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Health Behavior Model:
I would find that this examination would be best served by the values
of the health belief model. This is an appropriate way to gain a better
understanding of what causes people to make certain health behavior
decisions, such as those which are likely to incline individuals who have
previously refrained from physical activity for so long to make serious and
immediate lifestyle changes. It seems reasonable to deduce that a
perspective through this model might help to reveal such possible causes
for a sedentary lifestyle as scheduling demands, physical injuries or a
personal aversion to physical activity. The use of the health belief model
should contribute to the construction of an examination that seeks to alter
negative health behavior by isolating such root causes and establishing
empirical connections for subjected individuals between patterns and
consequences. Ultimately, the illumination of such connections could be
considered a valuable…
MRN. (2005). Exercise in Moderation Best for the Brain. News-Medical.
Online at http://www.news-medical.net/?id=14724 .
Nies, Mary A. (2006). Comparison of 3 Interventions To Increase Walking
In Sedentary Women. American Journal of Health Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 4,
Critical Analysis of a Research Article
Health beliefs about lifestyle habits differ between patients and spouses 1 year after a cardiac event – a qualitative analysis based on the Health Belief Model
Statement of the Phenomenon of Interest
The phenomenon of interest is the health belief between patients and spouses after a cardiac event, which has been clearly stated to the reader by the researchers. There have been fewer qualitative comparisons of this kind conducted. The researchers used a qualitative method for this research because the study was exploratory and they had to collect data by examining and describing the health beliefs of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The researchers also had to analyze and compare the beliefs of the patients to those of their spouses. According to Lewis (2015) qualitative research allows for the exploration of human behavior that cannot be quantified but it is vital for the…
Köhler, A. K., Nilsson, S., Jaarsma, T., & Tingström, P. (2017). Health beliefs about lifestyle habits differ between patients and spouses 1 year after a cardiac event–a qualitative analysis based on the Health Belief Model. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 31(2), 332-341.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.
Health belief model
During the 1950's, the Health Belief model (HB) was developed from the field of social psychology. The theoretical framework offers an explanation of why individuals are motivated to participate in preventive health behaviors. The model has five perception constructs of susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, and cues to action. In this setting the HB predicts what prevention behaviors diabetic patients will engage in to avoid foot pathology and ultimately amputation. Current research indicates that the Health Belief odel (HB) is the most common model used to study health- related behaviors. According to Ganz, Rimer, and Lewis (2002) an assumption of this model indicates people are more inclined to demonstrate disease prevention activities when they perceive (a) an increased susceptibility to the illness; (b) the illness is severe; (c) the actions are valuable; (d) the behavior has few obstacles; and (e) are prompted to execute the actions.
Mahmoodi, A., Kohan, M., Azar, F., Solhi, M., & Rahimi, E. (2011). The impact of education using Health Belief Model on awareness and attitude of male teachers regarding their participation in family planning. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 9(3), 45-49.
Smith, T.W. (2009). If We Build It, Will They Come? The Health Belief Model and Mental Health Care Utilization. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 16(4) 445-448.
Polit DF, Beck CT. (2007). Nursing research: Principles and methods. 7th ed. Philadelphia:
ET or CT believes that the two key determinants of behavior are perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. In other words, the extent to which the person feels able to actualize / implement behavior, and the consequences (both negative and positive) of performing the behavior. CT is actually an extension of ET in that it maintains that the environmental factors as well as human factors are all intertwined in determining self-efficacy; in fact that the three concepts play one inseparable whole in determining health conduct and response to prevention or to reaction of disease.
The three main factors that induce a person to change his health behavior are the following: (i) self-efficacy, (ii) goals, and (iii) outcome expectations.
Individuals who have a powerful sense of self-efficacy can change health behaviors even when impeded. It is this very sense of empowerment -- of feeling ability to act and to change matters --…
Sutton, S. (2002) Health behavior: Psychosocial theories. Retrieved on 1/13/2011from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~schuez/folien/Sutton.pdf
National Cancer Institute. (2005). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: Themes and variations. USA: Thomson-Wadsworth.
Nursing - Applying Health Belief Model to Alcoholism Treatment and Implication for Healthcare Delivery
"Perceived susceptibility" is the patient's subjective perception of his/her risk of contracting an illness or disease, which would be alcoholism in the instant case There is significant disparity individual perceptions of personal susceptibility an illness or disease (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008, p. 48). Application of this key concept to treatment of Hispanic youth patients using or addicted to alcohol may consist of: discerning the populations at risk of becoming alcoholic and their risk levels for alcoholism; personalizing the risk based on an individual patient's characteristics or behavior; and educating the patient in order to more properly align his/her perception with his/her actual risk of becoming alcoholic (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008, p. 48).
"Perceived severity" refers to the patient's perception of the seriousness of either contracting or failing to treat an…
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. (2005, October 26). Exposure of Hispanic youth to alcohol advertising, 2003-2004. Retrieved from www.camy.org: http://www.camy.org/_docs/resources/reports/archived-reports/hispanic-youth-03-04-full-report.pdf
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4th Edition . San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Martino, S. C., Kovalchik, S. A., Collins, R. L., Becker, K. M., Shadel, W. G., & D'Amico, E. J. (2016). Ecological momentary assessment of the association between exposure to alcohol advertising and early adolescents' beliefs about alcohol. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(1), 85-91.
Schuckit, M. A., Smith, T. L., Kalmijn, J., Trim, R. S., Cesario, E., Saunders, G., . . . Campbell, N. (2012). Comparison across two generations of prospective models of how the low level of response to alcohol affects alcohol outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(2), 195-204.
Leininger's Transcultural Theory and the Health Belief Model: A Synthetic Approach to the Problem of Geriatric Care
Geriatric care is a challenge in most Es today because this is where geriatrics expect to receive regular treatment. Making this challenge all the more difficult is the fact that the U.S. population is aging and diversifying. The CDC has reported that over the next 15 years, the U.S. elderly population will consist of more non-Hispanic whites, Asians and non-Hispanic blacks than ever before. Considering that at the same time geriatrics will make up 20% of the population, it is especially important to know how to provide care for elderly persons who are likely to be sensitive to cultural and ethnic cues that have become deep-rooted in their personality over the course of their long life. Thus, for health care providers it is necessary to be culturally aware of attitudes and perceptions that…
Carpenter, C. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior. Health Communication, 25(8): 661-669.
