A modern day reader of the Hammurabi Law Code would immediately be stricken by the one primary punishment offered in a majority of the laws as being death. One could perceive from that fact that the Hammurabi society was one where death was a frequent occurrence. Comparing that society and its fixation on death with today's modern society and its abhorrence of death (at least as a punishment) leads one to believe that the rules were more generally followed during the Hammurabi era than they are in today's society.
Many of the Hammurabi laws were very simple and easy to follow and comprehend. Again, comparing those simple laws with today's complexity in applying societal rules and regulations, makes one wonder why today's society does not take a page from the Hammurabi Lawbook and make laws much more simple than what they are. Hammurabi wrote the laws in response to…… [Read More]
Hammurabi's Code Of Laws
Hammurabi, King of Babylonia (from: 1795- 1750 BC
), was the greatest ruler of the Babylonian dynasty. During his reign, he extended his empire northward from the Persian Gulf through the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys (the present day Iraq) and westward to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Apart from his considerable achievements as a military leader and administrator, he is primarily remembered for his codification of the laws governing Babylonian life. "The Code of Hammurabi" is a collection of the laws and edicts of Hammurabi, the earliest legal code in consolidated form as yet known to man. This paper traces the discovery of Hammurabi's Code of Laws, describes its main contents and discusses how important the Code is in giving us an insight into the social structure of the Babylonian society as well its governmental and justice systems.
Discovery of the Code
The Code…… [Read More]
A rich accuser was more likely to escape with a fine when a poorer person committing the same crime could be put to death.
Ownership was considered sacrosanct. Even if a person lost his property because he was part of a losing battle, on return his property would be restored, failing that, it would be restored to his progeny. Loss in battle in interestingly described in the literal translation as "misfortune of the king." Society was patriarchal and property was passed on to the son. If the son was a minor and the father was dead, then the mother was duly compensated to take care of the property until the son achieved maturity. Women (mothers, daughters or wives) could not own property, independently or through bestowal. If such a person had lost everything and wanted his former property back, then society would step in and help him. Desertion during war…… [Read More]
One of the largest sections of Hammurabi's Code focuses on the family and the best ways that a family can protect and maintain itself. Another large section of the code deals with commerce and from this, the code looks into such issues as debt, interest, and default. hat we learn from these sections is that the Babylonian society was one that was somewhat sophisticated and it attempted to deal with issues that improved the quality of life. A healthy commerce is also something that the Babylonians were interested in and they worked on this through specific codes dealing with means of exchange. This code illustrates the sophisticated ways in which people were able to look at life and business. These examples also demonstrate the government's need to be a part of and offer control of every aspect of life. In a sense, the code is much like the Ten Commandments…… [Read More]
laws of the ancient world demonstrate a consistency with the laws of the present. They prove, without a doubt that the challenges of the human condition have been and remain similar in scope and temptation. Humans have long been tempted to retain that which belongs to another, for their own gain. This is true of the laws of Moses and the laws of Hammurabi yet the ways in which those two sets of laws differ are also very visible. Hammurabi is a comprehensive and practical cannon set within the context of a real world need for comprehensive laws of man while the laws of the books of Moses offer a generalized guideline of morality in the world of man as seen by God.
Although, in the prologue to the Code, Hammurabi claims divine authority 'to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, to…… [Read More]
Royal Magistrate courts were installed because of Henry II, making it easier for justice to be done, as local disputes no longer had to be arbitrated by the Crown. The English law system was antiquated during Henry's reign, given that people settled their disputes through trial by ordeal or through trial by combat. The King was supportive toward a system that would employ several individuals forming a jury meant to decide whether a particular individual was guilty or not.
