Global Health & HIV
Global Health Issue
It is a small World: HIV / AIDS and Global Health
It is a small World: HIV / AIDS and Global Health
The purpose of this essay is to discuss in detail the HIV / AIDS issue and its different aspects and impacts on global level. The author will describe its history and current situation as well as the difficulties of HIV / AIDS patients on cultural and social level.
HIV / AIDS prevalence
HIV / AIDS was discovered as a disease in 1983 when laboratories of Dr. Luc Montagnier of the Pasteur Institute, Paris and Dr. obert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute, Washington, D.C found out that 'human immunodeficiency virus' (HIV) was the contributory cause of 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome' (AIDS) by the (Chermann, 1983; Barre-Sinoussi,868). On the discovery of this disease and its cause there were more than 4000 patients of…… [Read More]
Global Environmental Issues
Organisms have to deal with both abiotic and biotic factors to succeed living in a given environment. Such physical and chemical environmental conditions as salinity, light, wind, pressure and heat, constitute abiotic factors. Biotic factors include the whole set of biological conditions that a species faces including the abundance of both predator and prey, space available, food availability, inter and intra species competition (Sherbinin, Alex de et al. 1). The relationships of interdependent nature among and between the living organisms; also referred to as the biotic aspects of an ecosystem can be classed in terms of whether they are harmful or beneficial to a given species. They may also have no effect on a given organism in focus. Human-environment interaction leads to changes and shifts in the global environment via a series of associated causes. These causes change the environments in certain ways to the extent of…… [Read More]
Health and Community
Nola Pender states that the most important challenge in modern nursing is the understanding of global health issues. It is not enough to merely be aware of international disease patterns but to utilize western technologies to both inform and help bring about change to these epidemic situations. Several diseases have transcended the original locale to become worldwide issues. Most prevalent of these is the epidemic of HIV which has infected people all over the world. The orld Health Organization (HO) has officially labeled the virus as a "pandemic," meaning that there is no place in the populated world that is not in some way impacted by HIV. The HIV and Aids epidemics are not new information. People have been suffering and dying with this disease for more than twenty years now. However, knowledge of the illness does not mean that people should give up and stop providing…… [Read More]
Health Care Policy Change
• Current nursing issues related to globalization of healthcare
The term ‘globalization’ has been used in the description of increasing social and economic interdependence among and between countries (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). The shifting disease and health patterns have been linked to globalization. Global health means the health issues that are not geographically contained and that no one country can handle them alone (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). As an answer to the global issues of health and globalization itself nurses have had to practice their profession in the context of emerging and new transnational situations (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). For this reason nurses have to proactively respond to the dynamic global changes and comprehend the consequences of globalization on health.
In this era of healthcare globalization, it is necessary to underscore the positive changes in biotechnology and communication (Da Silva, 2008). Globalization, however, seems to have…… [Read More]
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
Why the Public Policy Issue Was Chosen?
According to the report released by National Priorities and Goals -- aligning efforts meant to transform America's Health care (NQF, 2009; Partnership, 2008). NPP (National Priorities Partnership) came up with 6 priorities. If the priorities are addressed, it could improve the quality of health care delivered to the U.S. citizens. NPP consists of 48 major U.S. health care organizations, which work with NQF (National Quality Forum). It identifies and advances priorities geared at improving health care in the future (NQF, 2009). NPP has identified palliative care as one of the six priorities that can help improve patient-based utilization outcome. This article provides the background to help identify steps to assist match the medical treatment of the patient and family objectives. It concerns itself with access to quality hospice services and palliative care (Meier, 2011). This…… [Read More]
Message for Target Population: Health Education and Diet
The message for my target population—adults at a behavioral health clinic—is the following statement: It is important to maintain a healthy diet, low in sugar—especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), as the latter has been linked with the onset of heart disease, liver disease, obesity and diabetes (Bocarsely, Powell, Avena & Hoebel, 2010; Malik et al., 2010; Stanhope et al., 2015). This means, primarily, adults should take efforts to eliminate soft drinks and soda pop from their diets—as these are among the primary beverages high in HFCS.
