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Health Care IT
Health Care Information Technology
The days of paper-based records in health care are fading. It is widely believed that the broad adoption of clinical applications such as computerized physician order entry (CPOE) can lead to major health care savings, help eliminate medical errors, and improve healthcare outcomes for patients (Lynn, 2011). Because of such benefits, the Obama administration included automated adoptions in health care as a part of its overall agenda calling for "the immediate investments necessary to ensure that within five years, all of America's medical records are computerized" (Obama, 2009).
Our organization moved to PharMerica's paperless administration system after a very careful analysis and assessment of the best solution for meeting the needs of the organization's specific clinical and business practices. The new clinical system eliminates the needs for peel-and-stick labels, faxes, handwritten documentation and manual processes. The outcome has been improved workflows and overall…
Childs, L., Alexander, E., & Duong, M. (2012). Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: Assessment of a medical center's policies and procedures. American Journal Of Health-System Pharmacy, 69(10), 885-889. doi:10.2146/ajhp110356.
Gagnon, M., Desmartis, M., Labrecque, M., Legare, F., Lamothe, L., Fortin, J., & ... Duplantie, J. (2010). Implementation of an electronic medical record in family practice: a case study. Informatics In Primary Care, 18(1), 31-40.
Kumar, S., & Aldrich, K. (2010). Overcoming barriers to electronic medical record (EMR) implementation in the U.S. healthcare system: A comparative study. Health Informatics Journal, 16(4), 306-318. doi:10.1177/1460458210380523.
Lynn, K. (2011). What's the "buzz" on labs and EMRs?. MLO: Medical Laboratory Observer, 43(4), 42-47.
The American Medical Association (AMA, 2011) lists more than eighty careers in the healthcare industry. All Health Care (2011) points out that ten of the twenty fastest growing occupations are in healthcare fields. The fifteen most promising jobs in the healthcare industry include home health aides, medical scientists, physician assistants, athletic trainers, dental assistants, dental hygienists, veterinary techs, physical therapy assistants, medical assistants, veterinarians, physical therapists, occupational therapy assistants, radiation therapists, occupational therapists, and surgical technologists (All Health Care, 2011). However, nursing, pharmacy, psychology, dentistry, counseling, gerontology, and health information systems also remain growing fields in the healthcare sector.
Occupational therapy and related professions address the needs of patients needing assistance with daily living. Occupational therapists help patients with physical, mental, emotional, or developmental disorders, who would otherwise struggle with living independently. Projected growth in the occupational therapy field is over 26%, and the median wages earned by occupational…
All Health Care (2011). 15 hottest health care fields of 2010. AllHealthCare. Retrieved online: http://allhealthcare.monster.com/careers/articles/3993-15-hottest-health-care-fields-of-2010
American Dental Association (2011). Education and careers. Retrieved online: http://www.ada.org/education.aspx
American Medical Association (AMA, 2011). Careers in health care. Retrieved online: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/careers-health-care.page
"Careers in Nursing," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.nurse.com/students/careersinnursing.html
Healthcare Legal Issues: Care and Treatment of Minors
The evolution of the hospital is a unique social phenomenon reflecting societal attitudes toward illness and the welfare of the individual and the group. Hospitals existed in antiquity, in Egypt and in India. After Christianity became the state religion of the oman Empire, hospitals were built in Christian nations. Subsequently, after Islam arose, hospitals were built in Moslem countries as well. egardless of questions of their origin, hospitals and the practice of modern medicine have continued to evolve. Today, people of all faiths and non-faiths may study medicine, work in hospitals, and service worldwide relief organizations. Such broad tentacles required the development of healthcare administration, which encompasses both the technical aspects of the management of healthcare delivery and the social and public policy issues related to access to care (Pozgar, 2007). With this evolution of healthcare practice, hospital structures and functions have…
American Medical Association -- AMA. (2012). Informed consent. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/legal-topics/patient-physician-relationship-topics/informed-consent.page
Boonstra, H., and Nash, E. (2000, August). Minors and the right to consent to health care. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 3(4).
Davis, K. (2002). The duty of informed consent. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/~dqg/newone/dutytoinform.htm
Elsevier Science, Inc. (2003). Minor's rights vs. parental rights: Review of legal issues: Exemptions from parental consent for minors. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/456472_5
2010). A complaint with many people who utilize this data is about the data entry with many particularly against the quality. ETO-HMIS boasts of fast implementation and transfer of data which puts them way ahead of any competitors. It is particularly imperative that there is the development for a culture where there is sharing of data. This leads to an increase in the checks for efficiency within healthcare. This data are also extremely useful in the formulation of any new strategies that may arise from necessity. Decision making also improves with the high rate of sharing data. This is because with clear facts and not avoiding of speculations, it is easier to reach agreements on the solutions.
There are various trends in the usage of the software within the healthcare industry. One of them is the vast expectation that patients have when they come to the institution. Most of the…
Armoni, a. (2000). Healthcare information systems: Challenges of the new millennium.
Hershey, Pa: Idea Group Publ.
Langenbrunner, J., Cashin, C., O'Dougherty, S., & World Bank. (2009). Designing and implementing health care provider payment systems: How-to manuals. Washington, D.C:
The managers in healthcare organization need to come up with strategies to make a balance between the quality and quantity of healthcare provided to clients in order to increase their throughput. This includes making the admission and discharge process as smooth as possible for clients as well as ensuring that clients have access to the best quality of healthcare.
http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/AMA%20Publications/AMA%20Magazines/Marketing%20Health%20Services/MarketingHealthServices.aspxAmerican Marketing Association. (2012). Marketing Health Services etrieved September 7th, 2012, from Dumas, M.B. (1985). Hospital bed utilization: an implemented simulation approach to adjusting and maintaining appropriate levels. Health Services esearch, 20(1), 43-61. etrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1068864/
Karagiannis, . (Producer). (2010). Analysing the capacity utilization and optimal input usage of public hospitals in Greece. International Conference on Applied Economics. etrieved from http://kastoria.teikoz.gr/icoae2/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/articles/2011/10/044.pdf
Sabharwal, a., ao, .K., Gonzalez, J.K., & Mason, M.G. (2005). New oles Improve Bed Utilization. etrieved from http://www.psqh.com/novdec05/bed-utilization.html
Salls, H. (2012). On a Mission etrieved September 7th, 2012, from…
http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/AMA%20Publications/AMA%20Magazines/Marketing%20Health%20Services/MarketingHealthServices.aspxAmerican Marketing Association. (2012). Marketing Health Services Retrieved September 7th, 2012, from Dumas, M.B. (1985). Hospital bed utilization: an implemented simulation approach to adjusting and maintaining appropriate levels. Health Services Research, 20(1), 43-61. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1068864/
Karagiannis, R. (Producer). (2010). Analysing the capacity utilization and optimal input usage of public hospitals in Greece. International Conference on Applied Economics. Retrieved from http://kastoria.teikoz.gr/icoae2/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/articles/2011/10/044.pdf
Sabharwal, a., Rao, R.K., Gonzalez, J.K., & Mason, M.G. (2005). New Roles Improve Bed Utilization. Retrieved from http://www.psqh.com/novdec05/bed-utilization.html
Salls, H. (2012). On a Mission Retrieved September 7th, 2012, from http://www.marketingpower.com/ResourceLibrary/MarketingHealthServices/Pages/2012/Spring%202012/on-a-Mission.aspx
During the ten-year period ending with 2009, the administrative costs and the profits of health insurance companies rose slower than other healthcare costs and came to represent an ever-shrinking proportion of healthcare premiums. Much of the increase in administrative costs can be ascribed to inflation, especially during the years prior to the recent recession, and ongoing expansions of healthcare coverage and legislation during the period also required some increases. The cost of care and the amount of care provided increased substantially during this period, however, and it is the increased demand that this placed on health insurance administrative efforts that accounts for the increases in these costs. In other words, health insurance has actually become more efficient and less costly in administrating care during this period, able to continue providing necessary administrative services for rapidly expanding healthcare needs with a relatively modest expansion of administrative needs.…
Delivery of Quality Health Care
The good old saying; health is wealth is as valid today as it was at the time when it was said. Health is the most important construct of human happiness. It is a unique element which cannot be substituted by any other thing on the face of earth. It is no exaggeration to say that all the facilities and privileged of life can be enjoyed only by the healthy person.
Keeping in view the importance of healthy life for human beings, many of the advancements made by mankind revolve around healthcare. Diseases are very natural and one may suffer from diseases because of a factor which is not identified by human beings as yet. However, there are many causes of bad health which have been explored and accommodated in the healthcare system so that man is better able to enjoy the luxuries of life.…
ABCC. (2012). Bioinformatics Projects. Available from http://isp.ncifcrf.gov/abcc/abcc-groups/bioinformatics/projects/
It casts light upon the various projects which are conducted in the domain of medical science in conjunction with computer science. The combination makes it Bio-informatics where movement of systems information is regulated.
