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Salary and benefits
The salary earned depends to a large extent on the responsibility held by the individuals. In general, the more the responsibility, the higher the salary. In a survey conducted in 2008 by AHIMA, the average salary was $57,370. The salary for a IS/IT Director is $96,640, other director is $90,740, security officer is $83,000, consultant is $76,267, HIM Director is $73,376, compliance officer is $72,218, other officer is $66,491, privacy officer is $64,449, manager is $64,225, Data/systems analyst is $58,232, supervisor is $50,362, coding professional is $43,359, other technician roles is $43,042 and administrative support is $32,671 respectively. These salary levels are likely to increase as demand for HIS professionals increase in the next few years.
HIS professionals are employed by hospitals and clinics to maintain patient's records. They are also hired by research facilities and Government departments that are looking to gather information about patients…
Government of Alberta. (July 2010). Health Information Management Professional. Retrieved from: http://alis.alberta.ca/occinfo/Content/RequestAction.asp?aspAction=GetHTMLProfile&format=html&OCCPRO_ID=71002536
Health Information Exchange. (September 16, 2010). ONCHIT HITECH and funding opportunities. Retrieved from: http://healthinformationexchanges.org/onchit-hitech-and-funding-opportunities/
Darlymple, Prudence; Nancy, Roderer. (2010). Education for health information professionals: Perspectives from health informatics in the U.S. Education for information. 28 (1). p45-55.
J. Kampov-Polevoi and B.M. Hemminger. (Apr 2010). Survey of biomedical and health care informatics programs in the United States, J Med Libr Assoc 98(2), 178 -- 181
Improving Healthcare with Personal Health Records (PHRs)
ith the inception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2012, the United States began undertaking the most dramatic reconfiguration of its healthcare system since Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal. As part of an innovative strategy for improving the healthcare system's efficiency, for producing better health outcomes and for reducing wasteful spending, the Affordable Care Act has made as one of its foci the continued integration of Health Information Technology into everyday care strategies. Due substantially to technology-related initiatives subordinate to the Affordable Care Act, it is incumbent upon Health Information Systems Managers to remain abreast of and compliant with evolving laws.
This is an especially salient issue for Health Information Systems Managers in the face of the federal government's Readmission Reduction Initiative. Over the next several years, hospitals and other healthcare provider facilities will be required to meet…
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (2012). Personal Health Records (PHR). Medicare.gov.
Patient Health Information
Information privacy and security in healthcare is an issue of growing significance in the U.S. Having taken up the position of office manager in a healthcare organization that is in the process of automating its health processes, I have identified a number of factors that I may have to take into consideration to ensure that the information systems developed are in compliance with the professional standards of practice, facility policy, as well as the various state and federal laws and regulations that govern the confidentiality and privacy of e-health information. These factors include privacy and confidentiality legislation, the benefits of having an effective system of information flow within an organization, the role of health information in reducing abuse and fraud in such processes of billing, standards governing health information, and ways of ensuring compliance with the said standards.
Importance of Computerized ecord-Keeping in Healthcare Organizations…
Dalrymple, P.W. & Scherrer, C.S. (1998). Tools for Improvement: A Systematic Analysis and Guide to Accreditation by the JCAHO. Bull Medical Library Association, 86(1), 10-16.
Rodriguez, L. (2011). Privacy, Security, and Electronic Health Records. Health IT Buzz. Retrieved 15 December 2014 http://www.healthit.gov/buzz-blog/privacy-and-security-of-ehrs/privacy-security-electronic-health-records/
Appari, A. & Johnson, M.E. (2008). Information Security and Privacy in Healthcare: Current State of Research. Dartmouth University. Retrieved 15 December from http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/library/416.pdf
Health information published by government agencies is likely to be factual, but should also be cross-referenced with the most reliable sources of such information, such as peer-reviewed medical journals and material published by fully accredited medical institutions of higher learning.
Board certified, practicing medical professionals are generally good sources of reliable health information, but sometimes they may choose to write about topics outside of their formal training. Likewise, because medicine is a dynamic field that always progresses, even sources that were qualified as authoritative when they were published can provide erroneous information, in light of more modern knowledge. More subtle types of questionable health information sources include materials published or commissioned by for-profit business entities, including those run by qualified health professional, in that the information they choose to publish might be perfectly accurate, but presented out of context or in the absence of equally relevant information to the contrary,…
Allison, G. (2004). Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
New York: Times Books.
