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Head Start, Social Control Theory
For America's, nursery children in the ages of three years to five years and who belong to the low-income families, a complete services of progress including social services for their poor families is offered by a nationwide plan called Head Start. To meet particular requirements, about 1,400 community-based non-profit associations and school systems work out exclusive and novel programs. In 1965 the Head Start was started in the Office of Economic Opportunity and is now managed by the Administration for Children and Families.
The Head Start Program was formed on the basis that all children have certain needs which are common and that children belonging to low-income families, in general can profit from a complete program of development designed to meet those requirements. The Head Start method makes the following hypothesis: A child can gain from a complete, interdisciplinary plan to promote progress and development.…
Box, Steven. "Deviance, Reality and Society" International Thomson Publishing, 1981
Garces, E. Thomas, D. & Currie, J. (2002). "Longer-term Effects of Head Start." American Economic Review, Volume 92(4), pp.999-1012.
Kuperschmidt, J.B. Bryant, D. And Willoughby, M. (2000). "Prevalence of Aggressive Behaviors among Preschoolers in Head Start and Community Child Care Programs." Behavioral Disorders, Volume 26, pp.42-52.
Love, J.M. et al. (2002). "Making A Difference in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers and their Families: The Impacts of Early Head Start" Volume I, Final technical Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau. Washington, DC
Head Start preschool classrooms prominently emphasize performance standards as a way to assess educational programs for young children. However, this approach is often criticized as not appropriate for the assessment of young children (Hallam et al., 2007). Standards outlined in the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework were developed as an assessment system in response to the need for increased accountability in early childhood care and education. The Child Outcomes Framework was developed in 2000 as an outline for outcomes that are expected for four-year-old children as they leave the Head Start program. The concern about this type of framework is that it potentially results in disconnect between appropriate assessment processes and outcomes.
Hallam et al. (2007) investigated the classroom quality associated with an intervention that linked authentic assessment practices with the Head Start child Outcomes Framework. These researchers conducted this study by observing twenty-six preschool classrooms involved in Head Start.…
Hallam, R., Graham-Brown, J., Gao, X., Brookshire, R. (2007). The effects of outcomes-driven authentic assessment on classroom quality. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 9(2). Retrieved 20 February 2012 from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v9n2/hallam.html.
The Family and Public Policy - Harvard Edition World.
Executive Summary of Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Head Start Accountability and Educational Performance Measures Final Report (2007)
Sadowski, Michael (2006) the School Readiness Gap. Harvard Education Letter July/August 2006. Online available at http://www.edletter.org/past/issues/2006-ja/readinessgap.shtml.
olson, M.; Garcia, VC; Steinhaus, KA (2006) Implementing the Pre-Kindergarten Act: Progress Report. Online available at http://www.ped.state.nm.us/prek/downloads/03036/PreK%20Progress%20Report_Jan2006final.doc.
Quality Pre-Kindergarten: Summary of Research Findings (2006) Online available at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:cVzJazNIRgYJ:www.pde.state.pa.us/early_childhood/lib/early_childhood/Summary_Pre-School_-_October_2006.pdf+the+Impact+of+Head+Start+Programs+on+cognitive+skills,+math+skills,+language+skills+as+it+relates+to+preschooler+entering+Kindergarten&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us
Galinsky, E. (2006) the Economic enefits of High-Quality Early Childhood Programs; What Makes the Difference? Feb 2000. Online available at http://www.ced.org/docs/summary/summary_prek_galinsky.pdf.
The Children of the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study Go to School," U.S. Department of Education (1999), Carnegie Corporation of New York, University of North Carolina, et al. June 1999. Online available at http://www.fpg.unc.edu/ncedl/PDFs/CQO-es.pdf.
How Much Does Quality Preschool Cost?" National Institute for Early Education Research Working Paper (2006) Online available at http://nieer.org/docs/index.php?DocID=136.
Waldfogel, Jane (2007) What the Children Need. The Family and Public Policy - Harvard Edition World.
Executive Summary of Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Head Start Accountability and Educational Performance Measures Final Report (2007)
Sadowski, Michael (2006) the School Readiness Gap. Harvard Education Letter July/August 2006. Online available at http://www.edletter.org/past/issues/2006-ja/readinessgap.shtml .
Bolson, M.; Garcia, VC; Steinhaus, KA (2006) Implementing the Pre-Kindergarten Act: Progress Report. Online available at http://www.ped.state.nm.us/prek/downloads/03036/PreK%20Progress%20Report_Jan2006final.doc .
Zigler, and Muenchow 4)
The part of the program that most stuck with Shriver was the fact that the program proved that it could actually increase the IQs of mentally handicapped children, significantly with the proper implementation of programs, a concept that was not accepted in academics at this time. (Zigler, and Muenchow 11)
The program used the same materials as a traditional nursery school, but in a manner designed to stimulate attitudes and aptitudes necessary for later school success. For example, the children loved to ride tricycles, but were only allowed to do so if they asked for them properly and identified the particular tricycle they wished to ride. Later on, the teachers set up the tricycles in a miniature traffic situation. The children learned to respond to traffic signs and to play traffic officer.
Zigler, and Muenchow 5)
One of the programs Shriver patterned Head Start after also…
Kamerman, Sheila B., and Alfred J. Kahn. Starting Right: How America Neglects Its Youngest Children and What We Can Do about It. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Wall, Shavaun M., et al. "Early Head Start and Access to Early Intervention Services: A Qualitative Investigation." Topics in Early Childhood Special Education 25.4 (2005): 218-222.
Zigler, Edward, and Susan Muenchow. Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment. New York: Basic Books, 1992.
Head Stat Pogam Impovement Effots fo Families to Show Moe Paental Engagement and Involvement with Childen's Education.
Desciption of the local poblem (The local poblem that pompted the study is clealy defined and is discussed in tems of the local setting and the lage population o education situation):
Accoding to the Head Stat standads fo family engagement and involvement, all Head Stat pogams must implement the Paent, Family and Community Engagement (PFCE) famewok. This is a eseach-based appoach to pogam change showing how the schools can wok with families to impove and pomote paent and family engagement and childen's leaning and development. If this impotant aspect of the pogam wee omitted, student eadiness fo kindegaten and sustained development would be at isk. As a esult, the Head Stat peschool childen would not be fully pepaed fo kindegaten.