Che, S., Barrett, E., Velez, M., Conn, K., Heinert, S., Qiu, X. (2014). Using the Health
Belief Model to illustrate factors that influence risk assessment during pregnancy and implications for prenatal education about endocrine disruptors. Policy Futures in Education, 12(7): 961-974.
Giger, J., Davidhizar, R. (2002). The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment
Osteoporosis and the Health Belief Model
Discuss the Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model was initially a systematic mode of predicating and thus preventing health behavior. By focusing on the relationship between the practices and the behaviors of health services it aimed to create a theoretical presentation of the same. Later it was revised to motivate the general health for the 'purpose of distinguishing illness and sick-role behavior from health behavior'. [Brown, 1999] The HBM is essentially a concept that integrates psychological motivators with physical and social settings. Its said to have been initiated in 1952 by three socio-psychologists, Godfrey Hochbaum, Stephen Kegels and Irwin osenstock. During the 1950's the society realized a need to prevent disease rather than cure it. The U.S. Public Health Service was more concerned with preventing outbreaks which would have a nationwide impact than with trying to solve and cure the symptoms that individuals…
Brown, Kelli M. [January 11, 1999] HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Community and Family Health University of South Florida
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999a). NOF Physician's Guide: impact and overview [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/physguide/impact_and_overview .
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999b). Osteoporosis Fast Facts [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/stats.htm .
S Gubbels. Talks about how obesity is a major problem of our society and how it is affecting the children and adults. The article talks about the causes and the consequences of obesity and provides certain prevention for this problem. The article relates the problem of obesity with the Health Belief Model and talks about how the Model contributes in motiving the people to bring Health behavior change in their lives. It point out the reasons for people in bringing behavior changes associated with the Health Belief Model. (J.S Gubbels, 2013)
In the article "Health Belief Model in the Town of Obese Elderly Women use Health Education" by Zeng Gui Ying, the writer talks about how the Health Belief Model is a major source of information and education for the obese women living in towns and villages .It tells that how the model motivates and encourages the obese women to…
Baranowski, T. (2012, September 6). Obesity. Are Curent Health Behavior Change Models Helpful in Guiding Prevention of Weight Gain Efforts.
Boskey, E. (2010, 24 March). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Health Belief Model.
Galletta, G.M. (2012). Medicine Health. Obesity.
J.S Gubbels, M.J. (2013). ISRN Obesity. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity.
Health Care -- PHI
A Primary Health Care Initiative (PHI) is a fundamental, affordable health care mode clearly illustrated the Declaration of Alma-Ata. Michelle Obama's "Let's Move!" adheres to the PHI format and uses the Health Belief Model as its guide. Unfortunately, several problems with both the Model and the initiative hamper its success. Several measures can be taken to significantly enhance the initiative's impact.
Identify PHI (20%)
A PHI is a fundamental and affordable mode of health care that is grounded in realistic, well-established and culturally agreeable science and practices, and is made accessible to all members of a community (HO, 1978, pp. 2-3). It relies on continuous financial and ideological support from the immediate and larger communities, as well as the wholehearted participation of community members, who are deemed partners in their own health care (HO, 1978, pp. 2-3). Though the initiative works with individuals in their local…
Clarke, V.A., Lovegrove, H., Williams, A., & Machperson, M. (2000). Unrealistic optimism and the health belief model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(4), 367-376.
Keating Simons, K. (2010, December 13). Let's Move: Looking at the flaws of a childhood obesity intervention. Retrieved November 8, 2013 from http://challengingdogma-fall2010.blogspot.com Web site:
Health Model and Healing Model
The healing model and health model have influenced the human belief for several decades, and the health model defines health as robust physical human fitness that is free of disease. On the other hand, healing is a functional restoration of repairing or conquering alien destroyer. In other word, health is the balance of spirit, mind and body. Since disease serves as an agent that disrupts the balance, healing serves as restoration of human balance. (Carpenter, 2010).
In essence, healing and spirituality are intimately connected. Healing is the spiritual process that influences the wholesome of an individual. In other word, healing is an intangible, experiential and spiritual that integrates human body, mind, soul and spirit. More importantly, healing is concerned with the wholesome of human being. For several thousand years, many people with different cultures have used the healing model for the well being of their…
Liu, C. Li, D. Fu, B. et al. (2014). Modeling of self-healing against cascading overload failures in complex networks. EPL (Europhysics Letters). 107(6).
Meilin, S. (2013). Characterization of a porcine model of post-operative pain European Journal of Pain.
Tiaki, K.C. (2013). Helping transform health service models. Nursing New Zealand. 19 (7): 27.
Health Belief Model and Health Education
Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant emphasis on healthcare institutions and organizations established by humans to organize or structure social processes relating to individuals and populations’ health including health education. This paper examines how the Health Belief Model can be used to address the issue of health education.
The Issue of Health…
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
Pender's is a theory of preventive medicine, for the healthy rather than the chronically ill. However, in an age where lifestyle-related disease are on the rise, it can provide an important function, particularly for nurses facing an epidemic of pre-diabetic and diabetic adolescents reared on poor diets and little physical activity. Some might protest that the genetic component to even Type II Diabetes, or obesity in general, might be unacknowledged in the model, but Pender would no doubt respond to her critics that although it is true that certain individuals have a greater predisposition to certain lifestyle diseases, everyone can act within those parameters to improve their life with preventative medicine, as counseled by her model.
McEwen & illis. (2007). "Chinn & Kramer Model." From Chapter 5 of Theoretical bases for nursing.
Pender, Nola J. (2003). "Most frequently asked questions about the Health Promotion
Model and my professional…
McEwen & Willis. (2007). "Chinn & Kramer Model." From Chapter 5 of Theoretical bases for nursing.
Pender, Nola J. (2003). "Most frequently asked questions about the Health Promotion
Model and my professional work and career." Last modified 4 Aug 2006. Retrieved 14 Sept 2007 at http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/pender_questions.html
Pender, Nola J., Murdaugh, C.L., & Parsons, M.A. (2002). "Assumptions and theoretical principles of the Health Promotion Model." Retrieved 14 Sept 2007 at http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/HPM.pdf
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System
Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide…
Brown, L., Burton, R., Hixon, B., Kakade, M., Bhagalia, P., Vick, C., et al. (2011). Factors Influencing Emergency Department Preference for Access to Healthcare. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(5), 410-415.
