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As opposite, in private sector accounting (for the purpose to improve the financial position of the company) the sales are recognized when the products or services have been rendered and the payment has been received or is expected to be received in a very short time. The costs are recognized as deduction from income if there is a subjective view that these costs are to lead to future income generation in the coming periods. Usage of accrual accounting is considered an advantage for public firms as balancing expenses and income is a good controlling and performance measure. On the other hand, in public sector, the income for the company does not depend on the performance of the management, nor does the expenditures are not a function of beneficiaries actions, accrual accounting system must be adopted to the specific economic nature of these organizations. This difference in accounting by private firms…
1) Sunder, S. A Theory of Accounting and Controls for Organizations Producing
2) Basic Governmental Accounting Principles, available at http://www.osc.state.ny.us/localgov/pubs/arm/arm2.htm
3) Besselman, Joseph J., Ashish Arora, and Patrick Larkey, "Buying in a Businesslike Fashion: And Paying More?" Carnegie Mellon University Working Paper, January 1999.
Public- Versus Private-Goods, School of Management, Yale University.
GASB No.34's government financial reporting model: Evidence on its information relevance, published in The Accounting eview. This article looks at a government accounting regulation, GASB No. 34, which requires lower level governments to provide "consolidated, government-wide financial statements.," which of course will require reconciliation between the different entities and the overall government financial statements. The authors examine this regulation from the perspective of its main objective, which is to provide better quality information to stakeholders about government budgets, both on an organization level but also on a government-wide level. This rule was passed in the interest of improving transparency, thus the authors sought to test the rule's effectiveness at providing information relevant to assessing a government's default risk.
The authors argue that this is the case. The null hypothesis is that GASB No. 34 would be found to have improved information quality, and that it did so. They found that…
Plummer, E., Hutchison, P. & Patton, T. (2007). GASB No.34's government financial reporting model: Evidence on its information relevance. The Accounting Review. Vol. 82 (1) 205-240.
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…
Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.
Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.
L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues
Why Take the Census?
Accounting Fundamentals for ealthcare Management
This paper examines governmental and nonprofit accounting and discusses how it differs from commercial accounting. In the accounting field, there may not always be a clear distinction between the three types of organizations. The dividing line between business and nonbusiness organizations may depend on the incidence and relative importance of the nonbusiness characteristics found in an entity. The funds of such organizations are usually earmarked for specific purposes and must be used in accordance with laws, regulations, or contractual requirements.
One distinction of nonbusiness organizations is that they generally have no single indicator of performance, such as profit or net income. FASB:CS-4 provides two performance indicators for financial reporting for nonbusiness organizations:
They provide information about the nature and relationship between inflows and outflows of resources.
They provide information about service efforts and accomplishments.
FASB: CS-4 also sets forth the distinctive features of the nonbusiness…
Horowitz, K.J. (2006, February 26). State and Local Government Accounting Principles. Retrieved on Aril 15, 2011 from Mercer County Community College website: http://www.mccc.edu/~horowitk/documents/Chapter02D.pdf
Ruppel, W. (2010). Governmental Accounting Made Easy. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Siegel, J.G., & Shim, J.K. (2006). Barron's Accounting Handbook (4th ed.). Hauppage, New York: Barron's Educational Series.
Accounting, by its nature, requires a set of standards that are exactly the same industry-wide. If there were not established rules for determining revenues, profits, expenses, and other influences on a company's bottom line, there would be no way to evaluate a corporation's effectivity, production, or potential. A lack of established standards would also mean that no two companies could be honestly compared, since their accounting methods could be so significantly different that their financial statements showed vastly different accounting methods.
In light of these potential discrepancies in reporting methods, the bodies that govern accounting have established Generally Accepted Auditing Standards, or GAAS. Generally These principles are required to be applied in all accounting situations, and they are extensive enough so that almost every possible scenario has a standard response. Interest owed in Houston is reflected on a financial statement in the exact same way that interest owed in New…
Wood was used more for recording, ink and seals were used to write accounts on top of a piece of wood. It was used mostly by everyone as it was inexpensive plus it was very easy to write on top of it. Marked stick also played many roles, also known as counting tally. ut in fourteenth century, there was an argument for a decline in tallies and to increase the use of paper which was found in England. Still this was an expensive import, in a result tally remained there for many years along for efficient calculation's an abacus was used.
y 1700, few professional accountants were found in Scotland for the Italian method of book keeping. ut by 1800 there were many professional accountants who were operating in the major Scottish towns as the knowledge of accounting became even more common in the business community. The notable accountants were…
Basil Selig & Robert Henry. "Accounting History: Some British Contributions" 1994. http://www.google.com.pk/books?id=avQ6KzZEzHoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=accounting+history&sig=BzfVxGuY9YCOP2zRSRbDXtQIeCM
However, when a shock happens that changes that pattern, the information is no longer relevant. In periods of turmoil, only the most up-to-date information is relevant. The usefulness of the information wanes quickly as the behavior of the company becomes more erratic. After a period of erratic behavior and change, the company may be forced to make internal changes that affect the way they do business. They may make changes that affect their inventory management, sales cycle, stock levels, supply chain, distribution network or other fundamental business functions. New patterns may emerge and the old information no longer applies.
The term "relevancy" can have many different meanings depending on what is happening with the company. A new accounting regime may need to be instituted when a change takes place. Looking at the most recent historical information is one way to determine the relevancy of the accounting information. The analyst needs…
Cadwalader, Wickersham, & Tact LLP. 1999. Application of the Safe Harbor for Forward-
Looking Statements. Findlaw. Accessed April 23, 2009
Giroux, G. (n.d.). American Big Business and Cost Accounting. In a Short History of Accounting and Business. Accessed April 23, 2009
government welfare. Discussed: should the government provide fewer or more benefits for single parents on welfare. Thesis, three reasons to support, at least 4 quotes and paraphrases on each page from experts.
Should the Government Provide More or Fewer Benefits for Single Parents on elfare?
elfare reforms have been a continuous debate for years. The latest reform regarding single parents and government benefits has stirred controversy and initiated studies to determine the effects of new policies. hile many critics believe the new reforms are too harsh and simply increase the number of poverty level families, the new policies with reduced benefits are making a positive significant impact in reducing the number of single parent recipients and placing them in the employment arena. Therefore, the government should provide less benefits to single parents on welfare.
Many critics argue that the economy is responsible for caseload declines (New B7). However, according to…
Adkisson, Richard V. "Welfare reform: What are the numbers, and does anyone care?" Journal of Economic Issues. March 01, 2001; pp 184.
New, Michael. "Helping the Poor: Strong Work Requirements are the way out of Welfare." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 01, 2002; pp B7.
Welfare Reform - More Research Needed on TANF Family Caps and other Policies for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births." Government Accounting Office Report. September 11, 2001. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Government_Accounting_Office_Report&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.emediamillworks.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=WELFARE+REFORM+%2D+MORE+RESEARCH+NEEDED+ON+TANF+FAMILY+CAPS+AND+OTHER+POLICIES+FOR+REDUCING+OUT%2DOF%2DWEDLOCK+BIRTHS++&date=09%2D11%2D2001&query=welfare+and+single+parents&maxdoc=24&idx=5.(accessed 12-01-2002).
Government accounting is substantially different from other accounting formats, and at the same time the two methods are essentially alike. Accounting for any entity involves, on the most basic level, balancing expenditures and revenues. However, government accounting has one major departure from standard accounting statements: it mush be reconciled with a budget set up in advance by a governing body, like the city council, state legislature, or, in the federal realm, Congress. This difference does not, however, make the basic precepts of governmental accounting significantly different from other types of accounting.
