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Group Annotated Bib
Crits-Christoph, P., ohnson, .E., Connolly Gibbons, M.B., & Gallop, R. (2013). Process predictors of the outcome of group drug counseling. ournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(1), 23-34.
The authors report that 93% of the substance abuse treatment programs in the United States use some form of group counseling and majority of these are based on 12 -- step programs that require abstinence and the philosophy that is typically advocated in these programs such as getting a sponsor, following the 12 -- steps, etc. In addition, the authors cite evidence that group counseling is considered particularly effective for substance abuse and that there are several mechanisms by which group counseling is thought to be effective. These mechanisms include: the therapeutic alliance, group cohesion, self-disclosure, and feedback from group members and the counselor. In order to test if these variables contribute to the outcome of group…
J. (1997). Group counseling vs. individualized relapse prevention aftercare following intensive outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence: Initial results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 778.
Petry, N.M., Weinstock, J., & Alessi, S.M. (2011). A randomized trial of contingency management delivered in the context of group counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(5), 686-696.
Prendergast, M.L., Messina, N.P., Hall, E.A., & Warda, U.S. (2011). The relative effectiveness of women-only and mixed-gender treatment for substance-abusing women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 40(4), 336-348.
) may typically be used in the conduction of the activity; and 3) Activities can be standardized and adapted with a minimum of alteration for use across groups and members so that a common framework can be replicated. (Trotzer, 2004)
The main feature of activities are:
1) Technical; and 2) Mechanical and have "...parameters and directions that make them merely tools." (Trotzer, 2004)
Categorization of the activities of a group are on the basis of:
1) focus; and 2) types of communication involved and may be intrapersonal or interpersonal with communication that is verbal or nonverbal in nature. Intrapersonal activities are for the purpose of enhancing communications between individuals in the group and are 'nonverbal' activities. All activities of the group are within one of the following categories:
Verbal Interpersonal Activities;
Non-Verbal Intrapersonal Activities; and Non-Verbal Interpersonal Activities. (Trotzer, 2004)
Some activities may be characterized by nonverbal and verbal activities…
American Association of Christian Counselors (2004) American Christian Counselors Code of Ethics (AACC) Law and Ethics Committee. Online available at: https://www.liberty.edu/media/1118/%5B5975%5DAACC_Christian_Code_of_Ethics.pdf
DeLucia, Janice L. (2004) Handbook of Group Counseling and Psychotherapy. 2004 Sage Publication. http://books.google.com/books?id=peq9KcBlQtQC&dq=group+counseling&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=yOgvpXCP5Z&sig=kfcHwwteeSIlfDZB2Be7jvX1-1g#PPA38,M1
Klaw, Elena and Humphreys, Keith (2004) the Role of Peer-Led Mutual Help Groups in Promoting Health and Well-Being. Sage Publications 2004.
Lucia-Waack, Janice L (2004) Multicultural Groups. Sage Publications 2004.
The preconception among many healthcare providers is that alcohol and drug use issues "are problems of the young" and hence, the article offers doctors, psychologists, nurses and other healthcare professionals to "wake-up call" that indeed older people suffer from "bereavement feelings of loneliness or depression" which often leads them into abusing alcohol and drugs (General OneFile). It seems that a group counseling session involving older people could achieve positive results if the therapist embraced Client-Centered therapy. Indeed, older people respond when respected.
Adlerian Group Therapy: The approach of Adlerian is to institute the "4 R's" (respect, responsibility, responsiveness and resourcefulness); and in the process, group members' introductions do not say "Hi, I'm John and I'm an alcoholic" because that forces people "to identify themselves with the lowest point in their lives" (Prinz, 1994, 351). One interesting strategy in Adlerian therapy is when a group member talks about herself for a…
Community Care. (2011). News (Substance Misuse Among Older People). Retrieved July 23,
2011, from General OneFile / Gale Group.
Harvard Mental Health Letter. (2006). Client-Centered Therapy. Harvard Medical School.
Retrieved July 22, 2011, from http://www.health.harvard.edu .
Goup counseling helps to advance self undestanding and awaeness which may combat epessive tendencies. Teaching coping skills in a goup setting can help paticipants to develop needed tools and stimulate psychological gowth (Lambie & Sias, 2009).
Paticipants in goup counseling also lean positive intepesonal/social skills that can be genealized beyond the hospital setting and applied in daily living (Shechtman, 2004). Cance patients lean to adapt to novel social situations and build appot among pees in this setting (Finebeg, Hohnson, Leiden, & Lynch, 1956; Shechtman). It has also been shown that goup counseling has high efficacy in impoving coping and adaptation skills (Baakat et al., 2003). This is especially helpful in this population, as individuals who have/have had cance may have less oppotunity to engage in social and pee situations which einfoce adaptive social development, due to medical needs (Baakat). This intefeence in the social developmental continuum can have lasting effects…
references of high -- and low-hope people for self referential input. Cogntion & Emotion, 12, 807-823.
Velikova, G, Keding, a, Harley, C, Cocks, K, & Booth, L., Smith, a., Wright, P, Selby, P, Brown, J. (2010). Patients report improvements in continuity of care when quality of life assessments are used routinely in oncology practice: secondary outcomes of a randomized control trial. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2318-2388.
Verduyn, C.M., Lord, W., & Forrest, G.C. (1990). Social skills training in schools: An evaluation study. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 3-16.
Whiston, S.C., & Sexton, T.L. (1998). A review of school counseling outcome research: Implications for practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, (4), 412-426.
Worrell, F., & Hale, R. (2001). The relationship of hope in the future and perceived school climate to school completion. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(4), 370-388.
Notably, such groups are applicable in nonmedical atmosphere to help people not diagnosed with mental health issues. Given the significance of interpersonal and personal issues, the group leaders must work in unity with the clients to settle on the group sessions and its direction. Participants will be allowed to discuss their familial and interpersonal issues or stressors that they can determine that link to divorce and its effects. In the course of the procedure, participants will be inspired to be accountable for their own emotional and psychological development.
Leadership skills and verbal techniques will be employed to ensure that the group members are attentive and understand the concerns of each the group members. Group counseling with divorce families can be very practical, it can make therapy much affordable at a period when parents are strained financially. People require more structure in their group, such as weekly activities, which help them,…
Carter, S. (2011). Family restructuring therapy: Interventions with high conflict separations and divorces. New York: Unhooked Books.
Corey, G. (2011). Theory and practice of group counseling. New York: Cengage Learning.
Dryden, W., & Reeves, a. (2008). Key issues for counseling in action. New York: SAGE.
Hafer, W.K.(1999). Coping with bereavement: Surviving the trauma of death or divorce. New York: Cedar Fort.
hat he mentions that other authors did not mention -- and this paper views as imperative -- is for the facilitator to understand the salient goal he must have in mind is not abstinence but simply to encourage the client to return for the next appointment. According to the literature, the trend in group therapy leans towards client-centered, empathy-infused, open-minded and respectful treatment of clients, which is diametrically opposed to the stuffy, arrogant tactics of the past (i.e., "doctor knows best" didactical approach).