Brown, S., & Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology without foundations history, philosophy and psychosocial theory. London: Sage Publications.
Crowe, M., & Carlyle, D. (2003). Deconstructing risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 19-27.
DiClemente, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
For the past several decades, nursing theory has evolved with considerable considerations towards transcultural care. The concept of culture was derived from anthropology and the concept of care was derived from nursing. When one understands the derivative of nursing knowledge and the basis for cultural sensitivity, one may tailor and provide the best nursing care for diverse groups. Each group may have specific needs that may help or hinder healthcare delivery. Hence, if one fully understands the meanings, patterns, and processes, one can explain and predict health and well-being. Although many nursing theories exist, a closer evaluation will be given to Cultural Care Diversity & Universality and Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.
Cultural Competence & Influence
Cultural competence is deemed as essential component in providing healthcare today. Healthcare professionals in healthcare organizations are addressing multicultural diversity and ethnic disparities in health (Wilson, 2004). To better serve…
Kim-Godwin, Y.S., Clarke, P.N. And Barton, L. (2001), A model for the delivery of culturally competent community care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35: 918 -- 925. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01929.x
Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(1), 37-43.
Nelson, J. (2006). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory: The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. International Journal For Human Caring, 10(4), 50.
SNJourney. (2007). Purnell's model of cultural competence. Retrieved from http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/Select%20Topics/Transcultural/PurnellModel2.pdf
1. Nursing Theorist Overview
Theory guides nursing practice and provides a framework for nurse leadership and healthcare management (McKenna, Pajnikar & Murphy, 2014). All prominent nursing theorists like the individuals covered in the multimedia presentation have influenced nursing practice in some way or another, and all do resonate with me on a personal and professional level. I will incorporate elements of all theorists into my practice in terms of interpersonal communications and attitudes towards health and healing. Of the theorists covered in the presentation, those of Florence Nightingale resonate the most because of her inclusion of environmental factors implicated in patient care. Environmental factors like lighting or ventilation can have a profound impact on perceptions of quality of care, too, which has a strong bearing on the efficacy of the healthcare institution (Sabza & Pirani, 2016). The environmental factors that Nightingale identified as being important to patient care also have…
Massachusetts Cost Limiting Proposal
One of the major problems of the current healthcare system implemented by the State of Massachusetts is the cost of maintaining the program and providing the necessary healthcare to Massachusetts' citizens dependent on the state insurance program. Ideally, of course, the program would be paid for via the revenues generated form business contributions, premium payments into the state system, and general tax funding. Revenue can only make up half of the solution for paying for the system, however; costs must also be effectively managed and strictly limited if the program is to be successful in the long-term. One proposal for limiting these costs is switching from a reimbursement-for-services model of physician payment to the creation of performance-based salaries or regular payments.
There are several features of moving to a pay-for-performance rather than a pay-for-service model that have the potential to yield significant savings. As…
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
Defined as the philosophical study of right and wrong action, Ethics is a predominant subject of concern in nursing (Michael Dahnke, 2006). Being presented with various situations, the ethical and cultural problems are a serious concern faced by the nursing and healthcare staff which needs to be catered to day in and out. There is no time tested methodology that can be applied here, since the every patient is different, with a different background history, therefore the ethical and cultural implications of each decision would also vary.
Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
Defining what is right and wrong is a very subjective approach and even that can change from scenario to scenario. Therefore it is important to have some form of umbrella under which the functioning of nurses takes place. It is under this rationale that the importance of ethical theory emerges in front of us.
DuAnne Foster Edwards, R.M. (1999, Feburary). The Synergy Model: Linking Patient Needs to Nurse Competencies. Retrieved September 30th, 2011, from American Association of Critical Care Nurses: http://www.aacn.org:88/wd/certifications/content/synpract2.pcms?pid=1&menu=
Green, D.B. (2001, July). Medical Ethics. Retrieved September 30th, 2011, from Priory.com: http://priory.com/ethics.htm
Michael Dahnke, H.D. (2006). Defining Ethics and Applying the Theories. In P.M. Vicki D. Lachman, Applied Ethics in Nursing (p. 3). New York: Springer.
Samar Noureddine RN, M. (2001). Development of the ethical dimension in nursing theory. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 2-7.
In 2004, a Ten-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care was announced, primarily intended to improve access to medical services, decrease wait times, and update medical equipment and ensure accurate reporting and enhance public health promotion and prevention programs. Shortly thereafter, the Canadian Supreme Court affirmed the nation's health care philosophy and the immediate need to implement further improvements envisioned by the ambitious 2004 plan in striking down a Quebec law that had prohibited private medical insurance for covered services:
The evidence in this case shows that delays in the public health care system are widespread and that in some serious cases, patients die as a result of waiting lists for public health care...In sum, the prohibition on obtaining private health insurance is not constitutional where the public system fails to deliver reasonable services."
According to legal experts, the decision could "open the door to a wave of lawsuits challenging the…
Canadian Medical Association Journal.
1939 September; 41(3):
Chaoulli v. Quebec: Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada Accessed, September 2, 2007, at http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/index.html
Kraus, C. (2005) Canada's Supreme Court Chips Away at National Health Care.
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.
As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…
Boundless, 2016. Research Methods for Evaluating Treatment Efficacy - Boundless Open Textbook. Boundless. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/treating-psychological-disorders-19/introduction-to-the-treatment-of-psychological-disorders-99/research-methods-for-evaluating-treatment-efficacy-382-12917/ [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Brassai, L, Piko, B, & Steger, M 2011, 'Meaning in Life: Is It a Protective Factor for Adolescents' Psychological Health?', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 1, p. 44, Advanced Placement Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Cuijpers, P. et al., 2014. EU-Compass for Action on Mental Health and Well-being. PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION AND PROMOTION OF RESILIENCE. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/mental_health/docs/ev_20161006_co03_en.pdf [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Gillham, J.E. et al., 2012. Preventing Depression in Early Adolescent Girls: The Penn Resiliency and Girls in Transition Programs. Handbook of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Adolescent Girls, pp.124 -- 161.
