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He was "a man of crown" as O. Poptsov said about him. He used peoples' interests and gained great authority, he was popular and moved society to resist the coup. That was not difficult - people blamed Communists for bad life and in every bad thing in the state, so, "Yeltsin had a great support and managed strengthening his power" (Gorbachev, M. Shriver, G. (translator) Gorbachev p. 121). But Yeltsin was not only supported by Soviet citizens, he was considered as the main acting person in that situation by leading Western politicians and they supported his actions. Here are the words of Western leaders about events in Moscow:
President. BUSH: It seems clearer all the time that contrary to official statements out of Moscow, that this move was extra- constitutional, outside of the constitutional provisions for governmental change. Clearly, it's a disturbing development. There's no question about that. And it…… [Read More]
Wren, Thomas J. (1995): The Leaders Companion: Insights on Leadership Throughout the Ages. New York: The Free Press.
Valenta, Jiri, and William C. Potter. (1984): Soviet Decision Making for National Security. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Timothy J. Colton, .A., M.A., Ph.D. (2007) "Mikhail Gorbachev," Retrieved on October 30th 2007 from Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 Website: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552563/Gorbachev_Mikhail_Sergeyevich.html
Major David J. Pyle, (1989) "Gorbachev the Leader," Retrieved on October 30th 2007 from GlobalSecurity.org 2007 Website: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/PDJ.htm
Wren, Thomas J. (1995): The Leaders Companion: Insights on Leadership Throughout the Ages. New York: The Free Press, p. 135-141
Timothy J. Colton, .A., M.A., Ph.D. (2007) "Mikhail Gorbachev," Retrieved on October 30th 2007 from Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 Website: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552563/Gorbachev_Mikhail_Sergeyevich.html
Major David J. Pyle, (1989) "Gorbachev the Leader," Retrieved on October 30th 2007 from GlobalSecurity.org 2007 Website: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/PDJ.htm
Valenta, Jiri, and William C. Potter. Soviet Decision Making for National Security. London:…… [Read More]
Mikhail Gorbachev faced as leader of the Soviet Union, both domestically and internationally. What were his main economic, political, and foreign policies, and how well did they work?
Gorbachev was the leader of the former Soviet Union in the late 1980s and early 1990s. He was the final head of state in the Soviet Union; his term lasted until the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. In 1991. He was a member and state official of the Communist Party and since is presidency, he has gained membership as part of the Social Democratic Party of Russia. He has been a Social Democrat for the duration of the 21st century. Gorbachev's career has traversed many changes in politics, economics, technology, and geography. As the leader of the Soviet Union in the 1980s, much of the international situation that occupied his time related to the Cold War with the United States of America, and…… [Read More]
Lenin to Gorbachev: Three Generations of Soviet Communists
The quote by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles which introduces chapter one of this book, has a certain philosophical appeal, and yet it is cloaked in an irony that illustrates the dark side of what Marx and Engles were promoting. "In place of the old bourgeois society...we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all." The word "free" is the irony, since the communist world as we knew it offered little choice or freedom for the masses, in terms of who their leaders would be or what direction their national life would take.
Meantime, the youthful Karl Marx seemed to be just an average college kid, as his drinking and poetry-writing in his first university experience turned 180 degrees at the University of Berlin, where he got his doctoral degree…… [Read More]
Ethical Leadership: A Case Study of Mikhail Gorbachev
As the eighth and last leader of the former Soviet Union, Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1990) and best-selling author Mikhail Gorbachev was alternatively the Communist Party general secretary during the period 1985 through 1991, chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1991 as well as the first president of the Soviet Union during much of the last 2 years of its existence from 1990 to 1991. During this 6-year period, Mr. Gorbachev's role and leadership behaviors changed dramatically due to external circumstances that threatened the future of his glasnost ("openness") and perestroika ("restructuring") reform policies as well as the future of the Soviet Union itself. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe how and why Mr. Gorbachev's leadership theories, styles, and power and influence changed from one…… [Read More]
While Lenin's economic program benefited the Russians, particularly its working class, Stalin's economic program was advantageous for military personnel and industrialists. In fact, Stalin had changed the nature of USSR economy from being socialist to pseudo-capitalist, a reversal of Lenin's objectives. Thus, Stalinism in the Soviet Union had destroyed the nationalistic objective that Lenin had originally created for the Russian people and the Soviet allies.
