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For example, someone interested in green technology from a cost perspective might value operational excellence in a company -- seeking the lowest price replacement windows in the least amount of time with the least amount of disruption to their family. Someone interested in the greenest home possible may be interested in innovation, and still others might be attracted to the idea of a custom-built home. Just as there is no one housing market, even within the market of green housing consumers, many different segments and demographics exist, along with conceptions of what conveys value.
Treacy, Michael, iersema, Fred. (1993, January). Customer intimacy and other value disciplines. Harvard Business Review, 71(1), 84. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM…
Treacy, Michael, Wiersema, Fred. (1993, January). Customer intimacy and other value disciplines. Harvard Business Review, 71(1), 84. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1102472).
The company's objective is to develop capabilities in the Reseach and Development aeas as well as ensuing poducts that can be sold and distibuted in the Euopean and Ameican makets. It should be noted, howeve, that such a move must be taken with caution and cae; appoaching the Euopean business maketplace may not wok in the same manne as othe business envionments. As one expet ecently wote "appoaching the Euopean makets without ecognizing the impotance of national languages and cultues in daily life is a cucial mistake" (Robet, 2010, pg. 31). It would be wise fo the company to emembe Robet's wods due to the unique natue of the Euopean makets and Gemany in paticula; since that is the county this pape ecommends the company conducts its business.
It is impotant to note that choosing a county to base the company's opeations is a delicate and time-consuming matte that…
references of political actors, German Politics, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 281-300
Dickman, M.; (2003) Implementing German HRM abroad: Desired, feasible, successful? International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 265 -- 283
Dunning, J.H. & Lundan, S.M.; (2008) Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, London: Edward Elgar Publishing
Federal Republic of Germany (2003) Background Notes on Countries of the World 2003, pp. 1 -15
Grewal, R.; Chandrashekaran, M.; Dwyer, F.R.; (2008) Navigating local environments with global strategies: A contingency model of multinational subsidiary performance, Marketing Science, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 886 -- 902
For a product configuration system to be effective it must be able to submit orders directly into production while at the same time being able to determine what the Available-To-Promise (ATP) ship dates are (Mendelson, Parlakturk, 2008). Instead of just giving the standard four to six weeks I'd also integrate the product configuration systems to supply chain systems to ensure that accurate Available-To-Promise (ATP) dates (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2009). I'd use this as a competitive differentiator to ensure that customers could be very well informed as to when their sofa or furniture was going to arrive. All of these systems would also be integrated to an analytics system so it would be possible to know what the status of orders and shipments were on a continual basis.
Gunasekaran, A., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational esearch, 195(2), 319.
Johansson, Johny K.,…
Gunasekaran, A., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational Research, 195(2), 319.
Johansson, Johny K., & Nonaka, Ikujiro. (1987, May). Market Research the Japanese Way. Harvard Business Review, 65(3), 16.
Kate Maddox. (2006, April). Microsoft research paves way for 'People Ready'. B to B, 91(4), 62.
Lorne McMillan & Brenda Ng. (2007). Ethnography within consumer research -- a critical case study of Consumer Film Festivals. International Journal of Market Research, 49(6), 707-714.
Proposed Plan for Improvement
The above assessment of the current personnel management challenges facing the organization indicates that there are a number of pertinent issues that must be addressed if the organization is to effectively optimize its human resource capabilities and help facilitate the development of change in the organization. With this in mind, the proposed plan for organizational development focuses on two specific areas for improvement. First, the proposed plan considers the need for the strategic development of human resource practice in the organization. Strategic human resource management will enable the organization to embed human resource function into the process of facilitating organizational objectives. Second, the proposed plan considers the need for a comprehensive change management program which will facilitate H integration while building the necessary organizational infrastructure to help improve change outcomes.
Strategic Human esource Management
Strategic human resource management or SHM is the process by which human…
Acquaah, M., 2004. "Human factor theory, organizational citizenship behaviors and human resources management practices: An integration of theoretical constructs and suggestions for measuring the human factor," Review of Human Factor Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 118-151.
Boswell, W., 2006. "Aligning employees with the organization's strategic objectives: Out of line of sight, out of mind," International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1489-1511.
Breen, V., Fetzer, R. & Howard, L., 2005. "Consensus problem-solving increases perceived communication openness in organizations," Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 215-229.
Change management: The HR strategic imperative as a business partner," 2007. HR Magazine, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1-9.
The graphic shown in Figure 1 was also provided in the article (Porter, 2008).
Figure 1: Five Forces Model
This model's effectiveness does not however capture the increasingly critical role of tacit and explicit knowledge in businesses. The tacit knowledge, of the type that is learned from the continual streamlining of core processes, is not easily captured and communicated. It is often called tribal knowledge as this type if intelligence often stays within workgroups where it originates and seldom is captured for broader use. Specific knowledge, or the type of intelligence that can easily be captured and communicated, is often not used to its full potential as well. Studies in the auto industry suggest that knowledge, not products or pricing, is the new competitive advantage (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000). The Five Forces Model does not recognize how important knowledge is as a competitive force in the definition of competitive…
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
Ormanidhi, O., & Stringa, O.. (2008). Porter's Model of Generic Competitive Strategies. Business Economics, 43(3), 55-64.
Michael E. Porter. (2008, January). THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE STRATEGY. Harvard Business Review: Special HBS Centennial Issue, 86(1), 78-93.
Core Competency or Unique Strength of the Business
The Inclusive orkplace
In the modern business world employees expect more and have more rights than ever. To accompany this, employees are seen as core contributors to an organization. The workplace has changed from one where employees blindly follow the guidelines of the company to complete tasks, to one where employees are central to the organization. Employees are also more educated than ever before.
In recent decades, issues like employee empowerment, collaboration, teamwork, self-managed teams and cooperation have all become important. Each of these issues have the idea of giving more and getting more at their basis. In Ideas that will shape the future of management practice (Bohl 1996, 8), human resources is described as being the way of the future, "e will see a more mature articulation of the importance of people as a firm's only sustainable competitive advantage." The change is described as giving high reward for…
Berlin, R. (2002). Sexual harassment in the workplace defined. AllLaw. Retrieved October 24, 2002. URL: http://www.alllaw.com/articles/employment/article37.asp
Billsberry, J. (2000). The Effective Manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. London: Sage Publications.
Bohl, D.L., Luthans, F., Hodgetts, R.M., & Slouch, J.W. (1996). Ideas that will shape the future of management practice. Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 7-13.
Cherkasky, S.M. (1992). Total quality for a sustainable competitive advantage. Quality, August, 22-28.
Finally, the universalizing stage is often referred to as enlightenment, or having achieved a true understanding of the nature of good virtue. (Fowler, 1995; p.p. 73-145).