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
It is imperative to persuade children to go outside and play and to educate them about exercise. They have to learn that there is such a thing as too much or too little. The best thing one can do for their kids is to take walks because it's beneficial to their health (the Media, 2007). Although a good argument can be made that it is not the media that leads women to get eating disorders and that it is instead society that perpetuates this, I think it could be said that one goes hand in hand with the other.
The manner that the main stream media portrays women in the images that they depict has a definite influence on the way that women feel and how they believe that they need to look like. There is a constant barrage of overly think women seen in advertisements that lead women to…
Coakley, Tedra. 2007, "Eating disorders no longer discriminate," viewed November 24, 2010,
< http://www.iccjournal.biz/eating_disorders_no_longer_discr.htm >
"Cultural Roles." 2007, viewed 24 November 2010, < http://www.something-
As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).
The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm .
Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,
2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
He is made at himself for not coming to terms with himself earlier in life and he is mad at himself for spending so much time "giving his love" to people - men -- who didn't deserve it. He says that if he could go back, he would go to school, he would embrace who he is, he would be honest with family about his sexuality, and he would have found a spiritual life sooner. Bruce is quite spiritual now. He is no longer Baptist, but rather he has taken up belief in the tenets of Buddhism, which he claims has brought him much peace inside as well as has made him more tolerant of others -- including whites.
One interesting fact about Bruce is that he says that he has never had a very strong identity to gay men either -- whether they are white or black. He seems…
Gay Men of African Descent (GMAD). (2010). Gay men of African Descent. Accessed on October 28, 2010: http://www.gmad.org/index.html
Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice
(3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
U.S. Health Care System is a series of geographically-determined networks. Established according to American beliefs and values, the system provides essentially two models of health care: the Market Justice Model, based on free enterprise and individual responsibility and ability/willingness to pay; the Social Justice Model, based on the public and equitable provision of basic health care services to all members. The two models are often in conflict with each other, with the Market Justice Model currently being the primary model.
Definition of a Health Care System
A "Health Care System" is commonly defined as "the complete network of agencies, facilities, and all providers of health care in a specified geographic area" (Mosby, 2008). Given that very broad definition, the United States has health care systems spanning such geographical areas as the entire nation, states, counties, cities, towns, villages and neighborhoods.
Implications of Beliefs and Values on a Health Care System…
Daniels, N. (2001). Justice, health and health care. Retrieved on June 9, 2012 from www.hsph.harvard.edu Web site: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/benchmark/ndaniels/pdf/justice_health.pdf
Mosby. (2008). Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Shi, L., & Singh, D.A. (2010). Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System, 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Surowiecki, J. (2009, August 31). Status-quo anxiety. Retrieved on June 9, 2012 from www.newyorker.com Web site: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/financial/2009/08/31/090831ta_talk_surowiecki
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
Pesonal Values Spiitual Beliefs and Health Cae Policy
I have taken up the majoity of values beliefs fom my paents. I value peace as a citical facto in people's lives. People should show goodwill to othes while tying to limit the conflict unless with absolute necessity. Individuals should have some fom of love within thei life. I believe that loving oneself allows people to adoe to fellow humans. Futhe, showing cae to natue involves engaging in sustainable activities that potect all ceatues. The love fo someone o something and eceiving love in etun indicates a level of espect. Ease aises when people feel that thee is a need to be modeate and balance life's offeings (Sooka & Wlezien, 2010). I believe that the equality between female and male aspects and evil and good ae integal phenomena. I value espect fo life and embace divesity that the wold offes. Inceased divesity…
references and Health Care Spending in the U.S. And UK. British Journal of Politics and International Relations 5 (4): 576-93.
Modern healthcare is so complex, so rife with new technologies, new procedures, and new expectations from stakeholders, that the contemporary nurse and physician need all the tools possible to pull for varied situations. Milo's framework is a set of propositions that help frame strategies to improve health inducing behaviors by enhancing personal choice-making while still in the context of societal and cultural expectations. Milo posits that the health status of populations at any given time is essentially the result of individual choice. However, the choices that individuals have tend to be limited by what the individual perceives to be options, depending on their personal and cultural/societal background, not necessarily the choices that are really available. In fact, Milo says, "Most people, most of the time will make the easiest choices, i.e., will do the things, develop the patterns or life-styles, which seem to cost them less and/or from…
Cody, M., ed. (2012). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Milo, N. (1976). A framework for prevention: changing health-damaging to health-generating life patterns. American Journal of Public Health. 66 (5): 439-9. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1653306/
Citation, not plagiarized.
A brief explanation of the public health need you identified.
Childhood obesity is an increasingly prevalent problem in our homes, schools and in the United States as a whole. ith obesity comes a host of health risks including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and a significantly shorter lifespan. This is why early intervention in critical.
Describe the population whom you plan to target for your public health program and explain why.
Early intervention should take the form of addressing obesity in your elementary school aged children. It is at this age that health behaviors become habit-forming and more difficult to break. Additionally, because it appears that younger people are ever more susceptible to obesity, it is critical to take corrective action now.
Describe potential sources of funding.
Funding will largely be elicited through the combined support of government grant programs aimed at reducing childhood obesity and private companies such as…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Health People 2020. CDC.gov.
Primary Text. (?). Planning a Health Promotion Program. .
Social Ecology Model
Social ecology requires that people see that nature and society are intertwined by progress into one environment that is made up of two differences. The first difference being biotic nature and the second being human nature. Human nature and biotic nature split an evolutionary prospective for better prejudice and elasticity. Nature is the manner in which people are flexible, extremely intellectual primates that occupy the natural world. In other words, individuals generate an atmosphere that is most appropriate for their manner of survival. In this case, human nature is no different from the atmosphere that each animal, contingent upon its aptitudes, generates as well as acclimates to, the biophysical conditions or eco community in which it lives. On this extremely basic level, people are, in fact, doing nothing that varies from the endurance actions of nonhumans (Bookchin, 2001).
The SEM is made up of several levels wrapped…
Bookchin, Murray. (2001). What Is Social Ecology? Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/socecol.html
Innovative Pediatric Nursing Role: Public Health Nurses in Child Welfare: Theoretical Framework for Health Case Management Role. (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543725_4
Social Ecological Model. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/cpns/Documents/Network-Appendix6SocialEcologicalModel.pdf
Health Care Free
SHOULD HEALTH CAE BE FEE?