Adlerian Group Therapy
Adlerian group counseling "lends itself to brief interventions and short-term formats," according to author Gerald Corey. hat the author means by that is, using Adlerian strategies (explaining to the client that there are time limitations) can help "motivate both client and therapist to stay focused on desired outcomes" and to be super efficient in dealing with the present and the future but not the…
Corey, Gerald. (2008). Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Florence, KY: Cengage
Law, Mary C. (1998). Client Centered Occupational Therapy. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK
Chapter 9: Treating Couples
Here Papp acknowledges that the criteria to be used when deciding to treat a couple rather than the entire family vary from therapist to therapist (p. 138). Papp focuses on martial therapy specifically, and suggests that the major criteria to be used in this case are the "definition of the presenting problem as a martial problem and a commitment and ability on the part of the couple to worn on their marriage" for at minimum 12 sessions (p. 139).
Further the central theme Papp focuses on is the notion that no matter what the problem in couples therapy the therapist must look for reciprocity in the relationship and the central notion around which this reciprocity is organized (p. 140). The ideas is that couples tend to choose partners where they are more likely to fall into patterns of over-adequacies and inadequacies that can normally be balanced,…
Papp, Peggy. The Process of Change. The Guilford Press, New York: 1983.
The closing phase is important. Here, group members will be reminded of the fact that everything said inside the group session is confidential, and must therefore remain within the context of the group. If anything is shared, it must be done so anonymously. Then, the group members will be asked to write 2-3 goals for the group and for themselves. This will help them actualize what they want from the group experience. The meeting time will again be confirmed and any questions will be allowed.
Not all populations will require the same style of leadership. There will need to be special considerations for populations with special challenges. For example, working with adolescents is especially challenging because of the emotional and cognitive developmental processes. Often times, adolescents do not fully understand the final nature of death and have a much harder time processing it emotionally. They grieve much differently than adults…
Jacobs, Ed E., Mason, Robert L., Harvill, Riley L., & Schimmel, Christine J. (2012) Group Counseling: Strategies and Skills. 7th ed. Cengage Learning.
Melean, Wendy. (2006). Counseling adolescents dealing with grief and loss. Introduction to Group Dynamics and Procedures. Texas A&M University. Web. http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.myprevention.org/resource/collection/246ADC1F-6ACD-403B-A496-9A0D7045E1C3/AdolescentsGriefAndLoss.pdf
Another helpful technique is introducing topics. Although this sounds like a very simple suggestion, at times group leaders may forget the fact that those whom they are leading may be shy or uncertain of their purpose. By reminding members of their collective goal the leader can enable the group to break an impasse (Jacobs 2012: 265-266). Introducing topics can also be used to direct the group's attention away from controversial issues. Sometimes more formal stimulating exercises, such as group decision-making activities, scenarios, and trust games are required to create and facilitate group bonds and break through final emotional barriers (Jacobs 2012: 266). Group members can also be given outside 'homework' to enable them to function more effectively.
Group leaders should be aware of the fact that the group is a living, breathing entity and is constantly subject to change: group members may regress to earlier stages of development as well…
Corey, G. (et al. 2014). Groups in action. Cengage.
Jacobs, E. (2012). Group counseling: Strategies and skills. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
support group for women who have been incarcerated in relation to the necessary steps in this process. The discussion begins by providing an overview of the significance of support groups in dealing with various issues affecting groups or populations with common characteristics. The author also includes a general outlook of developing and starting a support group. This is followed by an analysis of the significance of such a group to women who have been incarcerated and necessary considerations in this process. The final segment provides a discussion of the various steps and important factors on how to start a support group for women who have been incarcerated.
Support Group for Incarcerated Women
There are several kinds of support groups that are created to offer support to different groups of people depending on the respective situations. Some major examples of issues addressed by the creation of support groups include parenting, skills…
Bible, A. (2011, March). Issues to Consider When Facilitating Groups With Battered Women in Jail or Prison. Retrieved March 19, 2015, from http://www.ncdbw.org/NCDBW-groups-prisons-jails-March-2011.pdf
Blanch, A., Filson, B., Penney, D. & Cave, C. (2012, April). Engaging Women in Trauma-informed Peer Support: A Guidebook. Retrieved from State of Connecticut website: http://www.ct.gov/dmhas/lib/dmhas/trauma/EngagingWomen.pdf
Bradley, R.G. & Follingstad, D.R. (2003, August). Group Therapy for Incarcerated Women Who
Experienced Interpersonal Violence: A Pilot Study. Journals of Traumatic Stress, 16(4), 337-340.
Frequently in a correctional facility, disruptive group members may not be content with simply interrupting the group sessions but may actually go so far as to be belligerent or threatening to the facilitator or to other group members. ather than derailing the group progress, this can actually be an important part of the process because it forces all group members to confront the type of anti-social behavior that resulted in their incarceration. Likewise, in substance abuse groups, whether inside or outside of a correctional institute, one can expect a certain amount of denial and belligerence in some group members because both characteristics are classic parts of the underlying disease of addiction. It is important to keep in mind that groups of similarly situated people can be very effective at identifying evasive and disruptive behavior, and that group members may identify it even before the facilitator notices it. Furthermore, group members…
Jacobs, E. & Spadaro, N. (2003). Introduction to group counseling. In Leading Groups in Corrections: Skills and Techniques, 1-21. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2005). "6 group leadership concepts and techniques." In Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy: Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 41. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
One of the dangers of teen suicide is that there is an alarming tendency of 'copycat' suicides. Teens who feel that 'no one understands their pain' envy the attention given to a 'successful' suicide or suicide attempt. They may see suicide as a way out of their misery. What was once a fantasy may now sound more real and feasible. That is why talking is so important. Group leaders must take the emotional temperature of both the group and individual teens. They must also be prepared for the anger some teens may show at the suicide, viewing it as a betrayal and a cop-out. Teens who feel angry vs. sad or who identify with the suicide may feel at odds with one another, and the group leaders must offer a 'safe space' to vent frustrations, while still leading the discussion in a positive direction.
The fourth stage, debriefing, occurs days…
Critical incident response services. (2011). Grand Valley State University.
Retrieved October 16, 2011 at http://www.gvsu.edu/counsel/critical-incident-response-services-66.htm
The author of this report is asked to answer to several questions. First, a definition and summary of the major constructs of the Gestalt Theory are to be explained. Next, the practical applications and implications of the Gestalt Theory and how they apply to group counseling will be enumerated. Third, the goals, leader responsibility, member responsibility and techniques used will be laid out. Lastly, the author of this paper's perspective will be shared regarding how the Gestalt theory may or may not be used in a group setting and how it specifically can be used to help at-risk teens.
