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Talk about colonialism and neocolonialism; who does it effect and how?
Colonialism was the old method that was adopted by the developed world to take over resources from the weaker nations in the world. The colonial powers took control over the area or the country where governments were weak and then ruled those places, extracting resources from them, as well as subjugating the population of that country to their foreign laws and regulations.
Neo-colonialism, on the other hand refers to the use of globalization, capitalism and international pressure to control another country's actions, as is apparent with U.S. actions today.
Neo-colonialism affects not only the weak states, but also the strong states, as can be seen through the global recession today. Capitalism is a fast spreading ideology, and as weaker nations too have adopted this strategy, stronger nations have felt the surge. This is because weaker nations are…
S., who is duly aware of their hardships and struggles. Again, there are many reasons why they are not given what they need to succeed (covert imperialism, ideological differences, etc.) but one of the main reasons is global overcapacity. If there are more countries producing goods and services the supply of those goods and services continue to increase. When supply goes up, and demand remains relatively unchanged (or static) one of the only ways to earn a profit is to lower costs (Judis, 2010). Lowering costs means a smaller profit margin. A smaller profit margin means, well, less money for the CEs and shareholders.
ne may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to…
One may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to do such a thing, it's just the way the system is set up. Either way, whether it's consciously done or unconsciously done, it's the way it is. The facts bear this out.
For starters, and to circle back to that Chinese proverb, why do countries in power continue to delivery fish, instead of curriculum on fishing techniques? Here is an excerpt, from an article regarding the ill effects of food dumping, that underscores this issue, "Food aid (when not for emergency relief) can actually be very destructive on the economy of the recipient nation and contribute to more hunger and poverty in the long-term. Free, subsidized, or cheap food, below market prices undercuts local farmers, who cannot compete and are driven out of jobs and into poverty, further slanting the market share of the larger producers such as those from the U.S. And Europe" (Shah, 2010). There's two additional points to make regarding this scenario. The first is obvious and an iteration of what's just been said, the reason countries in power give away food, supplies, and other resources is because it subverts the efforts of foreign competition. The other reason countries in power donate food, food in particular, is because it helps diminish the available supply in the U.S., thus reducing global overcapacity. One has, no doubt, heard of corn farmers burning their cornfields to serve a similar end, reduce supply to keep prices high.
In the face of this evidence, one can posit that the IMF and the World Bank are two institutions that work toward helping impoverished countries make it to the big stage. After all, they provide funding and assistance to many countries in need. Well, the rebuttal to this fact is that all money comes with strings attached. Or, in short, there's no such thing as a free lunch. Here is a rather concise description of the effect the IMF and World Bank have on the countries they assist, "the way it has happened has required poor countries to reduce spending on things like health, education and development, while debt repayment and other economic policies have been made the priority. In effect, the IMF and World Bank have demanded that poor nations lower the standard of living of their people" (Shah, 2010). The IMF and World Bank don't mind loaning money to struggling nations, as long as those nations follow their orders. It's really a form of new age imperialism whereby nations in power seek to exploit cheap labor and extract resources from
What Fromm was implying is that the form of education described is seen as a way of having rather than being.
Fromm wrote those words back in 1957, but it is still utterly true in that education, now more than ever, is viewed as a commodity; we are told from the time we are very small children that education is an investment. In the society we live in, there is no doubt that it is. The education we either have or don't have is a direct influence on what kind of job we get and, ultimately, what kind of life we lead. We very rarely -- if ever -- think of our education as a piece of the puzzle -- that is, as a way of being directly associated with human flourishing. By gaining the best education we can, we wouldn't be readily willing to agree that it is alienating…
Fromm, E. (1957) the Art of Loving (1995 edn.) London: Thorsons.
Zajda, Joseph., Davies, Lynn., Majhanovich, Suzanne. (2008) Comparative and Global
Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education (Globalisation,
Comparative Education and Policy Research). Springer; 1st edition.
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149)
A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.). (1997). The Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors
World Peace Academy. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59215755
Baile, S. (1990). Women and Health in Developing Countries. OECD Observer, a (161),
18-20. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98938035
The current construction of World-Systems analysis holds that core countries, including America, Europe's thriving economies, and developed nations in Africa and Asia, derive enormous economic and political power from "the axial division of labor of a capitalist world-economy (that) divides production into core-like products and peripheral products" (Wallerstein 28). Madagascar's relative abundance of untapped natural resources, in the form of massive "old-growth" tropical rainforests, and deposits of minerals like chromite and titanium ore which are now used in the construction of cellular telephones and laptop computing devices, represent peripheral products that can be exploited for the ongoing manufacture and distribution of the core products driving the engine of globalized commerce.
(America, China, India)
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-ivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National esearch." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin…
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-Rivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National Research." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin D. Brewer. "Trade globalization since 1795: Waves of integration in the world-system." American Sociological Review (2000): 77-95.
Duiker, William J. Contemporary World History. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2009.