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
New York: Little Brown & Co.
Health Information Technology System
Hospital Information Technology System
Over the years, improvement of service provision within this medical institution has been of massive essence. This has led to the establishment of a number of measures to enhance service delivery one of which constitutes the development of a variety of information systems within the organization. The information technology system under consideration here was established with the view of enhancing operations within all the departments of the hospital. It covers the needs of all those who visit the establishment which offers both inpatient and outpatient services. This facility is a government hospital. Its stakeholders therefore include the state, the patients, the staff and other Non-Governmental Organizations who provide auxiliary services to the hospital among others. The number of departments within the institution and taken care of by this system are numerous and include; the finance, communication, records and housekeeping, laboratory, emergency, marketing…
Cummings, H (2006) Management Information Systems for the Information Age, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson
Felt-Lisk, S (2006) New Hospital Information Technology: is it helping to Improve Quality? Washington: Mathematica Policy Research Inc.
Frisch, E (2001) Essential System Administration, O'Reilly
Olmeda, C (2000) Information Technology in Systems of Care, Delfin Press
If healthcare information has been disclosed without consent of the patient, it is important to treat this as a breach of confidentiality contract and patient must be informed. Compliance with privacy clauses of AARA is very important because non-compliance can result in serious legal problems for physicians and hospitals. If HIPAA laws are not adhered too, the Act makes provision for legal action where violating party can face serious financial penalties.
The main reason behind this is the fact that medical information is highly secure and confidential. Any violation means violation of a person's private space and his right to self-protection through confidential use of medical services. For this reason while the government wants enhanced IT capabilities for healthcare sector including use of electronic health records, it also seeks to protect patients from undue or fraudulent use of their medical information. Thus it grants state attorney general the right to…
Health Information Privacy Legislation
The relevance of protecting the personal health information of the residents of Prince Edward Island (PEI) cannot be overstated. Towards that end, I propose that you introduce legislation that would protect as well as limit access to the individually identifiable health information of residents of the province. Such legislation should ideally address who can have access to or receive a consumer's health information. As you may already know, in Canada, the privacy of consumers "is protected at the federal level by the Privacy Act…and the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA)" (Kristoffersson, Schmidtke and Cassiman, 2010). Prince Edward Island (PEI) unlike other provinces in Canada has no health privacy legislation in place.
In basic terms, patient privacy according to Kirch (2008) "is the right and desire of a person to control the disclosure of personal health information." With no health information privacy legislation in…
Gostin, L.O. (2008). Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint (2nd ed.). California: University of California Press.
Jones, S. & Groom, F.M. (Eds.). (2011). Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kirch, W. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Public Health: Volume 1: A-H Volume 2: I -- Z. New York, NY: Springer.
Kristoffersson, U., Schmidtke, J.J. & Cassiman, J.J. (Eds.). (2010). Quality Issues in Clinical Genetic Services. New York: Springer.
Health Information Technology (HIT)
Under the terms of the current financial and regulatory environment, it is highly incumbent upon healthcare institutions to operate utilizing the most current and compliant Health Information Technology (HIT). But implementation and maintenance are not sufficient alone to ensure that an adopted strategy is achieving its desired or optimal outcomes, particularly not in an era of such fast-moving change for the healthcare industry. This is why, beyond implementation and maintenance, proper evaluation of implemented systems is an absolute necessity. The dimensions of this evaluation are discussed here below.
Strategies for Evaluation:
Conducting an evaluation of a recently implemented or long-ingrained HIT system can be a distinct challenge. This is because there are many factors to consider when rendering a meaningful assessment. Most comprehensive HIT systems will be designed to integrate a wide range of functionalities relating to one's Electronic Health Record, the ability to engage in…
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2007). Nursing Informatics: Scope and Standards of Practice. American Nurses Association.
Nahm, E., Vaydia, V., Ho, D., Scharf, B., & Seagull, J. (2007). Outcomes assessment of clinical information system implementation: A practical guide. Nursing Outlook, 55(6), 282-288.e2.
Rahimi, B., & Vimarlund, V. (2007). Methods to evaluate health information systems in healthcare settings: A literature review. Journal of Medical Systems, 31(5), 397-432.