The immediate issues, concens o gaps in this pogam that need to be…
references from research literature articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Current literature is defined as published within the past 5 years. Research literature is defined as articles reporting data collection methods or data sources, data analysis methods, and findings)
The proposed theoretical framework for this study will focus on our Head Start classroom teachers' perceptions, observations and documentation of the patterns of parent involvement and engagement in their children's education and services provided by the Head Start Schools. In qualitative studies, Glesne (2011) suggests that this approach offers a guide that will lead the student to improve focus on the perspectives, concepts and ideas about parent engagement as seen through the eyes of the classroom teachers. A theoretical approach will be used to apply an immediate understanding of the process by which share information about their practices at home and at school with their children leading the student to discover how involved and engaged they are. The theoretical approach will also present what Head Start teachers and administrators are doing and can do to promote more involvement and engagement. The structure and foundation for the theoretical approach would be rooted in questions to be answered in the project study. The student's perspective and approach for understanding the problem of the lack of involvement and engagement in their education will drive and define the variable that the student will explore. The student will use and present a collection of interrelated concepts that will guide the research and help determine the variables that will be measured (Creswell, 2012).
In this project study, the student plans to show two variables or characteristics of the families who are somewhat involved and engaging in their child's education and the families who are clearly absent in their child's education. In other words, the theoretical framework will research the facts that the student already knows and is predicting the facts that the student does not know is the cause or contributing factors to the lack of involvement and engagement. The variables or attributes of the study will take on the roles of the independent and the dependent variables. In the presentation of the dependent variable, the student intends to explore the predictions for the outcomes showing that the lack of involvement leads to poor results and poor academics therefore a poor head start in life and further (Creswell, 2013). This study will employ an action research approach seeing that we are studying the patterns and behavior of families within an organized population as it relates to an educational institution with a view towards effecting positive changes. This student intends to work and collaborate with others as agents of change (Glesne, 2011). The student thus plans to engage program partners and practitioners in order to develop questions and methods that will provide oversight of this research process and may be asked to help interpret the findings of the study. The methodology will include a pilot study for added reliability and validity. The student intends to use qualitative interviews, observations surveys and quantifiable data (Glesne, 2011).
In order to justify the theoretical framework chosen and identified for this study, this student will interviews/observations, surveys and data collected will reveal the fact that a problem of the lack of parent involvement and engagement does exist. The data collected from all nine Head Start centers will justify the fact that the only a handful out of 698 families do indeed participate actively in their child's education, percentages that are consistent with other Head Start programming (Sakran, 2012). These are important issues because family support represents a vitally important component of Head Start's programming (Singh, 2009). The parents of children participating in Head Start programs are encouraged to take part in program planning as well as program delivery (Jasis, 2013). The experiences of the many Head Start programs to date, though, indicate that there are ongoing problems concerning the absence of one parent in many families, combined with lower literacy levels and inordinately high levels of unemployment among Head Start families that adversely affect the efficacy of the initiatives (Singh, 2009).
In the course of using observations and interviews, the questions asked in the interview using open-ended questions will reveal valuable information showing that the study is justified. Observations in the classrooms with the collection of data will also reveal valuable information that the study is indeed justified. Surveys sent out and evaluated will consist of questions that will give the parents a chance to answer and to report back on their patterns as it relates to their child's education. These results will be matched with some of the documented CLASS Assessment that the Head Start School performs three times a year to show that in some cases parent involvement makes a difference and in order cases it shows what the hypothesis for this study was intended to reveal. In order to gain a clear understanding of the problem, the student feels that the interviewing families in a comfortable setting that is non-threatening to them will give the chance to share feelings as to why they are involved or not involved in their child's education. This interview process will give the student a chance to collect data from families and to later use in the study to analyze thereby justifying the study and to deem the study worthwhile of the problem. Also knowing that qualitative studies are especially relevant with human behavior, the choice of using observations, interview, surveys, questionnaire and even focused groups will serve the direct understanding of the problem as justifiable and worthy of study as it will give a better insight of the problem and a possible development of action driven program that may solve the problem.
TABLE 1 - COMPANY EXPECTED SALES
Average candidate annual salary
Company commission (15%)
V. Marketing Plan
The marketing plan includes pricing, the promotion, the product and the placement strategies all of which are meant to increase product/service awareness.
Despite being an innovative business concept, the Intellectual Vanity Fair is a start-up company, that doesn't enjoy product notoriety among employers. Therefore, the market entry pricing strategy will be to charge below market practices, namely 15%-20% of expected base salary of future employee, market averages being around 20%-30%. Additionally, as a guarantee of high quality services, if the hired employee leaves its position within 90 days from the hiring date, the company will find a replacement at no extra cost for the client.
The official launching will be organized at the Head Hunting Festival 2009, where the company will have a general presentation…
Amble, Brian. "Recruitment & retention problems on the rise." Management Issues, 2004: 12-15.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Labour Force Australia. October 2008.
Bowden, Bob. Hiring costs being underestimated by Australian businesses. 14 March 2007.
HP Philanthropy and Education Annual Report. 2005.
head coverings, including veils, hijabs, chadors, and niqabs, worn by Muslim women have come to symbolize the intersectionality between race, status, gender, and power. Discourse on the veil is often paradoxical in nature, as staunch feminists who otherwise champion the rights of the oppressed judge the head covering with a voice of colonial disdain. Unlike estern feminist discourses, which attempt to fuse anti-colonialist and anti-patriarchal sentiments, the Muslim feminist discourse can and often does distinguish between the two to champion the rights of women to choose how to express their identity. Muslim women often straddle the line between allegiance to their gender and allegiance to their ethnicity, culture, or religion. The veil itself has become an ironic symbol of both liberation and oppression, giving rise to meaningful discourse on intersectionality, accountability, and solidarity.
The tone of discourse about Muslim female head coverings has shifted considerably, as more Muslim women have…
Afshar, Haleh. "Can I See Your Hair?" Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 31, No. 2, Feb 2008.
Ahmed, Leila. "The Discourse on the Veil." In Women and Gender in Islam. Retrieved online: http://www.onbeing.org/program/muslim-women-and-other-misunderstandings/feature/discourse-veil/2224
Al-Sarrani, Abeer and Alghamdi, Alaa. "Through Third World Women's Eyes." Analyze. No. 2. Retrieved online: http://www.analize-journal.ro/library/files/alaa.pdf
Bullock, Katherine. Rethinking Muslim Women and the Veil. Herndon, VA: The International School of Islamic Thought.