A government accounting statement must track all cash flows, both expected and realized, for an entity that is comprised of possibly hundreds of relatively autonomous entities. Each of these smaller entities has separate budgets, accounts, and in many ways operates independently of the larger entity, such as the state or city. Despite this individuality, a comprehensive report on the…
Georgia Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, 2004. Prepared by State Accounting Office and Georgia Department of Audits and Accounts.
Several terms and definitions are valuable to understand financial statements. In the United States, financial statements of public corporations are produced in accordance with the U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. These principles govern how the information for financial statements is compiled and presented. The purpose of these principles is so that all stakeholders can easily understand the statements and make comparisons across both time and across different companies, because the statements are produced and presented in a consistent manner. The International Financial eporting Standards (IFS) are the international equivalent of GAAP. While several countries utilize a national version of GAAP (U.S., Canada, UK, etc.), more than 100 countries use IFS, making this set of standards the most widely-adopted in the world. There is a move to converge national GAAP standards with IFS, including a multi-year project to converge U.S. GAAP with IFS. For now, however, IFS represents a different…
No author. (2012). Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Investopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/gaap.asp#axzz23vrKSd9Q
PCAOB.org (2012) PCAOB oversees: The auditors of companies to protect investors. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://pcaobus.org/Pages/default.aspx
SEC.gov. (2012). The investor's advocate. Securities Exchange Commission. Retrieved August 18, 2012 http://www.sec.gov/about/whatwedo.shtml
Accounting forms the overall backbone of the financial world. Financial markets are predicated on consumer and user confidence. Without confidence, consumers attempting to make financial decisions will be doing so using inaccurate and incomplete information. The lack of transparency regarding the truthfulness of reported numbers creates uncertainty within the capital markets. This uncertainty regarding the accuracy of information ultimately undermines the overall financial system, causing harm to society in the process. Investors will require higher rates of return, individuals will become unlikely to invest, and innovation could become stifled, harming the quality of life for society overall. Accounting standards, particularly those from the IFRS, are required to help maintain confidence in the reliability of reported financial performance. These standards, such as IFRS , are often amended to reflect the economic realities of business transactions. These changes, although well intended, may often have unintended consequence. This is particularly true for IFRS…
8) Jeffers, Agatha; Mengyu Wei; Sidney Askew (2010). "The Switch from U.S. GAAP to IFRS." Proceedings of the Northeast Business & Economics Association: 48 -- 54
9) Oler, Derek K., Mitchell J. Oler, and Christopher J. Skousen. 2010. "Characterizing Accounting Research." Accounting Horizons 24 (4): 635 -- 670
10) Perks, R.W. (1993). Accounting and Society. London: Chapman & Hall. p. 16. ISBN 0-412-47330-5.
Sarbanes-Oxley stipulates criminal and civil penalties for securities violations. Also, it mandates auditor independence from the interests of the firm, meaning that accountants cannot have a financial interest in the success or failure of the firm. Additionally, it mandates the certification of internal audit work by external auditors and mandates increased disclosure regarding executive compensation, insider trading and financial statements, in the interest of making more information public to investors. ("Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance," Technet 2005) Although the act is not a panacea, increased objectivity on the part of auditors and greater insistence on free and fair disclosure on the part of firms will hopefully ameliorate the some of the hiding of vital information that created the climate of secrecy within the firms of Enron and orldCom that helped give rise to the 2002 scandals.
Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance." (2005) Technet. Retrieved on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.techlistings.net/xlist/tech/bizsoft/compliance/sox?id=1
Sarbanes-Oxley. (2002) Law retrieved…
Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance." (2005) Technet. Retrieved on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.techlistings.net/xlist/tech/bizsoft/compliance/sox?id=1
Sarbanes-Oxley. (2002) Law retrieved by findlaw on 23 Oct 2005 at http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/gwbush/sarbanesoxley072302.pdf
This model could then be customized for the needs of the different companies.
Sankaran and AlHashim (2006) make a compelling case regarding the need for harmonized accounting standards and practices. In addition to the globalized economy, they also rightly point to the benefits of such harmonization for corporations - including a greater ability to keep track of expenses and a better way of reconciling different accounting practices in its branches worldwide. Furthermore, Sankaran and AlHashim (2006) also allay fears that harmonization is equivalent to imposing only one accounting system around the world. Instead, they highlight the need for commonality, for a web-based accounting system that lends itself to different accounting practices.
The paper makes a strong argument, and the data regarding the need for a harmonized accounting system is compelling. hile this article may present a challenge for readers unfamiliar with basic programming language, the inclusion of a generic algorithm…
Sankaran, Siva and Dhia D. AlHashim. 2006. "An Accounting Information System for Harmonization."
Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge. 9(2): September.
The Statement of Owners' Equity
The statement of owner's or shareholders' equity is designed to show the components of the change in equity from the end of one fiscal year to the next. Beginning with the amount of equity shown at the end of the previous fiscal year, net income is added and cash dividends paid to the owners are subtracted. If owners contributed any additional capitol this amount (such as the sale of new shares) it is added to the equity. On the other hand, if the owners withdrew capitol, equity declines. All the additions and subtractions, taken together, equal the changes in owner equity from one fiscal year to the next (Kurtz, 2010).
The Statement of Cash Flows
Public companies are required to prepare and publish a statement of cash flows. This statement provides investors and creditors with relevant information about a firm's cash receipts and cash payments…
Kurtz, D.L. (2010). Contemporary Business, 13th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
"The Four Financial Statements" (NDI). The four financial statements. QuickMBA. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/statements/
America was not founded as a Democracy or as a Monarchy, for the educated and landed founding fathers felt assured that neither would provide the nation with rights for all and privilege for the few. America was founded as a Republic, and one might add as an ogliarchic republic at that. Those with the right gender, race, and wealth were represented through their while others were represented through the votes of their betters. Today, nearly-universal sufferage (age and past misbehavior are both barriers) assures that these factors do not determine whether a person can vote -- but an argument can still be made that the majority of the political process is determined by wealth. "The creators of America's constitution and government were among the wealthy aristocrats of their day. When they created their new government, the founders excluded democracy to the extent politically possible at the time. ..The great…
Bernstein, A. (1998) "Republican and Democratic -- The Identical Party? The Two Major Parties Are Becoming Dangerously Alike -- in Their Opposition to Individual Rights." Capitalism Magazine, Nov. 6. http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=2020
Gitlin, T. (2000) "The Renaissance of anti-intellectualism." The Chronicle of Higher Education, Dec. 8. Archived at: http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i15/15b00701.htm
Grinning Planet. (2004) "INJECTING A SHOT OF REBEL YELL INTO OLD GLORY" http://www.grinningplanet.com/2004/11-11/direct-democracy-plutocracy-article.htm
Morgan, D. (2000) "Mercenaries For Big Business: Corporate Funding of Think Tanks Raises Question of Credibility" San Francisco Chronicle, Feb 16. Archived at: http://www.commondreams.org/views/021600-102.htm
Education should come from non-profit international scientific, health and environmental organizations. They would be most widely respected and would have more access to both the TNCs and the host and origin country governmental bodies. They can educate the corporations on the practicality of policing their own people and actions. They can educate government bodies on how to include these considerations in political decisions. They can be resources for The United Nations and the TO to help them decide on their programs. Finally they can help the educate the global populace via global media, especially independent educational media.