Friedman, Thomas L. The world is flat [updated and expanded]: A brief history of the twenty- first century. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2006.
elationships and Social Lives
This is the hierarchical way in which large social groups based on their control over basic resources. A key characteristic of stratification systems is the extent to which the structure is flexible. Slavery, a form of stratification in which people are owned by others, is an extreme type. In a caste system, people's status is determined at birth based on their parents' position in society
The class system, which exists in the United States, is a type of stratification based on ownership of resources and on the type of work people do. Functionalist perspectives on the U.S. class structure view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege based on their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, positions that are most important within society, requiring the most talent and training, must highly rewarded. Many people define classes as…
1. Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
2. Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
3. Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson.
4. Levine, Rhonda (1998). Social Class and Stratification. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Global Economic Crisis
Throughout the history of the U.S. and the world at large, financial crises and the resultant economic recessions have occurred unerringly recurrently. In fact, the phenomenon has become so common that some think of such crises as parts of economic systems of the major world powers. The most recent one is the 2008 financial crisis that brought about the world economic recession. The recession resulted in over 4.1 trillion dollars in losses, increased poverty, unemployment numbers climbing to over 10% in the U.S. and quite higher in major European economies, major banks collapsed and several stock markets crashed. In fact, American investors alone lost over forty percent of their savings value. Housing prices dropped sharply from the high recorded previously in 2006. The 2008 crisis also resulted in decline in manufacturing, reduction of world trade, decrease in consumer spending, and many negative effects. Because of the importance…
Aguiar, M., Hurst, E. & Karabarbounis, L. (2013). Time Use during the Great Recession, American Economic Review, 103, 1664-96.
Aluko SA (2008). The Global Economic Crisis and the Nigeria Financial System: The way forward; A paper delivered at the 14th seminar for Finance Correspondents held at Benue hotel, Markurdi, July 16th.
Arestis, P., Charles, A. & Fontana, G. (2013). Financialization, the Great Recession, and the Stratification of the U.S. Labor Market, Feminist Economics, DOI:10.1080/13545701.2013.795654
Claessens, S. & Kose, M.A. (2013). Financial Crises: Explanations, Types, and Implications. IMF Working Paper
Globalization: From Capitalism to Hypercapitalism—a Decoupling between People and Societies
Globalization is the transition from capitalism to hypercapitalism—the movement from economic order predicated on a division of labor in which the means of production are controlled by the owners of companies and laborers are paid according to an agreed upon sum to an order in which labor is outsourced and offshored to the lowest bidder, which results in a hypercapitalism that ends up cannibalizing itself, as can be seen in places like France today where the “yellow vests” are lashing out at the Macron government for failing to support the laborer. Capitalism was always dependent upon Old World virtues and order—on the gentleman’s agreement that one nation would not seek to lord it over another; yet, as the Old World virtues and order eroded under the advancing drum of Progress, Industrialization and Technology, capitalism morphed into hypercapitalism—a ravenous need to…
Social Stratification and Social Mobility
Systems of social stratification
The systems refer to the manner that the society utilizes in ranking individuals in a hierarchy. Undeniably, the classifications suffice the reality that some groups of individuals possess greater wealth, power, and status compared to others. Differences in the groups of individuals describe the nature of social stratification. Social inequality occurs as a significant aspect of the society as it facilitates the smooth operation of the society. For example, high rewards lure and motivate highly talented individuals to perform involving tasks such as brain surgery. On the other, most individuals can perform blue-collar jobs such as cleaning toilets and mowing grass thereby limiting its level of returns.
The open class system allows social interactions between classes that rely on achievements, prevalent in industrialized nations. On the other hand, the closed class system confirms on the social status of individuals and ancestral…
Gane, Nicholas (2005). Max Weber as Social Theorist 'Class, Status, Party'. European Journal of Social Theory, 8(2):211-226
Resnikoff, Ned (2014, November 11). Global inequality is a rising concern for elites. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/11/11/global-inequalityisarisingconcernforelites.html
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Educational
Effects of Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Education
High school dropout cases have occurred as a silent epidemic that has affected the nation. In the U.S., dropout cases have disproportionately affected young people, especially those from low-income families, ethnic minority groups, urban children, and single-parent children that join public schools. Statistics indicates that about 30% of public high school students in the U.S. fail to graduate (Heckman & LaFontaine 15). In this paper, we endeavor to demystify this high school dropout issue, an aspect that affects educational institutions. Identification of the prevalence and risk factors associated with high school dropouts facilitates the understanding of the reasons behind this issue and how best to solve them.
Research puts high school graduation rate at 68-71%. The rate at which minority students, including the Native Americans, Blacks, and…
Brait, Ellen. (2015, Dec 10). "Flotus on the Track: Michelle Obama's Rap Video Hypes Going to College." The Guardian. 10 Dec. 2015. Web. 16 Dec 2015.
Heckman, James. & LaFontaine, Paul. (May 2010). "The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels." NCBI (2010). doi: 10.1162/rest.2010.12366. Web. 16 Dec 2015
U.S. Department of Education. "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2009." IES 2012-006 (2011). Web. 16 Dec 2015
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004
Personal Social Class
My Parent's Class Position
My parents grew up in poverty in Latin America. Their story is not an unfamiliar one in America. My parents were able to obtain a middle school education, which at that time in Latin America, was a good educational accomplishment. Like most children living in impoverished, lower class families, my parents both had to contribute to the household income. Opportunities for earning extra money were scarce, but my parents were creative and determined; they took what jobs they could find and set themselves up to establish work where there had previously been none. My mother would say that sometimes people just didn't know what work they needed someone else to do -- but if you do some work, and the people like it, they see that it is nice not to have to do the work for themselves. When my grandparents immigrated to…
During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.
Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:
Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;
Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;
Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;
Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.
Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.
Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.
One of the Best Investments
Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…
Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6432j1361233004/
The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://richwoodstrack.com/extracurricular_case.htm
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.
Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. (www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=publication:%22AAP+General+News+(Australia)%22&sort=DT&sortdir=DAAP General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-156068940.html
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…
Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet. Accessed 4 June 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49065068
1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94050575
Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673311
computers and culture, using the book "Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology," by Neil Postman, and other resources. Specifically, it will answer the questions: How have computers and computer networks changed human thinking, behavior, and lifestyle? What has been gained? What has been lost? What are the advantages of computers in communication? In education? In entertainment? In the economy? What are the disadvantages in these areas? Is computer technology creating winners and losers, or furthering social stratification? Have we become too dependent on computers? Do computers limit social skills and physical activity to a damaging degree? Why or why not? Computers have changed our national culture and our global culture, and not always for the better. When they were first developed for the mass market, computers were meant to increase productivity and cut down on paper work. Today, computers have permeated every section of our lives, and our culture.…
Berg, R. Dreyer. "Our Computational Culture: From Descartes to the Computer." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 51.2 (1994): 123+.
Marsha Kinder, ed. Kids' Media Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Perrolle, Judith A. "Information, Technology, and Culture." The Relevance of Culture. Ed. Morris Freilich. New York: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, 1989. 98-114.
Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York, Vintage Books, 1992.
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
Product and Supply Chain
Because of globalization world economies are increasingly becoming interdependent. The global market forces have made some business enterprises more vulnerable to economic crisis. Manufacturers have to take cognizance of the fact that global food prices are soaring because of supply constrains occasioned by bad weather. Surge in interest rates for investors who depend on bonds to provide a steady yield is an aspect of global market forces. Periods of long ultra-low interest rates steadily erode these investors income. ising interest rates also erode these investors principal. obust growth in emerging markets is a boon for the entire global economy. However, it comes with a price. Soaring inflation in emerging markets is majorly caused by ultra-low interest rates and strong capital flows. This is something that manufacturers in emerging economies have to be wary of. The global economy is becoming more connected. With the complex flows of…
Cetinkaya, B., Cuthbertson, R., Ewer, G., Klaas-Wissing, T, Piotrowicz, W. & Tyssen, C.
(2011). Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Practical Ideas for Moving Towards Best
Practice. New York: Springer.
Deloitte (2013). Supply chain risk strategies for emerging markets: Understanding the importance of risk. Retrieved from http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-
My social unit is Canada, which is a sovereign nation. I'm not sure how to redefine it, unless Canada expanded its borders or something. Perhaps by expanding the definition from strict geographic borders to incorporate all Canadians, living anywhere in the world. Canada is one of the most globalized nations in the world. As an immigrant nation, it features cities with some of the highest percentages of foreign-born people. Furthermore, with a large and globalized economy, Canada scores highly on many globalized indexes, and would score higher if those indexes took into account having immigrants from all over the world.
The first article is Zhang & Smith (2012). This article outlines the effects of globalization on workplace performance in Canada. There are a few different dimensions to this paper. The authors make several findings. First, they find that productivity is higher at foreign-owned firms, and productivity is also…
Laroche, M. (2011). Globalization, culture and marketing strategy: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 64 (9) 931-933.
MacDonald, A. (2013). Consideration of identity in teachers' attitudes toward teaching controversial issues under conditions of globalization: A critical democratic perspective from Canada. Ontario Institute for Studies. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/35891/1/MacDonald_Angela_M_201306_PhD_Thesis.pdf
Slaymaker, O. & French, H. (2012). The changing Canadian cryosphere, globalization and global environmental change. Changing Cold Environments: A Canadian Perspective.
Zhang, H. & Smith, M. (2012). Globalization and workplace performance in Canada: Cross-sectional and dynamic analyses of productivity and wage outcomes. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 30 (3) 310-327.
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Consumer perspectives on the emerging culture of consumption in Singapore
The consumption style of consumers alludes to the mental approach or orientation a purchaser has towards settling on decisions. Although purchaser choice making style depicts a consistent trend of affective and cognitive responses, national culture has been demonstrated to have an effect on individual attitudes and values. In this way, culture has a noteworthy impact on consumption trend in Singapore (Mooij & Mooij, 2011). This study will embrace buyer research into consumption styles to improve comprehension of how culture shapes consumption trends across Singapore. Primarily, this study will evaluate and confirm to the identified Singaporean culture. Minimal research analyzes cultural factors shaping buyer decision making. There is confirmation of cultural aspects in the purchaser's styles of making choices for fashion although no study has covered if this impact extends to the purchase of general…
Gelfand, M.J., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2011). Advances in culture and psychology: Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mooij, M.K., & Mooij, M.K. (2011). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Crossvergence: Questioning the Hofstede paradigm
One of the most well-known and popular methods of analyzing differences between cultures is that of Geert Hofstede's framework, which conceptualizes different cultures as having fundamental, core values regarding power distance, masculine and feminine norms, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and future orientation. However, Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley (2006) in their article "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors" criticize the Hofstede framework as overly rigid and static. Cultures are not enclosed entities, but rather are permeable structures. The authors apply the concept of crossvergence to the Hong Kong and Chinese banking sectors, comparing the cultural differences between Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the United States -- the latter "an often assumed, dissimilar region" from these Asian nations -- during the years 1985-2000 (Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley 2006: 68).