Even in modern times, a disproportionate number of homeless people are Vietnam vets. Obviously, the Vietnam War had an impact on American history. However, the end of the Vietnam War had an ever greater impact on the American psychology.
The Vietnam War was the last open conflict against communism that the United States waged. While the war was theoretically between North Korea and South Korea, it was actually about communist-controlled China, with support from ussia, fighting against the United States and France, over possession of the southern portion of Vietnam. Ideology was strong on both sides. While the Vietnamese may not have strongly embraced the ideals of communism, had they been presented in a vacuum, but many of them were eager to shed the vestiges of colonialism. The French, on the other hand, were not so eager to abandon their interests in Vietnam, making the area a perfect staging area…
Anderson, R.L. (2010, November 23). Healing the scars of war. Retrieved November 23, 2010
from the Herald News website: http://heraldnews.suntimes.com/news/2348245-417/kolling-veterans-parade-vietnam-chicago.html
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Church, G. (1989, November 20). Freedom! The Berlin Wall. Retrieved November 23, 2010
start of western civilization, societies have sought a balance between order and liberty. It has always been the responsibility of government to maintain order for the safety and well-being of its citizens, but questions have remained as to the extent this goal can be accomplished without impeding the natural rights of its citizens, known as liberty. This tension can especially be seen in the documents various documents of England and the United States.
This tension was first observed in English history with the drafting and signing of the Magna Carta, a document which guaranteed the subjects of England the right of due process and limited the power of the king preventing the king from denying any inaliable rights to the people. The Magna Carta was further expanded in England by the English Bill of Rights of 1688. This document further limited the power of the sovereignty and especially reflected the…
start from the premise that, in some form or other and at some moment or other, people require order and leadership in their lives and, particularly, in their societies. The answer here does not propose to discuss why that is, although, as a general assumption, it may be related to an overall rejection of chaos and what this brings about, especially from what history has taught us about periods of chaos in our lives and society.
Starting with religion, the first notable thing to be analyzed is that, from a philosophical perspective, the world has no meaning to an individual. One is born, goes through life (which usually means working hard to make a living and to survive every single day) and dies. There seems to be no overarching purpose in all this.
So, this is where religion intervenes initially. It gives us a better understanding of things and all…
1. Nanda, S. Warms, R. (2010). Cultural Anthropology. Cengage Learning; 10 edition
2. Anthropology 13/124, 36th edition, edited by Elvio Angeloni, Pasadena City College. McCraw-Hill
Napoli, head of corporate planning for the wiss chindler company, has this job of building and promoting elevators in India. He has been told by chindler, that for him to succeed, it is important that he be "half monk, half warrior" in order to adapt to and attract the Indian people to his work. Napoli describes himself as warrior, and intends to work on his monk part. In the meantime, he is finding the job grueling and uphill although he feels that he is making progress somewhere.
He had already established offices in New Delhi and Mombai, had hired five Indian top managers, and begum implementing the aggressive corporate plan that he had initially drafted. This plan called for a $10 million investment and centered on selling local core products with no allowance for their customization.
However, Napoli was now faced with three challenges:
For the second time in two…
Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Launched in the year 1965, the Head Start program cultivates preparedness for school among kids from poor backgrounds by providing them with social, nutritional, educational, health and other relevant services. Ever since its introduction, the program has catered to over 33 million early childhood-age kids (0-5 years of age) and their family members. Figures for 2015 revealed program funding to cater to almost a million expectant mothers and early childhood-age kids at home, educational facilities, and family childcare homes within rural, urban, and suburban communities across America. The program's advantages are being closely scrutinized in the wake of congressional talks to consider reauthorizing it. How successful has the program been? Are there any areas for improvement? This paper will assume the form of a critical analysis and summary of the program; its implications will help inform formal discussions on the subject. Considerable controversy exists regarding whether or not the program…
d.). The term "millinery" refers to hats that were produced in Milan at that time, but the name became more generalized after that. In England, millinery started to become fashionable around 1700. The word millinery has been used to refer specifically to women's hat making.
Women's hats were different from men's hats in terms of their social function and their appearance. As social norms changed, so too did women's dress and hats were an important part of personal self-expression or fashion (Steele, 1998). Many women's hats became heavily decorated, in comparison to their plainer male counterparts. Plummassiers, for example, were feather designers who provided decorations for hats (Thomas, n.d.). In the nineteenth century, hats were varied and diverse. They included straw hats, hats with feathers, and bonnets. Bonnets ranged in size and were often very large to protect the wearer from the sun but also to preserve the woman's chaste…
Amphlett, Hilda, 2003. Hats: A History of Fashion in Headwear. Courier Dover.
HatsUK (n..d). Retrieved online: http://www.hatsuk.com/hatsuk/hatsukhtml/bible/history.htm
"The History of Women's Hats," (2013). Vintage Fashion Guild. Retrieved online: http://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-history/the-history-of-womens-hats/
McDowell, Colin, 1997. Hats, Status, Style, and Glamour. Retrieved online: http://www.bookforfree.org/pdf-download_3/Hats:-Status-Style-and-Glamour-by-Colin-Mcdowell-ID13183.pdf
Video Tape and Disc ental
Health and Personal Care Stores
Table 2: Comparisons of Most isky Small Business (BizStats.com, cited by Telberg, 2003)
An Engine of Economic Growth
More and more, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) argue, policymakers perceive the small business sector "as a potential engine of economic growth. Policies to promote small businesses include tax relief, direct subsidies, and indirect subsidies through government lending programs." These authors stress that encouraging lending to small business purports the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) primary policy objective of the loan-guarantee program. In their study, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) implement empirical research to focus on SBA-guaranteed lending, utilizing a panel data set of SBA-guaranteed loans, they assess whether SBA-guaranteed lending discernibly impacts local economic performance. Ultimately, these authors cautiously conclude that "There is a positive (although small) and significant relationship between the level of SBA-guaranteed lending in…
Authority, purpose and scope. (2002). EXTENSIONS of CREDIT by FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION a). Retrieved November 10, 2007, at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=57016e116171461106934124459aa8aa&rgn=div5&view=text&node=1-2:188.8.131.52.1&idno=12#12:184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11
UNNNG HEAD: Microeconomics
All the countries in the world are dependent on each other nowadays. Countries need natural resources that are not present in their homeland or they may also be in need of some finished goods that they don't produce. This interdependency gives a beginning to trade between countries. The notion of international trade has become quite common nowadays as all the countries are participating in it. In addition to fulfilling the requirements of the country, international trade also increases overall efficiency of the production of a good. As some countries have the resources to produce certain goods at a lower cost than other countries. So, that cost efficient country can be given the chance to produce that good for other countries as well so that the overall cost of that product falls. The decision of international trade is undertaken by economies keeping either comparative or…
Andersen, L. And Babula, R. (2008). The link between openness and long-run economic growth. Journal of International Commerce and Economics, 1 pp. 1 -- 20.