Wyatt, J. (2010). Assessing and improving evidence-based health informatics research. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 151, 435-445.
It is at this point when staff members can reduce errors and enhance their ability to understand the patient's condition. This will lead to a transformation in the way they are able to interact and comprehend the best approaches for dealing with them over the long-term. (Jamal, 2009)
Furthermore, Umscheid (2010) found that use of technology in a health care environment will reduce costs, improve their ability to adapt with changes inside the industry and enhance quality / safety. This is because these tools will reduce any kind of overlap in personnel and it will improve staff members' ability to respond to these issues. When this happens, they will be capable of offering the latest treatment options and it can control the expenses for providing these services to cliental. (Umscheid, 2010)
These ideas are showing how the practice will be more flexible in dealing with critical challenges and quickly evolving…
Hynes, D. (2009). Use of Health Information Technology. Society of General Internal Medicine, 25, 44 -- 49.
Jamal, a. (2009). The Impact of Health Information Technology. Health Information Management Journal, 38 (3).
Umscheid, C. (2010). Hospital-Based Comparative Effectiveness Centers. Society of General Internal Medicine, 25 (12), 1352 -- 1355.
Health Information Technology (HIT) is a term that is used to refer to comprehensive management and control of health information throughout computerized systems and its safe exchange between various stakeholders in the health care system. Health Information Technology has emerged as the most significant and promising technique for enhancing the safety, quality, and efficiency of the delivery of health care services. HIT is viewed as a tool that will enhance the quality and effectiveness of health care, enhance productivity and efficiency in this industry, lessen health care costs and errors, expand access to affordable care services, and lessen paperwork. As a result, Health Information Technology is increasingly applied in various segments in the health care industry including for-profit consulting business that deals with various HIT functions like coding and billing consultants.
An example of a for-profit consulting business that deals with the HIT (Health Information Technology)…
Education Portal. (n.d.). Health Information Technology Job Information & Requirements.
Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://education-portal.com/articles/Health_Information_Technology_Professionals_Job_Information_and_Requirements_for_a_Career_in_the_Health_Technologies.html
"Health IT Legislation and Regulations." (2014, September 25). Policymaking, Regulation & Strategy. Retrieved from Health IT Government website: http://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/health-it-legislation-and-regulations
Gen Consulting. (2014). Setting the Standard. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://3genconsulting.com/
Health Information Exchange
The U.S. government established Health Information Exchange (HIE) to help improve patient care across the country. This mandate was created on the premise that sharing health information across, between, and within health communities would help enhance an individual’s healthcare experience across their lifespan (Wu & LaRue, 2017). As part of this process, many hospitals in the United States have electronic health records, but only a few participate in computerized health information exchange. Nonetheless, states have also adopted HIE as a premise for sharing patient health information between healthcare providers like hospital and nursing facilities, home health agencies, and private practice physicians. States like Texas has adopted HIE as a means of enhancing patient care and outcomes among different patient populations in the state. This paper examines the current state of development for Texas health information exchange and current participation rate.
Current State of Texas Health Information Exchange…
Health Information & Law Project. (2013, December 13). Status of Health Information Exchanges: 50 State Comparison. Retrieved January 24, 2019, from http://www.healthinfolaw.org/comparative-analysis/status-health-information-exchanges-50-state-comparison
Landi, H. (2018, September 24). One New York Regional HIE Opposes Expansion of Another, Highlighting Issues with Competition Among HIEs. Healthcare Informatics. Retrieved January 24, 2019, from https://www.healthcare-informatics.com/article/hie/one-new-york-regional-hie-opposes-expansion-another-highlighting-issues-competition-0
National Opinion Research Center. (2013). Evaluation of the State Health Information Exchange Cooperative Agreement Program. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/tx_casestudyreport_final.pdf
Texas Health and Human Services. (2018). Statewide Health Information Exchange. Retrieved from Texas Government website: https://hhs.texas.gov/about-hhs/process-improvement/health-informatics-services-quality/statewide-health-information-exchange
Texas Health Services Authority. (2017, October). 2014 Texas State HIE Strategic Plan. Retrieved January 24, 2019, from http://www.thsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/StateHIEPlan_THSA_2014.pdf
Wu, H. & LaRue, E.M. (2017, October). Linking the Health Data System in the U.S.: Challenges to the Benefits. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 4(4), 410-417.