Clearly, my personal ethical values are heavily influenced by my stage of personal development. As I continue to grow, my values will evolve and adapt to my new way of looking at the world. The way that defining moments influence me will also be controlled by my ethical level of development. However, having at least a conscious understanding of my level of development allows me to better understand my ethical influences, work to overcome the obstacles my ethical development stage creates, and better work to be a better employee and leader.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard usiness School Publishing.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through…
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through Literature. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Fowler, James W. (1995): Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Gilligan, Carol. (1993): In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Businesses make decisions on a daily basis. Some of these decisions affect man people in the organization, where other decisions are minor and only impact a few people. A decision-making procedure based on sound information and data leads to effective conclusions. Today's fast-paced business environment demands the making of informed decisions based on critical thinking skills. It is our thinking that determines the extent to which we think through the implications of the decisions we make. It is our thinking that determines whether we can identify the assumptions we are making, and whether we should questions those assumptions. A number of different decision-making processes have been suggested. Depending on the type of decision faced, some techniques are more appropriate than others. As a supervisor for United Parcel Service, overseeing 40 individuals who must process and drive thousands of packages to the San Diego airport each morning at 6:30am, organization is…
Foreman, Charles W.L., "Modeling and Improving Human Decision-Making," from the Management Course for Presidents, 3-4.
Prokesh, S.E. "Unleashing the power of learning: an interview with British Petroleum's John Browne." Harvard Business Review, 75 (September -- October 1997), 146 -- 168.
Robinson, Alifantis, et. al. "Modeling and Improving Human Decision-Making with Simulation." Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference,
B.A. Peters, J.S. Smith, D.J. Medeiros, and M.W. Rohrer, eds.
The basic objectives of Information Systems in the future will be to focus on the design, construction and use of internal software and computer systems so as to increase the company's output from their people and technology. The internet has allowed IS to refocus its attention to what they historically have done best. When IS was focused on the needs of external systems development, they more than often were less than ideal so they did not facilitate optimum system implementations. The internet has reduced the need to focus on external program implementation and therefore internal processes benefit.
In conclusion, this report aimed to come back with an answer to the question of why so many Enterprise esource Planning projects fail and to focus on how the Internet has provided an opportunity to have businesses focus on the development of their internal applications.
Koch, Christopher. "The ABC's of EP." CIO…
Koch, Christopher. "The ABC's of ERP." CIO (2005): Retrieved on 18 March 2005, from http://www.cio.com/research/erp/edit/erpbasics.html .
Ross, Jeanne w. And Weill, Peter, "Six it Decisions Your it People Should Not Make" Harvard Business Review, Nov 2002, vol. 80 issue 11, p84, 8p.
Confidence in Hong Kong's legal system is a direct result of its links with the rest of the world. if, in our haste to use Chinese, we change the standard and the meaning of the law, and non-Chinese speakers get pushed out of practice, then we risk losing those links.' The traditional Chinese structure has focused on mediation for civil and commercial cases, with lawyers widely viewed as troublemakers, and on executive punishment for criminal cases; there has been no history of justice through an adversarial process. As the Asian Wall Street Journal warned, "A drift into linguistic balkanization -- part English and part Cantonese, plus jargon grafted from the Chinese mainland -- could unmoor Hong Kong from the international business community." (Callick, 1998, p. 84)
Part of doing business with a foreign county is seeing how they see you. It was essential to impress upon the American companies with…
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the social contract: constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino.'." Papers on Language & Literature 32.4 (1996): 410+.
Hong Kong Telecom
Sustainability is a term that is often used in reference to environmental responsibility. This is the most common use of the term that many people have come to associate with "sustainability." Seldom do people consider sustainability to be associated with other areas of the business environment. Upon reading the article by Swartz (2010), two different connotations of sustainability stood out in my mind. The issue that Swartz addressed which created his very long day was accusations that Timberland was engaging in corporate irresponsibility concerning the environment. This is the only definition of sustainability that many people consider.
Swartz's reaction to 65,000 emails made me think about what I would have done as a CEO, if I had been the one to open my own e-mail inbox to find 65,000 angry emails. Upon reflection of Schwartz's response, I feel that he acted in the best way possible. First, he knew that…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 32-33 (and then continued on pages 122 -- 126). Story of Stuff ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8 )
Porter, M.E., & Reinhardt, F.L. (2007). A strategic approach to climate. Harvard Business Review, 85(10), 22-26.
Swartz, J. (2010). "Timberland's CEO on standing up to 65,000 angry activists." Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 39-43.
The market analysis is provided in Table 2.
Table 2: Market Analysis
The company will also use different market strategy to achieve its business goals. Ivy Discover will run a very attractive advertising banner on different websites, which are constantly being visited by target customers, and the business will use several different form of promotion to attract potential customers. The promotion strategy will include discounted package deal. The sale process will include several criteria such as product presentation, relationship building, customer requirements, or needs. The company will build technical products that…
Chaffey, D. (2002) E-business and e-commerce management. Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Harlow, UK.
Cote, L. Vezina, M.and Sabourin, V.(2005). The Strategic Management Process in E-Business. Ivey Business Journal.
Kooten, M. (2009).Software Industry Defies Economic Crisis. Top 100 Research Foundation.
Chantrill, C. (2012). U.S. Real GDP Chart. Government Spending.USA.
As costs continued to escalate and IT was not creating any significant cost reductions through efficiencies, the focus shifted to outsourcing non-critical functions that were routine in nature and could be therefore replicated easily. In 1991, BP senior executives chose to begin outsourcing operations, telecommunications, systems development and IT maintenance. This strategy, along with the recentralization of IT led to the company eventually cutting their IT budget in half from $360M to $170M. BP also was able to redefine their entire centralized spending strategy for IT, with 70% of their budget going for core applications critical to their business including geophysical analysis software and core technologies to help the company be more effective in discovering new energy sources (Cross, Earl, Sampler, 1997). What had been so elusive for BP for decades of IT spending had been hidden in the high costs of duplicated enterprise software licenses that were spread across…
Ball, Alasdair J. (1995). Process Innovation - Reengineering Work Through Information Technology. R & D. Management, 25(4), 421.
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
John Cross, Michael J. Earl, & Jeffrey L. Sampler. (1997). Transformation of the IT function at British Petroleum. MIS Quarterly, 21(4), 401-423.
Davenport, Thomas H. (1993). Need radical innovation and continuous improvement? Integrate process reengineering and TQM. Planning Review, 21(3), 6.
Strategic Planning in IT
IT Impact on Service Industry Performance
Implementation of IT Innovations
1992 U.S. VALUE-ADDED AND EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY
AVERAGE ANNUAL GROTH IN GDP PER HOUR,
MAJOR SECTORS OF THE U.S. ECONOMY
Management TASKS IN BUREAUCRACY VS ADHOCRACY ORGANIZATIONS
This paper addresses the following problem statement: "ithout information technology (IT), a business will not be able to compete globally in any industry, nor in any market it wants to enter. It will not be able to effectively and efficiently optimize its success."