Members of the church were advantaged during the early years of Henry II's reign, since they did not have to subject to the same laws applied to normal individuals. Being aware of this injustice, Henry set out several laws which were meant to limit the church's influence and to make the law equally applicable for everyone (Sherman & Salisbury, 258). In spite of his strength of mind, he experienced little success…… [Read More]
Two of the world’s most important and magnificent religions share little in common on the surface. Yet as the Dalai Lama’s recent interfaith dialogues have shown, locating points of intersection between Christianity and Buddhism can be a more fruitful endeavor than focusing only on differences. Buddhism is older than Christianity, but only by about 500 years. From their points of origin, Buddhism and Christianity spread far and wide geographically: Buddhism to East Asia and Christianity to Europe. One of the things Christianity and Buddhism share in common most is that their respective faiths are not as entrenched in their places of origin as they are in the places that adopted these religions later. For instance, Christianity is more popular in the Americas, Africa, and Europe than in the Middle East, and Buddhism is more popular in the rest of Asia outside of India than in India, where the Gautama Buddha…… [Read More]
1. What are the leading causes of death in the United States?
Accidents are considered to be the fourth leading cause of death after heart disease, cancer and strokes.
2. When the overall cost of an accident is calculated, what elements make up the cost?
The elements making up the cost of an accident are lost wages, insurance administration, medical expenses, motor vehicle damage, fire-related losses, and indirect costs.
3. What are the five leading causes of accidental deaths in the United States?
Motor vehicle, poison, falls, drowning, and fire-related accidents.
4. What are the leading causes of death in the United States of people between the ages of 25 and 44?
Motor vehicle, poison, falls, drowning, fire-related accidents, heart, and cancer disease.
5. Explain how today’s rate of accidental work deaths compares with the rate in the early 1900s.
Per a population of 100,000, accidental work deaths have reduced…… [Read More]
This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)
In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)
Taking into account the above…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
egardless of social status, defendants who are poorly represented by their attorneys are more likely to receive death sentences than those who are zealously represented by counsel. (in Opposition to the Death Penalty: Arbitrariness and Discrimination, 2004). While death penalty opponents cite the fact that an Alabama woman whose attorney was so drunk during her trial that the trial judge held him in contempt had her death sentence upheld by the Alabama Supreme Court as a reason to abolish the death penalty, that same incident could just as easily be used as a reason to overhaul the legal system, not abolish capital punishment (the Lack of Competent Legal Counsel, 2004).
One of the most controversial arguments regarding the death penalty is that the imposition of the death penalty is a violation of human rights. Opponents of the death penalty cite the very "different"-ness of death as a reason that it…… [Read More]
Capital Punishment: A Capital Offense in Today's Easily Misguided orld
The debate surrounding the usage of capital punishment in the modern era has raged for generations. hile there have always been arguments for the positive aspects of capital punishment, today's world is less optimistic about the death penalty -- and with good reason. The death penalty affects more than just the convicted, it affects all of society. In order to show why capital punishment should be avoided, it is helpful to draw lessons from history, literature, and psychology.
The historical case for capital punishment has long been made. Capital punishment has existed in every major society in one form or another throughout the centuries. As Michael Kronenwetter states, in every society "all punishment is based on the same simple proposition: There must be a penalty for wrongdoing" (1). Kronenwetter is correct in asserting as much: all major societies have had…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
Again, this is where a multi-national organization, like the UN, can help eliminate this bias to really determine if the practice is a human rights violation.
Human rights has been a concern for societies since ancient times. Today, although many strides have been made, there are still concerns about human rights violations. Thanks to advancements in communication technologies, now the plight of those suffering on the other side of the globe can be acknowledged by others, who in the past would not have known about it. Also, multi-national organizations, such as the UN, have made human rights a priority. Yet, this does not simply give a singular nation carte blanche to intervene when they believe a violation of human rights is occurring. This is due to both State sovereignty and cultural practices. A singular nation cannot make an unbiased decision on whether or not a practice is truly a…… [Read More]
These constant pressures exercised by subsequent powers in the region made the Babylonians fear their neighbors but at the same time increase the value of their defense and their culture. It can be said that from this point-of-view the clashes that took place in the early days of our world enabled cities and cultures to establish themselves according to the threats they had to face. This was indeed an important means of defining one's culture and establishing it as the strongest or weakest in the region.
In the seventh century BC the Babylonians gave birth to a new dynasty and ruler that would eventually offer a new perspective to Babylonian history. In this sense, "Nebuchadnezzar, in a reign of more than forty years, gives Babylon its period of greatest fame. He is prominent in the Bible as the ruler who destroys Jerusalem and carries off the Jews into their Babylonian…… [Read More]
Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.