The following debate takes place between four individuals as follows: Dr. Barker, a public health sector physician with an experience of fifteen years; Ms. Gomez, a social activist working for improving opportunities and living conditions for immigrants to the United States; Mr. Walters, a journalist who writes on social and political issues in several newspapers and self-professed atheist; and Mr. Bucelli, a modern poet and novelist with strong humanist inclinations. All four are residents of the Green Springs Community and are recognized members of the community. The debate takes place at the community hall where the debaters are taking part in the annual debate challenge where they have been given the topic Should health care be free? Ms. Gomez and Mr. Bucelli support the proposition that health care should be free for all residents whereas Dr. Barker and Mr. Walters are against…
Abelson, Reed. "Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year, Study Shows." The New York Times. 27 September 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. < http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www >.
Ball, James, and Denis Campbell. "More Patients Waiting Too Long for NHS Treatment." The Guardian. 14 July 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Bialik, Carl. "The unhealthy accounting of uninsured Americans." Wall Street Journal. 24 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
CBS News. "The debate Over Health Care." CBS News. 20 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
health care debate that has been going in the United States. It discusses the Obama Care Act and how it impacts the society. Functionalist perspectives and theories are utilized in analyzing the situation and what outcomes are expected. The major themes and concepts of the functionalist theory are discussed in detail.
The Health Care reform proposed by the Obama Administration has long been the area of debate in America and in countries all over the world. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act go on to cut down the number of people who are not insured. It requires small businesses to provide medical insurance to all the people working in the business. The employers are obliged to provide a good quality medical insurance. Failure of the small business to provide a good health care system will result in a penalty for any employee that goes uninsured. This act applies to…
Berkman, L. et al. (2000) from social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science & Medicine 51 (2000), 51 p.843-857.
Gerhardt, U. (1979) The Parsonian paradigm and the identity of medical sociology. The Sociological Review, 27 (2), p.229-251.
Napsha, J. (2011) Small Business Owners Fret over Health Care Law's Fallout . Tribune-Review/Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24th March.
Unknown. (2012) Supreme Court Ruling Dooms Small Business; Obamacare Increases Taxes and Red Tape Burden . The Washington Times, 29th June.
healthcare has been moving from a total "organic" model to a more holistic viewpoint of the patient and their individual needs. Healthcare professionals have come to realize that within any organization, nothing is ever in isolation. Research has shown us many things that can be improved using the holistic and multi-cultural models, as well as the direction(s) we are suggesting with our new program. Clearly, the empirical research shows us that there are many modifiers that can create illness, modify illness patterns, contribute to healing, and act in a preventative manner (Adler, 1994). This is particularly true when dealing with chronic diseases like AIDS. Specialized AIDS units within a modern healthcare facility offer a team of experts who are familiar with the various permutations of the disease and who have greater responsibility and autonomy within the nursing staff. This should, in theory, increase both objective and subjective outcomes for the…
Adler, N., et.al. (1994), "Health Psychology: Why do Some People Get Sick and Some
Stay Well?," Annual Review of Psychology, 45. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/oi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.001305
Aiken, L., Sloan, D. (1997). Effects of Specialization and Client Differentiation on the Status of Nurses: The Case of AIDS. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 38 (3): 203-22.
Chow, M.k, et al. (2010). The benefits of using a mixed methods approach -- quantitative with qualitative -- to identify client satisfaction and unmet needs in an HIV healthcare centre. AIDS Care. 22-94): 491-98.
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…
Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8
Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133
Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030
Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
A largely insular community since their initial settlement in the United States, the Amish community presents unique challenges for healthcare workers. The Amish eschew modern technology, including many of the tools and techniques used in modern medicine. In fact, the Amish community also forbids higher education (Adams & Leverland, 1986). Misconceptions and misunderstandings about the Amish further complicate healthcare decisions and relationships between healthcare providers and Amish patients. For example, it is commonly assumed that the Amish “lack the preventive practices of immunizations and prenatal care,” (Adams & Leverland, 1986, p. 58). While the rates of immunizations are relatively low among the Amish, the Amish church does not forbid immunization (Adams & Leverland, 1986). The Amish also have a keen interest in disease prevention, health education, and lifestyle choices that prevent health problems (Talpos, 2016). Although Amish attitudes towards health, wellness, and the healthcare system may be at odds with…
Nursing Health Care Informatics
"…At the beginning of the 21st century, nursing informatics has become a part of our professional activities…[and has] advanced the field of nursing by bridging the gap from nursing as an art to nursing as a science…" (Saba, 2001, 177).
Nursing Health Care informatics relate to and address technology and other cutting edge issues of great interest in the healthcare field. According to the AMIA, Nursing Informatics is the "…science and practice (that) integrates nursing, its information and knowledge, with management of information and communication technologies to promote the health of people, families, and communities worldwide." New and relevant knowledge presented in the genre of informatics helps to empower nurses and other healthcare practitioners to deliver the most effective patient-center care possible. This paper presents several informatics in the belief that applying healthcare technologies and practices that are genuinely progressive and helpful to today's nurse is…
AMIA (2009) Working Group Nursing Informatics. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from http://www.amia.org .
An, J.Y., Hayman, L.L., Panniers, T., and Carty, B. (2007). Theory Development in Nursing
And Healthcare Informatics. A Model explaining and Predicting Information and Communication Technology Acceptance by Healthcare Consumers. Advances in Nursing Science, 30(3), E37-E49.
Cipriano, P.F. (2011). The Future of Nursing and Health IT. Nursing Economics, 29(5).
Statistics show that incidences of juvenile criminal behavior are on the rise in the United States. In the year 2000, for example, over 2.3 million juveniles were arrested for various criminal offenses ranging from petty theft and drug abuse to crimes of violence. This figure alone represents a 64% increase from juvenile delinquency statistics from 1980. More disturbing is the fact that the greatest increases are in the areas of violent crime such as rapes, assaults and even homicide (Everett, Chadwell and Chesney 2002).
This trend did not happen overnight. Experts agree that the seeds of youth delinquency are planted at an early age, and that juvenile crime has complex socio-economic and psychological roots. Furthermore, many crime experts argue that delinquency is also the result of a combined failure of families, schools and the greater community.