In order to evaluate this statement, a number of issues were examined. The rapid pace of technological change and the effects of technology revolution have launched the world into an era of organizations that are experiencing extraordinary growth in both the development and the dissemination of information and communications technologies. This paper reviews the current literature on the subject of the integration…
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Andreu, R., Ricart, J.E., and Valor, J. (1991). The Strategic Dimension of Transactional Information Systems: Some Organizational Implications. Journal of Information Systems, 1, 223-32.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bailey, M.N. And Quinn, J.B. (1994). Information Technology: The Key to Service Performance. Brookings Review, 12 (3), 36+.
.....ethical dilemma you know of, and how it was dealt with by management.
Recently, Harvard Business School itself was involved in an ethical scandal when it turned out its dean might be involved in a gross case of conflict of interest (Galani, 2016). Conflicts of interest similar to this one at HBS happen often in organizations of all sizes. I was recently made aware of a case in which a local organization experienced an ethical dilemma involving a conflict of interest. One member of the board of directors had previously served on the city council, and still retained strong connections with the local community. Because the company was a real estate development company, the organization's leadership came under considerable pressure for what appeared to be a conflict of interest and corruption -- using the former councilman's political ties for facilitating development projects and accepting additional advice and contracts.
What information was expected to be found and was not there expected to find much more on this site than is present today. To begin with, the SMS is a highly academically focused organization, and as a result its members are continually working on research projects, presenting papers, and also working through many academic calendars and teaching schedules. As a result of the richness of this research one would expect to find at least a trace of these materials on the site, and in fact there are none. This is disturbing. Further, the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal and Strategic Management Journal aren't offered on a trial basis, and content is not even available from them. Instead there are links to subscribe to these publications. This makes the entire site look like an organization of academicians also promoting these two journals.
Links from the site that are helpful
The site does include…
Silvio Napoli at Schindler India (a) (2003). - Accessible after purchase from the Harvard Business Review Website: http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b01/en/common/item_detail.jhtml;jsessionid=3XHOCFKZZ3NGQAKRGWDSELQ?id=303086
The World Is Flat (2005) - Thomas R. Friedman, author. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY. Published 2005
Accounting for Disruptive Technologies
There is a significant amount of insight found in Christensen and Overdorf's "Meeting the challenge of disruptive change," especially for those in a managerial position or studying to be in such a position. The article is useful because it combines theoretical knowledge with a solid application of real-world examples, so that the reader is best able to grasp the author's concepts. Moreover, the article takes a wide and integrative approach at addressing the various challenges and potential solutions organizations can implement pertaining to a very real facet of conducting business in the 21st century, "disruptive changes," typically in the form of technological innovations.
Quite frankly, however, a number of points that the authors make are trenchant and can aid those who are looking to prevent disruptive change from ruining their organization or its method of conducting business. One of the more notable of these is the…
Bower, J.L., Christensen, C.M. (2000). Disruptive technologies: catching the wave. Harvard Business Review.
Christensen, C.M., Overdorf, M. (2000). Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harvard Business Review.
Importance of Effective Change Management
An old adage goes that "change is inevitable." It is a constant phenomenon. Organisations exist in an ever-changing world. Factors such as competitive pressure, regulatory changes, shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, technological advancements, workforce changes, globalisation, and industry adjustments compel organisations to initiate change initiatives targeting strategy, leadership, management, workforce, structures, and processes (Lam, 2009; Nehar, 2013). The initiatives are primarily aimed at improving organisational efficiency, productivity, and performance. Indeed, the ability to adapt to change has been termed as an important source of competitive advantage in today's world (Nehar, 2013). This largely explains why the subject of change management has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention in the last few decades. Nonetheless, managing change may often not be an easy undertaking for organisations. If improperly managed, change may not generate the desired outcomes. In fact, many change initiatives have failed due to…
Mentoring Process in a Business Setting
In most professions, the first years in a new position are fraught with uncertainties and problems. The need for supporting teachers and people in other professions was cited as far back as the Conant eport (1963). During the next twenty years, many attempts were make to put effective mentoring programming in place throughout the business world. This study will address the level of mentoring which exists in different professions, specifically, education, medicine, and law.
As early as 1962, induction programs that provided assistance to beginning teachers were being described (Shaplin, 1962). Mentoring in a business setting is described as being very desirable and conducive to interaction among the protege' and the established workers (Young & Adams, 2000). Medicine has long had a system of mentoring in place which is called residency. Whether nor not the condition of this process is optimal depends upon to…
Anderson & Shannon. (1988). "Toward a conceptualization of mentoring." Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 38-42.
Barnett & Kirkpatrick. (1986). California's Mentor Teachers: Two Years of Learning.
San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory for Research and Development.
Bolton, E. (1980). "A conceptual analysis of the mentor relationship in the career development of women." Adult Education, 30 (4), 195-196.
The difficulty for most contemporary leaders (and frankly most managers at all levels), is to encourage proactive and positive dissent without feeling threatened by it -- part of the ability to ask the right questions that tend to engender new and creative answers. A wise CEO thus says, "I don't shoot messengers -- that's why I have them."
Clearly, globalism has changed the world of business in all aspects. Gone are the days in which visionary leaders simply set the strategic plan in a well-orchestrated seminar. Instead, leadership becomes an even more all-encompassing and difficult paradigm shift. The modern world is adaptive, and requires individuals who can adapt proactively, positively, and without becoming mired in bureaucracy. The modern leader must certainly be innovative, relatively charismatic, and certainly informed. But that same leader must understand that leadership is not the responsibility of the few, but the many. Dissent should be encouraged…
Heifetz, R. And Laurie. R. (January-February 1997). The Work of Leadership. Harvard Business
Review. Retrieved from:
The success of any business enterprise depends on a multitude of crucial factors, one of them being the ability of its administrators to communicate in a clear and effective manner. The quality of business communications therefore, having a direct impact on the economic act, is hereby studied at four specific levels, as follows:
Interpersonal business communication
Conflict management, and last
Inter-cultural business communication
Interpersonal business communication
Melinda Knight starts her 2005 article at the premise that efficient business communications at the managerial level are quintessential for the overall success of the enterprise. Yet, despite this generally accepted notion, the managers have little actual training of interpersonal communications during their formation in universities or other non- U.S. MBA programs. While some programs have some unaligned courses of interpersonal communications in the business settings, other programs do not include the subject in their curricula at all. Knight asserts the…
Agndal, H., (2005) Current trends in business negotiation research, Stockholm School of Economics, http://swoba.hhs.se/hastba/papers/hastba2007_003.pdf accessed on March 23, 2016
Beckers, A.M., Bsat, M.Z. (2014) An analysis of intercultural business communications, Journal of Business & Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 3
Corkindale, G., (2007) How to manage conflict, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2007/11/how-to-manage-conflict / accessed on March 23, 2016
Hynes, G.E., (2012) Improving employees' interpersonal communication competencies, Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 4
Those discretionary areas include sales and negotiating. These are open to flexibility, argument, discussion -- all within boundaries. The boundaries that fence them in are the non-discretionary functions of the business, those areas where the lines must not be crossed.