Lipsey, R. And Harbury, C. (1994). First principles of economics. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press.
Skipton, C. (2008). Trade Openness, Investment, and Long-Run Economic Growth. [e-book] Tampa: University of Tampa. p. 2. http://chuckskipton.com/uploads/SKIPTON_Openness_and_Investment_Ver_1E.pdf [Accessed: 25 Sep 2013].
Sun, P. And Heshmati, A. (2010). International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China. [e-book] Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. pp. 7-11. http://ftp.iza.org/dp5151.pdf [Accessed: 25 Sep 2013].
Company Mission, Vision, Stakeholders Strategic management starts vision mission. It consists analysis, decisions, actions organization undertakes order create sustain competitive advantages. For project, pick a company ( Harley Davidson), preferably, modules, work understand strategy .
Ducati -- passion leading from bankruptcy to success
Ducati is a name that most motorcycling enthusiasts are likely to associate with passion and brute force. The Italian bike manufacturer is known for making motorcycles designed for a particular type of people and the motorcycles it produces induce intense feelings in individuals riding them. Regardless if they are moving or if they stand still, Ducatis always manage to make heads turn and have succeeded in remaining an important player in a global market involving companies that are much larger than the Italian enterprise. This is also shown by the fact that Ducati has experienced a series of victories in the MotoGP and the Superbike orld Champions…
McIerney, Claire Regina, and Day, Ronald E., "Rethinking Knowledge Management: From Knowledge Artifacts to Knowledge Processes," (Springer, 01.01.2007)
Wit, Bob, and Meyer, Ron, "Strategy: Process, Content, Context, An International Perspective," (Cengage Learning EMEA, 2010)
Holton notes that years after Louisa's trip to Abigail's she confessed "that as the stagecoach carried her little family north toward Quincy, her sense of dread approximated that of a prisoner headed to the gallows." This isn't surprising that Abigail has this effect on her. Louisa feels inadequate around Abigail, which seems normal considering Abigail's intelligence and her independence as a woman. It probably was not normal for women of this time to be so in control of everything, which Abigail definitely was.
The dynamic between Louisa and Abigail is an interesting one to read about and though the two are always kind to one another, there doesn't seem to be a whole lot of affection there. When Louisa gets sick, it doesn't surprise Abigail at all because she thought that she was going to be some frail, weak being. Holton writes that in Louisa's memoirs she talks about how…
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency.
Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male and females. These changes can be caused by injury to specific brain structures in charge of producing and regulating specific hormone levels.
Changes in hormone levels can also be caused by the various medications prescribed to traumatic brain injury patients. "H2-antihistamines and stereotonegic agonists were found to decrease libido," according to Aloni and Katz in their 1999 work, "A Review of the Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response," (Aloni & Katz, p. 276). Only female experienced…
Aloni, Ronit and Katz, Shlome. "A Review of the Effect o Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response." Brain Injury. Vol. 3. Number 4. p. 269-280. 1999.
Bianci-Demichel, Francesco and Ortigue, Stephanie. "Toward an Understanding of the Cerebral Substrates of a Woman's Orgasm." Neuropsychologia. Vol 45. Number 12. P. 2645-2659. 2007.
Blumer, D and Waler, a.E. "The Neural Basis of Sexual Behavoir." Psychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease. P. 199-216. 1974.
Elliott, Mike Laurel. "Head Injury." Brain Injury. October 1996.
Melvilles Spouter Inn
Some of the best descriptive essayexamples can be found among the writings of the greatest authors. Consider a chapter in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville: every chapter of that book is like a mini-descriptive essay. Look at the way Melville uses description to create atmospheric effect in the first line of Chapter 3: The Spouter Inn from Moby-Dick: Entering that gable-ended Spouter-Inn, you found yourself in a wide, low, straggling entry with old-fashioned wainscots, reminding one of the bulwarks of some condemned old craft. Melville uses words like condemned to convey a sense of foreboding and doom, and the adjectives wide, low, straggling produce a claustrophobic effect on the readerone that pulls him in with force. Melville also uses consonance, assonance and alliteration to make the words flow more enjoyably and give the description a kind of musical quality. Go to any chapter in Moby-Dick and you will…
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Public Program Quality Evaluation
Overview of the Program and the Program ationale
In 2011, approximately 23% of all children in the United States were children of immigrants. Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed. Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. ecently, the nation has seen an upswing in state-funded pre-K programs that focus on preparing low-income 4-year-old children for kindergarten and elementary school. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…
Haskins, R. & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children. Princeton University and the Brookings Institution.
Lawrence L. Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the performance of human service programs. Sage Publications.
Neuman, W.L. (2012). Basics of social research: qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.).
Puma, M. Bell, S., Cook, R., & Heid, C. (2010, January). Head Start Impact Study Final Report, Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Washington, DC.
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
Gathering Data to support my Stance (NCLB) and (IDEA))
Kelleher, B.E. (2009)
The article's literature review indicates that research regarding long-term preschool effects has been developed well. But, Head Start's long-term advantages have rarely been researched, and no adequately sound research design has been used (Barnett and Hustedt 2005: 21). The research's correlated conclusions are that influence of Head Start on children depends upon differences between the program's developmental quality and that of the educational environments that children hailing from low-income households would otherwise have experienced (Ludwig and Phillips 2008: 260).
This section reviews three leading researches on preschool education's effectiveness. The essay analyzes six key research categories which have enhanced Head Start's policy and academic analysis, for better understanding the research elements that can be employed in policy evaluation. The essay deals with research exploring Head Start's effectiveness in the long run.