One of the problems with using Hofstede's framework when…
Hofstede, G. 2011. Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede Model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and culture, 2 (1): 1-26. Available:
http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=orpc [15 Jun 2013]
Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. 2006. "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors." Journal
of International Management, 12 (1): 67 -- 84.
Living in Modernity in Three Easy Steps
Perhaps it is only appropriate that a so-called guidebook to living in modernity is not in fact a book at all, but only a relatively brief overview, encompassing six to nine pages of text, easily condensed for the reader's evaluation into three easy steps. It is short. It can be potentially read and interpreted by a variety of individuals with varying levels of literacy. It is democratic and addresses the reader as part of a collective, but not as someone who is of a particular gender or social or professional hierarchy. It is friendly to those whose attention spans have been shortened by the Internet and the mass media, yet it also creates a program that is inspirational in nature, to the reader's sense of improving the self. It wishes the reader to become a better self, just like everyone else in the…
Charon, Joel. (2000). Ten Questions: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Wadsworth.
Queer Eye for the Straight Guy." (2003). NBC Television Show.
Ritzer, Geroge. (2002). McDonaldization of Society. Pine Forage Press.
Schor, Juliet. (1998). The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don't Need.
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
declining organization is divided in to five stages by Jim Collins. By referring to each stage an organization gets an insight about the degree and relative stages of decline it has encountered. Planning to rectify the problems by referring to the decline stage can catalyze the process of rehabilitation and reestablishment of the organization. The following paper discusses the case of Enron Company that failed on account of its myopic business judgments and decision making.
How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In
How the mighty fall is an episodic research by Jim Collins that jots together the consideration of the huge organization through there making. Contemporary organizations as a matter of fact operate on an ongoing assumption. They cede into a market precisely to operate forever and operate profitably. But yet many a times mature organizations tend to take decisions that ultimately devastate them and push…
Broder, J.F., 2006, Risk analysis and the security survey, 3rd Edition, London: Elsevier Publications
Galbraith, Jay, R., 2009, Designing Matrix Organizations That Actually Work. Jossey-Bass
Hiles, A., 2011, The definitive handbook of business continuity management, 3rd Edition, West Sussex, U.K: John Wiley & Sons
Hamilton, Richard A. "The New Paradigm of Direct Marketing Research: Not the Old or the New, but a Merging of the Two." Academy of Marketing Studies Journal 5.1 (2001): 35+. Questia. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.
capitalistic economy surfaced right after the era of feudalism ended. The capitalistic economy system favors a handful of wealthy private entities that control rest of the economy. These corporate actors utilize the resources and labor in their favor to create a monopoly of their own. The profits are multiplied by these corporations and the government acts responsible for ensuring taxes payments and in return the masses are provided social justice. In the first quarter of 20th century when industrial revolution was taking place, capitalism seemed like a great idea as formulation of unions and governments helped the under privileged.
Originally the idea of capitalistic economy was supposed to keep check and balances on the supply and demand functions. The scenario should have been in the best interest of the society as corporations were compelled to share profits with the overall society. But after orld ar 2 as the industrialization period…
Ed Fin (February 1, 2003). All social and economic problems caused by an unfair distribution of wealth. Retrieved January 12th, 2012 from Policy Alternatives http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/all-social-and-economic-problems-caused-unfair-distribution-wealth
John J. Macionis & Linda M. Gerber (May 2007). Sixth Canadian Edition of Sociology, Chapter 11. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from Pearson http://wps.pearsoned.ca/ca_ph_macionis_sociology_6/73/18923/4844438.cw/index.html
Roger B. Butters (2007. Teaching the Benefits of Capitalism, Free Market Forum 2007 Panel 3: How to Teach Economics, Pg: 4. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from Hillsdale College Seminar database http://www.hillsdale.edu/images/userImages/afolsom/Page_6281/Butters.pdf
However, one can still see remnants of Morgan's ideals as globalization takes hold in developing nations. Although differences are tolerated, the "westernization" of the rest of the world is still a growing reality. One need look no further than modern business attire to see that western ideals are quickly replacing traditional modes of dress and modes of doing business. Morgan's work makes the modern anthropologist aware that "globalization" may be a soft sell for "westernization."
Fried, Morton H. 1960. On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.
Fried explored the development of social stratification, as opposed to a non-ranked society. His primary purpose was to explore the reasons for changes in society that lead to changes in social structure. He compared simple forms of social organization to more complex ones. Fried explored…
daily living standards for those living in the high income, middle income, and low income countries. Things like life expectancy, healthcare, housing, and education will be considered in the discussion. The definition of social stratification shall also be looked at.