The non-discretionary areas have very firm guidelines, rules, and even laws and regulations that guide what can and cannot be done. It is when we violate those guidelines, that we cross ethical and/or moral standards whether or not we actually violate the law. There is no compromise in the non-discretionary areas. usiness ethics can be a very personal function rather than organizational (Cagle, Glasgo, & Holmes, 2008).
As an example, safety is non-discretionary. Safety procedures must be enforced and employees have to follow them. There is no negotiation or flexibility. If the company does not establish proper safety standards but no one gets hurt, is it a violation of business…
Cagle, J., Glasgo, P., & Holmes, V. (2008). Using ethics vignettes in introductory finance classes: Impact on ethical perceptions of undergraduate business students. Journal of education for business (peer-reviewed) (AN35201100), 76-83, Vol. 84, Issue 2.
Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2007). Business ethics: managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization - (peer-reviewed). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
DeGeorge, R.T. (2005, February). A history of business ethics. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Santa Clara University: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/business-ethics-history.html
Harvard Law Review. (2009). Go directly to jail: White collar sentencing after the Sarbanes-Oxley act. Harvard Law Review (peer-reviewed), 1728 (21) (GALE Doc. #A198185467).
MESIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.
Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:
fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.
Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Balzac, M. "Recent Trends in the Research on National Innovation Systems." REPEC. November 26, 2007. http://ideas.repec.org/p/aug/augsbe/0254.html (Accessed November 28, 2007).
Birch, D.L. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987.
Christensen, C. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
Justice at Bat
The Story of Three Strikes Legislation
It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…
Bellamy, Richard. "Crime and Punishment." History Review (1997): 24+.
Davey, Joseph Dillon. The New Social Contract: America's Journey from Welfare State to Police State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
Business Law (predators
Businesses often engage in predatory practices to deter their competitors from entering their market niches or send their competitors out of business. Certain business ventures usually reduce their prices to destroy their rivals or worse still discourage new entry into the market. This happens regardless of the existence of the Sherman Act that was enacted to prohibit this predatory practice. The Sherman Act has largely been considered vague because of its inability to reign in firms that engage in predatory pricing vice (Areeda & Turner, 1975). Business ventures that engage in predatory pricing tend to draw a very vague line between legitimately competitive prices and prices that are utterly predatory. Businesses that engage in predatory pricing normally price their products below appropriate measure of cost with an intention of driving their financially weaker competitors out of business and establishing monopoly power. Courts have failed to address the…
Areeda, P. & Turner, D.F. (1975). Predatory Pricing and Related Practices under Section 2 of the Sherman Act. Harvard Law Review, 88(4), 697-733.
Bowdler, J. (2005). Jeopardizing Hispanic Homeownership: Predatory Practices in the Homebuying Market. National Council of La Raza, 15, 1-20.
Oster, C.V. & Strong, J.S. (2001). Predatory Practices in the U.S. Airline Industry. Retrieved May 27, 2013 from http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/17000/17600/17602/PB2001102478.pdf
... If gun manufacturers are responsible for violence, why not the makers of the steel used in the guns?" (Levy, 2004, p. 80)
The application of the principles of assumption of risk and product liability to incidents that are ever more removed from the ideal usage of the product or service eventually creates a situation in which all are liable for everything and everyone.
The notion of choice upon which assumption of risk original rests is lost if individuals are no longer free to exercise any discretion in the usage of products and services. Yet, in today's climate, businesses must be more aware than ever of the potential liabilities of the products they sell and the services they offer. The bungee jump operator, the auto manufacturer, or the operator of textile mill or coal mine, must be up front about any and all potential dangers involved in the use of…
Clinard, M.B. (1990). Corporate Corruption The Abuse of Power. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Dewees, D., Duff, D., & Trebilcock, M. (1996). Exploring the Domain of Accident Law: Taking the Facts Seriously. New York: Oxford U.S..
MNE: A Business Plan for Successful FDI
For this paper, the MNE will be a company that originates in the United States, but that is considering FDI in Thailand. The company manufactures a snack product that is popular in the U.S. market, but has not been tested in other (particularly Asian) markets at all. This does not mean the product will not do well there, but there is not much research into the suspected success of the product. Nevertheless, the company is forging ahead with Thailand plans. This is noteworthy, because FDI is a complicated process that requires much study and thought (Calderon, Loayza, & Serven, 2004; Ho, 1998). Development in the third world is changing, and so is development in countries that are relatively well-established but that still have some trouble competing when it comes to comparison with countries like the United States (Ho, 1998;…
Calderon, C., Loayza, N., & Serven, L. (2004). Greenfield foreign direct investment and mergers and acquisitions: feedback and macroeconomic effects. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3192.
Ghemawat, P. 1986. Sustainable advantage. Harvard Business Review, September-October: 53-58.
Ho, PS. (1998). Multilateral trade negotiations and the changing prospects for third world development: assessing from a southern perspective. Journal of Economic Issues.
Hofstede, F.T., Steenkamp, J.E.M, & Wedel, M. (1999). International Market Segmentation Based on Consumer-Product Relations. Journal of Marketing Research 36, (1): 1-17.
Lys Fashion Business Plan
DayLys primary earnings
The company's start up
DayLys proposed start up expenses
Strategy and implementation summary
Sales revenue for the first and second year
Graph depicting the sales revenue
Five-year financial plan
Pro Forma Profit and Loss
Pro Forma Cash Flow
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Percent of Total Assets
Percent of Sales
The focus of this project is to draw up the business plan for DayLys Fashion and the start up funding will be $45,000. The paper also provides the pro-forma profit and loss, and the marketing strategies. The financial plan reveals that the company will record profits in the first year and continuing making profits within the next five-year.
DayLys Primary Earnings
DayLys primary earnings will be $62,715 in year 1, $135,771 in year 2,
and $243,806 in year…
Porter, M.E. (2001). Strategy and the Internet. Harvard Business Review.
In the U.S., the concept of a dead line is standard; in societies of the Middle East this is not even a concept to recon with. Time is also a strategy that is used by different cultures to signify different conditions. In Latin America, waiting for an appointment with a senior is normal and not to be considered an insult. In the U.S., the amount of time spent waiting for an appointment is often correlated to the respect and the value that is given to the individual waiting. Conflict management also posses a significant challenge in the international arena. Individuals from countries like the U.S. might deal with many of the issues head on, while citizens of Japan might tend to avoid unpleasant situations, not because they do not like the challenge, but simply because it is not culturally acceptable to do so.
Space is also defined differently. New concepts…
Barboux, Jean-Luis, & Lawrence, Peter. (1991). The Making of a French Manager. Harvard Business Review, July-August,
Hall, Edward T. (1960). The Silent Language of Overseas Business. Harvard Business Review, May-June,
Wells_Jr, Louis T. (1977). Negotiations with Third World Governments. Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb
2011). Following the guidelines and supporting research provided in this article can help large enterprises avoid such pitfalls (Newman et al. 2011).