The four domains of health literacy are: (1) Fundamental literacy, (2) Scientific literacy, (3) Civic literacy, (4) Cultural literacy (Zarcadoolas, Pleasant & Greer, 2005). In order for the health education message described above to have an effect on the target population, the target population has to possess knowledge in the four domains of health…… [Read More]
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…… [Read More]
health issue of obesity is gaining attention from diverse groups in society nowadays. For some years now, the many cases of health problems resulting from obesity have been the focus of research and studies of many scientists from different countries. Today, due to the increasing percentage of obese people in many nations, obesity research is among the major programs considered by health service groups and governments.
Obesity is a health problem that refers to excess fats in the body resulting to being overweight. Usually, obesity is caused by improper diet. Some critical illnesses that toll life are associated with obesity. Studies have shown that being obese causes an individual to lose a few years from his life expectancy.
Currently, countless of health articles, news, and journals regarding obesity are disseminated to bring attention to the public about its consequences. ecause of this, questions have been raised if such exposure of…… [Read More]
Combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South Africa
Although Swaziland has the highest incidence rate for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 27.7%, South Africa suffers from the largest number of people living with HIV in the world (6.8 million) (The global HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2016) out of a total population of around 53.5 million (South Africa population, 2016). In fact, during the time required to read this introduction, someone died of HIV in South Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa is certainly not unique in experiencing these high rates of infection and many sub-Saharan African nations are likewise seriously affected by the disease (The global HIV/AID epidemic, 2016). South Africa, though, is also suffering from a number of social problems that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic. In response to these alarming trends, the international community, including the United States, has allocated an enormous amount of resources to help stop the…… [Read More]
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…… [Read More]
As a result, the Govt. has been eager to encourage self-medication, where probable, in an endeavor to save money and time as optimizing convenience for the consumer. (the UK OTC Pharmaceuticals Market: UK pharmaceutical market report)
E) Is there any one burning issue related to health care in this country that is undergoing extensive debate? What do you know about it?
Although Britain NHS has been a model for the rest of the world to emulate, however over the years, a persistent concern with cost constraints and market-defined efficiencies since the bygone twenty years has radically battered the core principles of universal healthcare in UK. The discouragement of proceeds of central taxation as the funding base has been coupled with Govt. passing the costs and dangers to patients and their families. The internal market launched by the Thatcher Govt. In 1980s showed the most prominent features of these modifications, however,…… [Read More]
Here second question that is raised for the author is that till now and for the future, many healthcare architectures have been designed that increase the availability of the patient records, not only on the national but on an international scale as well. The author in the study has only focused on the national or local availability of the patient records.
Content of the article is strong and there are a number of important facts given in the article in relation to the importance of healthcare indexing systems. The healthcare indexing systems being used in U.S., UK and Australia have been mentioned as an example. The two models of the indexing architecture given by the author in the beginning have been linked by the author with the examples. The loopholes that can be noticed in these cases are the absence of any privacy and security concerns that may be an…… [Read More]
The heated nature of the current political debate in the United States upon the subject of healthcare is testimony to the idea that far less than economic numbers, cultural wars govern how healthcare is perceived and administrated. All nations face the problem of cost containment of an increasingly expensive healthcare system. People are living longer, and the nations of the developed world have populations with a far higher median age than in the past. Medical technology is also more expensive. Thus, some form of 'rationing' (as politically unpalatable as the world may be) is required, either based upon need, or based upon who can pay. The United States stresses that individuals can 'choose' to have healthcare or not, and implicit in this assumption is that individuals who can 'merit' better jobs that provide healthcare are making one choice, while Americans who work several jobs that do not offer healthcare --…… [Read More]
This is related to the fact that the use of pesticides is very poorly regulated. (Protect Farm orker's Health) the use of pesticides has become an area of research and concern by the health authorities. This aspect has been well documented but experts are of the opinion that there are "...insufficient studies examining the effects of multiple pesticide exposure." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005)
2.2.3. Access to health benefits and care
The general consensus from the literature on the subject is that migrant and seasonal farm workers and their families are "…overwhelmingly uninsured." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the 2005 study of the health of migrant farm works by Rosenbaum and Shin indicates that in 2000, "…85% of migrant and seasonal farm workers were uninsured, compared to 37% of low-income adults nationally." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the study also found that both migrant and seasonal farm workers had less access to health…… [Read More]
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…… [Read More]
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…… [Read More]
Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that…… [Read More]
Global Marketing Strategies and Management Techniques of Apple Inc.