Schweinhart, et al. (n.d)
The results of this study show several things: one, the child's temperament regarding willingness to learn at home is "mediated" by his or her mother's level of self-efficacy; two, stress in the family impacts the child's home learning because of stress's effect on mother's self-efficacy; three, low income parents have economic and ethnic hurdles to overcome in order to reach a point of self-efficacy, but those parents that can overcome those challenges have been demonstrated to show "...some sense of competency or confidence" (e.g., self-efficacy) to be able to facilitate a quality home-learning environment that truly can prepare the child for learning in school. Interventions that help parenting skills are important, the authors assert, because self-efficacy may be "a critical characteristic of healthy families who provide stimulating and nurturing contexts for young children" (Machida 183)
Fantuzzo, John, McWayne, Christine, & Perry, Marlo A. (2004). Multiple Dimensions of Family Involvement and…
Families Society" PURPOSE: The purpose exercise conduct a detailed, critical evaluation research design, methods analysis a study written published a peer-reviewed journal.
Valentine, K., Thomson, C., & Antcliff, G. (2009). Early childhood services and support for vulnerable families: Lessons from the Benevolent Society's Partnerships In Early
Childhood Program. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 195-213,120.
Yes, it is very specific.
Do subtitles, if present, provide important information regarding the research?
Yes, they bullet-point the basic components of the article although they do not label all of the conventionally-expected components of a research article like a literature review.
Are the main variables expressed in the title?
Are the terms in the title easily understood by most people?
To some extent: the general subject matter is clear, although not what is meant by vulnerable families, nor is the Partnerships In Early Childhood Program (PIEC) well-known.
5) Does the title avoid any…
Elementary School ESL Teacher
Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
Sirius and XM Satellite Radio
Satellite radio has emerged in the past few years as the hot new trend in broadcasting. Operating similar to DirecTV, satellite radio companies bounce their signals off satellites to beam high-quality digital service coast-to-coast, offering exclusive ad-free programming. Satellite radio offers listeners the opportunity to hear any show anywhere in the United States, combining the benefits of premium quality sound and convenience when traveling on the road. Research indicates that similar to the way FM radio grew against dominant AM radio, satellite radio is becoming known for "edgier" alternative programming (McCarthy, at http://www.usatoday.com/money/media/2004-10-6-radio-compare_x.htm). The entire satellite radio industry is currently made up only two companies, XM Radio, which started broadcasting in 2001 and has 2.5 million customers, and Sirius, with 600,000 subscribers since going live in 2002. This paper will offer a comparative analysis of the two companies and a general overview of the satellite…
Deitz, C. "A Step-by-step Comparison of XM and Sirius Satellite Radio Features." Radio.
2005. About. < http://radio.about.com/od/satelliteradio/ss/blsatstepbystep.htm >.
Gustafson, C.J. "Sirius Satellite Radio vs. XM Satellite Radio- Which Streams Should You
Choose?" Ezine Articles. 2005. Ezine Articles. 21 Mar. 2005
This was not the case in the early days of film, however.
Instead, the studios either owned or worked in close collaboration with movie theatres, the vast majority of which had only one screen at the time. Instead of being able to choose which movie one wanted to see upon arriving at the theatre, choosing a movie meant choosing which studio's latest picture seemed most appealing, and going to that theatre. The arner brothers did not have a lot of money to build theatres with; they managed to construct a few in major cities, but that was it until Harry arner talked to independent theatre owners and convinced them to advertise arner's films for a small price (BOS 2).
The boost that arner Brothers Studios got from these advertisements allowed them to grow their business, and even obtain a large loan from Goldman Sachs that was used to build more…
Animation USA. "Warner Bros." Accessed 26 November 2009. http://www.animationusa.com/wbmore2.html
BOS. "Warner Brothers." Box office Spy. Accessed 26 November 2009. http://www.boxofficespy.com/warner-brothers-history-2.html
Warner Bros. "Company History." Accessed 26 November 2009. http://www.warnerbros.com/#/page=company-info/the_studio/company_history/
This will help to set off the startup costs.
The initial production costs are realistic because of the suggestion that outsourcing will be used. The company is relying on an outsourcing expert who has written several books on the subject. The software development will also expand to an offshore location which potentially can cut cost even further. USuggest plans to use search engine linked online portals as a marketing tool and they are seeking a merger or acquisition with a large, established Internet company to further increase profits for their brand. Mergers can lead to the company becoming more efficient by utilizing economies of scale. Cost saving can also be recognized by combined marketing, advertising and by cutting down on the overlap of &D (Shukla and Gekara, 2010).
Even though this venture is in the startup stages, it definitely has the potential to grow into something much larger. The target…
Shukla, a., & Gekara, M. (2010). Effects of Multinational Mergers and Acquisitions on Shareholders' Wealth and Corporate Performance. IUP Journal of Accounting Research & Audit Practices, 9(1/2), 44-62.
Van Rooij, a. (2008). How R&D helped transform DSM. Research Technology Management, 51(1), 43-48.
Wenzel, E. (2011). Moving to the Cloud Isn't for Everyone: What to Consider First. PC World, 29(7), 32.
In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. ather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…
Dworkin, M.S. (1961). Dewey on Education. Classics in Education No.3.
Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and Education. Macmillan.
Hirsch. E.D. (1996). The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. Doubleday.
Fernandez, R. (2003). Mappers of Society: The Lives, Times and Legacies of Great Sociologists. Praeger.
Drama, music, and the arts and experiential science learning are fun ways to teach students while avoiding the sense that students are in 'summer school.'
Step 3: Establish mentors for 7th and 8th grades in the high school. Have high-achieving high school students who present strong and realistic role models come to the school, talk about their success, and provide academic and/or emotional support to older middle school students.