This paper argues that many social difficulties, from delinquency in school to…
Cassel, Russell, Peter Chow, Donald F. DeMoulin and Robert C. Reiger. 2002. "Comparing the cognitive dissonance of 116 juvenile delinquent boys with that of 215 typical high school students." Education 121(3). ProQuest Database.
Everett, Charlie; Chadwell, Jason and McChesney, Jon. 2002. "Successful programs for at-risk youth." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 73(9). Proquest Database.
Fontes, Lisa Aronson. 2002. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings." Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1): Winter. ProQuest Database.
Neeley, Steven. "The Psychological and Emotional Abuse of Children." Northern Kentucky Law Review. 2000. 27(4). EBSCO host database.
The term health care refers to the inter-related system of care provided to persons during illness. In most of the cases, healthcare begins with the family doctor who refers patient to specialists if needed or directly order further diagnostic testing. Community health clinics perform the same procedure as a family doctor, but alongside with that, clinics also provide insight into patterns of health or illness seen within the community. Hospital just form one part of the healthcare community, as are mostly visited when a patient's condition is more acute and requires intervention by the hospitals high-end staff, since more can be done for him in a hospital rather than in a clinic where he is just an out-patient.
Clinics of various types provide very specific services, such as "pain management clinics" these clinics are targeted for towards people suffering from pain conditions. ehabilitation services also form a needed part…
DDI (2006) Health Care Global Comparison: Leadership Forecast 2005|2006. DDI, Pennsylvania.
DDI (2007) Leading the Past: Preparing the Future. DDI, Pennsylvania.
Fischer (2007) Culture and cultural analysis as experimental systems. Cultural Anthropology. 21(1) 1-65.
Greenfield D (2007) The enactment of dynamic leadership. Leadership in Health Sciences. 20(3) 159-168.
Ibsen / Public Health
Write about the Public Health ethical issues involved in the play
An Enemy of the People is a play in five acts, which depicts a public health crisis in a small Norwegian town. The protagonist is Dr. Stockmann -- he is a physician in this town, and his brother Peter Stockmann is the mayor. As the first act begins, we hear the mayor talking with the newspaper editor Hovstad about the new "baths" which are nearly complete and which promise to attract a large tourist trade to the town. Meanwhile we learn that Dr. Stockmann has suspected these baths of being polluted -- he receives a letter with the results of laboratory analysis, confirming his suspicion. We also learn that Stockmann's own motivation here may come from a lingering resentment -- he reminds the mayor and the others that he himself had proposed a different drainage…
Becker, M.H.,Radius, S.M., & Rosenstock, I.M. (1978). Compliance with a medical regimen for asthma: a test of the health belief model, Public Health Reports, 93, 268-77.
Conner, M. & Norman, P. (1996). Predicting Health Behavior. Search and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Open University Press: Ballmore: Buckingham.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.
Glanz, K., Marcus Lewis, F. & Rimer, B.K. (1997). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. National Institute of Health.
The first point addressed by Clark's review determines that a fundamental change in medical perspective had begun to transpire with the assumption of varying clinical research investigations on the subject.
This would contribute to what Clark identifies as a major shift in the way that physicians had begun to perceive and treat terminal illness. As opposed to a cut and dry preparation of the patient for the certainty of death, Clark points to a juncture in the mid to late 20th century at which medical professionals had begun to adopt "an active rather than a passive approach to the care of dying people was promoted in which the fatalistic resignation of the doctor ('there is nothing more we can do') was supplanted by a determination to find new and imaginative ways to continue caring up to the end of life." (Clark, 2002) In addition to serving as a fundamental motivation…
Clark, D. (2002). Between hope and acceptance: the medicalisation of dying. The British Medical Journal, 324, p. 905-907.
Eckholm, E. (1991). The price of hope: Medicine's Disputed Frontier. The New York
Times. Retrieved April 8th, 2008 from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6D6173AF93AA2575AC
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Health Promotion Case Study
In this scenario the individual has been asked by a local law firm to come into the organization and establish a wellness program to promote the health of its employees. The firm includes a team of 20 lawyers, 3 managers, 45 paralegals, 5 administrative assistants, 2 information technologists and 4 part-time housekeeping and maintenance staff. The partners agreed last year to install a fully equipped gym in their building because otherwise they would receive a discount on the health insurance if 85% of the employees were participating in the gym at least an average of 90 minutes a week. At the time of renewal of the health care benefits package, the organization was disqualified from the discount because only approximately 10% of the employees were participating in the gym. This case involves a solution for engaging more of the law firm employees in health promotion activities…
Wieczner, J (2013) Your Company Wants to Make You Healthy. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: SB10001424127887323393304578360252284151378
Gaines, M. (2012) How to Motivate Employees to Exercise. Chron. Retrieved from: http://work.chron.com/motivate-employees-exercise-1860.html
Garity, C. (nd) Corporate Fitness and Active Aging. Retrieved from: http://wellness.nifs.org/blog/bid/39826/Corporate-Fitness-Programs-Can-Motivate-Employees-to-Exercise-at-Work
Number 5 is a cue to action, incenting the mother by reminding her that either she or her baby could be a victim with out proper medical care.
Informed Decision-Making Messaging Strategy
Informed decision-making interventions should be used when persuasion would be inappropriate (Communication for health. Examples include when the evidence is not sufficiently clear to support one behavior over another (e.g., surgical removal vs. watchful waiting for men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer), when an individual's values must be taken into consideration to determine the optimal behavior (prevention of sexual assault), or when society has been unable to reach consensus about the optimal recommended behavior (e.g., prevention of teen pregnancy) (Communication for health). Instead of providing evidence that prenatal care can save lives, it relies on the mother wanting to do the right thing and uses a woman who has lost her child to convince her.