Nikita Khrushchev's leadership after the rule of the Stalin government included the abolishment of the Soviet Union. Russia gradually assumed a capitalist economy, although the immediate reform that Khruschev implemented was the destruction of Stalin's Communist regime and its institutions. His administration focused on the abolishment of any trace of Stalin's authoritarian rule in the Soviet Union right after World War II. Russian morale at this time was at its lowest, what with the fall of the 'socialist experiment' and prevalence of poverty and hunger…… [Read More]
Gorbachev most certainly did undertake policies that were not half measures, and for which he did all in his power as a government official to implement systemic, nationwide (and international) change. The degree of efficaciousness of these measures and their results, however, is somewhat dubious. An excellent example of a measure implemented by the General Secretary that no one can claim was done in a halfhearted attempt was the Soviet Union's prohibition of alcohol consumption, selling and purchasing. Alcoholism had long been a problem in the Soviet Union by the time Gorbachev became its leader, and prohibition was an earnest effort on his part to address and even correct this seriously debilitating issue. However, the most long-range result of this measure was the rise of Russian mafia and the underground market that this law produced. Although he made a noble effort, Gorbachev did not succeed in curing the Soviet Union…… [Read More]
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…… [Read More]
Solidarity (Solidarnosc) Movement in Poland Led to the Collapse of Communism in Poland
History has shown time and again that when people are subjected to inordinately oppressive conditions long enough, they will rise up and slay their oppressors, literally or figuratively, and this is precisely what happened in Poland during the 1980s. This paper provides an analysis of the Solidarity (Solidarnosc) movement in Poland that led to the collapse of communism in Poland. A description of the events that led to the growth of the Solidarity movement is followed by the identification and an analysis of the events that followed Gorbachev's policy of political pluralism in Poland. Finally, an evaluation of the relative success of democracy and capitalism in Poland after the end of the Cold War is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
In retrospect, the events that led up to the…… [Read More]
They did not like the reforms or the way Gorbachev was running the country allowing all the freedoms -- glasnost and perestroika. They presented him with documents signing away his powers as General Secretary. Gorbachev exploded and ordered them to leave. They did, but Gorbachev knew he was in a grave situation, cut off from the world, not telephones, and guarded.
However, the "old guard" had made one huge mistake. They had failed to take into account or arrest the second most powerful man in the country, a man by the name of oris Yeltsin. He had just been elected as the first President of Russia, and he and Gorbachev were bitter rivals to control the entire USSR. However, not today. y Yeltsin's choice, he joined with Gorbachev in spirit and ideology, rushed to the Russian parliament and declared the supposed coup the act of mad men and threw…… [Read More]
Tear down that wall," has been the one sentence legacy of Ronald Reagan's presidential administration (Boyd). Ask any conservative political pundit and you are likely to hear that Reagan's defense strategy and, in particular, his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was the direct cause of the Berlin all coming down, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the eventual end of the Cold ar. Yet, in reality, how instrumental was Reagan and his policy in these occurrences or was the actual cause due to other factors?
Reagan, unlike his predecessors, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon, adopted a much sterner posture relative to relations with the Soviet Union. Reagan entered office initially on the coat strings of President Carter's problems with the Iran hostages and Reagan campaigned on the strength of his strong militaristic positions. hen Reagan entered office the Cold ar was forty years old. The Soviet Union and…… [Read More]
Fall of the Soviet Union: Internal Causes Were to lame, Not External
In December of 1991, as the world watched in sheer perplexity and wonder, the mighty Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate smaller countries. Its collapse was hailed by the west as a convincing victory for freedom, a triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, and evidence of the final proof of superiority of capitalism over socialism. The United States rejoiced as its sworn enemy was brought to its knees, thereby ending the unprecedented Cold War which had hovered over these two superpowers like a thunderhead since the end of World War II. In fact, the end of the Soviet Union transformed the entire world political situation, leading to a complete reformulation of political, economic and military alliances all over the globe, not to mention spurred a whole new set of political-economic theories.