An article that recently appeared in the Sloan Management Review examines the internal rather than the external risks of an organization. This article divides these internal risks into three categories: risks created by the unwanted/unauthorized actions of employees, risks of not achieving strategic objectives that are inherent to any "interesting strategy," and risks caused by completely uncontrollable external events (Mangelsdorf 2011). It is only by understanding how each of these risks might affect the organization and by working to achieve a minimization of exposure to each type of risk -- often through the creation of contingency plans -- that organizational success can be assured (Mangelsdorf 2011).
In another article appearing in the summer issue of the Sloan Management Review, the ever-important issue of information is addressed. Information is…
Shared value as a business approach is integral in conducting business because it both creates economic value and societal benefit. Businesses create shared value when they can make profit while also meeting important social needs like improving environmental performance, reducing health related problems, improving nutrition, reducing disability among other factors. When businesses create shared value to make profit and meet societal needs. Shared value should not only be thought of in the context of doing more good. It also encompasses aspects of capitalism (Driver, 2011). Capitalism has relegated many important aspects of society like improvement of environmental performance, safety, and focus on the local community to the periphery of the business operations because of a notion that these are social and not business related activities. The shared value concept includes all these social items into capitalism. For profit firms that engage in these social activities stand to gain a lot…
Driver, M. (2011). An Interview with Michael Porter: Social Entrepreneurship and the Transformation of Capitalism. Retrieved from http://amle.aom.org/content/11/3/421.full
Gibson, P. (2011). Shared Value. Business and the Environment, 22(3), 1-4.
Porter, M.E. & Kramer, M.R. (2011). Creating Shared Value: How to reinvent Capitalism-and
Unleash a Wave of Innovation and Growth. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/mrcbg/fellows/N_Lovegrove_Study_Group/Session_1/Mich
This is because teams are believed to deliver high performance in a marketplace that is hypercompetitive. Teams are also though to integrate the unique skills of each individual in order to produce high performance. This perception of teams is a halo effect since empirical evidence on the efficacy of work teams in organization does not show consistency. A study that was conducted by a.T. Kearney found that 70% of teams do not deliver the required results. In another study reported by Cleaver (2001)
, it was found that teams greatly improve the output of the organization.
esearchers on the effectiveness of work teams are more careful in making conclusions about their efficacy since they found that their efficacy is simply a myth and that teams are often overused in situations which would have been better with non-team structures. Popular press and business professional continue to profess the importance of work…
Balzer, W.K., & Sulsky, L.M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research: A critical examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 975-985.
Banks, C.G., & Murphy, K.R. (1985). Toward narrowing the research-Practice gap in per-formance appraisal. Personnel Psychology, 38(2), 335-345.
Bechger, T.M., Maris, G., & Hsiao, Y.P. (2010). Detecting Halo Effects in Performance-Based Examinations. Applied Psychological Measurement, 34(8), 607-619.
Beckwith, N.E., Kassarjian, H.H., & Lehmann, D.R. (1978). Halo Effects in Marketing Research: Review and Prognosis. Advances in Consumer Research, 5(1978), 465-467.
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…
Atkins, B. (2006) "Corporate Social Responsibility: Is it irresponsibility?," the Corporate Governance Advisor, pp.28-29.
Baker M.J. (2003) Business and Management research: How to complete your research project successfully. Argyll, Westburn Publishers.
Beach, Elaine 1999: The business of consulting - the basics and beyond. San Francisco, USA:
Differentiation and Positioning
Strengths and Weaknesses of Venture
Market Opportunities and Threats
Essentials of financial Plan
Pro forma income statement
Pro forma Balance Sheet
Assessment of isk
Machinery & Equipment
General Operating Hours
Flow of order for goods and services
The paper is a business plan for a new business which is aimed to create a new product in the U.S. market. The paper discusses the various aspects of the business plan. It includes the market analysis, operational plan, marketing plan, financial plan and the risks associated with the business.
I would like to introduce the readers to the…
Barnard, Chester The function of the executive, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass, 1938,-page 235.
Bent Flyvbjerg, Mette K. Skamris Holm, and Soren L. Buhl (2002),"Underestimating Costs in Public Works Projects: Error or Lie?" Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 68, no. 3, 279-295.
Eric S. Siegel, Brian R. Ford, Jay M. Bornstein (1993), 'The Ernst & Young Business Plan Guide' (New York: John Wiley and Sons)
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C.K. "The Core Competence of the Corporation," Harvard Business Review, May -- June 1990.
The lack of process orchestration shows that IBM is failing to understand and manage the bargaining power of suppliers effectively. The core requirements of the project center on a series of healthcare professionals who taken together are the stakeholders of a complex payroll processing system (Paull, 2013). The requirements from a project management standpoint is to concentrate on the bargaining power of suppliers as system integration partners and create a unified project plan that can successfully meet multiple stakeholder needs. Making this more difficult than other implementations is the bargaining power of buyers, who also are requiring that IBM construct a system they can quickly use to solve complex supply chain, procurement and strategic sourcing challenges as can be inferred from the article (Paull, 2013).
IBM has also allowed for a greater level of threat from new market entrants as well, through the ineffective management of stakeholder requirements. What's obvious…
Ball, L.D. 2000, "IT education success strategies for change management," Information Systems Management, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 74-77.
By, B.P. 2013, "Michael Dell Offered Lower Price for His Shares to Make Dell Deal Work," LBO Wire, .
Fickenscher, K. & Bakerman, M. 2011, "Change Management in Health Care it," Physician Executive, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 64-7.
Gunasekaran, a. & Ngai, E.W.T. 2005, "Build-to-order supply chain management: a literature review and framework for development," Journal of Operations Management, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 423-451.
Lesson Learned in International Business
Ask yourself, what value added am I adding, producing above and beyond what was discussed in class?
The way that I am adding value above what is covered in class is through taking the ideas that were presented and using them in the real world on a practical basis. Too often, many business executives will become involved in transactions that will lead to conflicts of interest. In some cases, this is from the desire to lower costs (which will have an impact on a firm's labor practices). While at other times, these issues will take place because of changes in the company's business model. In every case, executives used these actions to engage in activities that will support their own self-interests. Moreover, they are ignoring the long-term impact of their actions on different stakeholders. (Abedelal, 2003) (Fung, 2006) (Kennedy, 2003) (Spar, 2002)
This is problematic,…
Abedelal, R. (2003). Bombardier. Harvard Business Review.
Fung, K. (2006). China's Renmninbi. Asia Case Research Center.
Kennedy, R. (2003). RR Donnelly. Harvard Business Review.
Spar, D. (2002). Hitting the Wall. Harvard Business Review.
Business Strategy Reprot
Background to Company
Woolworth Limited is the food and takeaway liquor retailer in Australia, often colloquially known as Woolies' and going by the slogan 'The fresh food people'. It operates in every Australian state and territory. Offshoots are Woolworth's online (Homeshop) which allows uses to purchase food over the Internet and Woolworth's Liquor a department of Woolworth's supermarket stores (IRIS Tasmania, November 2007).