The two main tenets of Gestalt therapy is "here and now" experience and personal responsibility. It was developed by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman. The objective is to become more "alive" more aware and creative in addressing issues that require therapy. The method relies heavily…
CRC. "Gestalt Therapy | CRC Health Group." Addiction Treatment Centers | Drug
Alcohol Rehabilitation Programs. N.p., 27 Sept. 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
Good Therapy. "Gestalt Therapy." GoodTherapy.org - Therapy, Find a Therapist or Marriage Counselor. N.p., 27 Sept. 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
Group Psychology: Theoretical Approaches to Group Counseling
Case Vignette 2: Phil, the Japanese-American
Phil, a Japanese-American expresses his discomfort and anxiety during the second meeting of his group. A keen listener, he is having difficulty speaking up whenever he is required to, and he is contemplating leaving because he understands that all members are required to participate. Moreover, he fears rejection so he prefers to sit back and watch during the group meetings. To prevent them from leaving, some group members plead with him to give them a second chance; some ask him not to quit and challenge him to prove he is not a coward; while others resort to pressuring him to remain in the group.
Interventions for those attempting to coerce Phil to remain in the group
Every individual works as part of team or in a group at some point in life and therefore, it is imperative…
Berg, R.C., Landreth, G.L. & Fall, K.A. (2013). Group Counseling: Concepts and Procedures. (5th Ed.) New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Corey, G. (2013). Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Toseland, R.W. & Rivas, R.F. (2005). An Introduction to Group Work Practice. Pearson. Retrieved 14 July 2015 from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/samplechapter/0205376061.pdf
Weimels, L. (2014). Group Dynamics: How to Successfully Work in Groups. Retrieved 15 July 2015 from https://www.naspa.org/constituent-groups/posts/group-dynamics-how-to-successfully-work-in-groups
Sarah's Case Study:
Sarah is a 13-year-old female junior high school student whose mother has visited the school's counseling office to share her concerns about her daughter. In addition to her grades falling rapidly, Sarah tends to avoid social interactions with her peers to an extent that her closest friends have started avoiding her because of her negative responses and lack of interest. Some of the major concerns reported by her mother include reoccurring fits of anger, non-existent positive communication between her and her mother, acting out at home, and poor hygiene habits. Sarah, who is overweight and has a poor complexion, lost her father about six months ago after he disappeared and was found dead under mysterious circumstances. As a result, Sarah needs help through counseling in order to regain normalcy and improve her academic performance. Even though Sarah may benefit from various types of interventions, group therapy would…
"Chapter 10." (2011). Issues in Theory and Practice (430-447). Stamford, CT: Cengage
Crespi, T.D. (2009). Group Counseling in the Schools: Legal, Ethical, and Treatment Issues in School Practice. Psychology in the Schools, 46(3), 273-280. Retrieved from http://teacherweb.com/NY/ValleyStream13/howellroadpbis/group_counseling_article.pdf
Herlihy et. al. (2002, October). Legal and Ethical Issues in School Counselor Supervision
Ethics in Group Counselling
Ethics in Group Counseling
Group Therapy Counselling: Ethics
The ethical concerns of therapists have been getting larger in quantity and sophistication. Managed care demands professionals to think about problems with discretion as well as delivery associated with proficient treatment whilst other decisions might include informed consent, a variety of relationships together with customers, and ignoring discretion given clients' harmful conduct. These types of deliberations have been happening inside a transforming culture since the communities which counsellors deal with have been significantly varied bringing up concerns of proficiency as well as accessibility to psychological health solutions. Additionally, therapists have been working inside a culture that has been progressively more litigious; consequently, the requirement for codes associated with ethics from the numerous mental healthcare professional institutions providing guidance has been very clear (NAADAC, 2011). In this paper, we will discuss the different aspects of ethical dilemmas aforementioned; these…
Barnes, F.P. And Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counselling. Open University Press.
Cullari, S. (2001). The client's perspective of psychotherapy. In S. Cullari (Ed.), Counselling and psychotherapy (pp. 92-116). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Epstein, G.N., Steingarten, J., Weinstein, H.D., & Nashel, H.M. (1977). Panel report of law on the practice of psychotherapy. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 5, 7-40.
Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D.R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
Counselors should be careful that adult survivors of childhood trauma generally suppress memories of some traumatic incidents or lessen their symptoms, either deliberately or not. (Substance abuse treatment for persons with child abuse and neglect issues) These are a few instances where the problems of resistance originate within the individual, and are not very easy to remove.
Shift perception of resistance to a solution:
Till now the problem of resistance is being viewed in the manner of a counselor. The view here is that resistance is a problem for solving the issue that has to be solved. From the viewpoint of a psychotherapist, the finding of resistance is very important as he can use this to find out the reasons for resistance and then he can change the client. (Differences between Counseling and Psychotherapy)
Exploration/Collaboration of esistance:
The awareness of the requirement for the changes or variations comes by means…
Allen, Josiah. P. "An Overview of Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression in Contemporary
Literature" Retrieved at http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/allen.html . Accessed 3 September, 2005
Barlow, J; Parsons, J; Stewart-Brown. S. (January, 2005) "Preventing emotional and behavioral problems: the effectiveness of parenting programmers with children less than 3 years of age" Child Care Health Development. Vol: 31; No: 1; pp: 33-42. Retrieved at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15658964&query_hl=4Accessed 1 September, 2005
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005) "Substance abuse treatment for persons with co- occurring disorders" Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); Various p. (Treatment improvement protocol [TIP]; no. 42). Retrieved at http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=6849&nbr=4203&string=group+AND+therapyAccessed 1 September, 2005
Group Counseling for Jake Green
The group will be designed for children suffering from Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The group will be for young children aimed at focusing on self-awareness. The children will be taught self-management skills like positive self-talk techniques and self-soothing behaviors. All this is aimed at improving their social skills and improve interactions with others. Having a group of ADHD children will allow Jake to recognize he is not alone and he will be able to interact with other children who have the same challenges. The group to be created will be a psychoeducational group because the purpose is to develop the members feeling, thinking, and behavioral skills by using a structured learning format. Psychoeducational groups are aimed at high-functioning individuals who have a deficit in specific areas (Pitschel-Walz et al., 2006). The group will be focused on educating group members regarding their disorder…
Ates, B. (2016). Effect of solution focused group counseling for high school students in order to struggle with school burnout. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4), 27-34.
DeLucia-Waack, J. L., Kalodner, C. R., & Riva, M. (2013). Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Erford, B. (2014). Research and evaluation in counseling. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Furr, S. R. (2000). Structuring the group experience: A format for designing psychoeducational groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25(1), 29-49.
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
They are the ones who handle jobs that require expertise. Their job itself is difficult that not everybody can accept the responsibility. With this continuously growing number of addicts and/or substance-abused people, indeed, we need to have more and more credible substance abuse counselors to somehow alleviate this problem.