The central objective of this report is to perform an environmental analysis of a country in which our selected company shall aim to establish a market for its products and services. The company chosen for the purposes of this report is Apple Inc. The country selected for the analysis is The People's Republic of China. The aim of this report is to assist the management of Apple Inc. In assessing whether the country presents a viable business opportunity or not. The product chosen for this purpose is the Apple iPhone 4S.
The Apple iPhone 4S is said to be the best technology that the company has come up with in the iPhone product line. With the dual-core A-5 chip, 8 megapixel iSight camera, io5 and iCloud functions coupled with a speech recognition personal assistant dubbed Siri, it is one the most…… [Read More]
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…… [Read More]
The Surgeon General remains a respected figure, but the job is ill-defined, budgetless, and subject to the whims of political appointees at the Department of Health and Human Services and the hite House.
The Surgeon General is widely considered to be the doctor for the nation and an ombudsman for the public's health. But in reality, modern holders of the office are tightly constrained by the increasingly politicized environment of ashington. It is difficult to imagine a modern Congress creating the office of Surgeon General. Politics wouldn't allow it to happen. Fortunately, and to our nation's great benefit, the position and the tradition already exist. But the job needs help (Mullan 2007).
According to Mullan, legislation is needed to do three things: provide an independent budget for the currently mendicant position; mandate an annual Surgeon General's Report on the state of the nation's health; and, essential to all else, insulate…… [Read More]
Some patients knowingly abuse the healthcare system to obtain drugs and substances, which only adds to the complexities of the substance misuse relationship with the medical community. In 2008, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported approximately 4.7 million Americans used pain medications for non-medical use within the last month (Fishbain et al., 2010). This statistic is only one indication of the substance misuse prevalence and its inherent demand on the medical community.
The medical community not only combats substance misuse in adult patients, but must also address misuse among adolescents. The years of adolescence are widely regarded as an age defined by curiosity and experimentation (Crome, 2004). Adolescents are continuously trying to identify with their world and engage in new experiences. Within this context, taking drugs and experimenting with such substances as alcohol and tobacco can be understood within a setting of normal behavior. The time of…… [Read More]
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]
Health Care and Health for All:
In what the World Health Organization termed as Health for All, the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 expressed the need for health workers, urgent government action, and the world community to safeguard and support health for all. In order to achieve health for all people across the globe, the Conference made various declarations including health being an essential human right and a significant world-wide social goal. One of the critical aspects towards the achievement of this Health for All initiative is primary healthcare.
Declarations on Primary Health Care:
As an essential health care service, primary health care can be made universally accessible to people and families through the full participation of the community and at a cost that the community can afford ("Declaration of Alma-Ata," n.d.). Primary health care acts as the initial level of contact of people, families, and communities…… [Read More]
Human Resources planning and strategy will be 'key' in enabling the organization to deal with pandemic situations. This leads to another primary challenge that the health care industry faces which is the shortage of nursing staff in today's health care organizations and institutions. Nursing staff in the healthcare industry re under great stresses on staffing due to an inadequate supply of individuals pursuing their nursing degree with an."..unprecedented demand for nursing services" however, colleges and universities as well as health care institutions have failed to develop effective workforce supply. The work of leich and Hewlett (2004) entitled: "Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Responses from Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health" published by the Journal of Issues in Nursing states: "In spite of the progress in nurse recruitment, the prognosis for balancing supply with demand is still precarious, at best. Sadly, AACN (2003a) reports that more…… [Read More]
These needs are only beginning to be addressed in Canada and while there do not appear to be many well-established initiatives there is a growing recognition of the need for such if Canada's healthcare sector is to gain and retain the necessary workers to deliver optimal healthcare in Canada.
