simply, most of the time that women are receptive to sexuality with a particular male partner, they would be at least potentially interested in more of a relationship with that particular man; otherwise, they are much less likely to become sexual with him. The same is not as often true about men: they do not necessarily restrict their sexual conquests to women with whom they might consider a relationship.
Possibly the most damaging aspect of gender-based differential sexual morality is that it promotes a psychological stigma that results in a conscious distinction between so called "nice" girls who are sexually conservative and "loose" girls who ignore or expressly reject social rules about women and casual sex. Purely from an objective observation of the narcissism of males in this…… [Read More]
The canon of Kate Chopin's work consists of stories addressing gender hierarchy, gender relations, and sexuality. Two of Chopin's short stories that particularly exemplify a feminist critique of existing social structures include "The Story of an Hour" and "The Storm." Chopin uses her medium to express political views on the changing roles of women in domestic partnerships; the changing nature of those partnerships; and the impact of gender on personal identity. This paper will outline the two short stories in detail, discussing the core issue of gender hierarchy. Moreover, the paper will explore Kate Chopin's implicit and explicit strategies for social change as they appear in the two short stories. In both "Story of an Hour," and "The Storm," Kate Chopin promotes an ideal of independence and self-empowerment without completely eschewing heterosexual love.
In "The Story of an Hour," Louise Mallard learns the news of her husband's death. The…… [Read More]
Gender oles: Patriarchy and the Uneven Playing Field
This essay contends that women are still in fact smothered by the heavy foot of patriarchy and that they are not at all liberated completely, not even close. It was only six or so decades ago when women were expected to go into one of four following paths in life: housewife, nurse, schoolteacher, or nun. The movement of feminism and equal rights has been fighting a long battle and has indeed accomplished a great deal, but in many respects, there are decades more of work to come. In fact, one could argue that the very fact that one has to ask the question about this equality between genders means that there is no equality. If the answer was overwhelmingly yes, it's more likely that the very question wouldn't even be relevant.
In recent times, several high-status men have spoken candidly about what…… [Read More]
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…… [Read More]
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…… [Read More]
This can be seen in Rebecca Karl's essay on "Slavery, Citizenship, and Gender in late Qing China's Global Context." Karl's essay asks the central question -- why, as women grew more prominent socially in the late Qing era, did they also increasingly be referred to as 'slaves?' (Karl 216). Karl argues that the idea of nationalism during the era is critical to understanding the gendered rhetorical trope of slavery. Her historical analysis underlines Scott's central argument: to fully understand Chinese social history, including nationalist politics, also demands an understanding of the conceptualization of women and the real, material status of women within the nation. According to Karl, elite Qing women often had a role in the primary political discourse. But male and female advocates for Chinese freedom against Western imperialism frequently made a literary analogy between female slavery in the domestic sphere and national slavery in the political sphere (Karl…… [Read More]
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…… [Read More]
In the Calvin Klein jeans ad, it is he who is chased and who resists and fends off the female. The imagery is opposite to that of typical gender roles, in which female sexuality is restrained. The man's body is toned, muscular, and hairless. Even if he were more interested in the female behind him, he controls his passion admirably.
The Calvin Klein advertisement allows the female to unleash a deep sexual hunger. Her open mouth, biting action, wet hair, and grabbing motion all show she possesses an animalistic hunger and passion. The wet hair increases the elemental, wild feel of the advertisement. The background is a nebulous dark area, allowing the viewers to imagine any kind of scenario and put themselves into the ad. Target audiences will relate to the imagery on multiple levels: perceiving Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans as intensifying a man's innate sexuality and creating desire…… [Read More]
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…… [Read More]
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…… [Read More]
Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?
In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…… [Read More]
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…… [Read More]
Gender-Based Communication Styles
GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
This project consists of an observational study intended to identify and compare the differences in social interaction styles between the genders. The study endeavored to compare the various components of interpersonal communication, such as body language, eye contact and physical gestures among various subjects observed in a university courtyard frequented by students as well as by university instructors and visitors.
The experimenter monitored the ways men and women differ in communication styles. In order to minimize extraneous factors (such as larger group dynamics or sexual interest) that lie beyond the scope of this project, the experimenter observed only one-on-one interactions between groups of two same-gender subjects.
The background of the study was chosen because it provided the opportunity to observe numerous groups engaged in similar interactions in a relatively short period of time, in addition to several different seating options including a…… [Read More]
Women are just mere followers of what the males would decide.
Taoism is a combination of psychology and philosophy and evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers. About 30,000 Taoists live in North America, 1,720 in Canada (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005).
Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices include (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005):
Tao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. "The Tao surrounds everyone and therefore everyone must listen to find enlightenment."
Each believer's goal is to become one with the Tao.
Taoists strongly promote health and vitality.
Taoists believe that the five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.
Each person…… [Read More]
Gender and Islam Books
The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.
This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…… [Read More]
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…… [Read More]
Gender and Counseling
The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.
Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.
The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.
The next part then examines how…… [Read More]
Gender Perspectives on Globalization
The social impact of globalization: case of Indian nurses migration
The globalization advent can be dated back to the post WWII era leading to the cold war period where countries increasingly chose the nations that they aligned their diplomatic, political and economic allegiances to. This trend was informed by the global economic trends that prevailed after the WWII and the need for economic allies in order for a country and to some extent a region to survive. The World Bank (2014a) advances globalization as the increased interdependence of countries on each other due to the ever increasing finance, trade, human resources and ideologies at the global level. It is characterized by the significant increase in the international trade patterns and the establishment of cross-border investments and these are noted to be the two major characteristics of globalization as sated by Mrak M. (2000:Pp3-6) and these cannot…… [Read More]
"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)
These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one…… [Read More]
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, the example is similar. An entire nation of people is in an uprising against a powerful dictator, led by one man, defeats their enemies to get to victory. There are echoes here of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s in the United States led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It is only when testimonial literature comes onto the scene that we understand how important both of these former points are. Testimonial narrative makes real the pain of poverty.
Gustavo Gutierrez's preferential option for the poor definitely becomes a misnomer when testimonial literature is introduced into the picture. The problem with preferential option for the poor is that it is a term specifically designed for the vocabulary of academics which seek to side with the poverty-stricken Other which they, the academics, most likely have little to no contact with on a daily basis.
However, they wish to have…… [Read More]
ithin these transactions, however, the relationship of women towards males in their lives is often reinforced in advertising, either by the woman's desire to buy products to beautify herself or her home, or to cook and clean the home.
In contemporary life, it seems more difficult to trace the architectural genealogy of suburban and urban malls and shopping locations in as clear and in as sexually defined a fashion as the Burlington Arcade. Like the arcade, however, malls and other stores are public places where everyone is free to come in, but must behave according to the rules of the store, or else the shoppers are forced to leave by security guards. The exchanges are impersonal, like in any store, or in prostitution, and are governed by financial transactions, even though the employee may be forced to tell the customer to have a nice day, or behave according to a…… [Read More]
In another case, Tannen talks about a wife named Diana who likes making suggestions to her husband by starting her statements with "let's," like "let's park over there" or "let's clean up now, before lunch." Although, Diana's purpose in making these suggestions is precisely to make suggestions, her husband began to resist them, assuming that Diana was trying to manipulate with him and control him (Tannen, n.d.). So strong is the idea among many men that men should be the ones controlling and owning that Diana's husband took it to a new level, being obsessed with the idea and resisting genuine suggestions of her wife's for fear of losing what he believed was his possession.
Women do resist these hierarchical gendered relationships. Tannen mentions another case, involving a couple. Because of the husband's decision to make decisions for her, the wife often had to drive old used cars that constantly…… [Read More]
Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith
In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.
Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…… [Read More]
The author's findings were that gender did in fact greatly influence female participation both within and beyond the serious leisure career. For example the organization's "Female Cover ule" policy, which was based on the assumption that women were naturally good caregivers, relegated older cadets to looking after the needs of younger female cadets. This policy caused many cadets both male and female to doubt that women could generally advance within the organization's hierarchy. On the other hand in relation to outside social worlds revolving around friends and family, female cadets were able to forgo traditional roles associated with femininity, such as housecleaning and shopping, due to the demanding work schedules of their serious leisure career.
aisborough, Jayne (2007) "Gender and serious leisure careers: A case study of women sea cadets" Journal of Leisure esearch, Vol. 39(No. 4),…… [Read More]
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…… [Read More]
The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).
The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated…… [Read More]
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…… [Read More]
Suggesting the significance of food as a social activity, kitchens in suburban homes sometimes have their own entrances. The kitchen entrances are convenient for carrying in groceries. Regardless of where the kitchen is located in relation to the front door, it is almost always a shared space in which guests and residents may linger and socialize. Built-in items like countertops and breakfast bars encourage guests and residents to set down their drinks while chatting or to eat food.
Any other side or back doors that offer entryways into the home are used for special occasions. Sometimes a side or back door becomes a default front door depending on the layout of the home. In cases in which the family has a housekeeper, the housekeeper is often told to enter through a side-door, denoting differences in class and social status.