The last suggestion is one way to approach using public relations. Another is to incite the press and various other media to report the good and the bad actions of TNCs. His makes for interesting news for their audiences, and good public service for the media. In essence, Fowler has said much of…
Fowler, Robert J. "International Environmental Standards for Transnational Corporations." Environmental Law 25.1 (1995): 1-30. Questia. 14 Dec. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000274495 .
Ietto-Gillies, Grazia. Transnational Corporations: Fragmentation Amidst Integration. London: Routledge, 2002. Questia. 14 Dec. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108115153 .
Thomas Donaldson, The Ethics of International Business 31 (1992).
The management accounting leads candidates into finance, risk management and even production management. hile CMA certification is not necessary to pursue a career in management accounting, it is recommended. The IMA claims that certified management accountants earn on average $25,000 more per year than non-certified peers (IMA, 2011).
As with the accounting profession in general, there is increased demand for management accountants. CMAs are in demand because of their ability to contribute to the profitability of businesses, and demand for CMAs is expected to grow in coming years. Because CMA job duties are less structured than those of financial accountants or auditors, CMAs enjoy greater career flexibility.
Both types of accounting positions are poised to enjoy significant growth. There is also a trend in business, particularly since Sarbanes-Oxley, of looking to accounting professionals to lead firms. More CEOs are coming from the accounting stream than ever before, which highlights the…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupation outlook handbook 2010-2011: Accountants and auditors. BLS. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos001.htm
IMAnet.org, various pages. (2011). Institute of Management Accountants. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.imanet.org/ima_home.aspx
Taub, S. (2003) Now playing: CFO as CEO. CFO Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007934
By re-characterizing the epo 105 dealing as a sale, Lehman detached the account from its balance sheet (Durden, 2010).
Lehman frequently augmented its utilization of epo 105 transactions in the time previous to reporting interludes to decrease its openly reported net leverage and balance sheet. Lehman's intermittent reports did not reveal the money borrowing from the epo 105 transaction, even though Lehman had in reality borrowed tens of billions of dollars in these dealings, Lehman did not reveal the acknowledged responsibility to pay back the liabilities. Lehman utilized the money from the epo 105 dealings to pay off other dangers, thus dropping both the entire debts and the entire assets accounted for on its balance sheet and decreasing its power percentages. Therefore, Lehman's epo 105 dealing was made up of a two-fold procedure: performing epo 105 dealings followed by the utilization of epo 105 cash borrowings to pay down debts,…
Durden, Tyler. (2010). The "Repo 105" Scam: How Lehman Fooled Everyone (Including
Allegedly Dick Fuld) and How Other Banks Are Likely Doing This Right Now. Retreived
April 10, 2011, from Web site: http://www.zerohedge.com/article/repo-105-scam-how-lehman-fooled-everyone-including-allegedly-dick-fuld-and-how-other-banks-a
Goldstein, Jacob. (2011). Repo 105: Lehman's 'Accounting Gimmick' Explained. Retreived April
Accounting and Audit Enforcement
1. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act applies to publicly-traded companies. Thus, it does not apply to non-profit entities. Nor does it apply to for-profit entities that are not publicly-traded. This is because SOX was passed specifically to address instances of accounting fraud in publicly traded companies that were undermining consumer trust in the capital markets (101.com, 2018). A publicly traded companies has a variety of different obligations under SOX that will help to reduce the opportunities and incentives for accounting fraud. Both opportunity and incentive are components of the fraud triangle – one needs to have a perceived need to commit the fraud and the circumstances with which to do so (ACFE, 2018).
Non-profit organizations have no obligations under SOX. However, there is a school of thought that holds that non-profit entities can benefit from some of the recommendations and mandates that SOX contains. Fritz (2016) writes that…
The Impact of Distance Learning in Accounting Higher Education
This paper is intended as an Introduction to a research study in to the impact of distance learning on the teaching of accounting in higher education. The context of the research will first be introduced i.e., the background to the research. The research to be undertaken will then be introduced, as will the specific questions and sub-questions to be addressed. The significance of this study will then be analyzed, and the people who are expected to benefit from this research will also be outlined. The research methodology and the practical design of this research methodology will be discussed, and the primary and secondary sources to be used will be introduced, and a list of preliminary resources will be given in the ibliography.
Distance learning has grown in popularity amongst students over recent years, for many reasons, one of which has…
Anne Nicholls, Flexible study opens doors., Independent on Sunday, 01-14-1996, pp 12.
Serwatka, Judy A, Improving student performance in distance learning courses., THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 04-01-2002, pp 46.
Mariola, Eleni; Manley, John, Teaching finance concepts in a distance learning environment -- a personal note., Journal of Education for Business, 01-01-2002, pp 177
"Management believes that the accounting estimates employed are appropriate and the resulting balances are reasonable; however, due to the inherent uncertainties in making estimates actual results could differ from the original estimates, requiring adjustments to these balances in future periods."
ased on the data retrieved and the projections made, the accounting division will proceed to the development of the consolidated statements for all of GM subsidies and the overall group. There are 24 consolidated statements, as follows: Discounted Operations; Asset Impairment; Investment in Nonconsolidated Affiliates; Marketable Securities; Variable Interest Entities; Finance Receivables and Securitization; Inventories; Equipment on Operating Leases; Income Taxes; Property - Net; Goodwill and Intangible Assets; Other Assets; Accrued Expenses, Other Liabilities and Deferred Income Taxes; Long-Term Debt and Loans Payable; Pensions and Other Postretirement enefits; Commitments and Contingent Matters, Stockholders' Equity; Earnings per Share Attributable to Common Stocks; Derivative Financial Instruments and Risk Management; Fair Value of…
1. 2007 General Motors Annual Report. Page 9. On the Internet at http://www.gm.com/corporate/investor_information/docs/fin_data/gm07ar/download/gm07ar_full.pdf.Last retrieved on February 15, 2009
2. General Motors Mission Statement, 2009, on the internet at http://www.samples-help.org.uk/mission-statements/general-motors-mission-statement.html . Ast retrieved on February 16, 2009
3. Supplier Diversity, Website of General Motors, 2009, on the internet at http://www.gm.com/corporate/dealers/diversity/index.jsplast retrieved on February 16, 2009
4. Management's Discussion and Analysis, Website of General Motors, 2009, on the internet at http://www.gm.com/corporate/investor_information/docs/fin_data/gm07ar/content/financials/mda/mda_10.htmllast retrieved on February 16, 2009
Accounting and Finance
Henkel AG is a multinational company focusing its brand and technologies in three business areas that include Beauty Care, Laundry & Home Care and Adhesive Technologies. Established in 1976, the company holds its global market positions in both the consumer and industrial products with well-known brands that include Lactate, Persil, and Schwarzkopf. Henkel's headquarter is in Dusseldorf in German and the company has over 47,000 employees globally. Typically, the company is considered among the most "internationally aligned German-based companies in the global marketplace." (Henkel 2012).
Objective of this paper is to use various financial models to carry out financial analysis and valuation of financial Henkel AG.