CBC News. (2010). Vitamin D deficiency in 1.1 million Canadians. Available from http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2010/03/23/vitamin-d-levels-canada.html
Almost 4% population of Canada is vitamin D deficient. The figure of 4% seems negligible at a glance but when it is converted to head count, it becomes 1.1 million. The situation is alarming for health care responsible bodies of Canada.
At this point in time, there is growing support for the idea of universal access to healthcare. In fact, President Obama was able to draft and secure the passage of a healthcare law that is the first step towards universal access in the United States. There has been a tremendous amount of opposition to the law, which has resulted in legal challenges to the law. In an article posted by the Voice of America (VOA ) it is stated that "The U.S. Supreme Court handed President Barack Obama a major victory Thursday, upholding the key part of his controversial health care plan in a 5-4 decis ion" (VOA, 2012). As soon as the news broke, "26 states filed suit against the reform law and the challenger in the 2012 election, M itt Romney, promised to repeal the law his first day in office" (VOA, 2012). "The Obama administration had argued…
However, not all who oppose the law do so from a conservative perspective. It is critical to keep in mind that Obamacare does not ensure universal health coverage. Instead, it extends the power of a private-party insurance system that many feel is irreparably broken. In addition, it places many of those who are most vulnerable at risk of further denial of access to healthcare. Contemplating the 2012 legal challenge to Obamacare, noted socialist Jerry White commented, "If the legislation is upheld by the court and fully implemented, as many as 20 million workers could lose their employer-based health insurance, as corporations dump workers into the state insurance exchanges to be set up under the Obama plan, according to the findings of a study published in March. If the legislation is overturned, the same process will continue in a different form, as corporations simply slash benefits and eliminate health care for both retired and active workers" (White, 2012). Clearly, he did not see the healthcare law as a benefit to those who were most vulnerable or as a reasonable means of ensuring healthcare access to the millions of Americans who are already struggling with lack of access.
A more optimistic view of healthcare reform recognizes its potential to improve the efficiency of our healthcare system. A more efficient healthcare system will help lower the burden of health insurance premiums for firms, and in turn allow them to hire more workers. This w ill also increase the number of jobs for Americans, while at the same time reducing the financial woes of those individuals struggling without health insurance in a depressed labor market.
Interestingly enough, whether health care coverage is necessary for the health of individual is actually a subject of debate. Many individuals argue that it is not necessary to have health insurance. However, I have a personal perspective on the necessity of healthcare coverage, which is based on my experience of having been without health insurance for several years and then having health care coverage. My husband and I were self-employed when we first married and as such we could never afford the costly health insurance coverage. We went at least 5 years without any medical or healthcare coverage, whatsoever. I finally decided to look for a job that did provide health benefits and was ecstatic when I found one that not only provided it, but also did not make you pay any part of the premiums for coverage. This turned out to be a blessing in disguise because six months later my husband was diagnosed with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease. Th is disease affects his immune system. One night he thought he was having a heart attack, I took him to the emergency room and it turns out that his disease
Health Care Changes and Trends
The healthcare industry in currently undergoing a highly necessary phase of reform. Following the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), hospitals, physicians, patients and economists are working to determine what the legislation could mean for them. The reality though is that the myriad changes on the horizon are difficult to predict because they are determined by the intercession of a wide variance of independent forces. Indeed, as the discussion here below shows, these forces fall into the categories of Economics, Culture, Technology and Government.
Economics play an especially pertinent role in defining the healthcare experience for a great many Americans. Indeed, one of the greatest causes for reform is the inequality that permeates the healthcare system. The rate of growth in healthcare costs has far exceeded the natural rate of inflation, largely to the benefit of corporations such as insurance companies and managed…
Bernstein, J. (2009). Impact of the Economy on Health Care. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
CSC. (2010). 10 Emerging Healthcare Technologies. CSC.com.
Elmore, R. (2013). Moving Toward an Identity and Patient Records Locator. Avancehealth.com.
Meingast, M.; Roosta, T. & Sastry, S. (2006). Security and privacy issues with health care information technology. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 1, p. 5453-8.
Health Care Communication Modality
esource: Communication Paper grading criteria . There a variety communication modalities health care consumers health care providers. These modalities venues communication entail benefits challenges consumers providers.
Communication modality used in health care
Across all sectors of health care communication is critical to ensuring quality of care. Improving the quality of communication is tantamount to better outcomes in patient health. The communication modality between the provider and the consumer affects each facet of health care provision. It promotes health, prevention of disease, disease assessment, diagnosis and treatment. The paramount importance of communication on the overriding interest of patients' and, their family member's wellness is the quality of care and the confidentiality (Delbanco & Sands, 2004).
Web-based Collaboration Communication Modality
Web-based Collaboration communication entails the use of communication technology in the clinical health context to consult with the care givers and those receiving treatment (Turner, Thomas, & einsch,…
Delbanco, T., & Sands, D.Z. (2004). Electrons in Flight -- Email Between Doctors and Patient, New England. Journal of Medicine, 350, 1705-1707.
Turner, J.W., Thomas, R.J., & Reinsch, N.L. (2004). Willingness to try a new communication technology: Perpetual factors and task situations in a health care context. Journal of Business Communication, 41, 5-26.
Wittson, C.L., & Benschoter, R. (2006). Two-way television: Helping the medical center reach out. American Journal of Psychiatry, 129(25), 624-627.
Through referrals, word-of-mouth, medical communities, and online platform, market and highlight generalist and specialist doctors as one of the best in the state of California. Conduct 'marketing through reputation,' word-of-mouth marketing primarily sustained by patients/clients
Development of a program that reaches out to a wider, less-medical-oriented market. Good Sam could develop health & wellness programs as part of its daily healthcare services. The objective of the program is to promoting a sustainable healthy lifestyle, a preventive healthcare program from a medical perspective. This is an expansion of the health clubs/communities of learners, wherein patients/clients are both informed and encouraged to participate in activities that contribute positively to their health and well-being on a regular basis
The feasibility (and eventually, viability) of diversifying into a health and wellness institution would be a radical yet effective move for Good Sam, as it has already established itself as a reputable and competitive…
Horsnell, a. (2000). "Identifying your best earned-income opportunities." Minnesota: Authenticity Consulting, LLC.
Rethmeier, K. (2010). "Innovation for healthcare reform: creating opportunities to explore, expand, and excel." Journal of Management & Marketing in Healthcare, Vol. 3, No. 2.
Sharma, K. And S. Zodpey. (2010). "Need and opportunities for health management education in India." Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 54, Issue 2.
Health Care Accounting
Because health care focuses on a human concern, it is especially important to maintain a sense of ethics in this field. This becomes even more important when the concern is finance, accounting, and accountability. It is vital that accountability be maintained in healthcare funds, since the concern is often public funds and its application. If these are badly managed or unethically applied, the cost might be more than financial. Indeed, human lives might be at stake. For this reason, cost principles and generally accepted accounting principles can be applied when considering finance in the healthcare field. In a practical sense, two articles have been chosen to demonstrate accounting principles in a practical sense, the first of which concerns a single-player healthcare financing system, while the second focuses on pharmaceutical companies and their role in financing drug trials.
In the accounting field, there are four main important principles…
Hsiao, W.C., Knight, A.G., Kappel, S., and Done, N. (2011). What Other States Can Learn From Vermont's Bold Experiment: Embracing A Single-Payer Health Care Financing System. Health Affairs, Vol. 30, No. 7. Retrieved from: http://hpaa.sph.unc.edu/AdmittedStudents/masters_orient_discuss.pdf
Schott, G., Pachl, H., Limbach, U., Gundert-Remy, U., Lieb, K., and Ludwig, W-D. (2010, Apr.). The Financing of Drug Trials by Pharmaceutical Companies and Its Consequences. Deutches Arzteblatt, Vol. 107, No. 17. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872821/
Health Care Communication:
Communication plays a crucial role in the health care industry because of its direct link to delivery of patient care services. Therefore, communication is vital in health care despite of whether the individual is a researcher, patient, physician, caregiver, or student. Actually, the importance of communication in delivery of care is evident from its consideration as the key to improvement of patient safety, patient satisfaction scores, and inter-disciplinary teamwork. In the past few years, there have been increased efforts in the health care environment towards improving communication among the members of the team such as patients, family members, and the health care team members. This is primarily because effective communication in health care is the basis for patient safety, cultural sensitivity, and the core of palliative care since it matches the wishes and goals of patients with treatment plans.
Basic Elements of Effective Communication:
The success of…
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication Systems in Healthcare. The Clinical Biochemist
Reviews, 27(2), 89-98. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Spath, P.L. (2004, February). Can you Hear Me Now? Retrieved August 25, 2012, from http://www.hhnmag.com/hhnmag/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=AHA/PubsNewsArticle/data/0312HHN_FEA_CoverStory&domain=HHNMAG
Healthcare Quality Measurement
Compare one measurement that you identified in the eek 2 Discussion with one measurement outlined by the CMS restricted reimbursements and explain how these two measures demonstrate evidence of compliance with their respective quality measurement standards.