Social stratification simply refers to a hierarchy of posts with respect to the economic production that affects the social rewards to individuals occupying these posts. Stratification entails structural inequity patterns, which are linked with membership in all the groups, in addition to the beliefs that encourage inequity. The categories that comprise the societal hierarchy are assessed by social groups, who also wish to establish the manner through which inequities are formed and continue with time (Kendall, 2013).
Low-Income: Approximately 35 countries are presently categorized by the World Bank (2012) as low-income economies. In these particular economies, majority of the citizens are involved in agricultural endeavors, live in…
(n.d.). Free Sociology Notes, Sociology Definition, Sociology Study Guide, Meaning Scope Of Sociology, Define Sociology Theory, and Define Sociology, Introduction To Sociology, Sociology Study, Sociology Concept, And Online Sociology Course. Social Stratification, Definition Social Stratification, Class Social Stratification, Define Social Stratification, Mobility Social. Retrieved September 22, 2015, from http://www.sociologyguide.com/questions/social-stratification.php
Kendall, D. (2013). Sociology in our Times (10 Ed.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781305450387/pages/111567106
Bright Lights, Bobby Benedicto describes the urban gay subculture in Manila within the context of the "global scene." The points Benedicto makes in Under Bright Lights can be applied to variety of issues related to race, class, gender, and social power. Benedicto provides a sociological analysis of gay Manila primarily through a Marxist lens. The author endeavors to show how the "gay scene" has built itself unconsciously upon a pedestal of ironic privilege. With access to wealth and relative power, the urban gay comprise an "elite" that is contrary to the "laborer" lifestyle lived by most of their compatriots. When gay Philippino men travel abroad, they often do so on the trans-national network of "gay globality," the major urban centers with thriving gay subcultures. Benedicto claims that the gay subculture is reinforcing a class-based divide, an observation that may not be immediately apparent but which has a strong impact on…
Lucal, B. (1999). What it means to be gendered me. Gender and Society 13(6): 781-797.
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).
The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).
This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…
Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20
Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
VA and Medical Care
One key factor to be taken into account, while evaluating the healthcare structure of the United States (U.S.) Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), is the number of veterans actually availing themselves of VA medical services. Over 9.1 million, out of a total of over 21.6 million, U.S. veterans are registered with the VA healthcare system (Coburn, n.d.). Moreover, every enrollee doesn't necessarily receive medical attention. The Congressional udget Office (CO), in 2013, established that terminating enrollment of Priority Group 7 and 8 veterans could aid in reducing the federal deficit. These veteran groups, who gained VA healthcare access only during the mid-90s, include higher income veterans not requiring any service-related medical assistance (Options for Reducing the Deficit, 2013).
y the year 2003, VA found it nearly impossible to appropriately cater to the needs of every veteran enrollee, with wait lists for seeking healthcare becoming larger…
Coburn, T. (n.d.). Death, Delay and Dismay at the VA. Department of Veterans Affairs.
Doob, C. (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in the United States. Pearson Education: New York.
Gaitan, M. (2014). Local veterans react to VA misconduct. Www.gosanangelo.com Retrieved from: http://www.gosanangelo.com/news/local-veterans-react-to-va-misconduct
Hodges, B., & Brechat, P.H. (2005). Globalization in health care. International Journal for Quality in Healthcare, 227.
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
It is somehow difficult to reconstruct with certainty the way in which the Neolithic society was composed and functioned. However, the existing knowledge of the Neolithic society is mainly derived from the architecture, economic activities, figurines, burial traditions and other discoveries from the Aegean sites. With a population of between 50 to 300 individuals, the initial Neolithic communities lived in compactly built settlements. The basic unit of society during the Neolithic Age was the extended family or clan that was composed of grandparents, parents, children and other close affinity. The members of this basic unit of society lived in one or more neighboring houses that were sharing hearths and ovens which were located in open spaces for common use. In most cases, these hearths and ovens that were shared amongst neighboring households were usually located in between the houses.
As the basic unit of society, the neighboring households…
Brosius, B & Stanicic, S. (2008, February). Neolithic Communism. Retrieved March 7, 2011,
"Chapter 3: The Neolithic Age." (n.d.). March of the Titans: A History of the White Race.
Retrieved March 7, 2011, from http://www.white-history.com/hwr3.htm
In such situations, it becomes a necessity to have all the fields of learning and engagement to be within the identified fields for the youth. The society is a diverse avenue or entity that needs a clear pathway for understanding (Clinton 72). If the youth and all the people in the world are subjected to religious teachings without making affirmed considerations of the needs of the society, it becomes a hard way for many people to be successful.
The religious teachings must appreciate the importance of its followers interacting with the other members of the secular society. This establishes a fair ground where the young can grow and develop. If the society becomes very restrictive like within a Christian atmosphere, it becomes hard for the available avenues of growth and development to be executed by the available members. The young will not be at a stable avenue of relaying their…
Benton Mark Steven. Adolescent Faith Development as Related to the Influence of Christian School Teachers in Church of Christ K -- 12 Schools. ProQuest, 2008. Print 109
Bowen Kurt. Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2004. Print 204
Clinton, Tim, and Hawkins Ron. The Popular Encyclopedia of Christian Counseling: An Indispensable Tool for Helping People with Their Problems. Harvest House Publishers, 2011. Print
Cocklin, Sarah, Bruess, Clint and Greenberg, Jerrold; Exploring the dimensions of human sexuality. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett, 2011 print.