A garage can become the main entrance because of the car-centered…… [Read More]
Those conversations also invariably include expressions of success or confidence as well. However, they discuss their feelings and those of others relatively rarely. In many cases, even the closest of male friends maintain a relationship that is sustained largely by common interests such as in sports or recreational interests. They may know one another for many years without ever really discussing their feelings or their intimate thoughts about personal matters. Women, tend to do the exact opposite, focussing on discussions about people instead of inanimate objects or impersonal interests. Close female friends typically know everything there is to know about one another and they invariably know one another better and more fully than their respective husbands or boyfriends know them.
As Tanner explains, these tendencies are likely functions of both biology and social learning. From the evolutionary biological perspective, males would have had to worry more about projecting their strength…… [Read More]
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]
Gender and Organizational Social Change Models
The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.
The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…… [Read More]
Gender Attitudes in Business Students
An Analysis of Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes Relative to Gender and Professions
Significance and Conclusion
There is a body of evidence that suggests many disparities in the representation of gender in certain segments of the academic and business professions. For example, previous research has indicated that women, on average, are less likely to attend business school than males and are also less likely to hold high-ranking positions in organizations. Although there are many factors that are involved in such trends, and many societies have made significant progress towards minimizing the gender gaps, there is still much to be understood about the challenges that women face into entering into certain professions. This research will consider whether there is differences inherent in the genders that could help explain the outcomes that have been observed in various professions. The proposal outlines a research plan that will investigate differences…… [Read More]
"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…… [Read More]
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…… [Read More]
It is thought that the current culture takes power away from women by holding them hostage to an unachievable beauty epitome. The multi-billion dollar beauty business often relies on a strong importance on the worth of attractiveness and looks for women, because this supports a utilization centered culture in which the response for any trouble can be attained by buying goods for improving one's look (Spettigue and Henderson, 2004).
Recently that has been a movement to get away from this traditional line of thinking when it comes to beauty and ideal body image. Two examples of this can be seen in Special K. And Dove commercials. Special K. has in modern years directed at women with its Special K. Challenge. This campaign endorses substituting two daily meals with cereal and limiting snacking in order to shed up to six pounds in two weeks. The acceptance of the plan has led…… [Read More]
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…… [Read More]
One of the major issues that have characterized international relations (IR) discourse is the role and significance of gender. Steans (2006) states that gender issues in international relations (IR) are usually very controversial and highly political. The controversy associated with this issue is attributable to the fact that gender IR is an increasingly political issue. This paper focuses on examining the role and significance of gender in international relations given the increased controversy and politics surrounding it. This paper demonstrates that gender is an important issue in IR, especially with the increased role of men and women in world politics. The first part shows that gender relations are crucial in international law and politics. The second part shows that incorporating both genders in IR discourse helps in establishing fair social policies and inclusive peace strategies. The third part will demonstrate that gender plays a major role in formulating policy agenda…… [Read More]
Gender oles and Marriage
The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…… [Read More]
The relationships transcend the racial, economic and power limitations.
This disregard for the traditional relational constraints produces some unique outcomes as it is not unusual to see a white foreign professional woman in the arms of a rural male with limited education and even less income. These associations are desired by young males as it opens new vistas of opportunity for them. They are able to acquire some income, status and the possibility of an exit out of poverty to a foreign country.