Step 4: Providing tutoring assistance on the high school level for standardized tests needed for graduation and the SATs would be valuable. Reinforce the connection between expanded life opportunities and success in school by getting local speakers to come to the school to lecture about their profession, to encourage students to avail themselves of tutoring services. Create internship programs for qualified juniors and seniors within the community. Making students want to succeed in school and come to school in the first…
Eras in Human Services
The Industrial evolution created tremendous wealth for certain segments of the population -- but also tremendous poverty. The expansion of the nation's urban population, particularly its urban poor, created the need for more effective social services. These needs were first fulfilled by private organizations like the American Charity Organization Society (COS). City slums were growing fast in all areas affected by industrialization -- during the late 19th century approximately 30% of all London residents lived below the poverty line (The Settlement Movement, 2013, Columbia Federation of Settlements). The Settlement Movement, a community-based approach to social welfare which set up neighborhood welfare centers began in London but soon spread to America. It came to embody one approach to social work, one which stressed the need for "a holistic approach to neighborhood improvement and a belief that social change comes through indigenous leaders and organizations" (The Settlement Movement,…
The 1960s - Mental Retardation and Mental Health Construction Act of 1963. (2013). Timeline.
From charitable volunteers to architects of social welfare: A brief history of social work. (2012).
Children in poverty are "...behind the eight ball from the moment of conception. Fewer of the marginalized children will develop to the full measure of their potential or acquire advanced intellectual competencies and academic skills that are clearly ahead of the norm for their age." (Kitano, 2003, p.2)
The work of rooks-Gunn and Duncan (1997) stated conclusions that the "...negative effects of poverty on IQ and achievement tests are more pronounced for children who experience poverty during the preschool and early school years and, especially, for children who live in extreme poverty or for multiple years. However, the effects of poverty on school attainment (years of schooling completed), while statistically significant, are small. "It is not yet possible to make conclusive statements regarding the size of the effects of poverty on children's long-term cognitive development." (as cited in Kitano, 2003, p.3)
It is stated to be held by some researchers…
Ayoub, Catherine, et al. (2009) Cognitive Skill Performance Among Young Children Living in Poverty: Risk, Change, and the Promotive Effects of Early Head Start. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 1 Apr 2001.
B.J. Casey, Jay N. Giedd, and Kathleen M. Thomas, "Structural and Functional Brain Development and Its Relation to Cognitive Development," Biological Psychiatry 54, nos. 1-3 (2000).
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children: Children and Poverty, 7(2), 55-71.
Kitano, M.K. (2003) Gifted Potential and Poverty: A Call for Extraordinary Action. Journal for the Education of the Gifted. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2003, pp. 292-303. Online available at: http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/papers/Kitano.pdf
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
" And the third category was, c) a combination of the two earlier-mentioned approaches, with "early childhood education services provided in centers supplemented by parental education delivered in the same setting" or through visits by teachers into the homes.
hat were the verified benefits of these RAND-surveyed programs? At least one of the following "domains" showed benefits that were demonstrated to be "significant" and/or "sizable"; "cognition and academic achievement"; "emotional and behavioral "competencies"; "educational progression and attainment"; "child maltreatment"; health, delinquency and crime; social welfare programs; and "labor market successes."
The evidence from RAND's research indicated that longer-lasting benefits from high quality preschool opportunities include "substantial gains in outcomes" such as quality special education placement and grade retention; improved high school graduation rates; reduced crime incidents; job success; and also, parents often benefit in their own lives and careers from early intervention programs for their children.
Effective preschool programs also…
Capizzano, Jeffrey, & Main, Regan. (2005). Many Young Children Spend Long Hours in Child
Care. Urban Institute, Retrieved June 5, 2006, at http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=311154 .
Hodgkinson, Harold L. (2003). Leaving Too Many Children Behind: A Demographer's View
On the Neglect of America's Youngest Children. The Institute for Educational Leadership,
The program was instrumental in illustrating the importance of preschool on the reduction of crime in this country and now serves as a spoke in the wheel of government funding for preschool programs throughout the nation.
Epstein, Ann S. (1999) Pathways to Quality in Head Start, Public School, and Private Nonprofit Early Childhood Programs.(Statistical Data Included)
Journal of esearch in Childhood Education
Program Outcomes (accessed 10-20-06)
eynolds, a.J., Temple, J.A., obertson, D.L., & Mann, E.A. (2002). Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24: 267-303.
obin, K.B., Frede, E.C., & Barnett, W.S. (2006). Is more better? The effects of full-day vs. half-day preschool on early school achievement. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Stellar, Arthur (2003) Long-Term Studies of Preschool: Lasting Benefits Far Outweigh Costs.
Phi Delta Kappan
Long-Term Study of Adults Who eceived High-Quality Early Childhood Care and Education Shows…
Epstein, Ann S. (1999) Pathways to Quality in Head Start, Public School, and Private Nonprofit Early Childhood Programs.(Statistical Data Included)
Journal of Research in Childhood Education
Program Outcomes (accessed 10-20-06)
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
benefit analysis of whether the state of Alabama should fully fund an expanded preschool program. Various arguments for and against this idea are discussed. Arguments for increased funding of the state's prekindergarten program include: improved educational success and achievement; significant reduction of the need for grade retention; improved economic status; better health; less need for welfare; and reduced crime rates. Arguments against are mainly based on the huge initial cost of investment that such a program would require. In the end, various calculations find that the benefits outweigh the costs in the ratio of 2 to 1. Several other comprehensive studies on the topic also support the fact that benefits of fully funded State preschool program would significantly outweigh the costs. Studies, tables and calculations are used to support this claim. The challenges that would be faced in the implementation of such a program are then discussed. In the end…
Aguirre, E., Gleeson, T., Mccutchen, A., Mendiola, L., Schroder, R., Stephenson, M., & Varner, O. (2006). A Cost - Benefit Analysis of Universally Accessible Pre-K Education in Texas. The Bush School of Govt. and Public Service.
Alabam School Readiness Alliance. (2015). Recommendations for the Expansion of First Class Pre-K in Alabama. Alabam School Readiness Alliance.
Alabama Department of Early Childhood Education. (2016). Office of School Readiness Program Guidelines. Alabama Department of Early Childhood Education.
Alabama Early Education Department,. (2016). First Class: Alabama Voluntary Pre-K. Retrieved from http://children.alabama.gov/first-class/
online retailing operates, what kind of problems they face and the kind of environment they operate in. The author has also focused on Asian online retailing and special focus on Hong Kong online retailing. It has 22 sources.
Access of basic necessities of life has followed the conventional method of buying and selling. This pattern changed in the last decade with the emergence of information technology age. When consumers have the ability to access information instantly, technologists thought why not access to products has as well. Thus emerged the concept of retailing online.