Neoliberal Social Theory
Neoliberalist Theory has been known and defined as a philosophy or thinking that promotes the continuous production and distribution of goods and services, and is adapted after the concept of Neoclassical economy that the economist Adam Smith had introduced in his book, "The Wealth of Nations." Through Adam Smith's famous economic and philosophical treatise, the idea that market economies can function and regulate itself without government intervention came into being. This is precisely one of the most important characteristics of neoliberalism: the market economy produces and distributes goods and services at an optimum and efficient rate without any intervention from the government.
Neoliberalist theory is characterized by a number of important aspects, which are the following: it promotes "a stable currency, free market capitalism, and free trade" (Wikipedia 2002). Further, neoliberalism advocates not only for deregulation, self-regulation, and free trade, but also to privatization of business enterprise…
Neoliberalism." Wikipedia Web site. Accessed 19 December 2002 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoliberalism .
Shah, Anup. "Primer on Neoliberalism." 3 September 2001. Global Issues Web page. Accessed 19 December 2002 http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Neoliberalism.asp?Print=True .
Treanor, Paul. "Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition." InterNLnet Home page. Accessed 19 December 2002 http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neoliberalism.html .
Accordingly, the significance of the application of the conflict perspective to American food is that its accuracy is so blatantly valid that it has progressed almost unnoticed through our nation's history. Out of the philosophical roots of Marx, conflict theory has evolved and broadened its scope; today, it is most commonly used to evaluate the legal system, but the core conflict remains that between the proletariats and the owners of the means of production. In this way, the conflicts surrounding the exponentially expanding fast food industry reach between the working class and the social elite. McDonalds's, in particular, represents one of the most glaring examples of how the social elite in society have managed to package, sell, and justify their prominent position in American society to the masses.
The central premise of social conflict theory is that individuals and groups within society generally use their power -- as much of…
Amaladoss, Michael. "Global Homogenization: Can Local Cultures Survive?" 2006. Available:
Berger, Peter L. Invitation to Sociology. New York: Anchor Books, 1963.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…
Armstrong, C.K. (2015). Korean history and political geography.
Eckert, C.J., Lee, K., et al. (1991). Korea Old and New. Korea Institute, Harvard University Press.
"Hidden Korea," (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/history.htm
Nelson, M.N. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press.
The report explains that these languages differ greatly depending on the neighbourhood or the area of the city. These differences exist because people from different countries of origin tend to settle in the same areas. For instance in a neighbourhood such as Harrow, with a large Asian population the top three non-English languages are Gujarati, Hindi/Urdu and Punjabi (Vertovec, 2006). On the other hand there are neighbourhoods in which the people speak languages from vastly different regions of the world. Such is the case in Merton where Creole and Cantonese are common languages (Vertovec, 2006).
This linguistic diversity can be a challenge for those institutions that compose the nation's infrastructure. These institutions include schools, local authorities and hospitals. Each of these institutions has to find unique ways of serving these diverse people groups that speak many different languages. For this very reason new initiatives such as that Language shop have…
Benedictus, L. And Godwin M. 2005 'Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth,' The Guardian 21 January
Gardiner, V. Matthews H. (2000) The Changing Geography of the UK. Routledge: London.
Kyambi, S. 2005 New Immigrant Communities: New Integration Challenges? London: Institute for Public Policy Research
Robinson, D. AND Reeve K. 2005 The Experiences and Consequences of New Immigration at the Neighbourhood Level: Reflections from the evidence base, Project Report, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation
The military strengths enable the leader at hand to have a fair share of the leadership duties and capabilities in the society (Wagner, 2008).
Who do you think is the most indispensable leader in the world today, what category (from the list below) does this person belong?
I think that Barrack Obama is the most indispensable leader in the world today. Mr. Barrack Obama is one of the leaders that have come to the forefront in the general success of leadership in the present world. In most instances, Barrack Obama has come out as a leader with the capabilities of capturing the entire world with his personal skills and attributes. The strengths of this president are bestowed within the running and management of the affair of the United States of America. The entire world knows that there are fruitful avenues of managing the available avenues of growth and development…
Buzan, T., Dottino, T., & Israel, R. (2007). Grass roots leaders: The BrainSmart revolution in business. Aldershot: Gower.
Dixon, B. (2012). Social media for school leaders: A comprehensive guide to getting the most out of Facebook, Twitter, and other essential web tools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Feinstein, S. (2008). Barack Obama. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers.
Johansen, R. (2012). Leaders make the future: Ten new leadership skills for an uncertain world. San Francisco, Calif: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Introducing Alexa Madison
Basic facts from her childhood
Basic facts from her adolescence
Basic facts from her young adult life
Issues related to race
Detailed analysis of race-related issues in Alexa's life
acial identity in a multicultural society: the factors that help create an individual's racial identity and membership in a specific social group based on race or ethnicity.