One of the methods to carry out the valuation of a company is to use enterprises discounted cash flow (DCF). The DCF could be carried out using WACC (weighted average cost of capital) that represents the opportunity costs that…
An unaware analyst may think the second company to be better but in reality its low encouraging level is due to the fact that it is unable to secure additional funding. The companies may possess different capital structures and to attempt comparison of performance when one is all equity financed and another is a geared company may not suffice for a good analysis. The chosen application of government incentives to several companies may also twist the inter-company evaluation. There may be the possibility of providing a company with the tax holiday while the other within the same line of business not, and evaluation of such two enterprises may be misleading. (Session 15: Limitation of atio Analysis)
As a matter of principle, the accounting strategies are required to be applied persistently. Changes are required to be emphasized and the influence of variations from an original policy revealed. This is applicable when…
Accounting and decision making - Ratio analysis. Retrieved from http://www.learn.co.uk/cima-mc/lesson4/page4.htm Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Basic Financial Statement Analysis: Objective 3: Explain the limitations of ratio analysis. Retrieved from http://www.wu-wien.ac.at/usr/h93/h9352467/Limitations%20on%20Ratio%20Analysis/limitationonra.html Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Cars, Andreas. 2002. The Dynamic Current Ratio. 3 September. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/02/090302.asp Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Covers Information from Accounting 200 and 201. Retrieved from http://www.everettcc.edu/emplibrary/Financial%20Ratios.pdf Accessed on 22 April, 2005
, 2010). Where there is the sale of shares, there is also a great potential that the existing owners will have little control over who the shares are subsequently sold to, especially in a quoted company. The firm will also be subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), which was also known as the "Company Accounting eform and Investor Protection Act," in the Senate (Libby et al., 2010).
Decision for the Business
As the business is a new idea, and will initially only involve a single person, the idea of a partnership may be eliminated. This leaves sole proprietorship and corporation. If there is to be only one owner the S-corporation may be used, as this may accommodate a single shareholder. This structure may be attractive as the business will be a separate entity, especially as the owner will not carry any personal liabilities for the business debts. However this…
Clarkson, Kenneth W; Miller, Roger LeRoy; Cross, Frank B, (2010), Business Law: Text and Cases - Legal, Ethical, Global, and Corporate Environment, Cenage Learning
Libby, Robert; Libby, Patricia; Short, Daniel, (2010), Financial Accounting, McGraw-Hill
Weygandt, J, J; Kieso, DE; Kimmel, PD, (2011), Financial Accounting, Wiley
The business idea has been set up in a manner which can be easily changed by the student, without impacting on the rest of the paper.
Accounting Information for Decision Making
Corporate Confirming on Water isk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GI) G3 Guidelines' five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water risks. Within this section, we'll briefly discuss the relevance of all these standards (Power, 2010).
Total water withdrawal by source
Confirming the entire amount of water withdrawn by source adds for knowledge of the general scale of possible influences and threats connected using the company's water use. The entire volume withdrawn offers an indication from the organization's proper size and significance as a user of water and offers to set up a baseline figure for other information relevant to…
GRI, (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, Accessed on September 27, 2012 from: www.globalreporting.org/NR/rdonlyres/ED9E9B36-AB54-4DE1-BFF2-5F735235CA44/0/G3_GuidelinesENU.pdf
Power, G. Paddling Upstream - Approaches to Corporate Water Reporting. Business and the Environment, 21. 6 (Jun 2010): 1-3.
Accounting Theories and usiness Decisions: The usiness World
Application of theories
Other cases of stakeholder theory application
Accounting theories and business decisions: The business world
There are many theories that explain the complexity of relationship between different groups of people directly and indirectly related to an organization. Two of the most comprehensive and most discussed theories are stakeholder theory and agency theory. oth the theories describe what the main purpose of each group is and how these groups ought to manage these relationships. In agency theory, it identified that agency relationship takes place when one or more than one principal, acting as owners, delegate their power to make decisions, to a person acting as their agent or steward. Thus, agency theory principally revolves around the relationship of principal and agent. While the principal delegates the authority or decision making power to agent (managers) to act in the best…
Alessi, Chirstopher. 2013. "Understanding the LIBOR Scandal." Council on Foreign Relations, Feb 6. Accessed August 23, 2013. http://www.cfr.org/united-kingdom/understanding-libor-scandal/p28729
Dean, Cornelia. 2007. "Executive on a mission: saving the planet." New York Times, May 22. Accessed August 23, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Jensen, Michael C. 2010. "Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function." Journal of applied corporate finance 22: 32-42.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 2011. How great companies think differently. Harvard Business Review, November. Accessed August 24, 2013. http://hbr.org/2011/11/how-great-companies-think-differently/ar/2
Government Performance esults Act
The General Accounting Office (GAO) may be one of most essential agencies in the federal government, because of its investigative oversight, but to the average American citizen, it may also be among the lesser known agencies. That is because the average hard-working nine-to-five person - whose contact with "news" is a few sound bites on television after work - might never dig into newspapers deep enough to read up on how taxpayer dollars are spent in Washington D.C. It's regrettable that the average person complains loudly about taxes, and "politicians" - yet knows little of the GAO's pivotal work. Meanwhile, this paper will focus upon the GAO report on the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), titled, "Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges" - which is clearly a wise use of taxpayer monies, whether taxpayers know about the GAO or not.
American Civil Liberties Union (2003). "ACLU Demands Truth From Justice
Department: New Report Details False Claims about SCOPE, Impact of PATRIOT Act." http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=13100&c=206 .
Kast, Sheila (2001). "Terror probe raises concerns about civil rights." CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2001/U.S./10/22/inv.civil.rights/
Perry, Tony (2002). "Immigration Attorney for 7 Detainees Lashes Out At INS:
Government managing of the economic using fiscal policy typically amounts to spending more, as governments rarely use fiscal policy to slow an overheated economy, preferring to rely on the more effective monetary policy tools that central banks have at their disposal. An increase in government spending provides a short-term boost to the economy. If the money is spent on investments for future growth such as transportation infrastructure and education, then the impacts will be long-term positive as well. There is the risk that active management of the economy through fiscal policy will be insufficient, or that it will have long-term negative impacts if the government borrows too much to pay for the spending.
Overall, government efforts to manage the economy make things better. Our economy does not even remotely resemble a free market economy, and has not since at least the 1930s. The economy has experienced, with few breaks, a…
Leamer, E. (no date). Components of GDP. UCLA. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/edward.leamer/documents/Hw%20Components%20of%20GDP%20Eviews%20Version.pdf
Lesher, M. & Miroudot, S. (2006). Analysis of the economic impact of investment provisions in regional trade agreements. OECD Trade Policy Working Papers.
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community
"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…
Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. http://www.policyalmanac.org/economic/budget.shtml
City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyBudgetBook2005.pdf
City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyProfile.doc
DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web. http://www.examiner.net/features/x1896018474/Police-say-safety-tax-needed-to-help-alleviate-blackout
Further, Oracle also has templates and process definitions for the electronics components market as well. Lastly the financial modules with Oracle can also be used for local government reporting in addition to SOX compliance.
For the small business of $2M their needs are drastically different than the $100M distributor that has offices across multiple geographies. The $2M company for purposes of this example is a manufacturer of air conditioning spare parts and is heavily manufacturing based. Their customer base is primarily throughout the U.S. Their primary need is for an accounting system that can has Accounts eceivable, Accounts Payable, General Ledger, Billing, Inventory Management, distributed order management and sales order management, all core functions of an accounting system (Collins, 2006). In addition this small manufacturer also needs support for Debt Collection, electronic payment processing, online payroll, timesheets and purchase requisition as well. All of these features can be found in…
Susan B. Anders. (2006). Website of the Month: Accountant.intuit.com. The CPA Journal, 76(11), 70-71.
Phillip G. Armour. (2005). Sarbanes-Oxley and software projects. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 48(6), 15-17.