In the eek 2 Discussion, we considered the importance of personnel-focused quality measures in rating healthcare performance. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) maintain a wide range of these measurement types. Accordingly, "of the quality measures currently in use by CMS, 153 address physician and other professional behavior as part of the 2009 PQRI measure set." (CMS, p. 6) This degree of attention suggests that there are many correlations between achieving positive treatment outcomes and providing meaningful frameworks, standards and oversight to healthcare providers. These system end-users will have a defining impact on treatment quality and, increasingly in the current regulatory climate, the impact of reimbursement penalties.
Albanese, M.P., Evans, D.A., Schantz, C.A., Bowen, M., Disbot, M., Moffa, J.S., & ... Polomano, R.C. (2010). Engaging clinical nurses in quality and performance improvement activities. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 34(3), 226-245.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (CMS) (n.d.). Quality initiatives: Overview. Retrieved from http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-Initiatives-Patient-Assessment-Instruments/QualityInitiativesGenInfo/index.html?redirect=/QualityInitiativesGenInfo/
Howie, W.O. (2009). Mandatory reporting of medical errors: Crafting policy and integrating it into practice. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 5(9), 649-654.
Park, J., Konetzka, R.T., & Werner, R.M. (2011). Performing well on nursing home report cards: Does it pay off? Health Services Research, 46(2), 531 -- 554. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2010.01197.x
Health Care Institution Strategic Plan
The focus of this presentation is a strategic plan for the healthcare institution. Proposed as a strategic method of support is to retain an Olympic champion, John Smith who has given his agreement to represent this health care institution as spokesperson.
Smith will represent this health care institution much in the way that Magic Johnson has represented the Magic Johnson Foundation, an organization that work in developing programs and supports community-based organizations in addressing the educational, health and social needs of ethically diverse urban communities." (Magic Johnson Foundation, 2012)
Christopher eeve, an actor and equestrian competitor who received an injury that paralyzed him from the neck down prior to his death was a spokesperson for The American Paralysis Foundation, a non-profit foundation established in 1982. eeve worked with the foundation to find ways that those living with paralysis can increase their quality of life and…
Christopher Reeve: A True Superman. (2011) Fire Safety for People with Disabilities and Their Caregivers. Scioto. Retrieved from: http://www.scioto.com/christopher-reeve-a-true-superman/
About the Magic Johnson Foundation (2012) Magic Johnson Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.magicjohnson.com/foundation/about.php
In today's healthcare environment, practice managers have to face important financial issues they did not struggle with 10 years ago. One of those is with the billing of healthcare, since so many different methods and options are appearing today (Morgan, 2012). Online billing choices, different types of software, and other facets of the financial environment are changing the face of healthcare and making things confusing for practice managers. The codes that are used for medical billing and the way those codes are used also change frequently, and learning the new codes means that mistakes will inevitably be made. These mistakes can result in major billing errors for patients and can cost the practice time and money to sort out (Morgan, 2012). Additionally, incorrect coding can mean that a person will end up with a diagnosis (for billing purposes) that is not accurate, so that is something that should…
ICD-10 code set to replace ICD-9 (2013). American Medical Association. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/solutions-managing-your-practice/coding-billing-insurance/hipaahealth-insurance-portability-accountability-act/transaction-code-set-standards/icd10-code-set.page .
Lund, B.J. (2012). ACOs and their effect on 3rd party medical billing companies. Healthcare Billing & Management Association. Retrieved from http://www.hbma.org/blog/aco-s-and-their-affect-on-3rd-party-medical-billing-companies
Morgan, L. (2012). Hidden ways medical billing shortcomings hurt your practice. Kareo. Retrieved from http://www.kareo.com/gettingpaid/2012/05/hidden-ways-medical-billing-shortcomings-hurt-your-practice/ .
Pizzi, R. (2013). Critical issues in healthcare billing. Healthcare Finance News. Healthcare Billing & Management Association. Retrieved from http://www.hbma.org/blog/critical-issues-in-healthcare-billing .
In a perfectly competitive market, the following will occur in response to different changes in the market.
A decrease in the wage of clinic-based nurses will cause a reduction in the cost for nurses. This will result in a decline in the price of physician services, because the price decrease is going to be passed onto the consumer. The output of physician services will not change as the cost declines, because the decrease in the cost of the input will be offset with an offset in revenue, essentially leave physician profit -- which should be zero in perfectly competitive market -- unchanged.
Cost-enhancing medical technologies will cause the price of physician services to decline. In a perfectly competitive market buyers have perfect information, so they know that the cost of providing the service has declined. Thus, they will demand that the costs are passed along to them. Again,…
Cauchon, D. (2005). Medical miscalculation creates doctor shortage. USA Today. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-03-02-doctor-shortage_x.htm
These products and services, then, offer clients/patients with alternatives that ultimately require them to change their lifestyle, including their subsistence to medical or health care.
To counter this detrimental effects of substitute products and services that "promise" wellness and health of the body, the hospital must develop a "credibility campaign" in which both doctors and patients must become advocates for the hospital and medical/health care in general. Doctors will be advised to remind their patients always, during check-ups, to be more scrutinizing and only subsist to products and services that are scientifically proven to be effective.
Bargaining power of customers (buyers)
Healthcare organizations such as hospitals must always work hard at maintaining its clientele. Retention in patients/clients is a feat for hospitals, since when they start losing trust in their doctor or the organization, it would be easy to just switch doctors and hospitals, thereby losing a specific percentage of…
These stakeholders are also vital in the promotion of the application of standards-based technology.
This is critical as it enhances the safety and security of the citizens as they pursue low-cost health care services and products within the context of the United States. The federal and state governments have also been influential in the development and implementation of policies towards addressing security and privacy issues in relation to the utilization of the e-health program (Frimpong et al., 2013). Finally, the federal and state governments have also contributed towards the implementation of the e-health program through interjection of valuable policies in the development of workforce and agency capacity. This is through integration of training and development programs for the healthcare industry with the aim of maximizing the output of the health care service providers.
There are various policies and legislations that have contributed to the success and operation of the…
Christensen, M.C., & Remler, D. (2009). Information and Communications Technology in U.S. Health Care: Why Is Adoption So Slow and Is Slower Better? Journal of Health
Politics, Policy & Law, 34(6), 1011-1034. Doi: 10.1215/03616878-2009-034
Cline, G.B., & Luiz, J.M. (2013). Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa. BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1472-6947-13-13
Escobedo, M., Kirtane, J., & Berman, a. (2012). Health Information Technology: A Path to Improved Care Transitions and Proactive Patient Care. Generations, 36(4), 56-62.
Health Care Law Unconstitutional
Is the Health Care Law Unconstitutional?
Take a position on whether the Healthcare Law is constitutional or unconstitutional and why? What are your arguments for feeling the way you do?
On March 23, 2010 President Barrack Obama signed into law the Affordable Care Act. At the heart of this law, are series of regulations that are designed to reduce the most common challenges when utilizing different health care solutions. These include: eliminating various provisions that allowed insurance companies to reduce / eliminate coverage, it provides consumers with more choices and the law is tackling the large number of uninsured. The combination of these factors is supposed to help reduce costs and increase competition. ("Fact Sheet," 2010)
However, since the passage of this law, a host of court cases have arisen that are challenging its constitutionality. As many opponents are claiming, that this is the federal government's…
Fact Sheet. (2010). Health Reform. Retrieved from: http://healthreform.gov/newsroom/new_patients_bill_of_rights.html
The Reach of Congressional Power. (2010). UMKC. Retrieved from: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/congpowers.htm
Barnett, R. (2011). On Writ of Certiorari. Georgetown Law The Scholarly Commons, 1-236
Willis, S. (2012). No Health Care Penalty. American Journal of Law, 38, 114-129
Healthcare Coordinator Interview
An overview of VHA's tele-health program is given in this article which includes an interview of a leader who is involved in this program. This program along with its operational and strategic considerations can be utilized by the non-governmental health systems that are keen to adopt better health treatments for their patients.
Identify the endless challenges he/she deals with on a daily basis
Technology is now days bridging the gap that existed between the patient and his coordinator, although technology appears to be secluded but it is not. There are just 10% of the patients who are given a program under which they consult their coordinators in person while the remaining 90% are delightful to utilize this mode of receiving attention. Moreover, where other areas of health technology implementation are concerned, we see patients quite excited about them. As far as the mean satisfaction level is concerned…
Chumbler, N.R., Kobb, R., et al. (2007). Healthcare utilization among veterans undergoing chemotherapy: the impact of a cancer care coordination/home-telehealth program. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, 30(4), 308 -- 317.
Darkins, A., Ryan, P., Kobb, R., Foster, L., Edmonson, E.,Wakefield, B., et al. (2008). Care coordination/home telehealth: the systematic implementation of health informatics, home telehealth, and disease management to support the care of veteran patients with chronic conditions. Telemedicine and e-Health, 14(10), 1118 -- 1126.
Joseph, A.M. (2006). Care coordination and telehealth technology in promoting self-management among chronically ill patients. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 12(2), 156 -- 159.