Block I, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
Lehman WE, Simpson DD. 1992. Employee substance abuse and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology 77(3):309-321.
Marijuana and Health. 2001.…
Block RI, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
4, Privacy Information, Limits of Confidentiality
16. Does the site have a waiver that clients must electronically sign or mail in before beginning counseling that specifically states the limits of ensuring confidentiality over the Internet?
Confidentiality: a.4., Limits of Confidentiality; Confidentiality: c., Client Waiver
Source: Shaw & Shaw, 2006, p. 42
Other changes that will undoubtedly influence the types of codes of ethical conduct mandated for counselor in the future will be the enormous demographic shifts taking place in the United States. Indeed, Pack-Brown et al. conclude that nowhere is the change more evident than in the need for cross-cultural awareness on the part of counselors today. According to these authorities, "The recent changes in the professional ethics of American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, and National Association of Social Workers reflect a growing sensitivity and moral-ethical respectability for the diverse cultural constructions of terms such as mental health and…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics quoted in Pack-Brown et al. At Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blocher, DH (2000). Counseling: A developmental approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association. (2001). Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(1), 2.
Corey, G., William, G.T. & Moline, M.E. (1995). Ethical and legal issues in group counseling.
(McGannon, Carey and Dimmitt, 2005)
To address this need in the field of school counseling, the CSCOR has developed the National Panel for School Counseling Evidence-ased Practice, which is composed of school counseling educators and practitioners who have been identified as experts in the field. Panel members are currently evaluating existing methods of evidence-based practice by reviewing the research literature so that they may establish rules of evidence to determine whether a practice can be identified as evidence-based. The panel is identifying rules for judging strong evidence, identifying needed research, and communicating their findings to other practitioners and researchers. (McGannon, Carey, and Dimmitt, 2005)
The work of Jeremy M. Linton entitled: "Perceived Therapeutic Qualities of Counselor Trainees with Disabilities" states that a learning disability (LD) is present when the person's achievement in a specific academic area is significantly below the level expected for age, schooling, and level of intelligence. In…
Carey, John; Dimmitt, Carey McGannon, and Carey, Wendy (2005) the Current Status of School Counseling Outcome Research. School of Education - University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Research Monograph, Number 2, May 2005.
Problem Solving and RTI: New Roles for School Psychologists by Andrea Canter, 2006, February, Communique, 34(5). Available from www.nasponline.org
Linton, Jeremy M. (1999) Perceived Therapeutic Qualities of Counselor Trainees with Disabilities. Journal of Instructional Psychology March 1999.
Elbaum, Batya; and Vaughn, Sharon (2008) Can School-Based Interventions Enhance the Self-Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities? National Center for Learning Disabilities. 2008. online available at http://www.ncld.org/content/view/518/
ethical and legal guidelines for those in the counseling field are in place to assure that those practicing counseling set high standards. This paper covers several of the important ethical principles that are demanded of counselors -- and covers the CPT Codes related to invoices sent to insurance companies.
It is fundamental to any discussion of ethics in counseling that those leading groups are indeed qualified to be in that position. Just as it is not ethical for a dentist to practice when not fully trained or prepared, is it not ethical "…to practice any kind of counseling without proper preparation" (Jacobs, et al., 2011). An advanced degree from a college or university does not "make one qualified to lead groups," Jacobs continues (28). A group leader has the "ethical responsibility" to fully understand "group dynamics, group process, group leadership skills, and group development" (Jacobs, 28). If the counseling group…
American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved July 13,
2014, from http://www.counseling.org .
Griswold, B. (2010). 10 Easy Ways to Jeopardize Your License: Surprisingly Common
Forms of Insurance Fraud. The Therapist. Retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.camft.org .
The difference between law and ethics in counseling
In practice, ethics entails grasping and incorporating principles and standards of specific professional organizations. Ethical codes for professionals in the mental healthcare field aim at outlining the responsibility and professional conduct expected of them (Jennings, Sovereign, Bottorff, Mussell, & Vye, 2005). Graduate students have to establish their understanding of ethics theory and apply it in practice, before entering professional practice. As stated by Laureate Education (2010), modern practice involves applying conventional theoretical models to therapeutic processes involving clients. Moreover, it is responsible for uniting mental healthcare professions, as every profession inducts identical conventional approaches or procedures for guiding practice. The inverse is represented by post-modern practice.
Legal practice standards and ethical standards are different. Usually, legal standards relate to standard professional practices within a particular professional community, whereas ethical standards are often idealistic. The following aspects are included under legal standards:…
ACA. (2005). 2005 ACA code of ethics [White Paper]. Retrieved from American Counseling Association: http://www.counseling.org /Files/FD.ashx?guid=ab7c1272-71c4-46cf-848c- f98489937dda
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2000). Chapter 4 -- Therapeutic Issues for Counselors. In C. f. Treatment, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP). Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.); .
Diaz, A., Neal, W. P., Nucci, A. T., Ludmer, P., Bitterman, J., & Edwards, S. (2004). Legal and ethical issues facing adolescent health care professionals. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 71(3), 181-185.
Dolgoff, R., Loewenberg, F. M., & Harrington, D. (2009). Ethical decisions for social work practice (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…
Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.
Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
Counseling professions is one of the most storied and interesting professions in the world. This is due in part to the unique composition of those who inhabit the world. Everyone is unique in their values, heritage, desires, and interests. As such, there is no exact science in regards to counseling. The profession is ever changing with new discoveries or insights occurring every year. It is important therefore, to have counselors possess certain characteristics to better prepare for an erratic and ambiguous world. In it my aim through this document to compare and contrast distinct characteristics that set successful counselors apart from those that are unsuccessful.
Culture is very important in regards to counseling characteristics. Our nation is changing in ways previously thought unimaginable. Each year America becomes more global as an influx of immigrants and migrant workers venture to America with aspirations of a better life. What was once regarded…
1) Boyt, Richard. "The Online Journal of Health Ethics." The Online Journal of Health Ethics. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
2) "By Illness." NAMI. Web. 01 Mar. 2012.
3) "Home." American Academy of Medical Ethics. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
Group Social Work: Nurturing Father's Program
The group investigated for this paper is the Nurturing Father's Program. I encountered the Nurturing Fathers Program while working for my state's child protective services division (DCFS). The NFP is an evidence-based, 13-week training course designed to teach parenting and nurturing skills to men. Each 2 1/2-hour class provides proven, effective skills for healthy family relationships and child development" (Nurturing Fathers, 2012). The goal of the program is to help men transform themselves into nurturing fathers by enabling cognitive, behavioral, and affective changes in the group participants. The NFP program has been used successfully in a wide variety of contexts, including, but not limited to schools, preschools, churches, government child-safety programs, and the military.