J Carlton Collins. (2006). Small Business Software Grows Up. Journal of Accountancy, 201(3), 50.
Ivancevich, S., Ivancevich, D., & Elikai, F. (2010). Accounting Software Selection and Satisfaction. The CPA Journal, 80(1), 66-72.
The ability to end or terminate the contract is unilateral. Gabbard expresses the fact that changes must also be unilateral. The terms in settling a dispute must be predetermined before entering contract. The Government contract gives the authoritative party the right to audit the books of the company selling the product or service. In this court case, the government was allowed to appeal the case won by Agredano resulting in a reversal of the former court ruling.
Government Contract Comparison to Uniform Commercial Code/Contract
The U.C.C. Or commercial contract is less formal and authority to enter a contract is assumed by the parties involved (Gabbard, 2011). In a UCC the terms are not detailed or written out in a formal document as required by a government contract. In fact the details are implied (Gabbard, 2011).
Analyzing and Evaluation Example: Carpet Cleaning Contract
For example in a UCC contract with a…
Cengage Learning, (2011). Buyer beware applies to vehicle bought by the government.
June 12, 2010 from http://www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/sales/0410_sales_01.html
Gabbard, E.G. (2011). Relationship of far and ucc in subcontracting. Retrieved June
10, 2011 from http://www. fasmg. org/farucc. html
Capital Accounting and Budgeting Questions
When a firm has different potential projects or investments, they will want to assess their options to ensure they make the best choice. However, comparing different types of projects or investments can be difficult, especially if the projects have different terms to maturity and/or different risk profiles. A useful tool is that of net present value (NV). Net present value allows different types of project to be compared on a like for like basis.
The net present value calculation takes all of the forecast future net cash flows of a project (the revenue less all the costs), and then discounts them into today's value. The discounting allows the firm to assess what the value of the future cash flows will be in today's money. The rate of discount applied will usually be the cost of capital for the firm, but where there is…
Political risk manifest in a number of ways, they may be in the policies and laws that a government enacts, political instability and even aspects such as competition regulations. These will all impact on the potential level of risk associated with an investment. When undertaking capital budgeting, for a project to be viable, where there is an additional risk it is necessary for there to be a risk premium to justify taking that additional risk. The introduction of different types of policies, regulation or laws by government, may impact on the overall value of an investment, and in some cases may be severely detrimental. For example, in some countries there may be a risk of nationalization which the company may lose a significant amount of its investment (Mintzberg et al., 2008). Likewise, the amount of value in investment may create, especially if it is targeting markets, will be impacted by the competitive conditions, which in turn influenced significantly by government policies and attitudes.
Transfer pricing refers to pricing of internal transactions, for example when goods are sold by one company to another company in the same group, or possibly transfers between divisions. When undertaking capital budgeting, the potential benefits and risks associated with transfer pricing will need to be considered. A project may be viable due to the economies which can be gained from in-house, or in group supply. Likewise, the potential benefits may also be limited in terms of national regulation and the way in which transfer pricing is controlled. Transfer pricing will impact on the costs and potential profits that are assessed when examining potential investments or projects. The security of the
Define marginal revenue.
Explain its relationship with total revenue.
Marginal Revenue (MR) is the revenue that is linked to one more additional unit of production. The demand for the product will determine whether it will be higher or lower or even the same as the previous unit of production revenue. MR can be defined therefore as the addition realized revenue to the Total Revenue (TR) by a unit increment in the sales volume of a firm in the market (Economics Concepts, 2011).
For instance if a lime factory sells 100 liters of lime at $4 per liter, the total revenue of the factory would be $400. Incase the factory increases the sales volume from 100 liters to 101 liters, then the total revenue of the factory increases to $404. The increase by $4 in the total revenue by one unit increase in rate of sales per…
Accounting Question on Form 8-K
The process used to regulate the submission and examination of corporate financial document filings -- which is overseen by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) -- is fundamental to the sustainable growth of a capitalist economy, because these filings act as a necessary measure of transparency for investors and financial managers. Without the meticulously gathered data compiled and submitted by public companies within regular SEC filings, investors would have no legitimate ability to analyze variables to arrive at the most prudent course of financial action. Furthermore, in the absence of SEC filings unscrupulous corporate executives would be inordinately tempted to manipulate certain aspects of the financial system, either in the pursuit of personal profit or to protect their company's interests in the event of losses. As the SEC's website states, "companies with more than $10 million in assets whose securities are held by…
SEC. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, (2013). Compliance and disclosure interpretations: Form 8-k. Retrieved from Government Printing Office website: http://www.sec.gov/about/forms/form8-k.pdf
SEC. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, (2013). The Laws That Govern the Securities
Industry. Retrieved from Government Printing Office website: http://www.sec.gov/about/laws.shtml#secexact1934
Accounting and Finance
Comparison of Selected Financial Performance Data for WalMart and Target
WalMart and Target compete in very similar markets, competing in the supermarket segment of the retail industry, with some diversified interests. To assess the performance of these two firms, their results for the financial years ending January 2012 and 2013 may be examined and compared. This paper will look at the performance in terms of revenues, cost of goods, accounts receivable and payable and inventory management.
The performance of a firm often starts with an assessment of the revenue that is generated and the way in which this changes over time. The revenues for both WalMart and Target are shown in table 1.
Table 1; evenue for WalMart and Target 2012-2013
evenues ($ millions)
Change in revenues from previous year
The levels of revenues demonstrate that…
Target, (2013), 10k, retrieved https://corporate.target.com/_media/TargetCorp/annualreports/content/download/pdf/Annual-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf
WalMart, (2013), 10k, retrieved http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/104169/000010416913000011/wmt10-k.htm
production/income and so on. Some companies also include quality assessments as part of their analysis of department efficiencies.
5.Explain the role of the budget in the business control cycle.
Budgets can be used to help a firm meet goals and objectives. The business control cycle consists of four steps. The first is setting the standard, that is, creating the budget. The next is recording the performance of the company's departments. Third, variances from the budget are identified and analyzed to understand why they occurred. Finally, action can be planned to either correct problems identified this way, or to put preventive measure in place to enhance future performance.
6.Analyze internal and external control mechanisms that can be put in place to monitor and evaluate the budget.
Internal control mechanism could include consistent follow-up on internal and external audit findings and reporting findings of internal audits to the head of the organization…
Loeb, R. And M. Workman (2002) Annual budgeting as a management tool. Robert Loeb and Company. Retrieved 6 September 2005 at http://www.robertloebandcompany.com/articles/body_articles.html2002
Miller, G.J. And J. Rabin. (2001) Performance-based budgeting. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Porter, W. (2005, June 1). CRO advantage: outsource clinical trials to launch biotech development success. Biopharm International. Retrieved 8 September 2005 from www.highbeam.com.
Allestree indicates that flattery is a form of mental slavery and says that love and friendship are far too valuable to prostitute them. In addition, he believes that flattery is harmful because, by failing to point out a man's flaws, or by transmuting those flaws into assets, one condemns the man to continue in those faults. Furthermore, he points out that flatterers are often treacherous, because their affection ends when the one that they have flattered falls out of favor. In fact, when the formerly adored friend falls out of favor, the flatterers are often the first to point out their faults to those who are coming into favor.