Tuerk, P., Fortney, J., Bosworth, H., Wakefield, B., Ruggiero, K., Acierno, R., et al. (2010). Toward the Development of National Telehealth Services: the role of Veterans Health Administration and future directions for research. Telemedicine and e-Health, 16(1), 115 -- 117.
This situation was also due to slower growth in prescription drugs. Other categories that reported slower growth include: physician and clinical services, home health care, and other professional services.
egarding prescription drug spending, the value increased 5.8%. For the previous year, the increase was of 8.6%. The reason for this category's evolution is Medicare drug spending significant deceleration, along with generic drugs increased use. Use of brand name drugs was slowed down by a proliferation of tiered-copayment benefit plans. Also, the number of new drugs introduced on the market was lower than previous years. However, out-of-pocket spending for drugs has increased higher than private health insurance spending has.
Hospital spending is probably the most important category of national health care expenditures, as it represents almost one third of total health care spending, and 31% of national health expenditures. Hospital spending has increased 7.9% in 2005, the same value reported for…
National Health Expenditures (2007). Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 19, 2007 at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/ .
National Health Expenditure Data (2007). Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 19, 2007 at
Health Care Issue and Operation Management
Health care is the prevention, treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through services offered by the medical and allied health professions (Dictionary.com 2005). Health care covers disease management, emergency preparedness, emergency department overcrowding, pain management, and patient safety (Jayco 2005). These health care activities encompass immunizations, diagnostic tests, medical treatments, and laboratory examinations in protecting and restoring health and saving lives. ut the by-products and wastes generated by these activities have not be adequately addressed.
Studies and records show that from the total wastes generated by these health care activities, almost 80% are general wastes, comparable to domestic wastes and the remaining 20% are considered hazardous materials, which can be infectious, toxic or radioactive (WHO 2005). Infectious wastes are made up of cultures and stocks of infectious agents, wastes from infected patients, wastes contaminated with blood and…
1. Joint Commission News. (2005). Health Care Issues. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. http://www.jcaho.org/news+room/health+care+issues
2. Kaiser, B, et al. (2001). Solutions to Health Care Wastes: Life-Cycle Thinking. Environmental Health Perspectives. EHP vol 109 nu8mber 3. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2001/109p205-207kaiser/kaiser=full.html
3. World Health Organization (2005). Wastes from Health Care Activities. Fact sheet # 253. http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs253/en/print.html
4. Water, Sanitation and Health (2005). Water, Sanitation and Health. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/about/en/index.html
Health Care Delivery in the U.S.
ERRATIC AND SLOW UT SURE
Health Care Delivery in the United States
The timeline of the U.S. health care system stretches from the 1847 when the Massachusetts Health Insurance Company of oston first offered sickness insurance (Niles, 2006; lumberg & Davidson, 2012). A French mutual aid society in 1853 designed a prepaid hospital care plan in San Francisco, California. It was the progenitor of modern-day's health maintenance organization or HMO. The first significant development was the formation of the first union by the International Ladies Garment Workers in 1913. The progenitor for regulation of the health insurance industry was drafted by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners in the same year. A crude form of hospital insurance plan was devised by J.F. Kimball in 1929 for teachers at the aylor University Hospital in Texas. The rationale was that teachers were spending more on cosmetics…
Blumberg, A. And Davidson, A. (2012). Accidents of history created U.S. health care
System. National Public Radio. Retrieved on August 26, 2012 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=114045132
Niles, N. (2006). "Overview of the U.S. Healthcare Delivery System," Chapter 1.
Basics of the U.S. health care system. Retrieved on August 26, 2012 from http://www.samples.jbpub.com/9781449615192/69840_CH01_Niles.pdf
Healthcare Finance Cases
Cases in Healthcare Finance Front Street Hospital: Uninsured Charges and Collections
The underlying issue in this case deals with discriminatory medical pricing strategies. Although these types of pricing structure are common in other industries, such as the hotel industry, the implications on society exceed that of any other industry imaginable. For example, of all the bankruptcies filed in the United States, it is estimated that sixty percent of them are due medical bills (Tamkins, 2009). Furthermore, of medical related bankruptcies, over three quarters of these individuals' actually had health insurance. Therefore, one might wonder how the uninsured could even stand a chance of meeting their obligations; especially since they are billed at the highest rates possible.
In the case, Jane is an uninsured patient and is billed for services amounting to nineteen thousand dollars. It also notes that it the local HMO would have insured…
Peterson, C., & Burton, R. (2007, September 17). U.S. Health Care Spending: Comparison with Other OECD Countries. Retrieved August 30, 2011, from CRS Report for Congress: http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL34175_20070917.pdf
Schmidt, J. (2010, June 18). Who Has The Best Health Care? Retrieved August 30, 2011, from Informatica: http://blogs.informatica.com/perspectives/index.php/2010/06/18/who-has-the-best-health-care/
In the whole world, healthcare systems are putting in a lot of effort to upgrade the standard of healthcare in any atmosphere on Evidence Based Healthcare as well as Evidence Based Medicine. The world is changing at a very high speed hence healthcare is also growing to aid in the strain of the developing world. As a result of the alterations made in healthcare, the perception of quality, the way in which it is insured and pursued goes on improving. The main concept in healthcare is quality management. For the top-class services, the key is better performance which calls for a better focus on performance systems. For quality improvement, probity, patient safety and quality assurance to be the center components of all activities, routines and processes, working practices should be put in place. The major influence to quality of life as well as economic performance is standards of health…
Nair, M., Baltag, V., Bose, K., Boschi-Pinto, C., Lambrechts, T., & Mathai, M. (2015). Improving the Quality of Health Care Services for Adolescents, Globally: A Standards-Driven Approach. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 57(3), 288-98.
Panama City Living Magazine. (2018, July 5). Bay Medical Sacred Heart Hospital. Retrieved November 27, 2018, from http://panamacityliving.com/bay-medical-sacred-heart-hospital/
Reid, P. P., Compton, W. D., Grossman, J. H., & Fanjiang, G. (2005). Building a better delivery system: a new engineering/health care partnership (Vol. 15). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Tabish, S. A. (2009). Standards for better health. International journal of health sciences, 3(1), V-VIII.
Teleki, S. S., Damberg, C., & Reville, R. T. (2006). Quality of Health Care: What Is It, Why Is It Important, and How Can It Be Improved in California’s Workers’ Compensation Programs? Support RAND, 1.
Van Lerberghe, W. (2008). The world health report 2008: primary health care: now more than ever. World Health Organization.
Comparing the U.S. Health Care System to Other Countries
The US health care system compares favorably to some other countries in terms of long-term costs but unfavorably to others in terms of quality of care. However, statistics about costs can be misleading because there are administrative costs and long-term care costs; there are also tax payer costs in countries like the UK and Japan, where health care has been nationalized. So household expenses may seem high in the US but in the UK they are also high if one takes into consideration how much they are taxed to pay for universal coverage. This paper will compare the health care systems of the US, UK, Japan, France and India to see how they well they stack up.
Coverage in the US is both private and public. The government provides coverage for individuals through Medicare and Medicaid if they meet an…
In order to accelerate the creation of health care standards, members of government, academics who teach health care, and professionals in the field of health care and technology have to work together and collaborate to develop the standards that will work for all. Each plays a role in the finally delivery of health care to patients and so each should play a part in the formulation of the standards that are created that will govern how quality care is provided. As Reid, Comptom, Grossman and Fanjiang (2005) have noted, inter-collaboration among the various stakeholders and role players should include “calls for public- and private-sector investments in research and development, demonstration projects, new approaches to reimbursement, expanded outreach and dissemination efforts by public- and private-sector health care quality improvement organizations, actions to advance the development of health care data, software, and network standards and other components of a National Health Information…
Reid, P. P., Compton, W. D., Grossman, J. H., & Fanjiang, G. (2005). Building a better delivery system: a new engineering/health care partnership (Vol. 15). Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22882/
Schoenbaum, S. C., Audet, A. M. J., & Davis, K. (2003). Obtaining greater value from health care: the roles of the US government. Health Affairs, 22(6), 183-190.
Straube, B. M. (2013). A role for government: an observation on federal healthcare efforts in prevention. American journal of preventive medicine, 44(1), S39-S42.
Tang, N., Eisenberg, J. M., & Meyer, G. S. (2004). The roles of government in improving health care quality and safety. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Safety, 30(1), 47-55.
Health Care Institutional Organization and Management
Question 1: Critical Thinking and Blooms Taxonomy Revised
1. What are the pros and cons of this approach to learning about healthcare?
Bloom’s Taxonomy revised comprises of the following six dimensions as illustrated below:
There are advantages to Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy as an approach to learning about health care. One of the benefits is that it is purposed to enable the educators to ascertain the logical and knowledgeable level at which the individual learners are capable of working. There is also the advantage that it assists the learners to scrutinize further to ask questions that are exceedingly challenging in addition to forming instructions that are purposed at enhancing critical thinking as they endeavor to reach the three highest levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as the learners get prepared to attain such levels. Bloom’s taxonomy is a significantly potent tool that can be effortlessly…
Community Assessment: Atlanta
The purpose of this community assessment is to give an overview of the Atlanta community and its people. It provides a sense of the kinds of stores and businesses in the city and discusses the population’s accessibility to health care. The paper focuses mainly on the macro-perspective, thus only a general overview is provided here.