Managing Medical Records and the Implementation of Tools and Safeguards Required within HIS
Few practices are more important in managing health information systems than managing medical records, safeguarding patients’ medical history, and ensuring that all end users of medical information technology are approved and trained. Some of the biggest factors in security breaches are end users themselves (Rhee, Kim & Ryu, 2009). This is why training of staff on how to use equipment and the importance of protecting passwords is so important (Jackson, 2018). However, the system itself should have system protections built-in that can protect against end user mistakes—protections such as double security via multi-factor authentication (Crossler & Posey, 2017). This paper will discuss the programming language and relational databases that should be used to accommodate security needs for the HIS, the information tools and safeguards required to protect it, the security needed for electronic health records, an…
Case Study: Information Security Issue
Macro-view of the Problem
The hospital faces a problem of end-user security: sensitive data is vulnerable to exposure in the workplace as the end-user methods of using computers in the hospital are ineffective to safeguard the data from theft. Personal health records are important for patients, but if privacy of data cannot be guaranteed, these records are more of a risk to personal privacy than a benefit with regards to having access to information. Nurses, on the other hand, require access to health information and they often need it quickly because of the amount of work they have to deal with routinely on their shift. While end-user security should be a top priority among nurses using facility computers and databases, it routinely is not—as Koppel, Smith, Blythe and Kothari (2015) point out: “a significant gap exists between cybersecurity as taught by textbooks and experts, and…
Conaty-Buck, S. (2017). Cybersecurity and healthcare records. American Nurse Today, 12(9), 62.
Daitch, H. (2017). 2017 data breaches—the worst so far. Retrieved from https://www.identityforce.com/blog/2017-data-breaches
HIPAA. (2016). Basics for providers. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/Downloads/HIPAAPrivacyandSecurityTextOnly.pdf
Kim, L. (2018). Cybersecurity matters. Nursing Management, 49(2), 16-22.
Koppel, R., Smith, S. W., Blythe, J., & Kothari, V. (2015). Workarounds to computer access in healthcare organizations: you want my password or a dead patient?. In ITCH (pp. 215-220).
1. How safe do you think the “safe harbor” of HIPAA’s 18 fields is? Why?
There are two approaches towards HIPAA-compliant de-identification of PHI. These are expert determination and safe harbor (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - HHS, 2018). In essence, safe harbor, which this section will concern itself with, has got to do with the removal of certain identifiers from the data set. In this case, a total of 18 “identifiers of the individual or of relatives, employers, or household members of the individual, are removed” (HHS, 2018). A key advantage of safe harbor is its simplicity. This is more so the case given that its implementation does not call for any technical or specialized knowhow. Its application is rather straightforward. It is important to note that even the removal of the said identifiers does not result in the total elimination or removal of the…
O’Dowd, E. (2019). Using Firewalls to Prevent Health Data Security Risks. Retrieved from https://hitinfrastructure.com/news/using-firewalls-to-prevent-health-data-security-risks
Safran, C., Bloomrosen, M., Hammond, W.E., Labkoff, S., Markel-Fox, S., Tang, P.C. & Datmer, D.E. (2007). Toward a National Framework for the Secondary Use of Health Data: An American Medical Informatics Association White Paper. J Am Med Inform Assoc., 14(1), 1-9.
Steeves, V. (2007). Data Protection and the Promotion of Health Research. Health Policy, 2(3), 26-38.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – HHS (2018). Guidance Regarding Methods for De-identification of Protected Health Information in Accordance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/privacy/special-topics/de-identification/index.html
Information Systems in Health Care: Personal Health Records
Information systems in health care are critical to processing and storing data related to patients and patient services, which in turn ensures that safe, quality care is provided to every patient (Heeks, 2006). One area that needs focus among health care providers is the area of the personal health record (PHR), as Kahn, Aulakh and Bosworth (2009) point out: a gap exists between what patients receive in terms of their personal health information and what they expect and want. The ideal personal health record is one in which the digital application is easily used by patients to help them manage and maintain their health information in an accurate, secure, private and effective way. (Health IT, 2013). The PHR should be managed by patients so that they can store data from multiple sources, such as their health care providers or themselves; it…
American Health Information Management Association. (2017). Analyzing Patient Access to Personal Health Information. Retrieved from http://www.ahima.org/ searchresults?q=personal%20health%20records
Haes, S. & Grembergen, W. (2009). Exploratory study in IT governance implementations and its impact on business/IT alignment. Information Systems Management, 26, 123-137.