Implications for social status; in particular, the self-perception of African-Americans vs. The expectations placed on African-Americans
Link to external sources to present Alexa's life in the broader context of African-American culture, life, and history.
The 2008 film Crips and Bloods: Made in America is about gang warfare and violence in Los Angeles, but the underlying message is that problems impacting black communities in the 21st century have their roots in institutionalized racism.
(a) Alexa might not have had any interaction with gang members, but her experiences reflect…
Anderson, E. (1994). The code of the streets. The Atlantic. May 1994. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/05/the-code-of-the-streets/306601/
Crips & Bloods: Made in America (2008) (excerpt, 41 min.)
Epstein, C.F. (2007). "The Global Subordination of Women." Pp. 283-302 in The Spirit of Sociology: A Reader, 3rd ed., edited by Ron Matson. Boston: Pearson.
Lareau, A. 2010 . "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." Pp. 611-626 in Mapping the Social Landscape: Readings in Sociology, 6th ed., edited by Susan J. Ferguson. New York: McGraw Hill.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Colonization on Indigenous Communities
Indigenous communities survive a long history of significant influence of the colonial rulers. In the contemporary space, some think that the indigenous communities to have undergone significant resistant and struggle in the hands of the colonialists. hile most communities consider colonialism to have brought considerable losses that are central to healing in the current world, some see it as a source of opportunities that opened the indigenous communities to the outside world. The variability in the view of the influence of colonialism to the indigenous communities translates to realm also referred to as de-colonization that can be achieved through negotiation between the colonizer and the colonized (Suzack, Cheryl 87). Therefore, the following essay that forms the final part of the study focuses on the ways in which colonization influenced the indigenous or aboriginal communities across the world. The study adopts different perspectives to create significance of…
Gann, Lewis H., and Peter Duignan. Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 [in 4 vols].. London: Cambridge U.P, 1969. Print.
Happle, Robert William. Globalization and the effects of colonialism and modern tourism on the West Indies. New York: Cengage, 2008. Print.
Hogan, Patrick Colm. Colonialism and cultural identity: crises of tradition in the anglophone literatures of India, Africa, and the Caribbean. New York: State University of New York Press, 2000. Print.
Kelm, Mary. Colonizing bodies aboriginal health and healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998. Print.
Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System
Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide…
Brown, L., Burton, R., Hixon, B., Kakade, M., Bhagalia, P., Vick, C., et al. (2011). Factors Influencing Emergency Department Preference for Access to Healthcare. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(5), 410-415.
Brown, S., & Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology without foundations history, philosophy and psychosocial theory. London: Sage Publications.
Crowe, M., & Carlyle, D. (2003). Deconstructing risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 19-27.
DiClemente, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…
3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)
One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.
The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.
HP2020 ('Healthy People 2020') initiative is reducing health gaps in America. Much controversy exists with regard to what the term 'health disparities' actually refers to. Disparities are largely witnessed on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), and racial/ethnic identity. A number of health indicator-related differences exist among different racial and ethnic groups in America. This paper will endeavor to explain what health disparities implies, the health indicator-related differences among different racial/ethnic populations, causes for such differences, and potential ways to bring about health improvements for underserved populations.
"Health Disparities" Defined
There is considerable debate regarding the precise meaning of "health disparities." One key facet of a majority of accepted meanings is that every health status difference between different population groups is not a disparity; disparities are only differences that systematically and adversely affect socially and economically less-advantaged people. On the American scene, disparities-related discourse has chiefly concentrated on ethnic/racial disparities.…
Worldwide Population Increase Affect Planet
The world population is a lucrative endeavor that has influential effects on the immediate environment. One of the changing or growing avenues of the planet is that of the enlargement of the human population. Initially, the human population was perceived as a small entity within a vast planet. Nonetheless, the human population has been on the increase over the past centuries. Many lucrative approaches and human activities are part of the changes that have occurred because of the increase in human population in the planet. The avenues of performance within the spectral and planetary stratifications account to the many steps that have been taken by human beings in the environment. The environment is a fragile structure and body that deserves equitable management and security. In order to foster equitable management of the environmental sustainability avenues, there is a need to have a long-range of performances…
Axelrod, R.B., Cooper, C.R., Warriner, A.M., & Kennedy, X.J. (2011). Reading Critically,
Writing Well ninth Ed + Writing and Revising. Bedford/St. Martins
Baer, H.A. (2012). Global capitalism and climate change: The need for an alternative world system. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Gilbert, G. (2006). World population: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
First-tier buyers are distribution companies who have joint ventures and agreements with the Union of Tobacco Enterprises to re-purchase tobacco and cigars and then re-sell them.
There is a high level of stratification throughout the markets served at the end customer and dealer levels; the varying levels of quality has dictated in the past which cigars are sold to which customers.
Buyers choose which cigars they purchase more on perception of quality than on price. The reputation of Cuban cigars still connotes quality.