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
ack, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the C Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, What's Ailing our Nurses? A…… [Read More]
The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]
Burden of disease: disability/morbidity
The word 'pre-diabetes' applies to persons highly susceptible to contracting diabetes mellitus (type 2). Those diagnosed as pre-diabetic have sustained, higher-than-normal blood glucose levels; however, these levels are not sufficiently high to be characterized as diabetes. Pre-diabetics suffer from either IGT (impaired glucose tolerance), or IFG (impaired fasting glucose), or both. The former denotes a condition wherein glucose tolerance levels of individuals after two hours of glucose consumption lie between 140 and 199 milligrams/deciliter whereas the latter refers to a condition wherein fasting blood glucose levels lie between 100 and 125 milligrams/deciliter (when nothing has been consumed throughout the night) (Thomaskutty & Dwivedi, 2011).
After pre-diabetes sets in, beta cells lose their function progressively, resulting in the onset of diabetes. Type 2 diabetics characteristically have by high blood sugar levels, a condition that, with time, damages blood vessels and nerves, thereby giving rise to…… [Read More]
health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure.
Health is affected by behaviors in that if good habits are formed from the latter, the former is then influenced positively. However, if practices like smoking and excess alcohol consumption, the former is impacted negatively. Williams and Torrens (2010) has noted that intake of alcohol "beyond a moderate level is associated with numerous physiological complications including cirrhosis of the liver, various cancers, intestinal disorders, and brain function deterioration…Alcohol abuse results in illness and injury to others, including-but certainly not limited to-vehicular accidents, workplace injuries, poor fetal outcomes associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, and spousal and child abuse." The dietary behaviors people make in their lives has an effect in their lives, for example it may cause "enhanced morbidity and mortality…elevated consumption of fat, sodium, and sugar, leading to an epidemic of obesity and associated problems" (Williams and Torrens, 2010). Health is…… [Read More]
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…… [Read More]
As sea level are on the rise, many millions will suffer more and more aggressive floods and entire coastal cities and industries will disappear unless significant investment is made in dam systems. Another socio-geographical effect is large fires due to high temperatures and winds that create disasters all over the planet. Also, freshwater systems in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, America, North America, Polar regions "showed an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems." (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.2007)
Global warming effects also reach more developed countries with effects not necessarily connected with the food supply or health issues, but climate change. The increase of severe weather phenomena in the last 10 years is quite visible, although no direct match can be made at this point as not enough data has been collected. As an in example of global…… [Read More]
The global ecological crisis is the largest challenge which humanity has ever had to face (Gare, 2017). Besides, abusing the natural resources, our present method of consumption and production of goods, all modeled on economic production and not based on bio-capability, is jeopardizing the living conditions of humans, yet simultaneously changing the social foundations of human beings. International threats and dangers evolved when the social fabric of the ecological and social system exceeds and supersedes its environmental counterpart. Global environmental or ecological threats and dangers are not just social-psycho constructs created for promoting a new method of social regulation on the people. They are the result of an economic development model wherein environmental deficiencies are being shared by everyone, while the financial benefits would be helpful to some and it shall change our planet for a considerable period. The most probable global cataclysmic threats and dangers seem to emerge from human actions,…… [Read More]
Since 1986, the World Health Organization has promoted a Healthy Communities/Healthy Cities initiative, also known as the Alliance for Healthy Cities, with hundreds of participating municipalities across the world (Hancock, 1993; World Health Organization, 2018). The purpose of the Alliance for Healthy Cities is to encourage local governments to incorporate health promotion into all areas of public practice, economic policy, and urban development (World Health Organization, 2018). Goals of the Healthy Communities/ Healthy Cities approach include reducing public health risks including obesity, and promoting healthy lifestyles, public safety, and health equity. The success of Healthy Cities programs and policies directly depends on the empowerment of nurses at all levels of practice, including community-based nurses. Because each community presents different needs, goals, and challenges, nurses in each community can collaborate with partners and stakeholders to promote and reach realistic public health goals.