What were the causes of this monumental historical…… [Read More]
For the Soviet Union, the period of time during and immediately after the Second World War was in reality, yet another cruel landmark in the numerous wars, revolutions and crises which had been influencing and destroying the country since the year 1905, and when in the year 1985 Gorbachev took over the administration and management of the country, the people of the Soviet Union hoped for some form of relief from the years of oppression that they had been subjected to under various leaders, including Stalin, Khrushchev who denounced Stalin and caused communists to defect from the party in large numbers, Brezhnev, under whose rule the Soviet government gradually changed from a personal dictatorship to oligarchy, Sakharov, who helped create the world's first Soviet H. bomb, Chernenko, Andropov, and several others. (Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down)
Gorbachev was an individual and a leader who was…… [Read More]
Although they will commit corresponding action on the statements Gorbachev made in front of the UN, these actions will be committed at a gradual, even "sneaky" manner: the Soviets were vouching on the fact that the U.S. In particular does not know much about the specific details of Soviet military troops, and the Politburo suggested to commit action in such a manner in which "[[t]he military] proposes not maximum, but a permissible openness. Even more important [is] that even this permissible glasnost and openness is suggested to be applied only to the withdrawal of our troops from the territory of the Allies."
This important information reveals the reluctance and deliberate decision of Gorbachev and the Politburo to not let go of its Soviet policies, and to use glasnost and perestroika as "cloaks" in which they can safely say that they are implementing policies and actions amenable to the international community,…… [Read More]
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…… [Read More]
hat were the important events and factors that led to the end of the Cold ar? There are several theories and explanations, and this paper reviews those theories and explanations.
First of all, it should be noted that not all scholars accept that the Cold ar began after II. Professor Jack Matlock of Princeton University -- who served as ambassador to the U.S.S.R. -- writes in the peer-reviewed Harvard International Review that if the Cold ar began in 1945 or 1946, it "…must have ended around 1990" because that was when the "Iron Curtain" in Eastern Europe came down and the military confrontation between the East (Soviets) and est (U.S.) slowed to a standstill (Matlock, 2001, p. 1). But, on the other hand, if the Cold ar began in 1917, when the Bolsheviks won control of Russia, then it ended at a different time than 1990, Matlock asserts.…… [Read More]
The media has brought many important issues to life for the American public. For example, during the American civil rights movement, many areas of the country that had been hesitant to endorse full equality for African-Americans were horrified when they saw their fellow Americans being beaten simply for demanding their rights. The media was also highly influential in mobilizing the American public against the Vietnam War. Pictures showed more powerfully than words the terrible carnage and suffering generated by the conflict and the lack of progress that American military involvement was generating in Vietnam, despite the loss of many lives. Conversely, the media has also had a highly negative influence upon American opinion when it distorts the facts, such as when it inflamed opinion during the Spanish-American War and the McCarthy era, causing Americans to believe the propaganda disseminated in ostensibly objective venues.
The media can also have a more…… [Read More]
It was during the middle of the 1980s that the Soviet Union first decided that a pattern of renewal was needed for the country. Of course, that was not something that could take place overnight. The country would have to weed out economic problems, along with issues like corruption and alcoholism that were further weakening the country and its economy. The position that the Soviet Union held from a global standpoint was worsening, and action had to be taken if the country was to pull itself back from the brink and find a way to survive and to grow once again. The Soviet Union was giving help to many third-world nations, but it wasn't getting anything in return. In addition, there was no friendship or alliance with the United States, and the Soviet Union decided to start correction some of the issues that was plaguing it in an effort to…… [Read More]
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…… [Read More]
His early thesis is that the U.S. was engaged in interventions long before the Cold ar "broke out" - and those interventions (including those borne of Manifest Destiny) were based not so much on greed or empire building but on the ideology that all nations should be allowed to enjoy individual liberty, economics based on an open and free market, and social progress. And after II, the interventions by both superpowers "were not [necessarily based on] exploitation or subjection, but control and improvement" (estad, p. 5).