As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)
The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…… [Read More]
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…… [Read More]
Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld
Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125
The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.
Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
Of the major forms of punishment meted out by the criminal justice system in the United States, the death penalty seems the most severe. Fines, probation, restitution money, community service, and even incarceration all offer the potential for the accused to rehabilitate, or perform restitution in the form of service to the victim. This may be why the United States and Japan are the only modern industrialized democracies to have the death penalty: it may be perceived as overly harsh by some other cultures ("Death Penalty Fast Facts," n.d.). In spite of some problems related to its use, the death penalty remains in place in the United States for several reasons. For one, the death penalty is not used often and is applied judiciously due to "declining support," (Mears 1). It is a severe option that is taken seriously and invoked only to serve the fundamental core values…… [Read More]
This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.
While it may seem ironic that the death…… [Read More]
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]
So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. owever, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of ammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup…… [Read More]
Those who went took with them knowledge of Mesopotamian customs, ideas, and skills, but many chose to remain, having put down firm roots during the decades of exile (LeMiere 19). Mesopotamia itself became even more cosmopolitan than before, since not only did the Persian court at times visit and contribute to local administration, but also foreign levies and mercenaries did tours of military service there. Anti-Persian feeling in conquered lands led to scurrilous rumors, such as the tale that Xerxes destroyed the statue of Marduk-Bel in Babylon (LeMiere 20).
This story has proved to be a fabrication: the cult statue continued unscathed to embody the presence of the god in his undamaged temple in Babylon during subsequent centuries, and so Herodotos' description of the golden statue of Marduk-Bel in the time of Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) need not be doubted. Continuity of cult and architecture are thoroughly attested by the…… [Read More]
The Magna Charta is apparently responsible for limiting the power of sheriffs in England, meant to lessen the number of abuse cases involving a sheriff physically harming royal subjects with the purpose of collecting taxes. If the colonists had not taken it in the U.S. In the seventeenth century it is likely that the sheriff profession would have ended in England.
hile sheriffs in England were perceived as merciless lawmen willing to apply any measure in order to be in agreement with the king's requirements, those in the U.S. were seen as noble men who risked their lives in order to protect the law. U.S. citizens appeared to be supportive regarding the sheriffs in their jurisdiction. Thomas Jefferson was particularly interested in supporting sheriffs in their endeavor to perform their duties, as his book, "The value of Constitutions" states that "there is no honorable law enforcement authority in Anglo-American law…… [Read More]
Once the practice of Islamic worship the women of that region began to be subjected to stricter codes, from marriage to dress and the risk of honor becoming an even greater issue grew. The terrorization by the Mongols and Turks was quite different from the terror under Saddam. The Mongols and Turks utilized slavery, rape, beatings and murder. Saddam instead took on an entirely different approach. His first goal was fear coupled with violence to maintain the plans he made for the society and culture. He was less about Islam and more about self-promotion and the glorification of Iraq. This type of leader is most like Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. One never knew when or why you might be targeted.
Following the fall of the Ba'th government, the population of women in Iraq was at approximately 60%. They are a definite majority and should be in a better…… [Read More]
If citizens do not trust the courts to deliver fair sentences, then trust in the government itself falls apart. If citizens do not recognize the legitimacy of the correctional institutions that embody punishment, then the entire criminal justice system has failed.
Punishment by the state for crime must be legitimate. The act of punishment must be systematic and not arbitrary, dealt in an unbiased manner and according to rule of law. For years, differential sentencing for crack cocaine and powdered cocaine in the United States reveals an arbitrary punishment that reflects race and class conflict. Such irrational manifestations of punishment serve to delegitimize the authority of the state. When the legitimacy of the state is lost, the foundation of a free society crumbles.
Ideally, the state possesses credible authority. That authority is used to uphold the rights and freedoms upon which a liberal democracy is based. The shared values of…… [Read More]
It must be recognized that religion in East Asia has had a complex and long history, including its influence upon the law. itual and religion in the region have been much more integrated and for a much longer time in history than has been the case for the Western paradigm. Hence, although the country appears to have adopted the basic paradigms of Western legislation, it is also true that the heart of the region remains in its history, and is likely to be extracted only by time and patience.