Woolworth Limited has to follow government rules and regulations. The political factor involved in this situation is creating both opportunities and a threat for Woolworth Limited. It is an advantage in that it affords Woolworth a diverse work crew since the Australian government applies the Fair Work system that requires that employees and other staff receive maximum weekly hours, protections from unfair dismissal of employee, flexible working roaster, balance between work and family life, and advance notice of termination and redundancy…
"Woolworth Limited" www.woolworthslimited.com.au. Retrieved October 22, 2010
"Woolworths online." 2010-06-11. http://www.homeshop.com.au/. Retrieved 2010-06-11.
"Woolworths Limited - Half Year Presentation HY10" (PDF). 2010-01-28. http://www.asx.com.au/asx/statistics/displayAnnouncement.do?display=pdf&idsId=01041760 . Retrieved October 22, 2010
Now, the way to get found is through the internet. There are several different methods that can be used, too, and may businesses will choose a combination of methods so that they are able to reach out to the largest number of people without spending too much money. Even the largest and most prosperous companies have a budget, and they probably do not want to (or cannot) go over that budget in order to get results. With that being the case, these companies have to focus on the most popular ways to reach out to customers. To do that, the company needs to know the market it is targeting with its product or service (Amor, 1999; Beynon-Davies, 2004; Frieden & oche, 2006; Tcakz & Kapczynski, 2009).
A target market is vital to success, because any business (online or not) has to market to people who want and need what the…
Amor, D. (1999). The e-business (r)evolution. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Beynon-Davies P. (2004). E-Business. Palgrave: Basingstoke.
Charlesworth, A. (2009). Internet marketing: a practical approach. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Chaudhury, A. & Kuilboer, J.P. (2002). e-Business and e-Commerce Infrastructure. New York: McGraw-Hill.
social media by business, using the Best Buy case as an example. The benefits of social media in the business context are explained, as are the downsides. There are also recommendations with respect to the use of social media by a law firm, and in this case it is recommended that the law firm should not engage in social media. Compared with a retailer -- especially one with a connection to technology -- there is less upside for a law firm and more downside risk. Understanding the benefits of social media as well as the business context is essential to developing an effective social media plan.
Best Buy has successfully embraced social media, something that fits with its brand image, but also something that has helped to enhance its business. This report will outline the principles of successful social media usage, the value that social media has to business, and…
Dunn, B.J., (2010, Dec). Best Buy's CEO on Learning to Love Social
Media, Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 43-48. Retrieved from EBSCO.
Reed, T. (2008, May 1-7). Blogging: 21st Century Marketing: Small
Businesses sell the 7Cs by using blogging as a marketing tool. The Tennessee Tribune, 19(6), 9. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Stages of business growth
The Churchill model: Pinterest
One of the most recent successful internet companies of note is Pinterest. The company began two years ago. However, it spent a relatively brief time period in the 'existence' stage in which it was struggling to stay alive. The new website "recently laid claim to being the fastest Web site in history to break the 10-million-visitors-a-month threshold" and has attained a kind of relevance that other content-sharing models such as eddit lack (Pogue 2012). Additionally, Pinterest's business model is relatively low-risk, in terms of operational costs. It is a purely virtual business, which might make some shy away from it, given the notoriously poor showing of so many Internet companies during the dot.com bubble. Yet unlike these organizations, Pinterest has a comprehensible function: "Pinterest is a pinboard for online photos. Multiple pinboards, actually, each an individual page in your Pinterest…
Churchill, Neil C. & Virginia L. Lewis. (1983). The five stages of small business growth.
The Harvard Business Review, 3-11/
Kelly, Tara. (2012). Pinterest popularity explained. Huffington Post. Retrieved:
Balanced Business Ethics
Ethics and Social esponsibility in Strategic Planning
Business ethics may be much easier to understand in the hypothetical world of academia than they are to apply on behalf of business organizations in the real world of business. That is particularly true when doing the proverbial "right thing" comes at substantial financial costs to the organization. On one hand, the needs and agendas of shareholders and other stakeholders in the business of the organization are among the most important considerations in business planning. On the other hand, some of the decisions that are in the best interests of shareholders and other stakeholders in the business of the organization necessarily come at the expense (or at great risk in other respects) of other entities. Strategic planners have fiduciary and due diligence (and other) responsibilities to maximize profit and to benefit the organization in other ways. Meanwhile, those responsibilities frequently…
Foley, V.J. "Post-Deepwater Horizon: The Changing Landscape of Liability for Oil
Pollution in the United States." Albany Law Review, Vol. 74, No. 1 (2011): 515
Zadek, S. "Best Practice: The Path to Corporate Responsibility." Harvard Business
Review (December 2004).
The business that I want to start is a small barbeque and soul food restaurant. This business will have one location to begin with. The business will be defined by the quality of the food and the fun, comfortable atmosphere of the restaurant. This paper will first explain the benefits of strategic planning, and then outline some of the strategic plan for my new restaurant.
Strategic planning is "an organizational management activity that is used to set priorities, focus energy and resources, strengthen operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders are working towards common goals and ensure that the organization is setting its direction in relation to the external environment (BSI, 2013). Thus, strategic planning begins with a mission and vision for the company and what it wants to accomplish. These things underpin the actions and directions that the company wants to take.
There are several different elements…
BSI. (2013). What is strategic planning? Balanced Scorecard Institute. Retrieved December 4, 2013 from https://balancedscorecard.org/Resources/StrategicPlanningBasics/tabid/459/Default.aspx
Ashkenas, R. (2013). Four tips for better strategic planning. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved December 4, 2013 from http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/10/four-tips-for-better-strategic-planning/
Conerly, B. (2013). 3 strategic planning pitfalls. Forbes. Retrieved December 4, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/billconerly/2013/08/15/3-strategic-planning-pitfalls/
Norman, L. (2013). What are the four basic functions that make up the management process? Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 4, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-basic-functions-make-up-management-process-23852.html
Unless this model is fundamentally reformed as to take into account the overall health of the planet, the prospect of a sustainable future looks grim.
Hawken, P., Lovins, A., & Lovins, H.L. (1999) Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Boston: Little, Brown.
Heuer, M. (2010). Foundations and capstone; core values and hot topics; ethics-lx; skytech; and the green business laboratory: simulations for sustainability education. Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 9(3), 556-561.
Hirshberg, G. (2008, June 16) Stirring it up: how to make money and save the world. Wall Street Journal. etrieved on 21 Nov., 2011, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121330973266469601.html
Johnson, M.W., & Suskewicz, J. (2009). How to jump-start the clean tech economy. Harvard Business eview, 87(11), 52-60.
Marcus, A.A., & Fremeth, A.. (2009). Green management matters regardless. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 17-26.
Morgan, L. (2011). Green job training in prisons benefits everyone. Corrections Today, 73(2), 34.