This particular NFP group meets at First Presbyterian Church, 270 Franklin Street, Quincy, MA on Tuesday evenings from 6:00pm to 8:30pm. There is no charge for participation, and group participants…
Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups, Inc. (2006). Standards for social work practice with groups. Alexandria, VA: AASWG, Inc.
Brandler, S., & Roman, C.P. (1999). Group work: skills and strategies for effective interventions. New York: Haworth Press.
Department of Children and Families. (2012). Report child abuse. Executive Office of Health
and Human Services website: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/consumer/family-services/report-child-abuse.html
(Awe, Portman & Garrett, 2005) Mutual empowerment also includes the kind of encouragement and inspiration that is provided by mentors to other counselors. Mentors can have an enormously positive and regenerative effect on professional counselors and their work, as shown by the study conducted by Sandy Magnuson, Ken Norem, and S. Allen Wilcoxon. Study participants described mentors' input as "validating." They joined professional organizations, or expanded the scope of their work; encounters with others in the same field opened up new horizons. (Magnuson, Wilcoxon & Norem, 2003) Experienced counselors can actively encourage the participation in the counseling profession of people from diverse backgrounds, whose ethnicity, religion, socio-economic background, and life experience match the increasing diversity that is America. (Hill, 2003) Encouragement also comes to those already in the profession who reach out to the community at large, and who advance the mission of counseling, and adhere to the ethics of…
Awe, T., Portman, a., & Garrett, M.T. (2005). Beloved Women: Nurturing the Sacred Fire of Leadership from an American Indian Perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 83(3), 284+.
Benshoff, J.M., & Spruill, D.A. (2002). Sabbaticals for Counselor Educators: Purposes, Benefits, and Outcomes. Counselor Education and Supervision, 42(2), 131+.
Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to…
Caldwell, Benjamin E, Woolley, Scott R, Caldwell, Casey J. Preliminary estimates of costeffectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33:392 -- 405, 2007
Carr, Alan. Family Therapy: Concepts Process and Practice (2nd edn). Chichester:
Cohl, D'Vera "At Long Last, Divorce." Pew Research Center < http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1617/long-duration-marriage-end-divorce-gore
Counseling Skills and Their Use in Social ork
Counseling skills can encompass many different aspects of life, and they are of great use to those in social work. Unfortunately, many social workers do not realize just how important these kinds of skills are and therefore do not get the training in them that they really need. Since social workers are not counselors and do not usually see what they do as 'therapy' of any kind, they do not look to counseling as having a place in their work and the families that they often are called upon to help. However, much of what a social worker does for those that need help is actually counseling of a sort, and by learning more about counseling skills those that spend their time in the social work field can utilize what they already know, along with the counseling skills, to help many more…
Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied and Preventative Psychology, 8, 231-246.
Glancy, G., Regehr, C., & Bryant, A. (1998) Confidentiality in crisis: Part I: The duty to Inform. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 43(12), 1001-1005.
Hepworth, D., Rooney, IL, & Larsen, A. (1994). Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Marshall, M., & Von Tigerstorm, B. (1999). Confidentiality and disclosure of health Information. In J. Downie & T. Caulfield (Eds.), Canadian Health Law and Policy (pp. 143-177), Toronto: Butterworths.
Frankel (2008) argues that formal on-to-one supervision facilitates positive staff development. . Effective supervision practice promotes professional growth and development. An individual staff needs to interact always with a supervisor to enhance knowledge development. With the shortcoming identified in the supervision practice in various professions and my work place, the paper provides recommendations to enhance supervisory practice.
ecommendations to enhance Supervisory Practice.
Ideal supervisory practice requires good communication. Within a work environment, an organization should make it mandatory for a supervisor to implement effective communication with the supervisees to enhance the professional development.
Moreover, an organization should provide enough time for a supervisor to implement an effective supervisory role. For example, in my place of work, my supervisor always complains of lack of time. This means that my supervisor has been given more jobs that she can cope with, and this has affected her supervisory role. To avoid this issue,…
ACCEL (2011). Productive Workplaces People, Job and Environment. Theory and Practice. ACCEL Handbook.
Australian Institute of Professional Counselors, (2011). The Importance of Counseling Supervision. AIPC Article Library.
Beekum, S. (2008). Supervision from shame to curiosity. Supervision Association of Australia and New Zealand.
Claveirole, A. & Carroll, M. (2007).One More Time. What is Supervision? Psychotherapy in Australia. 13(3): 34-40.
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
Longitudinal trajectories for individual participants were used at one level, while a second level included the effects of between-subjects predictors at the higher order. To construct the models, 4,193 observations were used over time, with 3,055 of these conducted ruing community caregiving and 1,148 in the nursing home.
Presentation of Data
Data are presented by means of two figures and three tables. The data appear to be very clearly explicated. The axes in the figures are all clearly marked, and the lines differentiated to indicate the data of concern. The tables clarify the information narrated in the document.
Limitations of Statistical Methods
Limitations include the lack of ethnic diversity in the sample population. Different cultures would respond differently to the burden of care and to counseling intervention. Furthermore, only spouse caregivers were targeted for the research, which limits the application of the data to households where children or other family…
What I found most interesting was the three measurements implemented as a basis for the study. These instruments help greatly towards establishing a sound basis for the study and to implement further statistical analyses of the results. In general, I was impressed with the study and I find it very relevant in a profession where the aim is to reduce suffering.
Gaugler, J.E., Roth, D.L., Haley, W.E., & Mittleman, M.S. (2008). Can counseling and support reduce burden and depressive symptoms in caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease during the transition to institutionalization? Results from the New York University Caregiver Intervention Study. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 56(3), 421-428
Indiana Counseling Ethics
The state of Indiana, like all other states, regulates the professionals within their state to ensure that they comply with state law. Ethical requirements are maintained by the state's individual counseling agency; in this case the Indiana Counseling Association. Guidance for licensure is controlled by the state's licensing agency the Indiana Professional Licensing Administration. Through the efforts of these three agencies, professional counselors understand the constraints and requirements of their profession and consumers can understand the protections that they are afforded when they require counseling services. This essay will look at specific requirements, how they are governed, ad who has responsibility for that governance.
Three professions -- mental health counselors, marriage and family counselors, clinical social workers -- are governed by the statutes in Indiana licensure (IPLA, 2008). These three share some of the same responsibilities, but, according to job title, split others. All three…
Indiana Counseling Association. (nd). Ethical code. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://www.indianacounseling.org/
Indiana Professional Licensing Agency (IPLA). (2008). Indiana social worker, marriage and family therapist and mental health counselor board. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://www.in.gov/pla/files/LSW_APPLICATION_INSTRUCTIONS_2007.pdf
Office of Code Revision (OCR). (nd). Confidentiality requirements. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/2010/title31/ar33/ch18.html
Life can be shattering. Deception, lies, and tremendous heartache can derail the most prodigious, honest, and sincere individual. Devastation can acquiescent a beautiful and wonderful spirit into a horrendous downward spiral to where there appears to be no hope. When our 'bubble' of a world is popped, we often become disoriented, unable to ascertain the fact from fiction, and can then start having negative and harmful thoughts.