In section nine, Allestree speaks about boasting. Boasting is not limited to people speaking bombastically about themselves, but also includes people who cannot hear talk on any subject without trying to turn that subject towards them. Therefore, it becomes clear that…
46. So far the firm looks to be a good potential candidate for a loan.
The current and quick ratio looks at the short-term ability of a firm to meet its obligations. A lender will also want to look at the longer term position and the ability to repay the entire debt plus interest and fees (Libby et al., 2010). The solvency ratio assesses the level of cash generated in a year as a percentage of the debt. The cash generated is calculated by taking the net profit after tax and adding back the depreciation. The total liabilities are calculated by adding together the current and the long-term (non current) liabilities.
Table 3; Solvency ratio for Tootise oll Industries Inc.
Net profit after tax (a)
Adjusted net profit (a + b) (c )
Current liabilities (d)
Paper is based on a case supplied by the student
Howells P.G.A, Bain, K, (2007), Financial Institutions and Markets, London, Longman
Libby, R; Libby, P. Short D, (2010), Financial Accounting, McGraw-Hill
The common guiding principles of economics provide little direction. As a consequence, U.S. international tax policy is a clutter of rules with a diversity of political and economic reasons. It is frequently described as a concession that strikes a balance. Policy leans toward tightening foreign tax rules and putting foreign income on equal footing with U.S. income when it is thought that foreign investment hurts the U.S. economy. Then policy leans toward relaxing the rules and giving foreign income favorable treatment if it is thought that foreign investment promotes U.S. interests (Sullivan, n.d.).
Due to the fact tat every government charges taxes by its own process and at its own rates, the ensuing system of international taxation often warps investment and adds to reductions in international economic well-being. The environment of these alterations depends on the way of taxing profits from international investment. If investment earnings are taxed only at…
Social Security is a big insurance collection into which all working people contribute.
The current Social Security system is similar to an underfunded pension. Underfunded does not mean that it is in a dilemma, but that its funds are not sufficient to pay future benefits without gathering future tax revenues. Ultimately, Congress will have to deal with whether to change Social Security. Politically, much of the support for the program stems from the awareness that it is an earned benefit, not a welfare program. But in a time of fiscal strictness, Congress should at least think about whether it makes sense that an increase in taxes to finance the system automatically increases the benefits paid to those who need help the least.
Even though Social Security is often compared to private pensions, it shouldn't be since it is truly a social insurance program and not a retirement plan. Social Security…
It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.
Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."
oles of Women
Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna
Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…
Asmar, Marwan. Dr. (31 December, 1999). "The makers of the 20th century." The Star (Jordan,
Cowen, Tyler. (January, 2000). "Who Says the Arts Are Dying?" USA Today (Magazine). (accessed 28 November, 2004). www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1272/2656_128/58576593/p1/article.jh).
Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. (22 March, 2004). "Sustaining gains: reflections on women in science and technology in 20th-century United States." NWSA Journal.
This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)
1. Public Accounting
The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…
Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at: http://www.amper.com/publications/amper-cpa-role.asp
Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/files/ISP_SUMMER_SCHOOL_2008_ERARD_TAXATION_WITHOUT_REPRESENTATION.pdf
Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_4.asp
Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t: http://www.accountingformanagement.com/
MICOSOFT: No terrorist is going to try to blow up Microsoft; no oil products are needed to run computer hardware and software; computers run the world of commerce; and Bill Gates owns a huge percentage of all things computer software-related, so the Microsoft steamroller is a great investment and not as vulnerable to world conditions as are the first two companies reviewed in this section.
One final conclusion: for EXXONMOBIL, albeit their fortunes can change because of the war and oil's vulnerability to war, their earnings for the 4th quarter of 2004 were their highest ever ($8,420 million), and they have friends in the White House in Bush and Cheney, so their financial picture remains very bright; for FOD, they experienced a $5 billion pre-tax profit from their "financial services" (auto loans) division, which is very impressive; moreover, car sales are booming and Ford will, in the near future, realize…
AllBusiness (2005). What Are Generally Accepted Accounting Principles? Retrieved February 8, 2005, at http://www.allbusiness.com/articles/content/17954.asp .
Anderson, Curt. (2005). Microsoft Reports Record Revenue and Earnings. Retrieved February 9, 2005 from Microsoft Investor Relations Web site: http://www.microsoft.com/msft .
Bruebaker, Gary H. (1999). A Question of Value. Government Finance Review, 15(3),
Ensman, Richard G. (1999). Accrual Basis vs. Cash Basis Accounting. Doors and Hardware, 63(10), 20-22.
Philosophy of public finance
All states must raise some sort of revenue to pay for the basic services it must offer to protect its citizens and provide them with needed services. The degree to which the state should act in such a supportive fashion may vary depending on the perspective of the individual but the notion that some state financing is needed for a nation to be functional is difficult to debate. Taxation is one of the primary methods through which the state extracts revenue. Although there are many different competing philosophies about the purpose of government financing, most would agree that the government can serve as an engine of growth if it allocates its assets in an appropriate manner.
One of the most influential texts defining a philosophy of public financing was that of ichard Musgrave's The Theory of Public Finance. Musgrave's (1959) text stressed that "normative…
Bartle, J., Scott, D. & Shields, P. (2008). Applying pragmatism to public budgeting and financial management. Association for Budgeting and Financial Management conference.
Retrieved from: https://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/3995
Financial accounting. (2015). National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from:
They then proceed to detail their selected sample (76 NYSE firms that reported at least three annual losses in period's 1980-1985 and that reduced cash dividends. They then implemented various conditions to test their hypothesis that it is the troubled firm's aim to retain preservation of their company, rather than to make a bonus, that causes them to select a certain accountancy plan.
In section 2, the authors describe their methods used in selecting a sampled population and their bias controls. There is a great deal of numerical data, and the material is dense particularly when they elaborate on the earnings and cash flow performance of the various firms. Each unit is broken up into subunits. Scholarly tables condensed with data that for instance report accrual levels and changes for the 76 firms support their written text and the Tables are alluded to in the text. Statistical analysis of these…
DeAngelo, H. DeAngelo, L. & Skinner, DJ (1992) Accountign choice in troubled companies. Jour. Of Account. & Econ. 17, 113-143
Elliot, Barry & Elliot, Jamie: Financial accounting and reporting, Prentice Hall, London 2004
Gray SJ (1988) Towards a Theory of Cultural Influence on the Development of Accounting Systems Internationally Abacus, pp.1-15
Accounting has been nothing if not a dynamic, global discipline over the last two decades. The role of the accountant has changed dramatically during that time and will continue to do so -- as will the nature of the challenges that the accounting profession faces"
Over the past twenty years, the modern business community has been faced with the challenges of globalization, the new predominance of technology in business affairs, and the creation of a service-based 'knowledge economy' versus a manufacturing-based one. The profession of accounting has had to adapt to this new environment. "Business internationalization and globalization has facilitated the transfer of capital and information across national borders, with economic power residing in holders of particular knowledge sets. Business and management location is becoming increasingly irrelevant and management and accounting work is becoming multidisciplinary" (Parker 2002).
Globalization has lead to more uniform regulations in accounting. Until recently, U.S. accountants…
GAAP'S Last Stand IFRS is no rumor -- welcome to the next phase of financial reporting.
2011. Periso. Accessed:
http://perisho.com/keeping-current/gaaps-last-stand-ifrs-is-no-rumor-welcome-to-the-next-phase-of-financial-reporting / [June 23, 2011]
Parker, Lee D. 2002. Reinventing the managerial accountant. Glasgow University.