There are flaws in the book, albeit estad has written a book that is far more expansive and inclusive than the other two, so he should be given respect - more than just the benefit of the doubt. In fact, estad's book contains ten maps, ten good photographs and five poster reproductions of propaganda materials used during the Cold ar. One of the few…… [Read More]
Ethnic nationality comes when a "consciousness of a shared identity within a group, rooted in a shared culture and a belief in common ancestry. Ethno-nationalism is a term that refers to nationalism based on this consciousness of ethnic nationality, as opposed to civic nationality" ("Week 1"). This is in direct contrast to civic nationality.
Civic nationality centers on the shared territory of the group of people. It matters little what each individual's ancestry is, as long as the person was born or is permanently residing within a geographic area ("Week 1"). For the Ukraine, it mattered little that the ussians were permanent residents, or that many had been born within the Ukrainian borders, what mattered was the shared culture of the Ukrainian people, and their ancestry.
It should have been little surprise that ethnic nationalism took hold over civic nationalism. Civic nationalism usually occurs in well-institutionalized democracies ("Week 1"). However,…… [Read More]
ups and downs of Russian music throughout the Soviet Union's tumultuous history and will also describe the impact that music has on the Russians today. This paper will describe the music during the pre-revolutionary years, post-revolutionary years, the Stalin years, the post-Stalin years and Gorbachev's perestroika years.
The years before the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian revolution of 1917 are considered the pre-revolutionary years. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an unsuccessful attempt to topple the ruling czar and it all started with the Bloody Sunday Massacre. The Russian revolution of 1917 succeeded in overthrowing the imperial government and replacing them with the Bolsheviks.
The pre-revolutionary years, in Russia, were filled with Byzantium liturgical chants, nationalistic folk songs, operas, and symphonies. In 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided that Russian's national religion would be Byzantine Orthodoxy and that's how the Byzantium liturgical chants ended up in Russia. However,…… [Read More]
PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD
Was onald eagan a Good President?
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
The Cold War and Apartheid
On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…… [Read More]
The crisis facing Soviet society as the union disintegrated came from several sources, but the economic problems, the growing crime rate, the inter-ethnic violence, and the political struggles all derived from the deep crisis rising questions about the legitimacy of Soviet political institutions and the identity of the Soviet people. Gorbachev brought about many changes in Soviet politics and society. The development of this national policy came as the Soviet Union spent more and more on defense and security while people had to wait in long lines for staples. The political regime began trying to reform the economic structure in the 1980s in the era of perestroika. Ronald Grigor Suny notes that official policies in the mid-1980s began to shift priorities in response to a perceived need, and at the time, socio-cultural demands by the people were being answered and were increasing the size of sections of the budget for…… [Read More]
communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.
The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.
If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…… [Read More]
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Section 2.6.2.…… [Read More]
" He concluded that "the prosecutor's office must be centralized and completely independent of the local organs of authority." This conclusion, quite naturally, was buttressed with the appropriate reference to the guiding hand of the revolution's leader: "From the principle that there is a single legality obtaining throughout the epublic "and the entire federation" (Lenin) and from the obligation of the public prosecutor to see to it that no single decision of local authority deviated from the law, Lenin deduced all the most important principles for the organization of the prosecutor's office..." (Vyshinsky, Law, 525). Contrast this with Vyshinsky's admonition of a witness, "Don't pay attention to the laws, just listen to me" (Huskey, "Vyshinsky, Krylenko," 427).