Healthy Communities: Relevance to the Nursing Profession
The…… [Read More]
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…… [Read More]
The World Bank (2012) points out that "…nearly 1.3 billion people remain below the extreme poverty line with an income of U.S. $1.25 or less a day." The global financial institution further points out that "another 2.6 billion live on less than U.S. $2 a day, another common measurement of deep deprivation"(World Bank, 2012). It is important to note that although inequalities in terms of wealth exist regardless of which country one comes from, developing countries have been hit worst by the same.
In general terms, unemployment levels in Australia are relatively low. The levels of education in this case remain relatively high. Further, given the high average incomes of a vast majority of Australians, most citizens do not encounter many of the problems faced by millions of people from other nations. In a way, some of the most common problems the word's poorest people face are occasioned…… [Read More]
Global Health- Do People Have a ight to Health Care?
People's health is a matter of daily concern. egardless of one's gender, race, age, ethnic background and socio-economic status, human health must be treated as the most essential and basic asset (Cohen, 2013). Often, ill health can keep people from going to work, school or from participating in family and community responsibilities. This means that when talking about a person's well-being, we are often referring to health.
The right to healthcare is a basic component of the human rights. People are entitled to the right to enjoyment of the highest achievable standard of mental and physical health. Globally, this right was originally articulated in the World Health Organization (WHO), Constitution of 1946, which defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Further, the preamble stipulates that "the…… [Read More]
Since its first mention at the UN General Assembly, global warming has come to be regarded the greatest human development challenge for the 21st century (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). This has prompted multiple studies, conventions and policy development meetings aimed at arresting the situation. One such study was the Fourth Assessment eport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Findings released in 2007 showed that global temperatures were unequivocal and accelerating. The magnitude - an average increment of 0.74 degrees centigrade in the past century, was notably the highest warming trend in recent times. The worrying aspect is that the warming trend is bound to continue with a predicted increment of about 1.8-6.4 degrees centigrade in the coming years (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). The increasing temperatures will have profound effects on life on earth as it is expected that the warming will disrupt…… [Read More]
Second, poor health in the individual probably detracts from his or her capacity to contribute to society more directly than the harm to productive society represented by the cost of the individual's healthcare.
Furthermore, the vast majority of American healthcare dollars are spent on individuals in their later years, after their productive lives are already over, rather than on working-age people. Finally, while reducing healthcare costs is necessary for the optimal health of the American economy, it probably relates more directly to private economic matters rather than to consuming national resources that could otherwise be dedicated to technological development in a general sense.
Response to Statement #3: As suggested in Response #2, optimum public health is not necessarily a prerequisite for global competitiveness unless by "health" one means healthy enough to reach productive adulthood. On the other hand, the American population is undoubtedly on the verge of an obesity crisis,…… [Read More]
The Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN) has been a longtime advocate a Good Samaritan Entity Liability Protection for all public and private healthcare agencies as well as a Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA) which would allow out-of-state medical professionals to cross state lines in declared emergencies (EVAN, 2010, UNC). However, these laws tend only to provide for coverage at the immediate scene of the emergency, rather than for the type of sustained medical care demanded during major disasters.