Xinping notes that there are two opinions that relate to the religious paradigm as it relates to the Chinese context specifically. The first views religion in the country on a positive and active platform; where religion adapts itself the socialist and contemporary society of the region. eligion is thus easily and actively able to adapt itself to the applicable laws of…… [Read More]
Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.
Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…… [Read More]
A previous casualty of trafficking names Given Kachepa, said that human trafficking is so concealed you will not be aware of who you're fighting because the victims are so frightened, they're not going to say anything that is happening to them (the Associated Press, 2005).
Nevertheless, the fatality of human trafficking acquired some main characteristics that makes this person appealing to the trafficker in accordance to the aimed trade that they are being employed -- for female victims, this may varies from simply being female, or being beautiful or having exotic characteristics, to possessing skills to operate a sewing machine quickly; or for men, having massive physical strength or simply age are often main characteristics; in both instancesm the victim is to be expected to have some defenselessness that will make him/her be effortless to ensnare with ideas of exciting city life and job prospects (Iselin & Adams, 2003).
Lined…… [Read More]
For example, the Parliament passed the "Year and a Day ule" Act in 1996 that changed the previous murder and manslaughter law that specified that a person could be charged with murder or manslaughter if the victim died within a year and a day of receiving his injuries. The change was made to reflect modern development in medical science, which enabled injured people to remain alive for longer periods.
Changes in the UK laws have also reflected the growing strength of the egalitarian ideal over the last two centuries. It has led to changes in laws that have encouraged the gradual emancipation of married women and the prohibition of discrimination based on race or sex. For instance, an old law applicable until recently did not allow married women to refuse sex with her husband. However, in . v (1991), the House of Lords decided that if a wife did not…… [Read More]
15). Much of his early work was set in Lebanon and other familiar childhood places. His work criticized the monk and their wealth in relation to the impoverished peasant population (McHarek, p. 15). One example of this is in the poem War where another is punished for someone else's crime (Gibran, War). This work was a play on Hammurabi's code, where an eye for an eye was used as punishment. As these works were published first in Arabic, it is apparent that the intended population was that of his native heritage. This drew much criticism, as his works condemned a state that was not accustomed to such open criticism. Gibran also drew inspiration from writers such as Neitzsche and William Blake (McHarek, p. 25).
Gibran's work became more committed towards ending oppression of Syrians all over the world and an attempt to stress the interconnectedness o everyone. "My path is…… [Read More]
hile this is the amendment that allows prison work camps and work programs, as well as the requirement that criminals participate in the maintaining of their prisons, it serves a much larger purpose, mainly expressing that a right contained in the constitution may be taken away if citizens do not behave lawfully.
The implications of these amendments and the others so similarly worded are indicative of the Classical School of Criminology. Offered as an incentive, the rights encourage rational, but criminally inclined humans to make the rational choice towards the non-criminal action. Because it would be in the humans' self-interest to keep their rights, they are encouraged to choose non-criminal action. Thus, the drafting of the constitution this way suggests that the founders were relying on the Classical School of Criminology when considering human behavior, rational choice, and the desire to keep a lawful society.
Further relying on the Classical…… [Read More]
Thus, in 1 Kings 7:23, the word "line" is written Kuf Vov Heh, but the Heh does not need to be there, and is not pronounced. With the extra letter, the word has a value of 111, but without it, the value is 106. (Kuf=100, Vov=6, Heh=5). The ratio of pi to 3 is very close to the ratio of 111 to 106. In other words, pi/3 = 111/106 approximately; solving for pi, is pi = 3.1415094... (Tsaban, 78). This figure is much more accurate than any other value that had been calculated up to that point, and would hold the record for the greatest number of correct digits for several hundred years afterwards. Unfortunately, very few people know this fact.