As with any endeavor there are associated risks. There is the possibility that the woman may move on to another male who appears to be a better prospect. There are occasions when the males are taken to the home country of the woman they are unable to fit in. In the metropolitan country education is a premium, and he has little so his income earning potential is…… [Read More]
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…… [Read More]
Most, however, focused on the chain of command that was responsible for the incident. People became outraged with George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld. Many assumed that Abu Ghraib was an isolated incident, dismissing larger implications of what happened there. But Gronnvoll brings many neglected issues into our attention. She specifically analyses gender implications of not only what happened in Abu Ghraib but also of the way the photographs were portrayed and discussed in media. And her analysis reveals that there are larger issues that are at play at Abu Ghraib. For instance, the fact that the media presumed heterosexuality of American male soldiers and homosexualized Iraqi male prisoners suggests that the tendency to dehumanize the Iraqis was not restricted to a few American soldiers stationed at Abu Ghraib. Disturbing though it may sound, but those soldiers who abused Iraqi prisoners followed standard American gender attitudes with regard to homosexuals.…… [Read More]
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…… [Read More]
Race/Ethnicity or Sex/Gender as Socially Constructed Categories
Sociological ethnicity and race theories have been dictated by the social construct metaphor, which indicates that these theories are ideological groups that serve to conceal the actual social structural principles. The above notion is a problematical one as it ignores the context wherein ethnicity and race function as bases of social significance as well as working material exclusion principles (Smaje, 1997). While gender and sex are words that are frequently employed interchangeably, their meanings are, in fact, different. Sex represents a categorization on the basis of biological dissimilarities -- for instance, dissimilarities between females and males grounded in their physiology or anatomy. On the other hand, gender represents a categorization on the basis of the societal creation and preservation of cultural differences between females and males. That is, gender denotes a social concept pertaining to culture-bound conduct, rules, and roles for, and relations…… [Read More]
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…… [Read More]
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…… [Read More]
There has been a lot of progress when it comes to gender diversity. However, a lot of work remains to be done. Indeed, there is a cacophony of issues that keep cropping up including talk about the glass escalator vs. the glass ceiling, the myth that women are on equal status with men to this very day, the historical role of gender and diversity over the course of the history of the United States, the very different definitions of sex and gender and so forth. The recent Supreme Court of the United States decision that ensconced gay marriage as being an equal right that people in the LGBT community should enjoy as a civil right was a milestone moment. While this is an encouraging event and people in the workplace should not allow sexual behavior or gender/sexual identity to become an issue, there is still a lot of ignorance and…… [Read More]
Abjection of the Body & Cyborg Jewelry Design
The examples of jewelry located and examined for the purposes of this paper align with the definitions and ideas of the authors that contextualize the conversation. (efinery 29, 2012) Notice how both of the models are positioned side by side, which immediately prompts the audience, viewer, or consumer to compare and contrast. Though their precise background are unknown, it is presumed that both models are Caucasian. Both models have short brown hair. The models do not closely resemble each other, yet there are similarities in the thickness of their lips, the subtlety of their cheek bones, and the composition of the product photos. Viewers are meant to draw more similarities between the models than highlight the differences.
Though we presume that one model is male and one model is female, their similarity highlights their androgyny, their lack of gender or the…… [Read More]
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]
ace and Sexuality
The Booysen rape case is quite enlightening since it uncovers legal suppositions of how before the law was subject to mediation by race and more particularly over determined by interception of blackness and femaleness properties. There were prohibitions of interracial marriages as well as sexual relations as found in the post emancipation legislation of the U.S. South. The cape slave emancipation came up in an era where there existed marked competing definitions of race. A study of more cases after the emancipation indicates that there was a limit when it came to the women's experience of freedom. Most of the authors in time have generally being concerned with elusive myths that concern white women as being victims of black rapists as opposed to ways through which colonialism had created conditions that authorized the pervasive rape of black women by white men. The Booysen case suggest the centrality…… [Read More]
individual's gender is an important factor that influences their career, success, and even their subjective evaluation of their career (e.g., Orser & Leck, 2010; Schneidhofer, Schiffinger, & Mayrhofer, 2010). A number of different models have been proposed to explain how a person's gender influences one's vocational aspirations, career choice, and perceived success (see Schoon & Eccles, 2014). These influences affect both objective and subjective measures of career success/attainment.
For example, Orser and Leck (2010) examined how gender moderates objective career factors as well as subjective career factors. Data was collected from a large sample of male and female managers, executives, and CEOs (N = 521). Two objective dependent measures of success were collected: 1) total compensation (annual salary, bonuses, and other financial remuneration) and 2) ascendancy (defined by the number of reporting levels below the participant). One subjective dependent measure was also collected (personal opinion regarding how successful the participant…… [Read More]
William Wells Brown defies notions of race and gender in his novel Clotel, or the President's Daughter by subverting the traditional norms associated with gender via the "cult of domesticity" that saturated the American public consciousness throughout the 19th century, locating true womanhood within the domestic work and life of the home. Brown's portrayal of womanhood, however, in Clotel contradicts the "cult" mentality by depicting not only a strong woman but a strong black woman -- which challenges the racial stereotypes and "ethnic notions" popularized by American media in the antebellum years as well. This paper will show how Brown achieves this contrasting view of race and gender in his novel by developing the character of Clotel in such a way that she resists all stereotypes and even takes on the persona of the tragic heroine when she jumps to her death at the end of the novel…… [Read More]
female combat unit in world history. As the developer of the game Night Witches points out, everyone from the commanders to the pilots were women. With women in positions of leadership and front lines physical combat as well as ancillary support such as technicians and mechanics, the ussian 588 team has become a model for other female combat teams. Yet none have followed. In the United States, however, women were confined to roles deemed appropriate according to prevailing gender norms: roles that were assistive or supportive in nature rather than executive and proactive. The women in British units could and did serve in combat in World War Two. Yet in the United States, women continue to be barred from combat positions even today. Although women are not overtly prevented from serving in positions of power and leadership in the military, gender roles and norms do retain a hierarchal and patriarchal…… [Read More]
The first issue is the gender of the suspect. esearch found if the suspect is a female she is les apt to be viewed as a predator, or a threat to children.