Communication for health. Encyclopedia of public health. http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/communication-health
Evans W.D. And McCormack, L. (2006, September 13). Marketing "evidence" to healthcare consumers: Applying social marketing to evidence about the harms and benefits of pharmaceuticals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Conference. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:mTQf4SGTS2gJ:effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/documents/Marketing_Evidence_Evans.ppt+social+marketing+%22Informed+decision+making%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us
Health Belief Model. University of Twente. http://www.cw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/
Gosik. A. (2007, October 12). U.S. ranks 41st in maternal mortality. Seattle Post-Intelligencer
Indeed, the Model is an appropriate way to gain a better understanding of what causes people to make certain health behavior decisions, such as those which are likely to have caused pregnant women to bypass regular medical attention or to have failed to take the necessary lifestyle precautions during pregnancy to protect her health and that of her unborn child. ithout question, issues of poverty and a shortfall of necessary resources will be relevant causes. However, the premise of the message campaign will be to disseminate information about self-care that can help those lacking access. Additionally, we act from the presumption that the scarcity of resources also means that where such are available, there may be a dearth of distributed information to make women aware of these options.
Therefore, it seems reasonable to deduce that a perspective through this model might help to reveal such possible causes for maternal and…
Ell, K.; Vourlekis, B.; Muderspach, L.; Nissly, J.; Padget, D.; Pineda, D.; Sarabia, O. & Lee, P. (2002). Abnormal Cervical Screen Follow-Up Among Low-Income Latina: Project SAFe. Journal of Women's Health & Gender Medicine, 11(7), 639-651.
Kotch, J. (2005). Maternal and Child Health: Programs, Problems, and Policy in Public Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Promoting community awareness of the need for colorectal cancer prevention and screening," which was written by Causey and Greenwauld, is appropriate. It clarifies the purpose of the research study on which this article is based and provides an effective summary of the particular area of nursing and science that the authors are writing about. Nonetheless, it does not allude to the key variables that influence the study, its results, nor the particular model it utilizes, which is reflective of the principle area in which a sufficient title could be improved.
he abstract for the aforementioned paper is extremely effective. In a paragraph of just a few sentences, the authors are able to identify the key factors related to this study: the problem, the methods and the model used to gather data, the results and the conclusion gathered from those results. he writing is relatively terse and straightforward, and is bolstered…
There really was no intervention in this study, other than the educational session that all of the participants received. Nonetheless, the data collection method was not biased and the authors seemed appropriately trained to collect this data.
Other than the unusual way in which the paper was structured in which the literature review combined various aspects of a general overview of CRC (some of which was not germane to the research question) this document was well written presented in an accessible manner to nurses. Since one of the researchers had done a previous study on a topic closely related to this subject, the credibility of the authors was not dubitable and was enhanced by their professional and academic credentials. The validity of the study findings is also considerably compromised by the fact that the researchers "knew" (Causey and Greenwauld. 2011, p. 39) a percentage of the participants. Still, the study does function as a launching point for future research in this area as it specifically applies to nurses and educating the population regarding CRC.
Healthcare/Statistics/Human esources Leadership
Unit 3-Assignment Details: Statistic
Empirical probability of an occurrence is essentially an estimate that this occurrence will take place on the basis of how frequent the occurrence takes place subsequent to the collection of data or conducting an experiment. Empirical probability is grounded distinctively on direct observations or experiences. On the other hand, theoretical probability of an occurrence is the number of ways that the occurrence can take place divided by the total number of outcomes. In other words, it is trying to find the probability of occurrences that emanate from a sample space of known equally probable outcomes (Anastas, 1999). The law of large numbers is considered to be one of the main theories of probability and asserts that the sample mean converges to the distribution mean as the sample size rises. The law of large numbers offers a clarification on the manner in which empirical…
Anastas, J. W. (1999). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. New York: Columbia University Press.
Asch, D. (1996). The role of clinical care nurses in euthanasia and assisted suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 334 (21); 1374 -1379.
Boudreau, J. D., Somerville, M. A. (2014). Euthanasia and assisted suicide: a physician's and ethicist's perspectives. Medicolegal and Bioethics 2014, 4:13-14
Hatch, M. J. (1993). The dynamics of organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 657-693.
Health Care Practices in Honduras
In order to understand healthcare in Honduras, it is important to understand that Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western hemisphere (ennert & Koop, 2009).
"The economic situation is accompanied by a shortage of health professionals throughout the country. There are 57 physicians and 129 nurses per 100,000 people. In the United States, the corresponding ratios are 256 and 937 per 100,000 respectively" (ennert & Koop, 2009). This scenario means that many people in Honduras lack access to formal healthcare and must rely upon home or folk remedies for diagnosis and treatment of disease. The dire economic conditions in Honduras help create an atmosphere of chronic disease and health conditions that promote disease. Some of these problems include: diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, lack of access to clean drinking water, waste disposal issues, muscle pain, and tuberculosis (ennert & Koop, 2009). In fact,…
Marson, M., Prohaska, A., Burris, S., Richardson, C. Crigger, N. (2006). Rural Hodurans perceptions about health and healthcare practices. Retrieved September 30, 2012 from Journal of Undergraduate Nursing Scholarship website: http://www.juns.nursing.arizona.edu/articles/Fall%202006/marson.htm
Massachusetts General Hospital. (2012). Honduras: Bits of culture. Retrieved September 30,
2012 from http://www2.massgeneral.org/interpreters/b_hon.asp
Rennert, W., & Koop, E. (2009). Primary health care for remote village communities in Honduras: A model for training and support of community health workers. Family Medicine, 41(9), 646-51.
; And, 3) The individual must believe that the recommended action can be adhered to successfully. (TC, 1)
Prevention: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary (diet, exercise, immunizations, screenings)
The Health Belief Model would contribute to a lesson in prevention of the condition's worsening severity. Here, the primary level of prevention is seen as dietary. The secondary level is seen as exercise and the tertiary level is viewed as immunizations and screenings.
Teaching strategies will included the use of visual aids and literature materials as well as the applied discussion of realistic dietary and exercise goals.
Resources to be used in supplement to the education of the patient will include pamphlets regarding the implications of diabetes, the distribution of kits with required self-treatment materials, the compilation of useful web resources, nutritional dietary recipe kits and preliminary exercise regimen diagrams.
Methods of Evaluation
The effectiveness of the proposed teaching learning plan…
TCW. (2006). Health Belief Model. Universitie Twente. Online at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/.