Community assessment is important because it can give a sense of the health and needs of the community (Wright, Williams & Wilkinson, 1998).
Atlanta is a large city—the 40th largest city in the U.S., with a population of over 480,000 people. However, in terms of GDP, it ranks no. 10 out of all U.S. cities with $276 billion revenue per year. And the Atlanta metropolitan area ranks even higher among the list of U.S. metropolitan areas: with 5.6 million people in the Atlanta metropolitan area, it is the 9th largest in the…
Anderson, V. (2018). Atlanta Struggles To Fulfill MLK\\\\'s Legacy In Health Care. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/04/04/599253766/atlanta-struggles-to-fulfill-mlks-legacy-in-health-care
World Population Review. (2018). Atlanta. Retrieved from http://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/atlanta-population/
Wright, J., Williams, R., & Wilkinson, J. R. (1998). Development and importance of health needs assessment. Bmj, 316(7140), 1310-1313.
Introduction: Explain the process you have diagrammed.
The process diagrammed in this flowchart is supply chain within the health care industry. For the purpose of this assignment the flowchart identifies the basic constituents in this chain and process. The process is largely a linear one, in which the different participants in the chain rely upon one another for the end result. The final result is the procurement of medical supplies for providers within the health care industry. Sating the needs of health care consumers via medical supplies is the catalyst for the supply chain. The initial step in this chain is the creation of these supplies as engendered by producers. The intermediary step is the attainment of medical supplies from the purchasers, who in turn distribute them to the providers accordingly.
The initial step in the supply chain is producing the medical devices and supplies required for consumers. This…
Enyinda, C. I.; Gebremikael, F.; Ogbuehi, A. O. (2014). An Analytical Model for Healthcare Supply Chain Risk Management. African Journal of Business & Economic Research. (9)1, 13-27.
Chakraborty, S.; Dobrzykowski, D. (2014). Examining value co-creation in healthcare purchasing : a supply chain view. Business: Theory & Practice. 15(2), 179-190.
Rego, N.; Claro, J.; Pinho de Sousa, J. (2014). A hybrid approach for integrated healthcare cooperative purchasing and supply chain configuration.Health Care Management Science. 17(4), 303-320.
Mission, Vision and Key Values
This organization will be a new healthcare organization / group home for veterans. The mission is to provide a safe and stable environment for veterans to recover from injury, surgery or trauma. The vision is an America where veterans feel valued, and where their service is repaid with the highest honor. The key external values of the organization are going to be healing, compassion, and empathy, and key internal values will be hard work, caring, and attention to detail.
Framework of the Strategic Plan
The strategic plan will involve positioning – we are targeting veterans who are able to afford private care, although some will be funded through government payer sources. To deliver a premium standard of care that is greater than available at a typical VA facility, we will focus on hiring and retaining the best talent, and investing in our facilities.…
ExecuteStrategy.net (2018) Strategic planning models vs frameworks. Execute Strategy.net. Retrieved November 12, 2018 from https://www.executestrategy.net/blog/strategy-planning-models/
Lukas, C., Holmes, S., Cohen, A., Restruccia, J., Cramer, I., Shwartz, M. & Charns, M. (2007) Transformational change in healthcare systems: An organizational model. Health Care Management Review. Vol. 32 (4) 309-320.
Nuti, S., Vola, F., Bonini, A. & Vainieri, M. (2016). Making governance work in the health care sector: Evidence from a natural experiment in Italy. Health Economics, Policy & Law. Vol. 11 (2016) 17-38.
When it comes to healthcare marketing there are certain restrictions that have to be followed under U.S. law. For example, the FDA has rules for companies that want to market pharmaceuticals directly to consumers. Truth-in-advertising laws have to be complied with. Stark Law rules and HIPAA rules both determine the extent to which social media platforms can be used by medical companies, with respect to doctors gaining referrals and the potential for patient information to be spread publicly in violation of the privacy rights of patients (Lane, 2019). Moreover, aside from issues of compliance, the nature of marketing has changed to such an extent within the last few decades that much of advertising itself has migrated from old media to new media to focus on targeted consumers. The Digital Age has ushered in a new era of communication: more and more people turn to the Internet for information and…
The Economy and U.S. Health Care
Contemporary transformations are fundamentally challenging the U.S. health care system. This can be seen, for example, in the way our economy today is impacting health care. The mixed-market economy is steadily shifting more and more towards a command economy in which all resources are controlled by centralized authorities; indeed, this has been the case for decades (Manibot, 1998). The latest explicit indication, of course, has been the “rescue” too-big-to-fails and the markets in general through the Fed’s “unconventional monetary policy” (Heller, 2017). But there are many other examples, as well, of privatized profits and socialized losses—and the U.S. government’s willingness to subsidize just about anything has transformed what was once upon lauded as a free market into a very centrally planned economy.
This transformation is very impactful on the health care community in the U.S. because it moves the practice of health care away…
Goldhill, D. (2009). How American health care killed my father. The Atlantic.
Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/09/how-american-health-care-killed-my-father/307617/
Heller, R. (2017) Monetary mischief and the debt trap. Cato Journal, 37(2), 247-261.
Manibot, G. (1998). America’s command economy. Retrieved from
Health Care Interest Groups
Health care interest groups represent a number of different stakeholders in the health care industry. There are interest groups focusing on patients’ rights, groups that center on physicians’ concerns, groups that represent insurance companies, groups that represent pharmaceutical firms, groups that represent families, and so on. There are also groups like Academy Health that facilitate the sharing of information among the various stakeholders by bringing representatives from the various groups together to guide and steer committees towards addressing some of the issues that they face. This paper will describe Academy Health and two other interest groups—the American Medical Association and American Action Network—and provide an analysis of their primary concerns with contemporary U.S. health care.
Academy Health is focused on the area of health services research. Its goal is to identify “what works, for whom, at what cost, and under what circumstances” so that stakeholders in…
AAN Announces $400,000 Radio Ad Campaign to Thank Lawmakers for Passing
AHCA. (2017). AAN. Retrieved from https://americanactionnetwork.org/press/aan-announces-400000-radio-ad-campaign-thank-lawmakers-passing-ahca/
AAN Kicks off $2 Million Nationwide TV Ad Campaign on AHCA. (2017). AAN.
Retrieved from https://americanactionnetwork.org/press/american-action-network-kicks-off-2-million-nationwide-tv-ad-campaign-ahca/
Academy Health. (2017). About Academy Health. Retrieved from
AMA. (2017). About us. Retrieved from https://www.ama-assn.org/about
American Action Network. (2017). About AAN. Retrieved from
The strategic planning process begins with setting the objectives of the organization, and the mission statement, vision and values can help to frame those objectives at a high level. As such, the mission, vision and values of the organization are often considered the foundation of the strategic plan, and a natural starting point. Mullane (2002) notes that when used properly, a mission statement can provide key guidance for managers and be a tool for guiding their actions towards the strategic objectives.
Spallina (2004) makes an important contribution, by outlining the differences between mission and vision statements. He notes that a mission statement is "a brief statement stipulating the organization's fundamental purpose" and that the vision statement is a "brief statement describing what leadership wants the program to become." In both cases, it is easy to see the logic of how these statements contribute to strategic planning. The fundamental…
Bart, C. & Tabone, J. (1998) Mission statement rationales and organizational alignment in the non-profit healthcare sector. Health Care Management Review. Vol. 23 (4) 54-59.
Bryson, J. (1998) A strategic planning process for public and non-profit organizations. Long Range Planning. Vol. 21 (1) 73-81.
Mullane, J. (2002) The mission statement is a strategic tool when used properly. Management Decision. Vol. 40 (5) 448-455.
Spallina, J. (2004) Strategic planning – getting started: mission, vision and values. Journal of Oncology Management. Retrieved December 8, 2018 from http://www.arvinagroup.com/images/04Jan_-_Feb_SP_Col.pdf
Wijngaarden, J., Scholten, G., Wijk, K. (2010) Strategic analysis for health care organizations: the suitability of SWOT analysis. International Journal of Health Planning and Management. Vol. 27 (2012) 34-49.
Ethics and responsibility in healthcare is not solely about the decision making done at the patients’ bedside. Rather, it also encompasses decisions undertaken by executives and board of directors in their corporate positions and offices. Corporate ethics and responsibility in healthcare offer viewpoints that can aid healthcare managers accomplish the utmost ethical standards as they undertake their providers of healthcare services, employers, in addition to entities for community service.
Addressing corporate ethics and responsibility issues within a healthcare entity begins the compliance of the pertinent legislations and codes of practice. As a provider of high quality patient care with scarce resources, there is the need to have the ability to make a distinction between the inappropriate and appropriate methods of taking expense into account when making decisions regarding practices and processes of patient care. Secondly, as an employer, there is need for the entity to utilize proper criteria for…
Brandao, C., Rego, G., Duarte, I., & Nunes, R. (2013). Social responsibility: a new paradigm of hospital governance? Health Care Analysis, 21(4), 390-402.