Health IT. (2013). What is a personal health record? Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/faqs/what-personal-health-record
Heeks, R. (2006). Health information systems: Failure, success and improvisation. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 75(2), 125-137.
Kahn, J. S., Aulakh, V., & Bosworth, A. (2009). What it takes: characteristics of the ideal personal health record. Health Affairs, 28(2), 369-376.
Clinical Decision Support and Electronic Health Records
Information technology has revolutionized nearly every aspect of life, from how people recreate to how they work. This is no less true in the field of health care, where clinical informatics is reshaping the nursing workplace environment, how patient data is recorded and shared, and how health care is delivered. This paper will discuss clinical informatics concepts emerging in the 21st century, what evidence-based practice (EBP) shows with respect to clinical informatics, how the law figures into this issue with respect to HIPAA, privacy/confidentiality and security issues; and how patient safety, the nursing role and electronic medical records are impacted.
Clinical Informatics Concepts in the 21st Century
Controlling the flow of information to promote efficiency, security, and safety is the number one priority of clinical informatics. 21st century concepts for how this can be accomplished include training in how to find information,…
Protection of Digital Health Information
With increase health information technology store access patient information, likelihood security breaches risen. In fact, Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ): In United States, a whopping 97% increase number health records breached 2010-2011
Ensuring that patient information is protected at all times is vital for any health care institution. Patient information records contain sensitive information that can be used for malicious purposes like identity theft, credit card fraud, and leaking of information for malicious intent. The advancement and use of technology has made it easier for patient information to be accessed within the health care facility Shoniregun, Dube, & Mtenzi, 2010.
This increases the speed of service delivery to the patient and improves the care given to the patient. Technology has allowed for the use of portable electronic devices by the healthcare practitioners in entering and accessing patient records and information. Portable electronic devices are small…
Green, M.A., & Bowie, M.J. (2005). ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH INFORMATION Management: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES: Principles and Practices. Independence, KY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Harman, L.B., & Association, A.H.I.M. (2006). Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Laurinda B. Harman, C.A.F., and Kesa Bond. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 14(9), 712-719.
Shoniregun, C.A., Dube, K., & Mtenzi, F. (2010). Electronic Healthcare Information Security. New York / Heidelberg: Springer.
Health Information esources/Services
Libraries have traditionally been safeguarded the fulfillment of goals of continuing education in their respective fields. It is felt to accord enhanced priority to the health science librarians while the continuing education experts enhance their knowledge of the learning process and the various elements that make the scope of the continuing education effective. eally, the role of health sciences libraries is enormous particularly in the sphere of the lifelong learning and Continuing Education. The concept of Continuing Education has been conveniently been divided by Gruppen as formal CE that concentrates on conventional programs concerning specific topics and aimed at particular audiences; and the informal CE that emphasizes on the learning that involves the anxiety of practitioners anxious of resolving the problems in their routine practice. (Messerle, 1990)
The role of health science libraries has been realized to be significant in both the categories of continuing education and…
Block, Karla J. (Summer, 1997) "Problem-based learning in medical education: Issues for health sciences libraries and librarians" Katharine Sharp Review. Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Dominican University/College of St. Catherine. No. 5. pp: 25-28
Braude, Robert. M; Wood, Samuel. J. (January, 1997) "On the origin of a species: evolution of health sciences librarianship" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 85; No: 1; pp: 116-121
Kronenfeld, Michael R. (January, 2005) "Trends in academic health sciences libraries and their emergence as the "knowledge nexus" for their academic health centers" Journal of Medical Library Association. Vol: 93; No: 1; pp: 32 -- 39.
Messerle, J. (April, 1990) "The changing continuing education role of health sciences libraries" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 78; No: 2; pp: 180 -- 187.
" (MediLexicon International, Ltd., 2006).