This can be noted in several recent cases in the United States in which attractive female teachers have been accused of having sexual relations with their young male students. Jokes abound regarding those cases about whether it was actually sexual abuse or a dream come true for the young men. Had the teacher been male and the victims female, society would not think it was a joking matter.
The study tested three theories:
Hypothesis 1: Female police officers will rate child sexual abuse as more serious than male officers, will take more severe police action than male officers and will view the impact on the child as being greater than will male officers (Tyson, 2004).
Hypothesis 2: Police…… [Read More]
Not only do they manage to present a situation which is unfair, making the reader empathize with the female characters under discussion, but they also demonstrate the complex mechanisms through which the social identity of the woman is constructed.
The main factors of decision are the belonging to a certain race and a to a certain social class. The implications of these belonging to are fundamental, but the implications are strong only as far as the social persona is concerned. The impact upon the person is not something that can be described as a universal rule. The power dynamics in society clearly favour the position of men. However both readers succeed to demonstrate that while women depend on men, the situation is artificially maintained by social dynamics which have nothing to do with the personal value of the individual.
Stereotypes about race are also dealt with by both Yanez and…… [Read More]
Culture, Dreams, And Artwork
Dreams and artwork are two things that seem to provide an invitation for interpretation, and cultural perspective is almost always going to influence that interpretation. At first blush, this statement may seem to fly in the face of Jungian interpretation, since the collective unconscious and the enduring interpretation of symbols might suggest that symbols would not vary across cultures. However, such an interpretation ignores the fact that Jung acknowledges the impact that individual culture has on the interpreter. While symbols may retain a broader overall meaning across cultures, the details of those symbols are certainly influenced by the surrounding culture. Moreover, some symbols may be culturally specific. In fact, this paper will discuss the veil and its relation to Islam, and how the surrounding culture can color interpretations of the veil in art and in dreams.
Because the symbols in dreams and artwork are influenced by…… [Read More]
Gender and Culture
Gender is an important and essential construct in human beings. Throughout generations gender has remained central to the family unit. Normative conditions have always dictated perceptions and expectation with respect to the masculinity of men and femininity of women. Authors like Butler have argued that gender is not an automatic or mechanical construct and that gender authoring should be acceptable and normal. Factually speaking gender is a huge aspect of life that determines how people are recognized and accepted. In the film Zerophilia, Luke struggles with identity due to his condition that allows him to switch between genders after an orgasm. Borrowing from the Film, any unique gender construct will inevitably cause a lot of confusion and possibly affect the life of the victim negatively. This discourse analyzes the different perspectives concerning gender from Butler, Woolf and Horney. It will be deduced that gender fundamentally influences the…… [Read More]
Throughout the course of history, art has been used as a form of expression and to define social customs / traditions. In some cases, this is occurring with it serving as a symbol of the larger ideas that are most important to specific ethnic groups, religions, nationalities and gender. The result, is that each work will be interpreted differently, depending upon the perspectives that are taken. This means that there are techniques which influence the way someone sees specific works and how they are interpreted. In the case of gender and Western society, there are different interpretations about what it means to be a man or woman. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at a number of artists and their interpretations. Together, these elements will illustrate how they are influencing art and the attitudes embraced inside the different works. (Barniskis, 2013) (Malossi, 1999) (Woolfolk, 2010)
Contemporary…… [Read More]
As in most other places around the world, the demands of family - caring for children, keeping house, obtaining and preparing food for meals - fall predominantly on women. In the case of Cuba this situation is made worse by the distortions of the communistic economy:
People's motivation to work waned as there was little to work for. Money came to have little meaning in the legal economy - but not by design as, according to Marxism, it was supposed to do in a utopian communist society. There simply was little to buy through officially sanctioned channels, and the government provided most social needs gratis or for minimum fees. Under the circumstances, material as well as moral incentives became ineffective in the legal economy. The burdens of sheer survival and transport difficulties also led people to miss work with increased regularity, above all women on whom the burdens fell most.…… [Read More]