Collins, S. K. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager. The health care manager, 29(4), 339-345.
Fox, E., Bottrell, M. M., Berkowitz, K. A., Chanko, B. L., Foglia, M. B., & Pearlman, R. A. (2010). Integrated Ethics: An innovative program to improve ethics quality in health care. Innovation Journal, 15(2), 1-36.
Gallagher, J. A., & Goodstein, J. (2002). Fulfilling institutional responsibilities in health care: Organizational ethics and the role of mission discernment. Business Ethics Quarterly, 12(4), 433-450.
Gilmartin, M. J., & Freeman, R. E. (2002). Business ethics and health care: A stakeholder perspective. Health Care Management Review, 27(2), 52-65.
Reddy, M. S., & Mythri, S. V. (2016). Health-care ethics and the free market value system. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 38(5), 371.
Reiser, S. J. (1994). The ethical life of health care organizations. Hastings Center Report 24(6): 28 -35.
Russo, F. (2016). What is the CSR\\\\'s Focus in Healthcare? Journal of Business Ethics, 134(2), 323-334. doi:10.1007/s10551-014-2430-2
Inequality of Socioeconomics with Regards to Access to Health Care
This topic was selected because I am pursuing a degree in health care administration/nursing and I want to show how inequality of access to health care is determined by one’s socioeconomic status. In other words, the research shows that if one has a low socioeconomic status, access to quality care will be less likely than if one has a higher socioeconomic status (Nicks, 2012). As the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP, 2017) has shown, access to quality health care services is critical for sustaining and promoting health in communities—especially in ones that suffer from a low socioeconomic status; by improving access to care in these communities, health care providers can work to prevent the spread of disease, eliminate unnecessary disabilities, and reduce the number of deaths of low socioeconomic status individuals. Though insurance coverage has been expanded…
CDC. (2016). Health United States Report. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus16.pdf#062
Goldhill, D. (2009). How American health care killed my father. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/09/how-american-health-care-killed-my-father/307617/
Horkheimer, M., Adorno, T. (1944). The Culture Industry. UK: Routledge.
Nicks, P. (2012). Waiting for health care. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/21/opinion/for-the-uninsured-the-wait-for-health-care.html
IOM. (2012). The future of nursing. Retrieved from http://nacns.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/5-IOM-Report.pdf
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (2002). Report to Congress: Medicare payment to advanced practice nurses and physician assistants. Washington, DC.
O’Brien, J. (2003). How nurse practitioners obtained provider status: Lessons for pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 60(22), 45-57.
ODPHP. (2017). Access to health services. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Access-to-Health-Services
Changing Landscape of U.S. Health Care
The landscape of the US health care system through the ACA has changed substantially. 20 million more Americans have obtained health coverage as a result (Somanader, 2016). However, many premiums have gone up for others and health care on the whole has become more expensive. The main reason for the rise in costs is that with more people being covered, somebody has to foot the bill—and with government subsidizing care, the costs are going to go up (this is a basic law of supply and demand—the more demand there is with dwindling supply of service, the greater the cost becomes) (Goldhill, 2009).
Specific initiatives that have been funded include the expansion of Medicaid in various states so that more people can obtain coverage. However, the ACA is likely to meet its demise as more and more insurers pull out of the system and fewer…
Advocacy in health care refers to the action of promoting and fostering social, economical, political and educational changes that reduce the risk of suffering of individuals and communities by implementing preventive strategies, increasing health literacy, and boosting access to care and health equity (Earnest, Wong & Federico, 2010). Health care advocacy agents can thus address health outcomes by advocating for changes to the current practices, environments, awareness, and access to care that populations face. This paper will discuss health care advocacy at the local, regional and international levels, the challenges and opportunities that exists in international healthcare advocacy and the ways these challenges can be addressed.
How Health Care Advocacy Agents Address Health Outcomes
The role and purpose of advocacy in the health care delivery system is to help to better ensure that the patient receives the type of quality care he or she needs no matter where he…
One of the most significant challenges in healthcare today is the shortage of health care workers, of all types. This shortage is noticed in wealthier countries, but those nations can import health workers from poorer countries, leaving the world’s least developed countries with the most significant shortages of health care workers (GHWN, 2015).
At the global level, human resources management for health care means attracting more people into the profession, finding ways to train them, and then ensuring that there is sufficient distribution of health care talent around the world. For any given organization, the precise challenges might be different, but there is opportunity to put some of these concepts into practice. An example might be to design jobs in a way that people with fewer formal qualifications can perform more work, and those with qualifications – who tend to be in shorter supply – are focused on the tasks…
Implementation and Evaluation
This is part 3 of the quality and sustainability paper. Part 1 outlined the descriptive method of assessing quality and safety measures in nursing science. It was concluded that administrative data could be used to determine the effectiveness of quality or safety program since safety is the most fundamental aspect of nursing science (Twigg, Pugh, Gelder, & Myers, 2016). In part 2, analysis and application of safety programs were explored and Kenneth E. Waldenberg Health Care facility was used as a model in the analysis. The findings of the paper was that leadership plays a key role in sustaining quality improvement programs in any health care organization (Stetler, Ritchie, Rycroft-Malone, & Charns, 2014). In this third part of the quality and sustainability paper, a change theory that will support the implementation of a quality and safety program will be discussed.
Healthcare facilitates are required…
Clearly, define the impact of HIPAA and HITECH regulations on health care systems for the future with mention to state and federal differences.
HIPAA which is referred to as the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act that was put to action in the year 1996. The main purpose of this act is to uncomplicate the maintenance of the insurance policies, uphold their confidentiality and subsequently safely store the information for reference. HIPAA also equally aims in ensuring the health care setups together with the health organizations take control of the management expenses and costs. Consequently, HIPAA has set numerous rules and regulations that relate to various functions plus the events of disclosure of the personal information of the individual's health information (also termed as protected health information). Moreover, HIPAA aims to work very efficiently to make sure that the disclosure of personal information is conducted only to permit high-quality…
Richards, M. M. (2009). Electronic medical records: Confidentiality issues in the time of HIPAA. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(6), 550.
Glenn, T., & Monteith, S. (2014). Privacy in the digital world: medical and health data outside of HIPAA protections. Current psychiatry reports, 16(11), 494.
Hiller, J., McMullen, M. S., Chumney, W. M., & Baumer, D. L. (2011). Privacy and security in the implementation of health information technology (electronic health records): US and EU compared. BUJ Sci. & Tech. L., 17, 1.
Parks, R., Chu, C. H., & Xu, H. (2011, December). Healthcare information privacy research: Iusses, gaps and what next? In AMCIS.
Social Economic Status and Healthcare through the Lens of Eudora Welty’s “A Worn Path”: The Impact it has on the U.S. Healthcare System
The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion has shown that in order to promote health in communities access to care is absolutely necessary. And yet even today in the 21st century, access to healthcare remains a big problem for people of low socio-economic status. The Affordable Care Act was meant to help with that (Somanader), but as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention point out, 17.3% of people between the ages of 18 and 64 are typically without access to a source of healthcare year over year. The result is that people of impoverished communities seek out ways to self-medicate, which can lead to drug addictions and problems (Nicks; Szabo).
On the one hand, the problem of access to care for low socio-economic communities…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health United States Report, 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus16.pdf#062
Lamont, Ellen. Shifting the Center: Understanding Contemporary Families. Thousand Oaks, 2019.
Nicks, P. “Waiting for health care.” NY Times, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/21/opinion/for-the-uninsured-the-wait-for-health-care.html
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. “Access to health services.” HealthyPeople, 2017.
Risling, T. “Educating the nurses of 2025: Technology trends of the next decade.” Nurse education in practice, 22 (2017), 89-92.
Skloot, R. (2010). Immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. NY: Random House.
Somanader, T. “A look at six years of the affordable care act.” White House, 2016. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2016/03/23/look-six-years-affordable-care-act
The Declaration of Independence affirms the right of all Americans to “life liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Although universal healthcare is not outright mentioned as one of the “inalienable” rights the Declaration calls for, it is difficult to pursue happiness or to live life to the fullest without adequate health care. Furthermore, the Declaration underscores the importance of equality as an ethical value that defines the nation. If life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and equal rights are the foundational values of the country, then health care most certainly is a basic human right. Education is considered a basic human right, which is why all children in the nation are entitled to a K-12 education regardless of ability to pay. Why healthcare is not structured in the same way as education is perplexing in the world’s most robust economy.
Nurses understand the imperative of providing healthcare for the indigent;…
As rising health care costs continue to pose problems for stakeholders in the health care industry, the question of just how to solve this dilemma remains an elusive one. The trouble is that it is not just a question of cost—but also a question of how to balance quality care with efficiency of care in an industry where for-profit facilities seem more and more to put profits before people, as opposed to putting people before profits (a concept that might naturally find expression in a profession so inherently oriented to helping those in need). While stakeholders understand that in order for professionals to provide quality care and for patients to receive it there must be some cost and some efficient system in place to expedite delivery, they must also realize that a balance of quality and cost-efficiency must be acquired in order for the industry to remain operable over…
ANA. (2010). Code of Ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.