The Soviet people, however, lost a great deal more from their ordeal of the 1930s. Not only did they lose the best of their intelligentsia and military, they ultimately lost the power for…… [Read More]
Rice even started attending college before she graduated high school. It was an experience that helped her learn about herself, Felix writes. It is "almost a footnote the musical accomplishments Condi made at fifteen" (Felix 69). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education maintains that while African-Americans have often perceived as lazy and inarticulate, Rice "made a huge contribution to dismantling the traditional stereotype" (22) while speaking at the National Commission on Terrorism. During the questioning, she "finessed and Cheshire-catted her way through some tough questions" (23) and while she was defending Bush's administration's actions prior to September 11, she remained "forceful and compelling in public testimony before the 9/11 commission" (23). Clearly, the poise that Rice learned as a little girl came in handy when she needed it the most. Many reports about Rice's demeanor during the questioning was nothing but admirable of her grace, charm, and poise.
These…… [Read More]
Ho Chi Minh was for a long time of the most controversial dictators of the world. In this sense, "for westerners Ho Chi Minh has been a figure of some mystery for many years. His death on September 3, 1969 did not end the fascination he holds for people who have found his life enigmatic and his political position unclear." Therefore, it is fair to say that to this day, there are people who more or less worship him and the system he created as a result of his desire for power and supremacy. The power of Ho Chi Minh was his response to the Western world. As he was incarcerated Ho Chi Minh defied the Western world by defending himself and supporting the idea of him being a nationalist. As stated before, the idea of the adherence to a country has always been a successful one because people will…… [Read More]
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…… [Read More]
As in the case of China, government repression and economic prosperity and liberalization have quelled some of the current ruling party's most vocal critics, although it remains to be seen how Putin's successor will fare.
Although less widely publicized for its repressive political policies and institutions, the government Mexico for 68 years functioned as a single party system that stifled all dissent and was marked by heavy state control of industry (Lehrer 1997). Unfortunately, although Mexico has liberalized its political system and allowed a greater voice of dissenting parties, its economic prosperity has not trickled down to the very poorest members of the population, nor has it substantially enriched and improved the lifestyle of many Mexicans. Tensions still exist within the nation between the ruling party and the populace, and many of its institutions remain unrepresentative and inefficient. In all three nations, more so than creating actual democratic and representative…… [Read More]
hen a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable.
After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's watch, his Vice President Bush inherited the problem of dealing with a fragmented Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Bush Sr.'s foreign policy toward Moscow was largely passive, arguably much more passive than any of his predecessors were because the Cold ar was over and the threat of nuclear war temporarily set aside. Moreover, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was still taking place and Bush Sr. watched while new nation-states emerged out of the Soviet Bloc. However, Bush Sr. negotiated nuclear disarmament treaties with Gorbachev and his successor Boris Yeltsin and willingly recognized the independence of many formerly Soviet republics.
Relations with Russia again grew tense under President Clinton largely because of the conflicts that arose in the Balkans. The Soviet Union…… [Read More]
They were against NAFTA and free trade, since workers would lose jobs at home, but were heartened by ush's decisions to not extend war into aghdad and to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
ill Clinton was ush's successor and rode into power upon the back of his promises to balance the federal budget and reduce the deficit, which he accomplished through raising taxes and cutting the defense budget. He paid little attention to foreign policy and Colin Powell, his chairman of the Joint Chiefs, succeeded in undermining Clinton's validity, as did a few of the other foreign policy staff. Clinton proved poor in matters of foreign policy and paid little attention to the advice of his foreign policy team.
A go along with Warren Cohen's assessment of George Walker ush, who is the subject of his most stringent criticism. Called a Vulcan (the god of Fire), ush acted in ignorance…… [Read More]
The Soviet Union, itself collapsed and fragmented into a number of states in 1991 with Boris Yeltsin becoming the President of an independent ussia. Yeltsin ended state control of the economy and privatized most enterprises. However, ussia's transition to a market economy was extremely painful and following continuing economic problems and poor personal health, Yeltsin resigned on December 31, 1999, appointing Vladimir Putin as his successor.