Accounting Profession: New Scrutiny and esponsibilities
While many people treat the accounting profession as something which lacks glamour and prestige, ordinary civilians often don't realize how crucial the accounting profession is to the world at large. The accounting departments in major firms are often what provides a foundation for most companies to be able to do what they do and accomplish tasks as needed. Accountants are the ones who are able to keep track of all the finances that are going out vs. what is coming in. Given the "new normal" in the world of corporate finance in light of the more recent corporate scandals, the work that accountants do have a greater level of importance. Accountants are now under greater scrutiny and have greater levels of responsibility: the accounting departments in major firms are now seen as ethical watch-dogs.
The skills and knowledge required in being an accountant are…
Balassone, J. (2014). Ethical Meltdown: Red Flags for Directors. Retrieved from scu.edu:
Einhorn, W.M. (2003). Ethical Accounting Practices and the Pressures on CPAs.
Retrieved from nysscpa.com:
ccounting CP. Ideas 1- My story: I a young, my father gave responsibility manage budget house. School I control budget Volunteer
Personal statement: Why I want to obtain an MSc in ccounting
Ever since I was young, I have had the responsibility of balancing a budget. My father encouraged me to manage some of the household finances, and by the time I was selected in school to oversee the treasury of the volunteer club, I felt very comfortable and confident with bookkeeping. Majoring in accounting when I went to college seemed like a natural extension of my interests and aptitudes. I graduated with a B.. In accounting from King Saud University in 2009. However, even then I knew that obtaining a B.. was only the first step in gaining mastery of the profession. I already knew I wanted to go on to get my MSc in ccounting but decided to…
After graduating, I obtained a job at the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, where I am currently employed. I am charged with supervising the Agency's financial statements and the accounting details of insurance companies. My work has enabled me to put my academic knowledge into practice, and has been a constant, daily education in the need for rigor, efficiency, and wide and deep knowledge of international accounting standards and ethics. But like all positive experiences, my work life has also showed me what I do not know about the accounting field. I wish to gain a broader and more flexible skill set to be better able to cope with the demands of the profession. The profession is changing at a rapid rate. I have been amazed how quickly my nation and the world have evolved in terms of accounting standards and ethics since 2009.
My work experience whetted my appetite for more knowledge about the field of accounting. I have come to better understand the different ways in which modern global business demands new forms of accounting and monitoring business processes. Government regulations are constantly changing regarding how financial statements must be prepared, as are the needs of businesses in the new global economy. Accountants must meet these challenges head-on, and obtaining my MSc would better equip me to do so. Becoming a part of a formal MSc program would also connect me with a network of fellow professions, whose diverse work experiences would instruct me.
I have chosen to purse an MSc in Accounting at University which emphasizes team-based learning and will offer a flexible curriculum so I can tailor my education to my needs. I believe that I have enough experience to know how to guide my education, while supported by the outstanding faculty of the school. Because of my experiences I am confident I would be an asset to any classroom. I would be able to offer my knowledge to support what was being taught in class with real-life experiences. After obtaining my MSc, I intend to become a CPA and open my own business. Obtaining an MSc would give me the knowledge and platform to act independently as an accountant and to serve in my profession to the maximum extent of my abilities. Much as I have enjoyed working for a government agency, I believe it is in private practice where my full ambitions can be realized. My MSc would thus also give me a needed grounding in managerial theory that I would require to manage my own office of fellow accounting professionals.
It also publishes interpretations about certain rules.
WHEN AN ACCOUNTANT FAILS
The AICPA's Code of Professional Conduct is considered to be a binding agreement for every CPA in America.
As with other professions most accountants are ethical and honest in their dealings with their clients, however every so often a problem arises that must be disciplined. This can happen in a purposeful attempt to be deceitful, or it can happen by an error in judgment or an error in practice. egardless of how or why it happened a review is called for and a sanction or discipline course of action is decided upon (Badawi, 2002).
Most of the violations that occur are ethical dilemmas that are relatively easy to solve but some of the problems become quite in depth and resolution is more difficult to reach.
A study of conduct violations in a ten-year period produced the following result.
Badawi, Ibrahim M.(2002) Accounting codes of conduct, violations and disciplinary actions. Review of Business; 1/1/2002;
Carey, J.L. The CPA Plans for the Future. New York, NY: AICPA, 1965.
Demski, J.S. And J. L Zimmerman.(2000) "On Research vs. Teaching: A Long-Term Perspective." Accounting Horizons
.....ethical for an employer to use social media information as a factor when considering whether to hire an employee? What about monitoring social networking activities of employees while on the job? Use ethical reasoning in answering these questions.
The wide-ranging use of social media in the workplace gives rise to serious moral and ethical concerns. Kantian ethics lays emphasis on the form of an action in ascertaining its morality. Kant insists on the Categorical Imperative. Kant implies that this ethical principle is the superlative and outright and proper test to morality, whereas imperative implies that from time to time one must command oneself to be moral and undertake the right thing, even and particularly when one's self-centeredness may be infringed by acting ethically (Mintz, 2015). As an overall moral rule, for an employer to impose into an employee's private life on social media devoid of consent or in a clandestine…
Treasury Securities and Business isks
What is meant by "risk-free?"
isks are unplanned occurrences that affect the normal occurrences within a business or any other project. A risk-free scenario is anything that occurs without the possible occurrences of risks. Therefore, in an economic undertaking, risks are occurrences that occur contrary to the planned business or economic programs (Garbade, 2012). Thus, a risk-free status refers to a business occurrence where the established safety measures work towards alleviating the possibility of risk occurrences. Everything that is done incorporates many risks in place. isks occur within a specified framework of work that is contrary and unplanned within an economic setup. As much as risks are founded within any business, businesses will resort to possible avenues where they are not going to encounter or meet any possible risks that will work against their business strategies and plans. In a free rate of business, a…
Bhansali, V. (2011). Bond Portfolio Is Investing and Risk Management: Positioning Fixed Income Portfolios for Robust Returns after the Financial Crisis. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Garbade, K. D. (2012). Birth of a Market: The U.S. Treasury Securities Market from the Great War to the Great Depression. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Accounting System Implemented at Chic Paints Limited
eport submitted in order to fulfil the requirements of AAT Accounting Qualification
Internal Controls and Fraud
Accounting System eview
Weaknesses in the Existing System and ecommendations
Cost and Benefit Analysis
Mapping of report to outcomes and criteria
The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the evaluation of existing accounting system implemented at Chic Paints Limited. Chic Paints Limited hired me as an Accounting Technician of the Company to review the accounting systems of the company and report on the operating effectiveness of the internal controls, and this report explains it.
The report also discusses the results of the evaluation of existing accounting systems implemented at Chic Paints Limited on the basis of the AAT code of Ethics and Sustainability requirements. The report also identifies and presents the weaknesses in the existing accounting system along with the effects of the…
Aat.org.uk (2013). AAT and sustainability | AAT. [Retrieved from: http://www.aat.org.uk/about-aat/aat-sustainability [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].
AAT London (2011). AAT code of Professional Ethics. Code of Ethics. London: AAT.
Fraudiscovery.com (2013). 20 Question to Detect Fraud. Retrieved from: http://www.fraudiscovery.com/detect.html [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].
Griffin, D. (2013). What Are Internal Accounting Controls? Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/internal-accounting-controls-3809.html [Accessed: 15 Dec 2013].