Bates, D. W., Saria, S., Ohno-Machado, L., Shah, A., & Escobar, G. (2014). Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients. Health Affairs, 33(7), 1123-1131.
Baummer-Carr, A., & Nicolau, D. P. (2017). The challenges of patient satisfaction: Influencing factors and the patient–provider relationship in the United States. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 15(10), 955-962.
Bodenheimer, T., & Sinsky, C. (2014). From triple to quadruple aim: care of the patient requires care of the provider. The Annals of Family Medicine, 12(6), 573-576.
Burwell, S. M. (2015). Setting value-based payment goals—HHS efforts to improve US health care. N Engl J Med, 372(10), 897-899.
Dowsett, C., & Dowsett, C. (2015). Breaking the cycle of hard-to-heal wounds: balancing cost and care. Wounds International, 6(2), 17-21.
Jennings, N., Clifford, S., Fox, A. R., O’Connell, J., & Gardner, G. (2015). The impact of nurse practitioner services on cost, quality of care, satisfaction and waiting times in the emergency department: a systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 421-435.
Kolodny, A., Courtwright, D. T., Hwang, C. S., Kreiner, P., Eadie, J. L., Clark, T. W., & Alexander, G. C. (2015). The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: a public health approach to an epidemic of addiction. Annual Review of Public Health, 36, 559-574.
Informatics Telehealth and the Health Care Shortage
Snavely (2016) shows that the looming nursing shortage is due to hit America hard in the coming years, and that shortage is now evident more than ever with the arrival of the novel coronavirus in America—especially in hard hit areas like New York City, where the hospitals are being overrun by patients infected by the virus. Shortages of health care providers is a major concern in the US, especially since the US is meant to be a world leader among other nations—and yet an element of its critical infrastructure, health care, is sorely lacking in support in the form of providers. Now that the country has gone into lockdown mode, it is only making matters worse from an economic point of view: going to school for medicine is expensive and individuals and families may reassess their commitment to the field if they see…
Dear Representative Pigman,
It is my great privilege to thank you for sponsoring CS/HB 7011: Health Care Access Bill (Florida Senate, 2017). I highly support this bill and encourage patients in our community of Lee County, Cape Coral, Florida, to do so as well. I am an advanced practiced registered nurse (APRN) and I and my colleagues all appreciate what you are doing to help us overcome the restrictive challenges that current legislation and policies have on preventing us from providing the kind of quality care that we have been trained to provide to patients.
This bill is important because as the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP, 2017) has noted in its Healthy People 2020 campaign, access to health services is one of the most crucial and important problems that needs to be addressed in the U.S. One of the big hurdles to addressing this…
CDC. (2016). Health United States Report. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus16.pdf#062
Englebright, J. (2017). The emerging role of aprns in hospital nursing practice: perspectives from a survey of chief nursing officers. Nurse Leader, 15(6), 387-391.
Florida Senate. (2017). CS/HB 7011: Health Care Access. Retrieved from https://www.flsenate.gov/Session/Bill/2017/07011
Institute of Medicine. (2012). Future of nursing. Retrieved from http://nacns.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/5-IOM-Report.pdf
Lewenson, S. B., McAllister, A., & Smith, K. (Eds.). (2016). Nursing history for contemporary role development. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Lofgren, M. A., Berends, S. K., Reyes, J., Wycoff, C., Kinnetz, M., Frohling, A., ... & O’Brien, M. (2017). Scope of practice barriers for advanced practice registered nurses: a state task force to minimize barriers. Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(9), 465-469.
ODPHP. (2017). Access to health services. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Access-to-Health-Services
Walker, N. (2017). Embrace action: protect the future of nursing. AORN Journal, 105(6), 535-537.
Challenges and Solutions Essay
The problem of racial disparities in health care is an issue in global health that needs to be addressed (Wheeler & Bryant, 2017). One of the reasons it is only superficially discussed, however, is that the legacy of maltreatment of the black population at the hands of health care professionals is one that has yet to receive its long overdue attention (Freimuth et al., 2001). Barriers to care in poor communities persist largely because of the socio-political and economic influences that keep these communities poor in the first place (Saraceno et al., 2007). Solutions to these barriers may be forthcoming in limited ways, but for the most part, the issues remain. Two programs working to establish equity in health care are The Society for Diversity in the Biomedical Sciences and the Racial Equity Resource Guide. This paper will describe these two programs; discuss their target…
Farmer, P. (2005). Pathologies of power: Health, human rights, and the new war on the poor. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Freimuth, V. S., Quinn, S. C., Thomas, S. B., Cole, G., Zook, E., & Duncan, T. (2001). African Americans’ views on research and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Social science & medicine, 52(5), 797-808.
Saraceno, B., van Ommeren, M., Batniji, R., Cohen, A., Gureje, O., Mahoney, J., ... & Underhill, C. (2007). Barriers to improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet, 370(9593), 1164-1174.
Wheeler, S. M., & Bryant, A. S. (2017). Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 44(1), 1-11.
Cleveland Clinic Case Study
The Cleveland Clinic is a large health care provider based in Cleveland, but with some expansion under its belt already. The Clinic has in recent years been an innovator in a number of areas, and an early adopter in others such as the use of information technology. These approaches have set the Clinic up for success. Since 1999, operating revenue has increased consistently, each year, including the recession years of 2008 and 2009, going from around $2.3 billion in 1999 to nearly $7 billion in 2014. While the operating margin has fluctuated during that period, it has been above zero since 2002 and is on a two-year upward trend. Thus, there is significant success attached to recent endeavors. For the leadership of the Cleveland Clinic, there are a number of strategic and tactic options on the table, including those with respect to international expansion, operating…
The population of the area comprises mostly of African Americans. The community is a low-income area and individuals who live here struggle to make ends meet. This makes it hard for them to access premium health care that is offered at private hospitals. Therefore, most of them have to rely on the community health center. Poor people have been associated with numerous chronic health problems that are as a result of their lifestyles and a lack of viable income. The community is underserved in terms of social amenities. Other structural challenges that are faced by the community is the reduced access to fresh foods, high density of fast food restaurants, and the area is not conducive for physical activity. This makes people have sedentary lifestyles that contribute towards them developing chronic diseases. Access to health care is reduced and the few who are able to access the community…
1. Name two advantages and two disadvantages of the Affordable Care Act (the Obama healthcare plan).
Obamacare has ensured federal fund allocation to all states for the purpose of Medicaid expansion. Outcomes reveal that this expansion, accompanied by the establishment of health insurance exchanges, has resulted in a substantial share of uninsured citizens acquiring coverage. Further, ACA introduced some key healthcare sector reforms including healthcare center accountability that attempts at coordinating care between health centers and achieving shared cost savings. Accountable care organizations intend to decrease the fragmentation the health sector commonly witnesses. The year 2016 saw a deceleration in American healthcare expenditure’s growth rate after 5 years (Gruessner, 2016).
Despite the aforementioned advantages, certain issues surrounding ACA have proven detrimental to healthcare access. Of late, monthly premium rates have spiked, particularly among health insurance exchange plans. The cause for this increase is: a further twenty million individuals are now…
Geyman, J. (2015). The Affordable Care Act at Age Five: Quality of Care. Retrieved February 13, 2018, from http://pnhp.org/blog/2015/03/16/the-affordable-care-act-at-age-five-quality-of-care/
Ginsburg, J., Neubauer, R., Fleming, D., Bronson, D. L., Centor, R. M., Gluckman, R. A., & Liebow, M. (2009). Controlling health care costs while promoting the best possible health outcomes. American College of Physicians: A White Paper.