The ussian economy has been boosted by the extremely high oil prices in the recent past but several serious problems still exist. The economy is heavily dependant on oil and has failed to diversify; there is pervasive corruption in the government, and very high criminal activity; the country has a weak judicial and banking system and too much power is concentrated in the hands of President Putin. ("ussia," 2007)
Lorimer, D. (1992). "The Collapse of Communism in the U.S.S..: Its causes and significance."…… [Read More]
The reforms he underwent in communist Russia slowly offered the American Administration the hope that communication and cooperation would be possible and that an end to the communist regime was in sight. Thus, perestroika and glasnost became the tools with which the Russian leader also earned Reagan's trust. (Hyland, 1990) the Reykjavik summit, although ended with no important outcome, represented the first proof of the reevaluation of the relation between the two superpowers. It all culminated however, in the Malta summit, when the two leaders ush and Gorbachev declared the Cold War over.
Overall, it can be said that the Vietnam War was indeed an important moment in history because it offered the conditions for the U.S. To realize the change in the international political environment and the need for diplomatic cooperation more than military confrontation. From this point on, subsequent administrations worked, more or less, to reaching a peaceful…… [Read More]
Canada keep itself safe during the Cold War?
Canada played a unique role during the Cold War. As an immediate neighbor of the United States, but in relatively close physical proximity to the Soviet Union, Canada had legitimate reasons to fear that it would be physically involved if the hostilities between the United States and the Soviet Union ever erupted into an actual war. Because of its physical proximity to the United States and its basically capitalistic system, it would be fair to suggest that Canada was more ideologically aligned with the United States. However, it would be incorrect to suggest that Canada was a U.S. ally; Canada maintained relationships with communist countries China and Cuba throughout the Cold War and opposed the U.S.'s involvement in the Vietnam War. nstead, it is more appropriate to characterize Canada as opposing the spread of communism without wholeheartedly embracing some of the American…… [Read More]
When the wall fell, the United States could somewhat smugly say, "I told you so" to the former Soviet sympathizers. Political and ideological victory was a key advantage of reunification for the United States.
The Socialist Unity Party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands), headed by Ulbrecht for decades, laid the foundations for the state-controlled industrial economy that would characterize East Germany and which might have crippled the Eastern provinces' potential to thrive as part of the EU. Like the former GD, West Germany also emphasized heavy industry during the Cold War as a key to their economic growth, but the FG permitted at least some form of free enterprise and also enjoyed having the United States as a wealthy trading partner.
Many of the lessons derived from reunification can also be incorporated into American foreign and domestic policy, informing for instance, methods of reviving economically depressed regions at home and abroad. However,…… [Read More]
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…… [Read More]
Conservative American Presidents
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the return to conservatism in the American presidency after the 1980s. It will compare the similarities to earlier periods in the 19th and 20th century, and discuss what relationship there is between this return to conservatism, and the continued struggle for U.S. military dominance and economic globalization.
THE RETURN TO CONSERVATISM IN AMERICAN POLITICS
The country emerged from orld ar II as the dominant world force and with a booming national economy.
It was able to construct a series of political, economic, and military alliances that tied most of the former great powers together against its only rival, the Soviet Union. This unique postwar situation could not last forever, and in the 1960s and 1970s the "American Century" began to unravel (Florig 153).
It was this unraveling that Americans were worried about, and so they turned to…… [Read More]
liberal democracy? Who are/Were its competitors?
This article by Francis Fukuyama was written 15 years ago, in 1989, so when reviewing his points, it is important to keep in mind that the views he makes are dated. Though his views are taken 15 years ago, that should not make them obsolete, it is just important to keep the perspective of when he offered this paper.
Liberal democracy is, from reading Fukuyama's article, the democratic force that defeated fascism (Hitler) and totalitarian fanaticism (Japan) in WWII. Since there are no "viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism," the author states, then liberal democracy must be the best system (although that ignores the huge power wielded by the Chinese form of communism). Liberalism generally is defined as a progressive form of politics, where minorities and women should be given equal rights with men, and where voters decide whom their leaders will be -…… [Read More]
Margaret Thatcher has the distinction of being the longest serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in over 150 years. While she is credited with being instrumental in reinstating ritain as major economic power in the world, there are strong and ambivalent options about her tenure as Prime Minister. While many laud her for some of the economic policies that she implemented, others criticize her for these same policies. "Her harsh economic policies caused social friction and divided the nation." (Margaret Thatcher site). Thatcher was also England's first female Prime Minister.