Archimedes of Greece was the first person to make serious use of the pi calculation. In 287 to 212 BC, he focused on the polygons' perimeters as opposed to…… [Read More]
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…… [Read More]
The debate surrounding capital punishment is not as clear as one might think -- in fact, there is a great deal of gray within this debate. The actual definition is State controlled taking of a human life in response to some crime committed by a person who was legally convicted of that crime (Lacayo, 2009). Capital punishment has been part of human history, and currently 58 global nations actively practice it, 95 have abolished it, and the remained have not used it in over a decade (Amnesty International, 2010). Some scholars tout the view that capital punishment produces an extremely strong deterrent effect to crime that actually saves lives, is supported by the majority of Americans, and that each execution actually results in a statistically viable reduction in murders (Muhlhausen, 2007). As of 2010, however, Amnesty International categorizes most countries as abolitionist regarding the death penalty (Figures on…… [Read More]
Abraham to Jesus with other Major Historical Events
2100 BC: Abraham moves to Canaan under a direct order from God. Canaan later becomes Israel.
2000 BC: Jacob, grandson of Abraham, is born in Canaan. Jacob is later renamed Israel. His 12 sons become the heads of the 12 Tribes of Israel.
Hammurabi builds up Babylon in the Fertile Crescent.
The Minoan Bronze Age in Crete.
1900 BC: One of Jacob's sons (Joseph) is sold into slavery. Joseph rises to power in Egypt.
1500 BC: The Indian Hindu Scriptures the Rig-Veda are completed.
1400 BC: The Israelites (after being enslaved for four centuries by Pharaoh) are led by Moses out of Egypt. Joshua takes the lead after Moses dies. It is to Moses that the first five books of the Old Testament are attributed.
1200 BC: The Trojan War.
1000 BC: Saul becomes king of the Israelites. David is anointed. David…… [Read More]
Evolution of the Death Penalty in Supreme Court Jurisprudence
Capital punishment has been in existence for centuries. As early back as the Eighteenth Century B.C., the use of the death penalty was found in the Code of King Hammurabi (Death Penalty Information Center [DPIC], 2010). The utilization of the death penalty for designated crimes continued through the years and became incorporated in Britain's penal system (DPIC, 2010). Britain's use of capital punishment carried over into colonial America (DPIC, 2010). Since that time, the death penalty has been a part of the American criminal justice system. However, its use has not been without strong opposition. This paper explores the Supreme Court cases exploring this controversial topic and discusses the evolution of jurisprudence on the subject matter.
Much of the legal support or opposition for the use of the death penalty has been at the state level. Where the death…… [Read More]
(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'
In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.
estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…… [Read More]
Ancient Culture Development (AC)
Ancient Culture Development
As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.
There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.
During the upper Paleolithic…… [Read More]
It is difficult to argue that the death penalty is being applied evenly and fairly as required by the Supreme Court's Furman v. Georgia decision. In fact, it could be argued, with statistics like these, that the application of the death penalty is being influenced by racial factors.
If the race of the victim is a factor in deciding whether or not the defendant receives the death penalty, then the race of the defendant is even more of a factor. For decades, critics of the justice system have asserted race to be a factor in crime and prosecutions in the United States, and it was ultimately the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty on African-Americans in Georgia that led to the Supreme Court's banning it in 1971. Black defendants are still overwhelming prosecuted more often than white defendants, but it is not only death penalty cases where this is the…… [Read More]
Isaac and ebekah seemed to have a happy and healthy functional marriage. While it is never overtly stated in the text, the implication is that the two love one another. However, despite what one assumes is a fairly active sex life, ebekah is unable to conceive and they do not create a child during ebekah's childbearing years. She passes into old age, which makes one believe that she will never be able to conceive, making her conception of Esau and Jacob even more extraordinary.
Furthermore, though her mother-in-law Sarah also experienced barrenness, she did not have the same tension about conception as ebekah. Sarah always had God's favor; she was a major component of God's plan for Abraham. Therefore, there was some understanding that she would eventually have a child to continue the nation of Israel. In contrast, ebekah was not considered an essential part of Isaac's story. As a…… [Read More]
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…… [Read More]
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…… [Read More]
Financial and Economic Impact of Worker's Compensation egulations And Compliance
The program and concept of Workers' Compensation might appear to be a product of a civilized society and the modern era, but nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, Workers' Compensation has essentially been around for as long as people have been completing task for payment of some form of another, because people have always been getting hurt in some way, on the job. "The history of compensation for bodily injury begins shortly after the advent of written history itself1. The Nippur Tablet No. 3191 from ancient Sumeria in the Fertile Crescent outlines the law of Ur-Nammu, king of the city-state of Ur. It dates to approximately 2050 B.C.2. The law of Ur provided monetary compensation for specific injury to workers' body parts, including fractures. The code of Hammurabi from 1750 B.C. provided a similar set of rewards…… [Read More]
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…… [Read More]
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…… [Read More]
Capital punishment, also known as the Death Penalty, is a legal penalty enacted against a person who has been found guilty, via the judicial process, of committing a capital offense. his paper seeks to briefly introduce the history of the death penalty, and introduce current thought for and against the use of the death penalty in the United States.