The PCIP was formed from the recognition that high costs and low quality inherent in the Healthcare system of the U.S. is largely due to a system that is antiquated and fragmented (DOHMH, 2006a). The inability to properly collect and use health information is one of the primary problems associated with proper health care maintenance. The PCIP. was formed in response to this need. The primary care physician acts as the conduit between the patient and the healthcare system. However, the physician often has no means to effectively transmit the information that they collect to other entities within the system. The PCIP grew out of a need for the primary health care Physician to be able to transmit the needed information to others in the Healthcare system.
There are three essential parts to the PCIP. The first is the Primary Care Health Information Consortium (PCHIC).…
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (DOHMH) 2006. PCIP. Retrieved August 30 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/pcip/pcip.shtml
DOHMH 2006b. Primary Care Health Information Consortium (PCHIC). Retrieved August 30 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/pcip/pcip-pchic.shtml.
MediLexicon International, Ltd. (2006). 1,000 New York City Doctors Will Get Electronic Health Records Systems. Retrieved August 30 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=42483
The American Health Quality Foundation (AHQF)(2006). Quality Improvement Organizations and Health Information Exchange. March 6, 2006. Retrieved August 30 at http://www.ehealthinitiative.org/assets/documents/QIOHIEFinalReportMarch62006.pdf#search=%22Health%20care%20information%20management%20PCIP%22
Evidence of improved access and cost effectiveness should soon follow. Over the next two decades, e-health could deliver patient, provider, and planner/manager interactions for all aspects of health care (Detmer, 2000, p. 181). Detmer continued on to state that this could be a positive move from seeking out errors and problems to information systems whose processes prevent many adverse outcomes. When the problem becomes one of error and miscommunication, one needs to do all that is necessary in order to correct the problem. McKnight et al. continued to report how physicians and nurses both report how there were problems with having updated information both web based as well as written copy (McKnight et al., 2002).
A question that also comes to mind is the concern of training or lack there of. Not only should all current systems of information and resources be overhauled, there is also a need to train…
Detmer, D.E. (2000, July 6). Information technology for quality health care: a summary of United Kingdom and United States experiences. Quality in Health Care, 9, pp. 181-189.
McKnight, L.K., Stetson, P.D., Bakken, S., Curran, C., & Cimino, J.J. (2002, 2002). Perceived Information Needs and Communication Difficulties of Inpatient Physicians and Nurses. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 9, pp. 64-69.
Alberta's Health Information Act (HIA).
Statement of the ule of Law
The inquisitorial justice system, commonly followed in nations that practice civil law, is an alternate model to adversarial systems, followed by common-law nations, such as New Zealand. The former system is normally defined as one that aims at obtaining the truth behind any matter by means of extensive search and analysis of all pieces of evidence. On the other hand, the latter system's aim is arriving at the truth by means of an open competition among defense and prosecution, for making the most convincing argument in their favor (Appendix B: a comparison of the inquisitorial and adversarial systems -- Ministry of Justice, New Zealand, n.d). Field experts who criticize the adversarial strategy contend that the quest for victory frequently dominates the pursuit for truth. One cannot consider either of the two systems as inherently superior. There are, in fact,…
(2015). Justice Laws Website - Site Web de la legislation (Justice). Access to Information Act. Retrieved April 13, 2016, from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-1/page-8.html#docCont
(n.d.). Ministry of Justice - T-h? o te Ture -- Ministry of Justice, New Zealand. Appendix B: a comparison of the inquisitorial and adversarial systems -- Ministry of Justice, New Zealand. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global-publications/a/alternative-pre-trial-and-trial-processes-for-child-witnesses-in-new-zealands-criminal-justice-system/appendix-b-a-comparison-of-the-inquisitorial-and-adversarial-systems
(n.d) Von Tigerstrom, B., Nugent, P., & Cosco, V. Alberta's Health Information Act and the Charter: A Discussion Paper. Health Law Review, 9(2). Retrieved, from http://www.hli.ualberta.ca/HealthLawJournals/~/media/hli/Publications/HLR/9-2-vontigerstromfrm.pdf
(n.d) Writer Thoughts
Information Technology and Cultural Transformation in Healthcare
apid advances in information technology have continued to drive change in many sectors, including healthcare. Ongoing research suggests that cultural transformation is necessary in order to properly adapt to the capabilities and constraints of the increasing complexity and pervasiveness of information technology in healthcare settings. Better utilizing the information technology available to healthcare organizations and more accurately understanding the social impacts of this technology can actually help to achieve the cultural changes that are needed, as is demonstrated in the following brief literature review.