Her influence was felt not only in the United Kingdom but also in other parts of the world through her effect on and participation in international politics. The following extract points to the effect that her policies and opinions had on global events.
She was the catalyst who set in motion a series of interconnected events that gave a…… [Read More]
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…… [Read More]
Washington on August 28-29
On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show
On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…… [Read More]
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…… [Read More]
A core weakness in the current dynamic seems to be the laxity of enforcement on the part of the EU with respect to this issue of citizenship. According to EU Facts, "although they had to improve their citizenship process in order to join the EU in 2004, a significant proportion of the population (10% of Estonians and 19% of Latvians) have still not been given these rights. Relations with Russia are critical to all three countries." (p. 1)
Today, there is an opportunity to force reconsideration of Russian relations for the Baltic States. As the global recession spreads through the EU and imposes heavy burdens upon the three states in question, leaders are being forced to reconsider the unilateral approach that has caused such problematic dependency on a struggling economic coalition.
The greatest threat to the critical relations between Russia and the Baltics is the cultural tension which exists between…… [Read More]
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…… [Read More]
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…… [Read More]
Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:
In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…… [Read More]
They could do it time and time again with success. The first electric car was used on the moon during the Apollo 14 (Endeavor and Falcon) mission (Kennedy Space Center).
Meanwhile in Russia
hile the space program in the United States was busy becoming a popular culture icon, the Russian space program took on a different personality. They still launched missions for "national prestige" (ade). However, the majority of Soviet missions were for military purposes. The Soviet economy played a major role in space efforts. The soviet economy was planned in five-year increments, with long-range military plans being made for the next ten years (ade). This significantly affected the pace of space program development. The Russian space plan was slow to react to American successes.
First generation Soviet launchers had poor reliability. The ten-year plan for the second generation was not approved until 1976 (ade). Third generation plans were approved…… [Read More]
He learned quickly, showed political prowess, was not afraid to lead his followers in troubled times (like the Screen Actors' strike), and he could think on his feet, develop his own very moving speeches, and he had very strong beliefs which he was not afraid to voice. All of these are qualities of a leader, and they developed as he made his way thorough life.
eagan, with support of some friends and political leaders, began toying with the notion of running for governor in California. Cannon notes,
eagan, despite never having spent a day in public office, had political assets that his opponents failed to recognize. Foremost among these was that he was widely known and liked [...] He was an effective speaker -- in person, on radio, and on television -- with an intangible quality of identifying with his audiences and reflecting their values (Cannon 38).
In 1966, eagan…… [Read More]
S. was willing to stand up to the Soviets. When the U.S. tried to unite East and West Germany, Stalin build a blockade into West Berlin, but the U.S. flew supplies in over the blockade to keep their influence strong in Germany. The Soviets resented that. The entire buildup of bad feelings between the two superpowers was ideological and political. The communists wanted to spread their influence, and they began supporting revolutionary movements in Africa, Asia, and in Latin America, to expand communism. President Eisenhower in the 1950s threatened to use nuclear weapons if the Soviets intervened in the Middle East during the Suez risis. Basically, the U.S. And Soviets challenged each other to go one better each time a new move was made; it was like a chess match, only the loser might have been both countries because the Soviets had the atomic bomb by 1949, and if one…… [Read More]
Indeed, Rodrigue was very pleased to be commissioned in this way. Another artist who followed this trend was Yuri Gorbachev, painting the bottle during the early 1990s. After this, the artist created a "Christmas present" for tolichnaya. This proved so successful that the company retained this artistic service on a yearly basis. Many of these ads have found their way into collectors' homes, where they are framed and displayed. In this way, the boundaries between art and advertising have blurred even further.