he earliest record of an established death penalty law is found in the Code of King Hammurabi of 18th century BC Babylon, which allowed the death penalty for 25 crimes.[footnoteRef:1] One famous ancient examples of the death penalty can be found in the rial of Socrates who was sentenced to death, by consumption of hemlock, in a Greek court. In the United Sates, the first recorded legal execution was carried out by British soldiers in 1776 against Nathan Hale, a revolutionary War Solider, who was hung for treason. Hanging…… [Read More]
Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.
Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…… [Read More]
history of Management Accounting in a ten-page paper and review product costing, investment analysis and organizational performance evaluation over the past 150 years.
Read Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting and reference four other articles that describe the evolution of Management Accounting.
This paper examines the role of management accounting over the years as a system for determining an organization's performance and profitability. This paper further analyses the evolution of certain management accounting practices and their role in global competition and productivity.
Today's management accounting information, driven by procedures and the cycle of the organization's financial reporting system, is too late, too aggregated, and too distorted to be relevant for managers' planning and control decisions.
"In attempting to understand the genesis and scope of modern cost and management accounting systems, accounting historians adopting what has been labeled as a "Foucauldian" approach have been rewriting the history of…… [Read More]
Bringing Capital Punishment Down to Practicalities
While there are probably as many arguments for and against capital punishment as there are people on earth, historically there are two main philosophical viewpoints on which most arguments are based. These are the utilitarian viewpoint and the retributive viewpoint. Either one can be used to argue for or against capital punishment.
For example, the utilitarian argument holds that, "capital punishment is justified if it (1) prevents the criminal from repeating his crime; or (2) deters crime by discouraging would-be offenders," writes James Feiser in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Feiser also writes that, "The retributive notion of punishment in general is that a) as a foundational matter of justice, criminals deserve punishment, and (b) punishment should be equal to the harm done." He subdivides this philosophical basis for capital punishment into lex talionis retribution, which he describes as "an eye for an eye,"…… [Read More]
Museums in Paris
The Louvre Museum can be categorized as one of the world's largest and most magnificent museums. It also marks a monument and an attractive sightseeing location for tourists from all over the world. Standing near the River Seine and stretching over 60,000 meters square, this museum has its own unique history.
The museum was a transformation from the Louvre Palace, built as a fortress for King Louis XIV. He considered the Palace too small for his needs and then went on to making the Palace of Versailles. He left behind this beautifully structured monument to become the museum of beautiful art. The Louvre Museum was initiated in 1793 with initially just 537 paintings. Many of these were the confiscated church paintings and the others were donations from the prestigious and powerful people of the time. Slowly and gradually, the collection of the museum started increasing under Napoleon…… [Read More]
Corporate social responsibility and business ethics have become the focus of an increasing amount of attention from the business sector and academicians following the scandal-ridden era of Enron and others during the 1990s. Although the findings from the research to date are mixed, there is a growing body of research in this area that has lent support to the notion that ethical business practices and corporate social responsibility initiatives have a positive impact on companies in terms of profitability as well as other less quantifiable areas. This review of literature examines these issues systematically to identify current trends and to describe the positive impacts that ethical business practices and corporate social responsibility programs can have for companies of all sizes and types.