At one level, there needs to be a certain degree of autonomy for individual healthcare organizations in their adoption and utilization of information technologies in certain operations, as this will enhance opportunities for cultural adaptability and a willingness to undergo such transformations (Abraham et al. 2011; Lopez et al. 2011). Different communities can experience significantly different effects…
Abraham, C., Nishihara, E. & Akiyama, M. (2011). Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: A review of policy, people, and progress. International Journal of Medical Informatics 80(3): 157-70.
Box, T., McDonell, M., Helfrich, C., Jesse, R….Rumsfeld, J. (2010). Strategies from a Nationwide Health Information Technology Implementation: The VA CART STORY. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(1): 72-6.
Karsh, B., Weinger, M., Abbott, P. & Wears, R. (2010). Health information technology: fallacies and sober realities. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17(6): 617-23.
Lopez, L., Green, A., Tan-McGrory, A., King, R. & Betancourt, J. (2011). Bridging the Digital Divide in Health Care: The Role of Health Information Technology in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 37(1): 437-45.
Health Management (Discussion questions)
The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) is a law governing how and when patients may be denied treatment or moved from one hospital to another in cases of extreme medical conditions. EMTALA was legalized as a component of the 1986 consolidated budget reconciliation (ichards & athbun, 2009). Sometimes, it is known as the CONA law. This generalized name has generated other laws. A common provision under the COBA name is the statute that governs continuation of benefits derived from medical insurance after job termination. The principal provision of this statute is as follows:
Patients visiting the emergency unit seeking treatment or examination for medical conditions must be given the required medical screening diagnosis. This will be helpful in identifying if they are suffering from emergency medical conditions. In case they are, then hospitals are obliged to either furnish them with appropriate treatment…
Davis, N.A., & Cleverley, W.O. (2010). Essentials of health care finance: A workbook for health information managers. Chicago, Ill: American Health Information Management Association.
Ferenc, D.P. (2013). Understanding hospital billing and coding. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier.
Richards, E.P., & Rathbun, K.C. (2009). Medical care law. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Institute of Medicine (2013). Emergency medical services at the crossroads. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov/ opa/pubs/hp2010/hp2010rh_sec2_healthcomm.pdf
In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.
QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortages.
Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/nursingshortage.htm .
Duke, Elizabeth. (2004). Report to Congress. The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians. U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services / Health Resources & Services Administration. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2008, at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/criticalcare/cc1.htm.
" ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) Other messages of the campaign were to stress the need to avoid high risk pregnancy, prior to age 18 or after age 35 and to stagger pregnancies by two years to help the maternal body recover and be strong enough to care for the developing infant and go through labor successfully. The campaign, promoting these ideas states that it has been successful in reaching its goals, and has currently reached 66% of the population in the regions where the campaign was launched. ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) There is not mention as to whether the campaign will end, or be expanded to a broader audience in Turkey.
Turkey's example program could serve as a template for other health issues that need to be expressed to the public in Turkey and in other nations with challenged health care delivery infrastructures and limited public knowledge of…
Brennan, Teresa. Globalization and Its Terrors. London: Routledge, 2003.
Kaul, Chandrika, and Valerie Tomaselli-Moschovitis, eds. Statistical Handbook on Poverty in the Developing World. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.
Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981.
E-Health Project in Turkey" International Telecommunications Network Website Retrieved November 15, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategies/e-applications/Turkey_E-health/index.html
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
there are three parts. PAT A EQUIES 4 DIFFEENT ANSWES
"ICD-10-PCS is intended to replace ICD-9 volume 3 for facility reporting of inpatient procedures….ICD-10-PCS is a totally new coding system designed to better accommodate the rapidly changing world of procedures. The code system was developed in the 1990s, but use of the continually updated codes will start almost 20 years later." (Dimick 2011). This new standard is supposed to be more accurate and reflective of current healthcare realities than standards of the past, but it is uncertain if in its implementation this promise will be realized.
Current status of implementation
This standard has yet to be fully implemented. "On October 1, 2013, healthcare providers must begin reporting HIPAA claims using the ICD-10 counterparts to the current ICD-9 code sets" and full implementation will be a 20-year process (Dimick 2011).