On a gut level, it is hard to imagine me, personally, refusing to provide aid to individuals in dire need, regardless of what the law said. However, for organizations that must make immediate decisions about getting involved in helping victims of a disaster, being legally liable could have serious repercussions for the entity's future, especially if it may be called upon to give aid to large numbers of people for…… [Read More]
In doing so, organizations:
advance the idea of public assurance that the organization is concerned for patient safety and the quality of care present a safe and capable work environment that adds to worker satisfaction negotiate in regards to sources of payment for care in regards to data on the quality of care pay attention to patients and their families, value their rights, and connect them in the care process as partners produce a culture that is open to learning from the timely reporting of unfavorable events and safety concerns set up joint leadership that sets precedence's for and unremitting leadership for quality and patient safety at all points (Introduction, n.d.).
In 2012 Joint Commission made quite a few changes to the 2012 accreditation decision rules. These rules present the consistent structure that the Joint Commission uses to deliver an accreditation decision limiting unpredictability or prejudice. The first thing that…… [Read More]
Information technology and computers have also begun to affect, in ways that are both bad and good, family life, community life, education, freedom, human relationships, democracy, and many other issues. By looking into the broadest sense of the word it can be seen that cyber ethics should actually be understood as a branch of applied ethics, and ethics should be something that is believed in by all that provide medical information, whether via the Internet or in some other way, since providing false or fraudulent information could be damaging and potentially deadly for many people.
This particular branch of ethics analyzes and studies information technology and what type of ethical and social impacts it has. Within recent years this new field has led to countless courses, workshops, articles, journals, and many other ways of expression. With the World Wide Web becoming so popular when it comes to health care information,…… [Read More]
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…… [Read More]
It means they have an equal opportunity to receive contraception, prenatal counseling and services, post-natal services for mother and child, preventative healthcare services, vaccinations, and dentistry services, from earliest childhood and through their lives into their elderly years when they require more medical services to remain healthy and active. To the extent everyone in a given community or society has the same relative access to healthcare services and to the extent those services received are of comparable quality, healthcare access could be described as being equitable. On the other hand, to the extent everyone in a given community or society does not have the same relative access to healthcare services and to the extent those services received are not of comparable quality, healthcare access could be describes as being inequitable (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).
Healthcare Equity in the Contemporary United States
Unfortunately healthcare access in the U.S. is not equitable…… [Read More]
In their move from a completely government-paid and -- operated healthcare system to a fees-based approach, the Chinese have greatly improved the efficiency, availability, and efficacy of their healthcare system (Wan & Wan 2010). This suggests that a combination of perspectives, rather than the market or single-payer perspectives that form so many healthcare systems, is most effective.
There are also, of course, healthcare systems that have developed in the same period as those mentioned above, but with far more negative results. The South African healthcare system, though effective in combating certain specific conditions, has many of the same failings as the United States' system, only on to a far more apparent degree. A lack of organization and responsiveness, exacerbated by an attempt to exert highly politicized and highly centralized control over healthcare provision, has plagued South African efforts to combat AIDS and many other problems the country -- and the…… [Read More]
Two elements that are extremely useful in the examination of health care. In this regard therefore, quality is also differentiated along SES. Persons who are higher on the socioeconomic ladder experience better "desired health outcomes."
The access to quality health care also has cultural and SES elements to it. Dressler & Bindon (2000) identify cultural consonance as a factor in determining blood pressure in African-American communities. The implications of this work are that cultural elements play a big role in health care quality and access. Whites tend to have greater access to better health care than minority groups. This access is in terms of the proximity of quality physicians, medical services, and facilities.
The ethical implications of the differential access to health care are troubling (Kulczycki, 2007). This is primarily because a health care discussion is a life and death discussion. Quality health care is the right of every citizen,…… [Read More]
Healthcare Legal Issues
Discuss the impact Federalism has on the regulation of health care delivery; how do the different sources of law as they related to the federal and state governments matter, if at all?