Adults and Vegetables
Lack of Incentive Drives Adult Consumers to Not Consume Vegetables
The eating habits of adult consumers are largely determined in the formative years of growth, especially in childhood and adolescence (Fitzgerald et al., 2010, p.1). When coupled with the notion that "liking" and "wanting" are two elements that factor into the decision making process of adults who consume vegetables, the formative years may play an instrumental part in establishing what future adults will "like" and/or "want" (Finlayson, 2006, p. 37). Establishing the conditions under which tastes are developed for specific foods, therefore, may help us understand why some adults fail to consume vegetables.
Attitude Behavioral Model: TPB
As Icek Ajken (2010) states, using the Theory of Planned Behavior shows us how "human behavior is guided by three kinds of considerations: beliefs about the likely consequences of the behavior (behavioral beliefs), beliefs about the normative expectations of others…
Ajzen, I. (2010). Constructing a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html
Chew, F. et al. (1998). Testing the Influence of the Health Belief Model and a Television Program on Nutrition Behavior. Health Communication 10(3): 227-245. DOI: 10.1207/s15327027hc1003_3
Finlayson, G. et al. (2006). Is it possible to dissociate 'liking' and 'wanting' fro foods in humans? A novel experimental procedure. Physiology & Behavior 90: 36-42. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.08.020
Fitzgerald, A. et al. (2010). Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents: a qualitative investigation. Health Promotional International. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/heapro/daq021
Establishing an NP Led Wellness and Recovery Center for Deinstitutionalized Individuals
Historically, nursing, and medicine professions have been loath to utilize tools commonly linked with mercenary aspects of business, such as market research and decision analysis. In the contemporary health care setting, however, consumers hold numerous options for care providers. The division of the market or market segmentation into different subgroups allows the determination of target markets and the buildup of marketing policies specific to the needs and interests of the selected subgroups. Market analysis allows the identification of policies for nurse practitioners to enhance their practice in a way that centers on the interests and needs of the selected market. While scores of the nurse practitioner's dream of operating their own businesses, those that have set up their own practice understand that it requires a compelling passion for owning a business, and for the profession.
A nurse practitioner is…
Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North
Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut" (Guttmacher, 2010). It is important to keep in mind that teenage abortion rates may reflect multiple issues. First, they may reflect that teenager's own personal beliefs and desire to raise a baby. However, they may also reflect prevailing societal norms in that geographic area, which can make it difficult, and even practically impossible, for pregnant teenagers to obtain abortions.
Portrayal in popular culture
Perhaps one of the most alarming things about teen pregnancy is that it is receiving more…
Cape Fear Teen Health Council. (2006). Why is teen pregnancy a problem? Retrieved April 2,
2012 from http://www.capefearteen.org/cfthc.php?section=statistics&record_id=1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births- Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), 2004-2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 61(2), 25-29.
Drayton, V., Montgomery, S., Modeste, N., Frye-Anderson, B. (2002-2003). The health belief model as a predictor of repeat pregnancies among Jamaican teenage mothers. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 21(1), 67-81.
This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).
Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV /…
Arreola, S.G., Neilands, T.B., & Diaz, R. (2009). "Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men." American journal of public health,2(99).
Brooks, R.A., Etzel, M.A., Hinojos, E., Henry, C.L., & Perez, M. (2005). "Preventing HIV
among Latino and African-American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS patient care
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…
Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of
Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.
Bradshaw, M.J. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett.
DeYoung, P.A. (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York: Brunner-
Junior golf is a sport that teaches skills and lessons kids and teens keep learning from, for the rest of their lives. Through observation and communication, youth understand the value of fairness, good sportsmanship, competitive spirit, teamwork, and several other key lessons. This is due to the core values taught by instructors and junior golfers in the sport. Some like Bandura and otter observe such phenomenon as a product of social learning theory.
Social learning theory or as Bandura relabeled, social cognitive theory, posits that behavior is determined from expectancies as well as incentives. Expectancies are divided into three types. The first is expectancies about environmental cues or beliefs on what leads to what. The second is expectancies about the consequences of an individual's actions meaning outcome expectation. The third is expectancies over competence to perform a necessary behavior in order to influence outcomes, termed efficacy expectation.
These expectancies are…
Nguyen Do, L. (2011). Bobo Doll Experiment. Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development, 264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_379
Rosenstock, I., Strecher, V., & Becker, M. (1988). Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model. Health Education & Behavior, 15(2), 175-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500203
Evaluating theoretical framework also assists in determining whether the structure directs the research study. This process entails identification of constructs or concepts, assessment of definitions, relationships, variables, hypothesis, methodology and findings.
Discussion Question Two: Will there always be a theoretical framework that aligns with your chosen topic of study? Why or why not?
Theoretical framework entails the collection of combined concepts that are not essentially well established (Aparasu, 2011). Theoretical framework determines the things a researcher measures and the statistical link to look for. Through theoretical framework, researchers engage preconceived ideas. For instance, some people deem that human beings are untrustworthy and lazy. Such basic beliefs regarding human temperament influences how a researcher views things when conducting a research. In this regard, not understanding the actual framework is an enormous concern. Theoretical framework directs the researcher to what he/she views in his/her environment, and what he/she does not notice in…
Aparasu, R. (2011). Research methods for pharmaceutical practice and policy. New York:
Beck, C., & Faan, C. (2013). Routledge international handbook of qualitative nursing research.
New York: Routledge
The Health elief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Social Learning Theory attempt to explain behavior change during treatment (Neft and MacMasters 2005). The three models have been integrated to help explain how spiritual change can effect a change in the behavior of someone with substance problems. The integrated model lacks solid theoretical or empirical mechanisms in achieving its purpose. The three models share a common goal of creating a shift from negative and punishing to positive and forgiving views of spirituality and of God. It proposes a framework of changes at several levels (Neft and MacMasters).
At the individual attributes level, the person presents his or her spiritual background or history, current level of spirituality and overall readiness for treatment in this manner (Neft and MacMasters 2005). Many substance abusers are detached from key societal institutions, such as the church. Around 85% of them are not receiving…
Ashley, S.S. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: a review. 20 pages. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Campbell, Cynthia and Jeffrey a. Alexander (2005). Health services for women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. 17 pages. Health Services Research: American College of Healthcare Services
Mersy, D.J. (2003). Recognition of alcohol and substance abuse. 6 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians
Neft, J.A. And Samuel a. Macmaster (2005). Applying behavior models to understand spiritual mechanisms underlying change in substance abuse treatment. 12 pages. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Taylor & Francis Ltd.