The Positive Impact of Business Ethics and Corporate Social esponsibility on an Organization
To act in a socially responsible way requires organizational leaders to consider the effect of…… [Read More]
Blind" Justice In The Modern Era
There are three different types of justice that can be understood within the frame of the readings: revenge, eye for an eye, and advantageous justice (the outcome is beneficial for society). hile justice is an abstract notion that all can, to some extent, agree is a good thing -- in reality, the exercise of justice is less certain, regardless of the type. Indeed, in many cases, the type of justice that one pursues has a fundamentally subjective character to it, whereas objective justice is often missing from the public discourse. The reasons for the lack of objective justice could stem back to the erection of the modern era, when Lady Justice herself became "blindfolded" as Miller notes (2). hy should justice be blind? Does that not mean that it cannot see what the object that it intends to strike? Such are the questions that…… [Read More]
Solitary confinement represents one among the best means of keeping modern-day prisoners from communication and conflict, but has the most injurious effects on their health. Individuals imprisoned in conditions of solitary confinement demonstrate more psychotic behavior compared to normal prisoners; this includes higher rate of suicides (Thesis Statement). After a prisoner loses his/her mental capacity of understanding the reason for his/her imprisonment or punishment, subjecting him/her to solitary confinement is pointless. If one loses one's ability of understanding punishment, the consequences associated with one's actions become irrelevant and have no value. Thus, solitary confinement is crueler than capital punishment.
Lately, the subject of whether or not solitary confinement constitutes greater torture for prisoners than capital punishment (or death penalty), is gaining popularity (Writer Thoughts). The debate has reached a juncture where the favored option is capital punishment.
Solitary Confinement/Capital Punishment Background
During the early part of the 19th…… [Read More]
omen ith Authority in a Patriarchal orld
In the contemporary world, the cultural and literary spheres acknowledge female interests and activities. Females have overtly exerted their rights by demanding their due status in society, thereby being accepted as important societal members. But the scenario was vastly different about a hundred years ago. Females belonged at home, with the general society believing that raising children and taking care of domestic affairs sufficed as their emotional fulfillment. Between 1850 and 1900, societies were chiefly patriarchal and dependent women had to fight to enjoy equal social status. They were governed completely by a male-fashioned society, and had to be the image of the era's feminine ideal.[footnoteRef:1] In this paper, female authority within patriarchal societies will be addressed, with particular emphasis on the many restrictions when it came to them exerting power and what effective strategies they applied. [1: Pamela, Balanza. "The Role of…… [Read More]
History Of Penitentiaries
With nearly 10% of its population incarcerated, it is important for Americans to understand the purpose and history of penitentiaries in this country. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a history of punishment, the history of prison development, and a comparison of the Pennsylvania system and the Auburn systems. Finally, an analysis of the impact and involvement of prison labor over time is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the purpose and history of penitentiaries in the conclusion.
History of punishment
Although humans have used various punishments for different purposes such as infractions of social, religious or legal codes such as the Code of Hammurabi for millennia (Voglis, 2002), the term has assumed a formalized modern meaning that includes a legal process. For instance, according to the definition provided by Black's Law Dictionary (1990), punishment is "any…… [Read More]
The United States is one of the few industrialized, democratic nations in the world which still permits capital punishment on a state-by-state basis. Not all states have the death penalty but executions are still carried out in the United States and the punishment remains controversial.
Despite the singularity of its status internationally, the death penalty has historically been a popular policy in the United States, even though it has been hotly debated throughout US history in the legislature and the courts. This essay on death penalty will examine its legal statusin the United States, its history, and its future.
The Future of the Death Penalty in America
Why America Has a Death Penalty
Death Penalty: Arguments and Counter-Arguments
Death Penalty Pros and Cons
[ more topics for death penalty ]
A Comparison of the Death Penalty in Different Countries and the United States
The Death Penalty Debate…… [Read More]
He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:
It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).
In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.
Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…… [Read More]
belief systems of Christians and Muslim, particularly in how they view angels. Both religions believe angels exist, and that they are an important part of their religious beliefs. They both believe angels can guide and support people here on Earth, and they are messengers of God or Allah. They also believe they can be vengeful and destructive, and angels play an important role in the stories of the Qur'an and the Bible. Angels are only one of the commonalities between these two religions, but they are an important link to two very diverse religions, and they show that many religions have core beliefs that link them together, whether they want to admit it or not.
Comparing Angels in Islam and Christianity
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of Islam and Christianity issues. Specifically it will compare and contrast the faith doctrine of angels…… [Read More]