In general, federal regulation of health care delivery would be much more appropriate and efficient than state or local law, at least in so far as major aspects of health care delivery are concerned. That is because state laws vary considerably; that makes it impossible to establish a consistent or uniform standard of health care delivery across state lines. Certainly, there are aspects of health care that are appropriate to regulate at the state or even the local level, but there are others that would be much better to regulate on a national or federal level.
One of the best examples of an aspect of health care delivery that should be regulated federally are elements…… [Read More]
The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.
In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…… [Read More]
Health Care Professions: Issues and Questions
I believe that health care is indeed a right for all people. Just as personal and public safety is a right that we all believe in, ascribe to, and pay to uphold, so we should also protect the right to be healthy. It is the nation's job to help create an existence for its citizens that is free from disease and other forms of harm. The government does this in other concrete ways for its people, such as by providing definitive means of protection through a police force and through legislation to protect public and personal safety. Thus the health and wellness safety of its people needs to be treated as equally important. Those who oppose a pervasive and comprehensive healthcare system for all (and with it, the taxes that come to all in order to afford such a system) often argue that sick…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, without any competition, such as n the form of a public healthcare insurance system, the private healthcare insurance industry also continually increases premium fees virtually at will (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). Furthermore, by refusing policies to high-risk patients, private health insurers essentially "cherry pick" the lowest risk patients while leaving the most expensive medical services to be furnished at the public's expense by public funds available to provide healthcare for low-income individuals (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). That is why, at the very least. The future of American healthcare insurance must include a public option (Kennedy, 2006).
The Issue of Government Healthcare Insurance Lobbying
The principal way that the private healthcare insurance industry maintains its control over American healthcare is through political lobbying of government representatives (Kennedy, 2006). In fact, there are approximately six healthcare industry lobbyists in Washington for every publicly elected representative. Throughout the 2009 negotiations in Washington…… [Read More]
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…… [Read More]
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).
In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…… [Read More]
Health Care -- Philosophy of Graduate Nursing Education
In many senses, the nurse practitioner (NP) takes the profession of nursing to the next level. While the treatment of illness important, the NP also has broader focus of total well-being, including wellness, rights, education and preventative medicine for the patient, his/her family, and local, state, national and global communities. Consequently, in addition to treating the physical ailments of a patient, the modern NP must be clinically and intellectually excellent, an eternal student and teacher who fulfill numerous roles in nearly every health care situation.
A crucial aspect of nursing is the caregiver's relationship with the patient. Patient education is an important aspect of nursing and when carried over to the NP role, patient education greatly improves treatment because the patient has a greater understanding of the reasons for treatment and is likelier to effectively participate in treatment. A NP is a…… [Read More]
The respondents also believed that premiums should be adjusted based on an organizations willingness to introduce and enforce health and safety standards.
5. Safety representatives-these representatives serve the purpose of serving notices or organizations when breaches in safety and health standards take place.
6. Occupational Health and Rehabilitation -- a significant percentage or respondents believe that there needs to be greater access to occupational health services for employees. The respondents also believed that there should be a "new focus on the provision of rehabilitation services for injured and sick workers."
7. Financial Incentives-finally the respondents believed that employees needed financial incentives to encourage cooperation as it pertains to health and safety standards.
The HSE used all of the information gathered to create new strategies for dealing with Health and Safety issues in the workplace. One of the primary trends that developed was that of enforcement. In an effort to have…… [Read More]
For example, prior to 2007, there were approximately 1 million confirmed cases of hospital-acquired ("nosocomial") infections in American hospitals and other healthcare institutions (clinics, nursing homes, etc.), resulting in the premature and preventable deaths of nearly 100,000 patients who would otherwise have survived the illnesses or surgeries for which they originally received treatment in those institutions (eid, 2009).