Online market had initiated with selling of information but today one can interact on the internet and buy physical products without any fear, atleast in some parts of the world. The main concern for consumers today is not whether their regions have access to the internet or not but rather focused on how fast and how online…
Author not available, Poor Customer Service Kills Online Shoppers' Holiday Spirit, and Online Retailers' Bottom-Line, Says Jupiter., Business Wire, 12-19-2000.
Author not available, E-COMMERCE LEARNS FROM 1999 SEASON., United Press International, 12-26-2000.
Author not available, EXECUTIVE Business BRIEFING., United Press International, 05-02-2001.
Ricadela, Aaron & Mitchell, Gabrielle C. News: Electronic retailing proves tricky -- Allure of Internet sales leads to revenue-sharing ventures, partnerships with hosts., Computer Retail Week, 10-20-1997, pp 02.
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
Integrity: Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Back in the 90s, websites were more or less digital brochures that did little more than serve their registered users with monthly electronic newsletters. Today, however, websites are powerful and complex information platforms that not only store and process data, but also allow for the sharing of information across a wide range of online platforms. We share personal data on these websites, and unfortunately, the same passes on to numerous other parties, compromising our own security as well as that of our families in the process. The situation is even worse in the case of e-commerce websites. Whilst they have made shopping a whole lot easier by bringing specialty retail within a few clicks, they have also sprawled up opportunities for thieves who now find it a whole lot easier to obtain personal information and credit card numbers from…
Ackerman, M.S. And Davis, D.T., 2003. Privacy and Security Issues in E-Commerce. In. D.C. Jones (Ed.), New Economy Handbook, San Diego: Academic Press. Chapter 5.
Amazon Inc., 2014. Amazon.com Privacy Notice. Amazon Inc. [online] Available at https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=468496
Best Buy Inc., 2014. Best Buy Privacy Hub. Best Buy Inc. [online] Available at http://www.bestbuy.com/site/legal-privacy-policies/privacy-policy/pcmcat204400050062.c?id=pcmcat204400050062
Dennis and O'Connor (2013) utilized mixed design consisting of a correlational design (a non-experimental quantitative study) and two qualitative case studies to answer the following three research questions:
Is there an association between the classroom process quality and the organizational climate?
Are there different associations between classroom process quality and the overall organizational climate vs. The relational organizational climate?
Do associations between the overall organizational climate, the relational organizational climate, and the classroom process quality vary as a function of the teacher (specifically the teacher's education and experience)?
Thus the variables in the study were measures of classroom process quality, organizational climate, relational organizational climate, and teacher's education and experience. The participants were 37 teachers and 40 directors from community-based preschool centers. Classroom quality was measured by 23 items from The Early Childhood Environment ating Scale -- evised. The survey requires raters (five were used) and inter-rater reliability was established…
Dennis, S.E., & O'Connor, E. (2013). Reexamining quality in early childhood education:
Exploring the relationship between the organizational climate and the classroom. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 27(1), 74-92.
LaForett, D.R., & Mendez, J.L. (2010). Parent involvement, parental depression, and program satisfaction among low-income parents participating in a two-generation early childhood education program. Early Education and Development, 21(4), 517-535.
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
Bush, L. (2000). African-American Mothers/African-American Sons: A Critical Examination of the Social Science Literature. Western Journal of African-American Studies, 145-167.
Cherry, F. & . (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child's early years. Child Development, 158-166.
Garfinkle, I. a. (1986). Single Mothers and their children: A new American dilemma. Washington: Urban Institute.
Haskins, R. (1989). Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist, 274-282.
The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).
The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of…
Reavy, Pat. (2010) "Program aids to better identify illegal immigrants." Deseret News.
Retrieved on May 20, 2010, from the Website:
9. Wild almonds contain cyanide: a person can die from eating only a few dozen of them (Diamond, p. 114). They taste bitter due to the presence of amygdalin, the precursor to cyanide. The chemical serves as a defense mechanism for the almond, deterring animals (and people) from eating them and better ensuring the propagation of the almond plant because the nut is its seed. As Diamond points out, if animals feasted indiscriminately on almonds they would minimize the chances that the plant would propagate itself.
However, "occasional individual almond trees have a mutation in a single gene that prevents them from synthesizing the bitter-tasting amygdalin," (p. 118). In the wild those non-bitter almond trees would die out because birds feast on their seeds before they can sprout. Children of early farmers, though, might have gladly munched on some of the sweet almonds and brought the seeds back to their…
10. What is your ultimate goal career?
I am pretty content overseeing this store but someday I may work toward becoming a regional or statewide manager.
11. Who are some of the biggest suppliers for the equipment that are used at your business?
One of our biggest suppliers is Hewlitt Packard who supplies most of our computer technology equipment that helps us run the store. It is handled through our IT department.
12. How do you handle lack of structure at work?
We provide incentives including production, and sales goals in which employees can compete to win prize, trips etc. We also provide quotas to help the staff maintain a healthy pace at work.
13. When a problem arises, what are the processes of identifying and diagnosing the problem?
The employees closest to the problem are to bring it to their immediate supervisor who will address it or pass it…
Non-profits need to develop ways in which their funding for overhead can be more stable, one way to do this is to develop funding sources such as revenue from sales and other sources an example the Goodwill can boast it has been remarkably successful at. Continuing to recruit and seek longevity from quality employees based solely on their desire to give greater good to their community, may not be the best exclusive practice for non-profit human resource managers. HR managers must seek ways to develop possible in kind benefits donations and other positive and thankful resources to compensate employees for a twenty five percent differential in pay.
Cutt, James, and Vic Murray. Accountability and Effectiveness Evaluation in Non-Profit Organizations. London: Routledge, 2000. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000282189
Gabris, Gerald T. "Public Sector Motivation as an Independent Variable Affecting Career Decisions." Public Personnel Management 24.1 (1995): 33+. Questia. 22 Mar. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.…
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
equirement 1 -- unning Estimate
equirement 2 - The Problem
equirement 3 -- The Mission
equirement 4 -- Purpose and
equirement 5 -- CCIs
equirement 6 -- Commander's Judgement
equirement 7 -- COA Analysis
equirement 1 -- unning Estimate
Time management is one of the key elements in planning. There must be a balance between taking time to plan and creating synchronization, and maintaining the initiative that can be difficult to determine (AMY, 2012). A running estimate is important because it provides an assessment of the current operation against the planned baseline and establishes whether or not future contingent operations are still supportable.