Hawken, P., Lovins, A., & Lovins, H.L. (1999) Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Boston: Little, Brown.
Heuer, M. (2010). Foundations and capstone; core values and hot topics; ethics-lx; skytech; and the green business laboratory: simulations for sustainability education. Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 9(3), 556-561.
Hirshberg, G. (2008, June 16) Stirring it up: how to make money and save the world. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 21 Nov., 2011, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121330973266469601.html
Johnson, M.W., & Suskewicz, J. (2009). How to jump-start the clean tech economy. Harvard Business Review, 87(11), 52-60.
However, that does not constitute an ethical orientation. Carr perceives that certain acts of deception may be rationalized by the business context, referring at multiple points to business as a game possessing its own unique set of rules. In order to function effectively within the context of this game, individuals that have a firmer grasp on such unspoken rules are likely to experience greater success.
It is in this regard that the author compares business to the game of poker, in which players who succeed by balancing honesty with opportune acts of deception are not viewed as behaving immorally. Instead, it is understood that this is what is required in order to emerge as victorious. There is a set expectation amongst individuals with an understanding of the game that they will face such deception at points, and that the degree to which this can be detected will have a significant…
Carr, A. (1968). Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Harvard Business Review, 46, 143-153.
American and Chinese Business Cultures
Though there is no universally accepted definition, culture denotes a set of values, beliefs, traditions, practices, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a given group of people (odrigues, 2009). Culture defines a people's way of life -- how they do things, communicate, behave, relate with one another, and so forth. Culture theory, especially Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory, illustrates that cultures tend to vary from country to country or region to region (Hofstede, 2001). These differences imply that norms, behaviors, attitudes, and other elements of culture differ across countries or regions. For instance, the culture of Americans tends to differ from that of the Chinese, Africans, or Arabs.
Culture permeates every aspect of society -- from organization and social relationships to communication and business. Business is especially influenced by culture. Culture affects how organizations are structured and managed, how employers relate with employees, how decisions are…
Alon, I. (2003). Chinese culture, organizational behavior, and international business management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Althen, G. (2003). American ways: A guide for foreigners in the United States. 2nd edition. US: Intercultural Press.
Cook, G. (2012). The influence of national culture on American business people -- managerial implications for central Europe. Central European Business Review, 1(2), 46-51.
Geert-hofstede.com. (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from https://geert- hofstede.com/united-states.html
Competitive strategy is the bedrock on which companies base business decisions to reach their targets and achieve profitability. Formulating and implementing strategies in international business is much more complicated and difficult task than doing so in home or familiar markets. Competitive strategy deals with the development of abilities by a firm to keep ahead of competitors in the fields in which it operates. Firms develop competitive edge in global markets by possessing certain assets, abilities or characteristics. The primary elements of competitive advantage are the critical offer, the significant operating factors and the firm's strategic resources. (ennett and lythe, 2002) Corporate strategies and international marketing strategies are linked closely and have a bearing on business performance. (rown, 1994)
While some companies focus on a single source of competitive advantage, it is common for many firms to opt for a combination of options to be flexible and attain the…
Ahlberg, J; Garemo, N; Naucler, T. (1999) 'The Euro: How to keep your Prices Up and your Competitors Down', The Mclliney Quarterly, Volume: 2
Bennett, R. (1996) 'Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis vs. The behaviorist approach', Journal of Marketing Management, Volume: 12; No: 6
Bennett, R. (1999) 'International Business Frameworks', Second Edition, London: Financial Times/Pitman
Bennett, R and Blythe, J. (2002) 'International Marketing: Strategic Planning, Market Entry and Implementation', London: Kogan Page
Give Three examples Levitt's lasting contributions business / marketing practice.
Levitt's most lasting contributions to business and/or marketing practice
According to Theodore Levitt's 1975 essay on "Marketing myopia," first and foremost, it is vital that businesses remember that they are in the business of serving consumers, rather than serving their own ends. Hollywood is not in the 'motion picture business,' rather, it is in the entertainment business. The fact that 21st century Hollywood understands the need to be customer-oriented is manifested in the many tie-ins Hollywood has orchestrated with its DVD, video game, and celebrity-related promotions, which are tailored to meet consumer demand and the rapidly-changing media economy. Most successful companies are not known for producing a singular product, rather they have learned to morph and to change their product to respond to current consumer needs. Being product-focused means that once the product and/or a specific mode of product…
Levitt, Theodore. (1975). Marketing myopia. Harvard Business Review.
The value of this case study is demonstrative. It demonstrates how contingency planning can be used, but it says nothing of the results.
A quasi-experimental design was used by Chermack & Kim (2008) to explore the effect of scenario planning on decision-making styles. It was found hat participants in scenario planning have a tendency to make a mental shift towards intuitive-based decision-making styles after their participation in the scenario planning process. This study used a limited sample from a single company. However, the study demonstrates that this might be an area of interest for future studies. It examined the effect of the scenario planning process on individuals, rather than on the firm as a whole. This study was unique in its approach to scenario planning. A majority of the studies found in this literature review approached scenario planning from the standpoint of the entire organization and its affects on the…
Barker, V. & Duhaime, I. (1997). Strategic Changes in the Turnaround Process: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Strategic Management Journal. 18 (1): 13-38.
Caress, J. & Miskel, J. (2007). Take Your Third Move First. Harvard Business Review. 85 (3): 20-21.
Caughron, J., & Mumford, M. (2008). Project Planning: The Effects of Using Formal Planning Techniques on Creative Problem-Solving. Creativity and Innovation Management. 17 (3): 204-215.
Chermack, T. & Kim, N. (2008). The Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Decision-Making Style. Human Resource Development Quarterly (1044-8004). 19 (4): 351-372.
Service, Vision and Mission
The service I would like my business to primarily provide is backend IT support for companies in need of developing programs, apps, website functionality, security, and so on. The primary vision for this business is to grow into a top-tier backend firm that can boast a long list of satisfied clientele, with whom good working relationships can be maintained over the coming years. As many companies, like Kroger for instance, rely on individual firms to supply backend IT support for long periods of time, this type of work is obtained by establishing firm relationships. The mission of this business is to satisfy clientele so that they want to invest their time and energy in establishing a relationship with my business for years to come.
Strengths: The strengths of this business are its computer coders who have a strong background in Java and numerous other coding…
Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?
Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.
As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become…
Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.
Becker, B.E., & Huselid, M.A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.
Bjorkman, I. And Schaap, A. (1994) 'Outsiders in the Middle Kingdom: Expatriate Managers in Saudi Arabian-Western Joint Ventures', European Management Journal, 12(2): 147 -- 53.
Black, J.S. (1990) 'The Relationship of Personal Characteristics with Adjustment of Japanese Expatriate Managers', Management International Review, 30: 119 -- 34.