Given the circumstances to which I have had to overcome, a tremendous amount of resolve was required, which enabled me to persevere through my darkest moments. Betrayal and heartache can ruin one's perception of what life is about. Indeed, there are many who never enjoy the love or reach a pinnacle of happiness that I've enjoyed. To these individuals, I feel my empathy given my triumphs and set backs will undoubtedly enable a clear perspective, rich with insight to…
For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.
Identify precipitating events
The main event is when andal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison.…
Holly Bible New International Version. (1985). Oak Ridge, TN: Gideon's International.
How Do I Find a Local Support Group. (2012). NMHA. Retrieved from: http://www.nmha.org/go/find_support_group
Douglas, M. (Producer), & Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. USA: United Artists.
Wright, N. (2011). The Complete Guide to Crisis and Trauma Counseling. Ventura, CA: Regal.
Next, the facilitator will pose an introductory question that will stimulate brainstorming by engaging students in the "why" of their involvement in the group (Bouassida et al., 2006). Next a transitory question will lead to examination of the problem at hand, where the members of the group attempt to answer key questions including (1) what is the foundation of the problem (2) what tools are available to solve the problem (3) what are the most probable outcomes of a problem given the information provided (Bouassida, et al., 2006).
Bouassida et al. (2006) provide the rationale for this protocol, suggesting it enables group members to participate in a manner that allows greater collaboration and verification of the results. This form of focus group enables each member to participate on an equivalent basis. The outcome will result in rapid resolution of complex problems including those presented in the future to students…
Bouassida, M.S., Chridi, N., Chrisment, I., Festor, O. & L. Vigneron. (2006, Jun).
Automatic verification of a key management architecture for hierarchical group protocols, in, Cuppens, F. And Debar, H., editors, 5th Conference on Security and Network Architectures.
CEISMC (2006). Focus Group Protocol, Center for Educational Integrating Science,
Mathematics and Computing at Georgia Tech College of Sciences. Retrieved October 18, 2007: http://www.ceismc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/FGP.html
" In the process, one learns to see oneself as strong and resilient, courageous, and empowered. Whether the individual can get up and go on and have a happy life after the loss depends on how the person views self
Is he or she a victim or a survivor? A strong person making spiritual progress or weak and debilitated? Whiting & Bradley (2007) argue that there must be an outcome for every loss. Whether the outcome is "reconciliation" or "vulnerability" or "victimization" depends on successful and positive identity reconstruction.
It used to be believed that the grieving individual had to achieve detachment from the person who had died. This was Freud's theory, that "grieving people need to break free from the deceased, let go of the past and reassert their individualism by charting a new course for life.
A healthy grief experience, according to Freud [was] one in which the…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immunity and grief. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 276, 128.
Briggs, C.A. And Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of bibliotherapy in the treatment of grief and loss: A guide to current counseling practices. Adultspan Journal, 7 (1), 32-43.
Bush, H.K. (2007). Grief work: After a child dies. The Christian Century, 124 (25), 36-40.
Care of the elderly - bereavement: An essential guide (2006). The Practitioner (June 29), 22-29.
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons
Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association
Cases of violent children have become rampant prompting a lot of research and studies directed towards unravelling the reason behind violence, some of which are extreme at such tender ages. The author gives an example of two children who launched a violent attack in their school killing a teacher and four little girls. The motive suggested for one of the child's behavior is that he was jilted by a girl. These two children were only thirteen and eleven years old. This is quite a young age for a child to exhibit such extreme violent behaviors, they were so young yet they killed with a finely honed sense of premeditation. If I was a child psychologist like the author I would definitely be inspired by this event trying to make sure I found out the exact cause of violent behaviors as such in children who are very young. The author…
Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine Books.
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Why do you think the preventative therapy approaches have not reduced the divorce rate?
There are several reasons for the overall ineffective nature of preventative therapies when attempting to decrease the divorce rate. Primarily there are the inherent biases that exist in a therapy session, such as hypothesis conformation bias where the interviewer may seek to elicit responses that confirm his or her hypothesis. There are also self-fulfilling prophecies that cause the client to alter thoughts or actions to align with the expectations of the interviewer. Many clients are also not as motivated as others and this may lead them to provide inaccurate or false responses. All of these issues may contribute to the therapy being less effective than it could be.
2.Describe one of the approaches to marriage/couple therapy discussed in chapter 8?
Integrative behavioral couple therapy consists of two separate phases: the evaluation/feedback stage and the active…
Finding out the range of client needs and creating a team that can come in and support the client in all of those needs is an essential part of the skill-set of a counselor.
Looking ahead to my five-year goals, I would like to find that my skills have deepened substantially. I believe that it is true that no profession can be fully learned and its skills incorporated solely from studying it or from shadowing others as they perform their jobs. However, I believe that this is especially true of counseling because the best counselors are those who have the most fundamental and broad-based understanding of themselves.
There is no substitute for increasing self-knowledge and insight that does not involved the passage of time. As I pass through my first five years as a counselor I hope to broaden my sense of how people act and react in a range…
According to Robertson "Traditional counseling requires men to set aside much of their masculine socialization simply to get through the door and ask for help" (Robertson in McCarthy & Holliday, 2004). In a male counselor - male client arrangement, the male client may feel more comfortable and open to someone who he perceives as empathic, who understands, to a certain extent, where he is coming from.
For female clients in the later stages of change, that is the preparation, action, and maintenance stages, where action-oriented therapies like stimulus control, counter conditioning, etc. are more effective, may be more open to having a male counselor. The gender of a counselor may not play that big of a role, at least not as much as the client's perception on who is the credible counselor. In a study by Robertson, the results showed that females are more open to seeking counseling (Robertson in…
Giovazolias, T. And Davis, P. (2005). Matching Therapeutic Interventions to Drug and Alcohol Abusers' Stage of Motivation: The Clients' Perspective. Counselling Pyschology Quarterly. Vol. 18 Issue 3: 171-182
Hall, J., Guterman, D.K., Lee, H., and Little, S. (2002). Counselor-Client Matching on Ethnicity, Gender, and Language: Implications for Counseling School-aged Children. North American Journal of Psychology. Vol. 4 Issue
Harwood, I. (2003). Creative Use of Gender While Addressing Early Attachment, Trauma, and Cross-Cultural Issues in a Cotherapy Group. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. Vol. 23 Issue 5: 697-712
McCarthy, J., and Holliday, E. (2004). Help-Seeking and Counseling Within a Traditional Male Gender Role: An Examination From a Multicultural Perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development. Vol. 82 Issue 1: 25-30.
Because of this the results of the test may not be effective for what I am studying.