Gruessner, V. (2016, September 14). 2 Benefits and 2 Disadvantages of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://healthpayerintelligence.com/news/2-benefits-and-2-disadvantages-of-the-affordable-care-act
Toussaint, J. S. (2017, April 05). Improve the Affordable Care Act, Don\\\\'t Repeal It. Retrieved February 13, 2018, from https://hbr.org/2016/11/improve-the-affordable-care-act-dont-repeal-it
Staffing legislation in NJ
One of the tenets of healthcare is the provision of adequate healthcare for all patients and the health care needs to be the safest possible that the medics and the facilities can offer. This has been a concern for many institutions yet few states like California have actively enacted the legislations that have to do with staffing legislations. It is indicated that in the past decade, approximately 15 state and the federal government have proposed or successfully enacted the regulations and legislations that address nurse staffing in the acute care hospitals (Reiter K.L. et.al., 2012). This indicates that there is the need to have such legislations put in full operational force in the various health care facilities and cover states, New Jersey not an exemption in this. The patients herein deserve to have adequate care bearing that it is one of the states with the highest…
API Health Care, (2014). The Top 3 Benefits of Acuity-Based Staffing for Your Organization. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from http://apihealthcare.com/sites/default/files/API_Healthcare_Benefits_Acuity_Based_Staffing_WP.pdf
Department of Professional Employees, (2006). The Costs and Benefits of Safe Staffing Ratios. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from https://dpeaflcio.org/programs/factsheets/archived/fs_2006_staffratio.pdf
Reiter K.L. et.al., (2012). Minimum Nurse Staffing Legislation and the Financial Performance of California Hospitals. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3337946/
Sime T. & Fentie W. (2016). Staffing: Practices and Challenges. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0416/ijsrp-p5239.pdf
The widespread health disparities between quality and cost are mainly used to determine existing inequalities within healthcare services. In 2016, studies examined healthcare’s relationship with quality and cost relating to lifespan (Chetty et al., 2016). These disparities in healthcare are chiefly attributed to social class and financial value in communities. Those in poorer communities must deal with public healthcare facilities that mean longer wait times, impersonal interactions with healthcare professionals that do not understand them (language or cultural), and potentially poor treatment regarding medical diagnosis (Barr, 2014). Those in wealthier communities can afford private care and therefore faster wait times, better doctors, more accurate diagnoses. With such disparities present in American healthcare, studies aim to understand the rationale behind such occurrences and determine how to improve patient outcomes for working-class communities.
While social class plays a role in healthcare disparities, so does race and ethnicity. “…blacks and other minorities continue…
Barr, D. A. (2014). Health disparities in the United States: Social class, race, ethnicity, and health. JHU Press.
Betancourt, J. R. (2013). Defining Cultural Competence: A Practical Framework for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care. Public Health Reports, 118(4), 293-302. doi:10.1093/phr/118.4.293
Chetty, R., Stepner, M., Abraham, S., Lin, S., Scuderi, B., Turner, N., … Cutler, D. (2016). The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014. JAMA, 315(16), 1750. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.4226
Florida Department of Health. (2018). Minority Health Liaisons | Florida Department of Health. Retrieved from http://www.floridahealth.gov/programs-and-services/minority-health/minority-health-liaisons.html
Minority Healthcare Communcations. (2010). Minority Healthcare Communications Inc. : Focused on Health Care Education Through Conferences, Seminars and Workshops. Retrieved from http://www.minority-healthcare.com/about.html
Two provisions in the PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) that impact my current nursing practice are 1) the call for increased access to care and 2) the call for more preventive care. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in its Future of Nursing report stated that nurse practitioners should be allowed to practice to the full scope of their education and training (IOM, 2010), which is something they are not permitted to do in every state. Many states require nurses to practice under the supervision of a physician, but as O’Brien (2003) pointed out, Advanced Practice Nurse Practitioners (APRNs) were trained to take the place of the physicians who were leaving the primary care field for specialized medicine. Nurses were trained and educated to be able to provide primary care—the same kind of care that physicians provide. And yet in many states they are not permitted to practice…
Delivering Safe and High-Quality Healthcare
For effective discharging of duties by health professionals which will, in turn, give a quality service to patients under their care, there is a need for effective inter-professional communication among personnel in a hospital environment. While territoriality concept within the sector is being adhered to, that, however, should not be a barrier to a fluid collaboration among health workers of different backgrounds. There is a need to formulate a working communication strategy to solve the lingering inter-professional problems in hospital environments generally, and particularly, in the emergency department. As important as it is, a look at inter-professional communication in emergency department shows a seemingly unfavorable situation among practitioners involved in this one of the most significant subsectors of health profession (Varjoshani1, Hosseini, Khankeh, & Ahmadi, 2014). Among other numerous issues in the department, this paper looks at the problem of boisterous atmosphere in the emergency…
ER Tech Job Description. JobHero. https://www.jobhero.com/er-tech-job-description/
Kessler, D., Cheng, A., & Mullan, P. (2014). Debriefing in the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine
Morley, L. & Cashell, A. (2017). Collaboration in Health Care. Continuing Medical Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. 48, 207-216.
Northouse, P. G. (2007). Situational Approach. Leadership theory and practice, Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.7, 93-115.
Rapp, A. (2017).7 Key Responsibilities of an Emergency Room Nurse. eMedCert. Electronic Medical Certification. https://emedcert.com/blog/key-responsibilities-of-an-emergency-room-nurse
Varjoshani1, N.J., Hosseini1, M.A., Khankeh, H.R., & Ahmadi, F (2014). Tumultuous Atmosphere (Physical, Mental), The Main Barrier to Emergency Department Inter-Professional Communication. Global Journal of Health Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 7, 1916-9744.
“What is Situational” (2014) Leadership? How Flexibility Leads to Success. St. Thomas University. STU Online.
In seeking to compare organizations with benchmark data, this text will largely focus on two organizations, i.e. Hackensack University Medical Center in Hackensack, NJ and Overlook Medical Center in Summit, NJ. In so doing, the paper will not only describe the organizations selected, but also highlight how the said organizations compare to each other and to state as well as national averages. Further, the paper will attempt to explain differences (if any) in performance measures, while at the same time assessing how publicly reported data impacts safety and quality of hospitals.
Located in New Jersey’s Hackensack city, Bergen County, Hackensack University Medical Center prides itself in being the number 1 hospital in the State (HackensackUMC, 2018). Having been founded 130 years ago, this particular 900-bed “nonprofit, teaching and research hospital has grown to become the largest provider of inpatient and outpatient services in New Jersey” (HackensackUMC, 2018). The institution was…
Atlantic Health System (2018). Who We Are. Retrieved from https://www.atlantichealth.org/about-us/who-we-are/approach-care.html
Groene, O. (2011). Patient Centeredness and Quality Improvement Efforts in Hospitals: Rationale, Measurement, Implementation. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 23(5), 531–537.
HackensackUMC (2018). Who We Are. Retrieved from https://www.hackensackumc.org/about/
Medicare (2018). Compare Hospitals. Retrieved from https://www.medicare.gov/hospitalcompare/compare.html#cmprTab=0&cmprID=310001%2C310051&cmprDist=0.0%2C0.0&stsltd=NJ&dist=25&lat=0&lng=0&state=NJ
1. Most Americans over the age of 65 have the ability to enroll in Medicare part A and Medicare part B. Medicare Part A is what is known as “hospital insurance”, and “helps pay for inpatient care in a hospital or limited time at a skilled nursing facility (following a hospital stay). Part A also pays for some health care and hospice care”, according to the Social Security Administration.
The Medicare website outlines some specific things within each of these broad categories. For example, under hospital care Medicare Part A covers semi-private rooms, meals, general nursing, drugs as part of your inpatient treatment, and other hospital services and supplies.
In a skilled nursing care unit, you are covered for meals, semi-private room, skilled nursing care, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology services, medications, medical social services, medical supplies and equipment used in the facility, ambulance transportation, dietary counseling,…
The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) changed the way health care providers are reimbursed through Medicare, provided an increase in funding, and extended the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). MACRA placed conditions upon care providers in order for them to receive reimbursement: care must be quality care, i.e., care that helps them to keep from having to come back for more treatment—rather than just treatment after treatment, keeping patients coming back through the revolving door of medicine without every actually helping them. The type of quality care required by MACRA is preventive medicine and health literacy promotion. As Licthenfeld (2011) pointed out, too many doctors are diagnosing patients with health problems that are insignificant and do not need treatment—but because Medicare was always willing to bankroll treatment it made good business sense to treat every patient for every symptom. The problem is that people are like cars—as they…
If poor people were as healthy as the rest of America, we actually would not see any decline in inpatient admission because the rest of America is really not very healthy. As several studies have recently noted, an alarming trend is occurring in American health care: wealthier Americans are now receiving more care than poorer Americans. As Almberg (2016) notes, “in 2012, the wealthiest fifth of Americans got 43 percent more health care ($1,743 more per person) than the poorest fifth of Americans, and 23 percent more care ($1,082 per person) than middle-income people.” With the rising cost of health care and the rise in premiums and deductibles—along with the long waits just to receive care in many health care facilities (Nicks, 2012), poor people are foregoing inpatient care while wealthier individuals are filling up the spot.
The big surprise is that wealthier people are also becoming less…
Almberg, M. (2016). Wealthier Americans now receive much more health care than middle class or poor, reversing a 50-year trend: Harvard study. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/news/2016/july/wealthier-americans-now-receive-much-more-health-care-than-middle-class-or-poor-rever
Cutler, D., Morton, F. (2013). Hospitals, market share, and consolidation. JAMA, 310(18), 1964-1970.
Goldhill, D. (2009). How American health care killed my father. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/09/how-american-health-care-killed-my-father/307617/
Grabmeier, J. (2017). For richer or poorer, we all eat fast food. Retrieved from https://news.osu.edu/news/2017/05/04/eat-fast-food/
Kripalani, S., Theobald, C., Anctil, B., Vasilevskis, E. (2013). Reducing hospital readmission: Current strategies and future directions. Annual Review of Medicine, 65, 471-485.
Nicks, P. (2012). Waiting for health care. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/21/opinion/for-the-uninsured-the-wait-for-health-care.html