The success of such advertisements, along with the associated respect for the artists involved, is indicative of consumer reaction to such advertising. The reason for this is ascribed to the qualities of fine art: the quality, strength and emotion associated with art is communicated to the product being advertised, which finds its way into the consumer heart and mind on a multiplicity of levels. Using art in this…… [Read More]
That intervention considered, it is fair to say that on the one hand, the fact that the U.S. came out as the winner of the Cold War was obvious, and on the other hand that a certain change had occurred in terms of the rule of the international law.
The following years saw an increase in the intrastate violence, taking into account the Somalia crisis, the situations in South Africa, the genocide in Rwanda, or the war in the former Yugoslavia. All these elements of the international political scene were signs of the power vacuum that was created as a result of the fall of the higher authority in the communist world, the U.S.S.R. More precisely, although the cases in Africa were in fact reminiscences of post colonial revolts, the situations worsened as there was no authority to report to in terms of international situations. However, a certain modification did…… [Read More]
Overall, the Central Intelligence Agency was an important, if not essential, element of the general tactics used by the U.S. In the Cold War. The reason was the limited access to information on the situations in the countries around the world in an era of non-military confrontation. The threat of communist supremacy made the U.S. And the western world rely heavily on the advantages covert operation missions had. Still, the ambiguity and ever-changing nature of the international conditions at the time made it impossible for the CIA to act on a hundred percent success rate. In conclusion, the activity of the Agency is praised and criticized at the same time. Nonetheless, it represented a crucial segment of the conduct of American foreign policy during the Cold War.
Goodman, Allan E., "Reforming U.S. Intelligence," Foreign Policy, 1987.
Murphy, David E., Serghei a. Kondrasev, and George ailey. attleground erlin: CIA vs.…… [Read More]
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]
Personal communication skills, as exemplified by talk show host Larry King, are crucial to success in today's interconnected world. King, one of America's most successful communicators, provides a valuable example of successful communication skills that have brought him world renown as a broadcaster, successful book career, and influence in the political arena. It is through the example of individuals like King that we can learn not only the value of personal communication skills, but the specifics of some of the most important of these skills. King himself notes that personal communication skills are based on a number of factors such as honesty, interest, attitude, and openness. Successful adaptation of such skills can help the individual both on a personal and professional level.
Larry King is one of America's best known talk show hosts. He hosts the well-known Larry King Live, the world's first phone-in television talk show. Larry King live…… [Read More]
Lithuania's worldview. A brief history is given, regarding the country, as well as cultural aspects. Then the Lithuanian culture's worldview is discussed. And, finally, how their cultural communication has affected their views.
Lithuanian History and Culture:
Lithuania is a small country, of approximately 65,200 km2, with 3.5 million people. Lithuania is located in Eastern Europe and is bordered by Belarus, Latvia, ussia, and Poland (See Image 1). 81% of the population is Lithuanian, while 9% is ussian, 7% is Polish, and 1% is Byelorussian ("Lithuania," 2004). Lithuanians were the last Pagans in Europe, however, religion now takes the form of Catholicism primarily located in the Northern part of the country (personal communication D. Deimante, November 11, 2004).
During oman times, Lithuania traded amber with ome. The countryside was split into various language groups: Lithuanians, Prussians, Latvians, Semigaalians, and others. In 1230, Lithuania emerged as a nation, under the…… [Read More]
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as friendly"…… [Read More]
This happened as a side effect of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev experimentation with liberalization of the economy and the political system to increase productivity and encourage innovation. This liberalization, for the first time, allowed criticism of the Soviet System by nationalist leaders. However, as a result, they began to demand freedom and declared the independence of their republics. In 1991, the leaders of Russia, elarus and Ukraine signed the elovezh agreement, which declared that "the U.S.S.R., as a subject of international law and a geopolitical reality, ceased to exist.
y the end of the early 1990s, there were no important Cold War issues left. y that time, both sides had practically identical goals, a Europe whole and free, and a world where international disputes would be solved through negotiation rather than through attempts by one side or the other to impose its will by force. This all came about through…… [Read More]