Assessing the Current and Future State of The lifeblood of any business is the revenue it generates while managing costs, ensuring profitability of the business, and its long-term survival and growth. The catalyst of managing a business effectively is the use of accounting information, financial analysis, and increasingly in the 21st century, the use of real-time financial analytics on key performance indicators (KPIs) used to manage a business (Ferguson, Seow, 2011). Accounting systems continue to be the foundation of managing businesses to profitability while mitigating potential risks though insightful and real-time use of financial data. The future of accounting systems will be increasingly influenced by the real-time reporting and analysis as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has required the largest publically traded corporations in the U.S. To report their results through the extensible Business eporting Language (XBL) protocol (Tribunella, Tribunella, 2010). The SEC is setting a very…
Ferguson, C., & Seow, P. (2011). Accounting information systems research over the past decade: Past and future trends. Accounting and Finance, 51(1), 235.
Gill, R.. (2011). Why Cloud Computing Matters to Finance. Strategic Finance, 92(7), 43-47,1.
Salah A Hammad, Ruzita Jusoh, & Elaine Yen Nee Oon. (2010). Management accounting system for hospitals: a research framework. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 110(5), 762-784.
Tribunella, T., & Tribunella, H.. (2010). Using XBRL to Analyze Financial Statements. The CPA Journal, 80(3), 69-72.
Government's Right To Spy And Command Our Life The Way They Do
The 9/11 attack saw over 3,000 Americans murdered by terrorists. The government was faulted, but there was a consensus that the U.S. government needed to take stern action. There was panic that made the congress to give the government fresh surveillance authorities. However, it attached an expiration date to the authority so as to allow for further deliberations after the end of the emergency. Decades later, the law has been extended on a number of occasions, yet there has been no public discussion on how the law can be interpreted. There has been an expansion of the surveillance at all fronts regardless of the freedom created by the founders of the United States. The surveillance should make us safer without violating the liberties of the American Citizens. This paper is a critique to the right of the government…
When evidence accumulates that the international system is developing in worrying ways, then the overall force development strategy can be modified to counter this - by either expanding or contracting particular hedging substrategies as appropriate" (p. 1).
Essentially, a hedging strategy would allow the U.. To 'hedge its bets' against unexpected attacks, while focusing its limited resources on the most obvious threats. While such a strategy could potentially backfire, the odds are stacked highly against a surprise enemy, and thus may be a reasonable avenue to pursue.
Considering the enormous chunk of the national budget that is spent on military defense (see appendix C), the most obvious solution to reducing the costs of war is to simply cut back on the amount of funds allocated to national defense. The U.. Defense spending is astronomical compared to other countries, and while it is important to be protected, there is such a…
he field of finance largely concerns itself with investment analysis and the management of funds. he fields of accounting and finance are distinct from each other. Essentially, finance, from the occupational perspective, has largely got to do with the efficient procurement and utilization of funds. On the other hand, still from an occupational perspective, accounting largely concerns itself with the examination and analysis of financial data, and preparation of financial statements. It should, however, be noted that the roles of both professions do in some cases overlap. Indeed, accounting according to Khan and Jain (p. 1.5) should be viewed as a finance sub-function.
In a typical corporation the finance function is divided into two divisions, or departments. What are they? What does each department do?
he finance function is typically divided into the financial accounting and management accounting divisions. Management accounting in the words of Drury (2006, p. 7)…
There are a variety of factors that could affect the price of a company's stock. Key amongst these include: economic shocks/conditions (including, but not limited to, natural disasters and wars), business environment, and the firm's internal dynamics (including the financial management decisions made by the key officers) (Parrino and Kidwell, 2009).
7. What's wrong (if anything) with saying the basic financial goal of a business is to "maximize profits?"
According to Drury (2006), there
Governmental acquisition can involve many different things. It is important for organizations that deal with governmental acquisition to understand why they do various things and what it is that they must do (Angelis, 35). This helps them not only comply with many of the financial management laws that have been created, as well as regulations dealing with these things, but it also helps manage costs as well (Angelis, 35). This is a very critical step in being able to define outputs, develop systems, identify customers, and trace and collect the costs of the various resources that they have all the way through to the outputs that they produce (Angelis, 35).
There are many different models that are designed for collecting and tracing these costs but the most popular one is known as the ABC model (Babbitt, 4). This stands for activity-based cost and it is important to look at how…
Angelis, D. (2001). Implementing activity-based management in an acquisition organization. Acquisition Review Quarterly, 35-39.
Babbitt, G.T. (1998). War fighters are priority one. AFMC Leading Edge, 40(9), 3-4.
Babbitt, G.T. (1998). Briefing to the American Society of Military Comptrollers & Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis.
Ely, R. (1997). Accounting and accountability. AFMC Leading Edge, 39(7), 4-9.
hy I Chose Accounting
"I hate math." Ever since I can remember people have approached me to tell me how much they loathe math, when they hear that I love it. However, I have always been fascinated by the order mathematics can bring to a chaotic world. Sometimes when life seems hard, it is very comforting to be able to look at numbers. This is not to say, of course, that accounting is not challenging. In fact, like many prospective accounting majors, I initially struggled with the discipline in my fundamentals courses ("Top 10 Easiest and Hardest College Degree Majors of 2016"). There is a reason that introductory accounting classes are often considered weeding-out, gatekeeping classes for the profession. Many people decide they want to be accountants because they think it is a lucrative profession that does not require as much additional schooling as law or medicine but then…
Erstad, Will. "Is an accounting degree worth it or worthless?" Rasmussen. 16 Nov 2015.
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Grohol, John. "10 Highly Effective Study Habits." Psych Central. Web. 8 Jul 2016.
"How to become a CPA." CPA Review. Web. 8 Jul 2016.
Pension Plan GAAS Changes
GAAS has implemented changes to Pension Plan reporting that go into effect on June 15, 2013 for Statement 67 and June 15, 2014 for Statement 68. This will affect the accounting and financial statement reporting of governmental organizations. Pension expense liability will be reported on the balance sheet to show a clearer picture of the organization's obligations, as well as more disclosure requirements and additional supplementary material.
Under Statement 67 the Net Pension Liability (NPL) is equal to the Total Pension Liability (TPL) minus the Plan Fiduciary Net Position (PFNP). The NPL must be reported on the balance sheet in the government wide financial statements (Kausch, 2012). The TPL is the liability for projected benefits attributable to post service, including automatic COLAs and substantively automatic ad hoc COLAs. It is determined on a historical pattern base, consistency of amounts, and evidence that they might not be…
Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. (2011, June 30). Retrieved from Employee's Retirement System of Georgia: http://netcommunity.gsu.edu/NetCommunity/Document.Doc?id=1073
Kausch, D. (2012, Oct 8). GASB's and Moody's Proposed Changes. Retrieved from TMRS: http://www.tmrs.org/down/seminar/2012/FT3_GASB_Moody 's.pdf
Salaries within two distinct geographic regions often vary substantially. Employers within a market economy must compete for talent and labor in the same manner in which they compete for customers. Employers must therefore entice perspective candidates with a compelling value proposition relative to peers. This proposition often includes aspects such vacation, retirement plans, and special rights and privileges. A major component of the ability of a company to attract and retain talented candidates is salary. Two economic forces heavily influence pay differences within respective regions of the country. One of which is cost of living within the particular area. Cost of living in particular has many variables that comprise it (Dohrn, 1996). Aspects such as living expenses, taxes, inflation, and transportation are all components within the cost of living calculation. A higher cost of living often demands a salary premium when compares to other, less expensive areas. The second economic…
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2) Finley, Moses I. (1973). The ancient economy. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 65
3) Thompson, E. P. (1967). "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism." Past and Present 38: 56-9