Ahead IT Curve Case Study eview
Before reading the commentary
Peachtree in its IT planning process has lost clarity regarding their strategic goal for what they intent to accomplish with their systems along with a roadmap for achieving that goal. This should be the starting point of any large-sized institution going for an IT overhaul. The organization's acquisition over the years has brought diverse medical institutions under its fold, each unique in terms of its workflow patterns. anging from large and midsized institutions, trauma centers, nursing systems to rehabilitation facilities, each has its own set of unique work processes, overlaps between them. This poses inherent challenges to devise an integrated Information System -- IS. Development of an integrated IS at Peachtree has to translate into increased efficiency which would seamlessly function across its distributed facilities in a hassle-free manner. (Glaser; Halvorson; Ford; Heffner; Kastor, 2007)
Paul Lefler, the Board Chairman,…
Daskalakis S, Mantras J. (2009) "The impact of SOA for Achieving Healthcare
Interoperability" Methods Inf Med, vol. 48, no. 2, pp: 190-195.
Glaser, John P; Halvorson, George C; Ford, Monte; Heffner, Randy; Kastor, John A. (2007)
"Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve?" Harvard Business Review, vol. 85, no. 7/8, pp: 29-39.
Apparently, some people become so overwhelmed by this problem that they spontaneously martyr their in-boxes, simply deleting everything instead of organizing it or sorting through it.
Even leading software manufacturers have begun working on the problem. Potential solutions such as software capable of interpreting keystroke patterns (and other measurable patterns of user activity) has been developed to manage email notifications automatically. In principle, the computer system would consider whether or not the user is currently busy and suspend any immediate notification of incoming messages so as not to interrupt the user.
Other suggestions for dealing with email and other electronic communications have more to do with behaviors intended to reduce unnecessary exchanges or habits that waste small amounts of time so often that it adds up to a non-inconsequential amount, particularly when multiplied by the total number of affected employees. These include pasting attachments into the body of emails to…
Change Management Scenario
The contemporary business environment is rapidly evolving. Globalization has taken over the organization environment, and with this business is forced to undergo continuous and rapid change driven by increasing stakeholder expectations, new technological advances, and competition that is not only global, but viral (Bendell, 2005). This has resulted in a dramatically different business environment in which the modern business, in order to survive and prosper, is forced to evolve and regularly revise their internal and external business processes. Typically, aggressive and rapid change management systems germinate within the private sector -- only after trial and error, testing, and numerous permutations did they become standard within the public sector organization. This paradigm, however, changed in the late 1990s with a combination of rising client expectations to effectively address major socio-culture, economic, and demographic issues, and change in governmental oversight and minimal requirements pushed management in the public sector…
Home Depot, Inc. (September 29, 2012). The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Aluise, S. (January 19, 2012). Frank Blake Has Brought Home Depot Home. Investorplace.
Com. Retrieved from: http://investorplace.com/2012/01/frank-blake-has-brought-home-depot-home/
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Impacts Business Today
The article discusses how emotional intelligence (EQ) impacts business today in light of its increased use in the modern business environment. The discussion begins with an evaluation of the concept of emotional intelligence and the reasons it was introduced by Daniel Goleman in 1998. This is followed by an evaluation of the difference between emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient and the use of the concept of emotional intelligence in business today. The last two sections examine the effect of the use of emotional intelligence on business today and the reason for the increased demand for employees with high emotional intelligence.
Companies once believed that hiring individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQs) was a reflection of a sound recruiting strategy until the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) emerged. Emotional Intelligence introduces a new way of looking at the root cause of the successes and failures…
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Internal Business Process Perspective balanced scorecard turns attention aspects organization's operations possibility direct control managers employees.
The balanced scorecard at Duke's Children Hospital
In the context of a rapidly evolving society, the health care sector must also develop new mechanisms by which to keep up with the emergent changes and challenges. One example in this sense is represented by the implementation of business tools and techniques within the act of health care provision.
One relevant example in this sense is offered by Duke Children's Hospital in Durham, North Carolina, which implemented the balanced scorecard to address some critical problems with costs of health care provision and nurse dissatisfaction.
"Between 1993 and 1996 DCH's cost per case increased $4,389, while reimbursement declined, leading to a negative net margin in 1996 of $11 million dollars. During this same period, nurse productivity declined from 80th percentile to the 80th percentile, while patient and…
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Starbucks runs coffeeshops, and therefore is beholden to a number of different trends. First is the rise of economies elsewhere around the world, in particular the BIC countries. The second trend is climate change. The third trend is the rapid pace of technological change, in particular mobile and the post-mobile Internet of things. A fourth trend is maturation of the domestic market, and a fifth trend for Starbucks is ongoing attempts by competitors to win back market share that they have lost to Starbucks in recent years.
The first trend is the emergence of developing world economies. While many major economies are in a state of slow growth, or no growth at all, many emerging market economies are growing quickly. There are a lot of companies that rightly see this as a tremendous opportunity and Starbucks is one of them. The company has been active in the Chinese market for…
Burkitt, L. (2012). Starbucks plays to local Chinese tastes. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 15, 2015 from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324784404578142931427720970
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Creating Organizational Value through the Integration of Information Technology: A Management Perspective
Change Management and the Construction of a eceptive Organization
Transformational and Participative Leadership
A Decentralized Organizational Culture
Effective Utilization of esources
Performance Monitoring Systems
isk Management and Support Strategies
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, firms must stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields in order to sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and the computerization of business and learning, consumers and investors have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers and shareholders, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In doing so, businesses must be able to efficiently integrate and utilize various sources of…
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Today, email is still used very heavily in business and personal communications and related applications. However, the additional convenience and immediacy of new technology (especially cell phones) combined with the networking potential of the newest social media Internet networks and applications have already begun to revolutionize business marketing communications (again), as exemplified by the Obama election team's effective use of Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter throughout the 2008 presidential campaign (Hempel, 2009: 93).
Social Networking as the New Marketing Media
Social networking is a significantly more effective communications media for the future of business marketing than email, although it is expected that email will continue to provide extensive business communications support and personal communications for years to come. Whereas email communications require users be at their computer terminals or relay messages to mobile devices, media such as Twitter offer an immediate text-based connection virtually anywhere. eal-time texting allows the advantage of…
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The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…
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Apart from the many, many statistical inaccuracies in projecting only his own experiences on an entire generation of Web users globally, this symptom he laments about is actually a function of how many multiple tasks he has going at the same time. He is a quintessential multi-tasker with board memberships, a teaching responsibility and many other commitments. He complains that Google and search engines rob humanity over time of delving deep into a given subject, leading to "shallow learning and only surface-based comprehension" (Carr, 2008). This quite frankly sounds more like a personal epiphany than a scientific fact. Perhaps Mr. Carr needs to visit with members of the TPS and see how collaboration and speed of information flows creates a much greater level of productivity and transforms knowledge itself into the competitive advantage over price (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000).
Arguing that search engines and the continual use of the Web…
Carr, N.. (2008, July). Is Google Making Us Stupid? The Atlantic Monthly, 302(1), 56-58,60,62-63.
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/07/is-google-making-us-stupid/6868 / From Mr. Carr's original post at this location:
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