Approaches to educing Healthcare Costs
Because the problem of treating those nosocomial infections alone was the source of an estimated $1 - $2 billion, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) terminated reimbursement for several kinds of urinary tract infections in healthcare institutions in 2007, to force healthcare providers to take the necessary steps to prevent those infections (eid, 2007). Another important component to fighting healthcare costs are the oversight mechanisms, such as the Health and Human Services Inspector General's Audit Services and Medicare's recently enacted ecovery Audit Contractor (AC) program. In…… [Read More]
Now is the time for each organization to examine and strengthen its conflict of interest policies." (illars)
The conflicts she described were: accepting benefits, using confidential information, insider trading, and targeted marketing. Her intention of course was not to provide a complete list of possible conflicts of interest; it was more to give a general overview of new scenarios for nursing management to consider.
After listing some conflicts of interest, she then went on to provide some strategies to combat these specific examples. "The following 2 strategies have been identified as most effective in preventing conflicts of interest. Nurse Executives throughout the healthcare industry now hold positions to either implement various prevention strategies or persuade other healthcare administrators to adopt conflict of interest policies." (illars)
Results believe the article certainly helped me by contributing a new understanding of the future of nursing management in the international healthcare industry. orld economics…… [Read More]
Health Care -- Lean Philosophy on Cost Reduction and Quality Improvement
Lean Philosophy is initially traced back to Henry Ford's innovative assembly line, revolutionizing manufacturing while failing to provide true variety. Building on Ford's concepts Toyota management established a Lean Philosophy in the 1930's and 1940's that focused on production flow and waste elimination, resulting in rapid, low cost and high quality processes, along with simpler and more accurate management. These concepts were further elucidated by authors including James omack, who established the Lean Enterprise Institute in 1997.
The essential elements of Lean Philosophy are 5 principles including: defining the value sought by the customer; specifying the value stream of the product satisfying that value while challenging wasted steps; making a continuous flow of product through refined steps; creating "pull" (essentially meaning "customer demand/expectation") from step-to-step for continuous flow wherever possible; continually improve and refine the process to cut the…… [Read More]
Major Issues of the 21st Century: Who is Responsible for Addressing Global Warming?
Global warming is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. In the last few decades, the world has experienced higher temperatures, increased melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, more regular and more adverse weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves, and drought), and changing rainfall patterns. We have also observed increased rain and ocean acidification, desert expansion, as well as greater species endangerment. These occurrences have largely been linked to human activity, particularly air pollution, burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, industrialization, and deforestation. The issue is so pressing that it threatens the ability of future generations to sustain their lives, which is ethically unfair. Indeed, global warming threatens food security, human health, human and non-human survival, as well as socioeconomic stability in the future (Cummins, 2014; Justin, 2015).…… [Read More]
Starbucks has committed to provide healthcare coverage to employees who work at least 20 hours a week. This year, the cost will add up to over 200 million dollars for coverage of its over 80,000 employees. Schultz's perspective, differing from G is that the company's healthcare accounts for its very low employee turnover and high productivity. However, their generosity is even now bringing down their bottom line, Starbucks is attracting older workers who no doubt join the company for its healthcare benefits. As a result, Shultz notes that Starbuck's future healthcare costs will dramatically increase. Starbucks has seen that their insurance costs have had double digit increases in each of the past four years, and that this growth is completely "non-sustainable." Part of the reason that Starbucks is able to maintain its current healthcare policy is the relative newness of the company and its current lack of retirement healthcare costs.…… [Read More]
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…… [Read More]
A direct effect of the endeavor performed by environmental agencies and programs like the 1970 Clean Air Act is the fact that the level of certain pollutants slowly decreased ever since the 80s. Even with that, such successes are rare and a great deal of the progress experienced in the time period lasting from the 70s and until the end of the twentieth century have been forgotten as pollution once again became a serious issue in Houston. During the recent decade emission levels have steadily increased as people failed to realize that they first have to discover which pollutants harm them the most and to act in accordance with this discovery (Sexton et. al.).
What most cannot understand is that air pollution is a direct effect of their living style and in order to decrease emission levels and to eventually stop pollution they have to change much about the…… [Read More]
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…… [Read More]