In a study done by ipley and Yuill, (2005), Patterns of language impairment and behavior in boys excluded from school, expressive and receptive language issues in boys barred from primary and secondary schools, to examine the degree of harm, the outline of associations between age, receptive and expressive language, and associations with dissimilar aspects of behavior was evaluated. The final sample consisted of nineteen excluded boys, fourteen from secondary schools, and five from primary schools and the same number of age-matched controls. Causes for exclusion included verbal and physical violence, failure to follow rules, and other behavior troubles including possession of a dangerous weapon, and for one child, running away from school.
In this study The Word Definitions (WD) task from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was utilized to tap a child's…
Assessing Children with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition. (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://library.apsu.edu/guides/1_3_20_1.htm
Ripley, Kate and Yuill, Nicola. (2005). Patterns of language impairment and behavior in boys excluded from school. Retrieved from http://www.glog.nl/wiki/upload/docs/patterns_of_language_impairment_and_behavior_i
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The relevance of counseling as a helping profession cannot be overstated. This is more so the case taking into consideration the role counseling plays towards the facilitation of the development of not only an individual but also a family or even a group.
Counseling as a Distinct Profession: The History and Philosophy of the Profession
Marini and Stebnicki (2008) point out that although counseling as a term made its first appearance (in print) sometimes in the year 1931, the practice of the same had started earlier on. It is important to note that although the roots of counseling as a helping relationship can be traced to the early omanian and Greek times, the actual development of the counseling profession as we know it today largely started taking place in the late 1800s. In the words of Marini and Stebnicki (2008), "the origins of the counseling profession in the…
AMHCA (n.d). American Mental Health Counselors Association: The Only Organization Working Exclusively for the Mental Health Counseling Profession. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the American Mental Health Counselors Association website: http://www.amhca.org/default.aspx
ASCA (2012). American School Counselor Association. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the American School Counselor Association website: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/index.asp
Blonna, R., Loschiavo, J. & Watter, D. (2011). Health Counseling: A Microskills Approach for Counselors, Educators, and School Nurses (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Marini, I. & Stebnicki, M.A. (Eds.). (2008). The Professional Counselor's Desk Reference. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Expectations and Significance of Group Facilitation Learning Outcomes
Humans are notoriously difficult subjects to analyze, understand, motivate and lead, and while some group counselors appear to possess a natural ability to facilitate effective group interactions, others struggle to cope with the exigencies of a group setting. Despite the challenges that are involved, the importance of developing the requisite skills needed for effective group facilitation means that counselors must draw on the entire range of group dynamic theories and proven strategies to achieve this goal. In order to gain further insights into these areas, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify relevant expectations from learning about group dynamic theories and strategies, followed by a discussed concerning various aspects of applying these concepts in real-world settings. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the paper's conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Expectations concerning application of…
Clark, A.J. (2002). Scapegoating: Dynamics and interventions in group counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 271-272.
Furr, S.R. & Barrett, B. (2000). Teaching group counseling skills: Problems and solutions.
Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(2), 94.
Zinck, K. & Littrell, J.M. (2000). Action research shows group counseling effective with at-risk adolescent girls. Professional School Counseling, 4(1), 50-52.
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611
Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
mental health clinic is understaffed and counselors decide to use group work to deal with more clients during a particular period of time. The counselor organizes a group and asks for candidates from colleagues and places a message on the clinic's bulletin board. However, the incoming members are not prepared, and the announcements fail to inform them about the purposes and goals of the group, the background and qualification of the leader, the expectations of the group and the techniques that will be used. Consequently, the receptionist admits the first 12 people who sign up or call regardless of the nature of their problems. During the first meeting, one depressed and suicidal member takes up the entire session and the important matters are not discussed. The intensity of the client's crisis also scared some of the members and they fail to return for the next session.
How to screen more…
Berg, R.C., Landreth, G.L. & Fall, K.A. (2013). Group Counseling: Concepts and Procedures. (5th Ed.) New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Corey, G. (2013). Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Corey, M., Corey, G. & Corey, C. (2008). Groups: Process and Practice. (8th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Weimels, L. (2014). Group Dynamics: How to Successfully Work in Groups. Retrieved 23 July 2015 from https://www.naspa.org/constituent-groups/posts/group-dynamics-how-to-successfully-work-in-groups
counselors seeking to start a new counseling agency of their own. The deliberations here are anchored on the observations of an experienced counselor. The aim is to deliver outcomes based on holistic remediation percepts, and an attempt to address most, if not all, issues involved in treatment of drug addicts.
OPENING A COUNSELING AGENCY
Type of Agency / Population and of Issues Specializing
esearch studies have provided us with the latest definition of addiction. The research included 80 experts drawn from across the U.S. expanse. The American Society of Addiction led the efforts in this research. The society states that addiction is not only an issue with people's behavior regarding the use or abuse of substances, sex, or gambling. The society states that addiction is ideally a brain dysfunction. Addiction has also been defined as a behavior that occurs as a result of involvement in PA or substance use without…
Cox, & D'Oyley. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with older adults. BC Medical Journal, 53(7), 348-352. Retrieved June 15, 2016 from http://www.bcmj.org/articles/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-older-adults
Herlihy, B., & Dufrene, R. (2011). Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions. Counseling and Values, 56. Retrieved, from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.lib.kaplan.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e47478a0-2883-4fe2-bc81-6d2153e6528f%40sessionmgr4005&vid=3&hid=4110
Jordan, L. (2009). Articlesbase - Fun & Engaging Content. 8 Principles for Effectively Maintaining Professional Boundaries as a Service Provider. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/8-principles-for-effectively-maintaining-professional-boundaries-as-a-service-provider-1293358.html
Mass.Gov. (n.d.). Ethical Standards for counselors by the NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals. Retrieved June 14, 2016, from http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/substance-abuse/adcounselor-ethical-std.pdf
Depression in Adolescents Group
This group aims at aiding participants in modifying their cognitions, maladaptive schemas, and behaviors. Participants acquire a grasp of how to be more relaxed and occupied in more pleasing activities. Such changes to behavior will trigger the succeeding profounder change levels. Participating individuals will be aided in altering their depressogenic and impractical thoughts as well, to thoughts that are more practical, successively decreasing their depression levels. In order to achieve true, longer-term change, as well as to lower the possibility of recurrence of depression, one needs to modify maladaptive schemas. The group is presented with the 'schemas' idea, group members are aided in distinguishing their respective schemas, and efforts are initiated towards altering schemas. However, one must bear in mind the fact that this process of schema transformation is time-consuming and won't be achieved by the time of the group's termination. Participants in the…
Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2007). Best practice guidelines 2007 revisions. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(2). doi: 10.1080/01933920801971184
Clabby, J. F. (2006). Helping Depressed Adolescents: A Menu of Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures for Primary Care. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8(3), 131-141.
Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Myers, J.E., Willse, J.T., & Villalba, J.A. (2011). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00058.x
Factors that augment risks of self-cutting
Treatment of Self-Cutting
Aims of Group Therapy
Aspects of Group Therapy
The aim of this research is to investigate and identify opinions regarding vital elements for successful group therapy and to suggest the distinguished elements as guiding principles for future group counselling guidelines, theoretical as well as program development. Therapists are to recognize the essential factors of group therapy, which contribute to positive therapeutic results. The important elements of group therapy established by the board of professionals shall be suggested as guiding principles for future group therapy, theoretical and program development (Edwards, 2001).
Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy whereby one or more therapists attend to a tiny group of patients together as a group. It entails one or more psychologists that head a group of approximately five to fifteen clients. In the same milieu, group counselling…
Conyne, R. K. (Ed.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of group counselling. Oxford University Press.
Edwards, S. A. (2001). The essential elements of multi-family group therapy: A Delphi study.
Fehr, S. S. (Ed.). (2012). 101 interventions in group therapy. Routledge.
Glass, S. D. (2010). The practical handbook of group counselling. Bloomington, Ind.: Trafford Publishing
The detailed account of my intuitive experiences encouraged me to learn from my experiences, and that includes mistakes as well as the positive enlightenments. In this paper I reflect upon my experiences during my career as a recreation counselor at Deveruex Foundation, which I started two years prior to completion of my degree. In addition to that, I started working at the oldest psychiatric hospital in the United States after completing my graduate degree where I was promoted several times. The know-how helped me in understanding my own intuition and how that can enhance my qualities of the intuitive information.
Firstly, when I started my career at Deveruex Foundation as a recreation counselor, I was very excited since I had the opportunity of working in a real-life practical field that was related to my degree, which was a graduate degree in Psychology. Very few students gain this chance…
Burton, N. (2012, May 17). The 7 reasons why depression is more common in women. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and- seek/201205/the-7-reasons-why-depression-is-more-common-in-women
Gupta, A. (2005). Group therapy for psychiatric disorders: An introduction. Mental Health Reviews. Retrieved from http://www.psyplexus.com/mhr/group_therapy.html
Larson, M.K., Walker, E.F., & Compton, M.T. (2010). Early signs, diagnosis and therapeutics of the prodromal phase of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10 (8), 1347-1359. DOI:10.1586/ern.10.93.
Smith, M. & Segal, J. (2016, May). Schizophrenia. Help Guide. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-signs-types-and - causes.htm
The DSS is a state agency charged with the responsibility of protecting children from child abuse and neglect. DSS is committed to protecting children and strengthening families. When children are abused or neglected by the people responsible for caring for them, DSS will intervene to ensure the safety of the children. DSS responds to reports of abuse or neglect 24 hours a day. DSS becomes involved if there are any concerns that caretakers, parents, step-parents, guardians or other persons responsible for caring for children may be abusing or neglecting these children. Whenever possible and appropriate, DSS attempts to keep families intact. DSS reviews all the reports of child abuse and neglect received by the agency. If it is determined that abuse or neglect has occurred, or if a child appears to be at risk of being hurt, or is being neglected, DSS
takes action to protect that child.…
Berman-Rossi, T. (1993). "The tasks and skills of the social worker across stages of group development." Social Work with Groups: 26(1/2): pp. 70-81.
Duffy, T. (1994). "The check in and other go-rounds in group work: Guidelines for use."
Social Work With Groups, 17(1/2): 163- 174.
Gazda, G., Ginter, E. & Herne, A. (2001). Group counseling and group psychotherapy.
team I was welcomed to observe contains divorced women of varying ages, from 30 to 40. The team members also had varying ethnic backgrounds. All of these women had different experiences with one thing in common; they had all had divorced and now desired a new life very free from that stress. The environment was relaxed and welcoming. The team members were free to sit where they felt comfortable, and the whole atmosphere was relaxing and calm. There were sofas placed around the table. It almost had an atmosphere like a get-together for log time friends.
The vision of the team is to help women divorcees in any situation restore their lives and stand on their feet. Depending on this, the mission describes what the group wants to do and how. This team seems to work to allow women that have experienced divorce to learn from one another's experiences. The…
Conyne, R.K. (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Group Counseling. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Forsyth, D. (2009). Group Dynamics. New York: Cengage Learning
Franz, T.M. (2012). Group Dynamics and Team Interventions: Understanding and Improving Team Performance. London: John Wiley & Sons
Haynes, N.M. (2012). Group Dynamics: Basics and Pragmatics for Practitioners. New York: University Press of America
Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy
According to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, the psychopathology of college students, and their demand for counseling services in university college centers (UCCs) has risen substantially over the last decade (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). Well, there are number of reasons why this is so. The most significant of these perhaps is that the modern-day college student faces significant psychological concerns in the form of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and history of hospitalization resulting from lifestyle factors. It is reported, for instance, that between 15 and 20% of college students today suffer from depressive symptoms, compared to between 5 and 6% ten years ago (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). For this reason, most UCCs have adopted and expanded the use of group psychotherapy platforms as an alternative to the traditional individual psychotherapy in a bid to address the…
Lee, J. (2014). Asian International Students' Barriers to Joining Group Counseling. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64(4), 444-464.
Perez, S.M., Yang, K.Y., Edelman, M.W. & Jones, J.M. (2014). South-East Asian-American Children: Not the Model Minority. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 121-137.
Peters, S. (2015). Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students. Professional Dissertation (Wright State University). Retrieved July 14, 2015 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=wsupsych1434388016&disposition=inline
Riva, M. (2013). Emphasizing Training and Supervision. The Group Psychologist, 23(1), 1-24.
Although supervisors have an obligation to foster an atmosphere in which supervisees feel capable of being forthcoming with important information, we must also be concerned with the possibility that trainees may have predispositions toward nondisclosure, as well as the risk of liability associated with certain types of nondisclosure.
Ellis & Douce (1994) believe that there are eight supervisory themes and issues tend to recur in-group supervisor supervision (i.e., supervisor anxiety, intervention choices, group cohesion, responsibility, parallel process, power struggles, individual differences, and sexual attraction). Given the importance of supervisory issues in counselor supervision (Ellis, 1991), it is reasonable to expect that the eight issues may be important for effective supervisor supervision. In fact, our experience suggests that assessing and confronting these supervisory issues successfully is an integral part of supervisor supervision. Therefore, in the next section we discuss the eight issues and suggest intervention strategies to address them.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (1999). AAMFT supervisor designation: Standards and responsibilities handbook. Washington, DC: Author.
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.
American Psychological Association. (2001). Draft of ethics code [Online] Available:
My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).
Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…
American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
American Counseling Association (ACA) (2005) ACA Code of Ethics.
Chater, N., & Oaksford, M. (2001). Human rationality and the psychology of reasoning: Where do we go from here? British Journal of Psychology, 92, 193-216.