Integrating free-market-based strategies into a communist country's industry must begin with privatization of specific aspects of the value chain first so that quality control and enterprise-wide quality management techniques can be brought into this industry to save its products. As the quality of cigars has been faltering, privatization would make it economically feasible for experts in the field of tobacco quality and cigar production quality assurance…
S., when it's clear to any objective bystander that Republicans are the party of big business and corporations. Many claim that those economically disadvantage folk who vote Republican are voting against their own self-interests, opting to elect officials who will lobby against collective bargaining and union benefits. Nevertheless, and despite overwhelming evidence to support that theory, poor people, working class people continue to vote Republican. The reasons for this phenomenon is that liberal/democratic agenda has certain blind spots when it comes to recognizing the needs of real, working class people. The liberal agenda, the democratic agenda, is a "We know what's best for you" agenda. And many individuals recognize this and rebel against it, even if it's at their own peril.
Likewise, supporters of cosmopolitanism carry an air of "we know what's best for you" type attitude. This is destructive because, as with liberalism, it appears haughty to those who…
Reid does not discuss this possibility, but takes this relationship as the theoretical reason for the trend. It is difficult to deny the underlying social changes that Reid points out, but there is no direct evidence that he has found the reason for the changes.
Reid compares programs to help those that are impoverished in Latin countries as a means to measure social change. For instance, during the 1990s, Mexico began a program called "progresa," which provided small cash stipends to poor people on the condition that they set their children to school. This program has been expanded to include all of Mexico under President Fox. Brazil began a similar program called "Bolsa Familia" which now provides funds to one in four families. Reid uses these programs to make the argument that social advances are underway in Latin America, but the actual success of these programs must be considered in…
Curiel, Carolyn. "Hello, Neighbor." Sunday Book Review. February 3, 2008. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/03/books/review/Curiel-t.html?_r=1&ref=books&oref=slogin Accessed March 28, 2008.
Reid, Michael. Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America's Soul. Yale University Press, 2007.
Sociology, one of the biggest areas that are receiving continuous amounts of focus is the inequalities that exist. Recently, disparities in income levels have become much larger. This is because the top 1% (who controls the majority of the wealth) is earning more at the expense of the other 99%. These are individuals that have to work every day (often controlling little to no amounts of personal assets). Throughout history, this conflict has often been the focus of different labor disputes and social revolutions. (inship)
However, globalization is having a dramatic impact with these divisions becoming even larger. In the article that was written by iniship (2012), he is talking about how these disparities are evolving. Evidence of this can be seen with statistics that were uncovered from the Congressional Budget Office. They found that the income levels of the ultra-wealthy increased from 8% in 1979 to 18% in 2007.…
"The ABCs of the Global Economy." Dollars and Sense, 2011. Web. 18 May 2012
Baurerline, Monkia. "All Work and No Pay. Mother Jones, 2006. Web. 18 May 2012.
Davis, Kingsley. "Principles of Stratification." American Sociololgocial Review 10.2 (1945), 242 -- 249. Print.
Mills, Wright. "The Sociologocial Imagination." Social Sciences, 1959. Web. 18 May 2012
Based on the attributes of luxury brand, the luxury brand requires special marketing strategy to achieve brand objectives. The strategy assists in developing global brand reputation as well as forming brand awareness within the global competitive environment. (Moore and Birtwistle 2005).
In the contemporary marketing environment, experiential marketing has become a cornerstone of marketing, and retailing for luxury brand. Experiential marketing is the technique of viewing consumer as an emotional and rational being who aims to achieve pleasurable experiences. (Atwal et al. 2008). Typically, experiential marketing offers customer memorable experiences in order to achieve customer satisfaction and competitive market advantages. The experiential marketing uses different tools to create the memorable experiences for customers. For example, experiential marketing organizes entertainment for customers in order to educate them, allow them to escape the reality, as well as giving them aesthetic objects or places to see. Experiential marketers use different tools to create…
Atkin, D. (2004). The Culting of Brands: When Customers Become True Believers. New York: Portfolio.
Atwal, G. & Williams, a. (2008). Luxury brand marketing -- the experience is everything! Brand Management .16 (5/6):338 -- 346.
Belch, G.E. & Belch, M.A. (2003). Advertising and Promotion, an Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective (Sixth Edition). The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Bruce, M . And Kratz, C .(2007). Competitive Marketing Strategies in Luxury Fashion Companies. in: T. Hines and M. Bruce (eds.) Fashion Marketing: Contemporary Issues, 2nd edn., New York: Elsevier / Butterworth-Heinemann.
The environment that I have selected to analyze for this particular assignment through some of the pivotal tenets of Michael Porter is that which constitutes the corporate world. Specifically, the environment pertains to information technology -- which has been called various names throughout its past and present existence -- and its propagation through what is largely a corporate environment . In fact, when one chooses to examine the past of the corporate environment of information technology, it becomes apparent that there are certain similarities and certain differences found within this environment as it relates to its present and future. More than 20 years ago the IT environment was not as greatly impacted by globalization as it is today. Although globalization arguably began in earnest during the late 1960's and became a reality in the 1970's, in the early part of the 1990's its ramifications on the corporate IT…
BusinessBalls. (2015). Porter's five forces model. www.businessballs.com Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/portersfiveforcesofcompetition.htm
Thielman, S. (2015). Microsoft case: DoJ says it can demand every email from any U.S.-based provider. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/sep/09/microsoft-court-case-hotmail-ireland-search-warrant