Once the Japanese are aware of the angers and the guerillas presence, they are undoubtedly going to call for reinforcements as well as consider executing the POW held in the camp. Since the camp is also a transit post, then timing is even that much…
Army. (2004). ADRP 1-02. Department of the Army.
ARMY. (2012). ADRP 5-0. Department of the Army.
DoD. (2009). Joint PUblication 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.
King, M. (1985). Leavenworth Papers. Combat Studies Institute, 1-58.
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…
Nearly all of the existing models for financial redistribution available in American politics isolate potential applications on lines of income, while others divide along racial, ethnic, and religious lines to help insure the same standard of living for all of those in need -- adults and families included.
The current situation in America highlights the need to isolate welfare recipients further, by more than just income and instead to also take into account the idea of regional differences that foster not only varied opportunities of employment, but also a wide array of external sources of lifetime substance. Because America is still trying to balance the difference of tax revenues, budget allotments, and other sources of welfare subsidy, it is most important that both social scientists and legislators illuminate the regional discriminations that exist between the urban and rural poor.
Deavers, Kenneth L. "Social Science Contributions to Rural Development Policy in…
ritish Pound from 1965-2000
Around the world, the different countries have adopted different currencies for its uses. For instance, America uses the dollar, France uses the franc, Pakistan uses the rupee; and so forth. The type of currency situates each country according to its value. The sterling pound is another type of currency, which is used in many countries of the world. However, it is most used in ritain, and has been in use for many years.
The terms pound, shilling and pence abbreviated as L, s. And d. are derived from Latin words. The initial L. comes from the Latin word librius which means pound or in this case a pound of silver. The initial s. comes from the Latin word solidus which was a roman gold coin and d. comes from the Latin word denarius which was a roman silver coin efore 1975, England stopped using a thousand-year…
Davis, Jim -British Coinage from 1961-2000
Davies, Glyn. A History of money from ancient times to the present day, 3rd. ed.
Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002. 720p.
Professional Membership Rationale
Foundations of Mental Health Counseling
Dr. Mary Owens
Professional Membership Rationale
Joining a professional association in one's field of work is essential to furthering one's career. As a student, the author of this response holds that it is important to get a head start and garner an industry-standard affiliation in order to begin networking with other colleagues who have the same interests. Joining a professional association also gives one the ability to learn more about one's career field. For those reasons I have chosen to become a part of the American Psychological Association, or APA. While there are absolutely other methods and means to get a head start in one's career field, associating with a stalwart organization like the APA is an extremely advantageous early step.
Benefits of Membership
After graduating the mental health/counseling program, the author of this report plans to continue her education…
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…
Works Cited, continued
Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.htmlWallerstein , Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.
White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.
" (United Nations, 2000) The Household udget Survey 1996/1997 reported that in excess of 14.5 of households in Mauritius are presently living below the poverty line and economic development has been stalled due to the "…rising cost of labor erosion of the protected international markets due to gradual effects of globalization and liberalization and increasing competition with other countries…" (United Nations, 2000)
The distribution aspect of income and wealth has not been addressed in a sufficient manner by the liberal economic policies that rely on the market. Unemployment has increased in recent years and this has been "accompanied by inflation that has contributed to a loss of purchasing power, especially affecting women." (United Nations, 2000)
There is a failure to meet the needs of very low income housing and creating further tensions in Mauritius are challenges related to employment equality of access and disparity in education which is stated to…
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2000) Mauritius. November 2000.
Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education (2002) The World Bank. Online available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf
Gokhool, Dharambeer (2008) 1148th Session of the International Conference on Education (Unesco) 25-28thNovember 2008,Geneva Comprehensive Approaches In Early Childhood Education: The Mauritian Experience.
Gokhool, D. Hon. (2008) Address given Certificate Award Ceremony for Training of Trainers' Course in Healthy Eating and Food Safety. 28 Apr 208, Paul O. Wiehe Auditorium, Reduit.
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…
Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank
Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf
Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins
Web site: http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Bazillon, R.J. The Zollverein 1834-1870. Historical Report, Leiden: Leiden University, 2007.
Clout, H.C. "An Historical Geography of Europe 1800-1914." Geographical Review, 1987: 115-117.
Diderot, J. Encyclopedie. Paris: Andre le Breton, 1743.
A bit less far this time, certainly, but a bit none the less. He is always getting closer, but never makes up the lost ground completely.
Intuitively at least, it is clear that the human runner can quickly outdistance the tortoise (Papa-Grimaldi, 1996), but Zeno's paradox seems to defy this capability. In this regard, Cohen asks, "Achilles will certainly, with his celebrated speed, soon get very close behind the tortoise -- but why can't he, logically speaking at least, ever overtake the reptilian competitor?" (2002, p. 38). A similar paradox is presented by Zeno in "The Arrow," discussed further below.
Paradox of the Arrow. According to Dowden, this paradox concerns "a moving arrow [that] must occupy a space equal to itself at any moment. That is, at any moment it is at the place where it is. But places do not move. So, if at each moment, the arrow is…
Cohen, M. (2002). 101 philosophy problems. London: Routledge.
Dowden, B. (2010, April 1). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic
Resource. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/zeno-par/
Goodkin, R.E. (1991). Around Proust. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
reasoning has been guiding and dictating the scientific enterprise since the scientific revolution. This objective reasoning is also applicable to the business field. Research in business can be applied by following the following general seven steps method.
tate a problem
Any idea or tentative explanation is the result of an existing problem. Research in business is an attempt at identifying new markets including the needs and wants of those markets. The research must pin point how these needs can be met, how customers and clients can best collaborate, and what can be the best pricing of given products among others.
Present preliminary hypotheses
This is where the imagination and intuition of the business researcher come to work. He or she will attempt to derive any type of plausible explanations which will be latter weed out for bad hypothesis.
Data collection in business research can be done by…
Introduction to Business Research. (2006). The McGraw-Hill Companies.
The Columbia Institute for Tele-Information (CITI) is a university-based research center focused on strategy, management, and policy issues in telecommunications, computing, and electronic mass media. (http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/citi).
Basic Business Research Methodologies. ( http://managementhelp.org/research/research.htm ).