Three major issues related to implementation status…
About ASC X12. (2013). ASC X12. Retrieved: http://www.x12.org/about/index.cfm
Dimick, Chris. (2011). Learning and using ICD-10-PCS. Journal of AHIMA. Retrieved:
Health Level 7 International. (2013). HL7. Retrieved: http://www.hl7.org/implement/index.cfm
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web
According to Hadley (et al. 2008), "the cost of expanding coverage to the 16% of Americans who are uninsured would add 5% to national health spending" (Hadley 2008: 399). This cost is considerable, yet the cost of allowing the status quo to remain is far greater. In the article, "Covering the uninsured" the authors use quantitative analysis to determine how much care uninsured persons currently receive, how much of it remains uncompensated because of an inability to pay, and how much more coverage would be consumed if all Americans did have health insurance (Hadley 2008: 399). Their data encompasses interviews of 102,000 people who were part of the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys; data from government budgets and health care providers; surveys…
Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web
A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.
The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).
Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…
Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44
Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9
Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow, http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009
Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11
esearch has shown that good communication amid patients and health care providers is directly connected to a person's happiness, treatment adherence and affirmative health results (Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers, 2007).
The goal of a lot of provider-oriented health it tools is to make relevant patient information flawlessly and unmistakably accessible to providers at the point of care. In so doing, these tools can decrease clinical indecision related to blurred or mistaken patient information that may be found in a handwritten medical record. In the nonexistence of desired information or in the presence of blurred or uncertain data, providers may undervalue patient precise information while at the same time overweighting their own medical viewpoints, suppositions, prejudices, or stereotypes about certain kinds of patients. If apparent and precise patient information is accessible to the clinician, the utilization of this information should augment, getting rid of the need for relying on…
Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers. (2007). Retrieved March 13, 2011, from Web
The health care industry is heavily regulated and has several special risk areas that need to be looked out for. An effective compliance program is necessary in order to mitigate these risks. In addition to the challenges that are associated with taking care of patients, health care providers are subject to huge and sometimes intricate sets of rules that govern the coverage and reimbursement of medical services. Because federal and state sponsored health care programs play such a big role in paying for health care, compliance with these rules are necessary in order to avoid penalties that can occur. These penalties can include such things as recoupment of improper payments, along with sanctions imposed by Medicare and Medicaid against health care businesses that engage in abuse or fraudulent practices (Corporate esponsibility and Corporate Compliance: A esource for Health Care Boards of Directors, (n.d.).
A good health care administrator will…
Corporate Responsibility and Corporate Compliance: A Resource for Health Care Boards of Directors. (n.d.) Retrieved April 3, 2009, from Office of the Inspector General Web site:
Health Administration. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2009, from Web site:
There are however existing organizations such as the Healthcare Communications Association which was also formed in 2001, however, this organization was formed primarily for pharmaceutical companies and practitioners. The 'Coalition for Healthcare Communication" organization when searched with keywords 'skilled nursing staff' returned a 'sorry no pages found with your keyword' indicating a gap in the communication network for skilled nursing staff in the communication network for health care issues under debate and analysis. The work of Thornby (2006) entitled: "eginning the Journey to Skilled Communication" states that often skilled nursing staff were found to be avoiding communication with physicians who were known to be aggressive or abrasive instead of becoming competent in skilled communication. It is additionally noted in Thornby (2006) that skills development is needed among today's skilled nursing staff in order to enable competent skilled communication among skilled nursing staff and other practitioners and physicians.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION…
Thornby, Denise (2006) Beginning the Journey to Skilled Communication. Advanced Critical Care. Vol. 17, No. 3, 2006 AACN. Online available at http://www.aacn.org/WD/HWE/Docs/AACN17_3_266-271_HWE.pdf
Coalition for Healthcare Communication (2009) Current Issues. Online available at http://www.cohealthcom.org/content/current.htm
Sorry no pages found matching your keywords' (2009) Coalition for Healthcare Communication. Online available at http://cohealthcom.org/cgi-bin/search.cgi
Healthcare Communications Association (2009) Online available at http://www.hca-uk.org/Join-the-HCA
Health Information System
Promoting Action Design esearch to create value in healthcare through IT
ecently there has been varying proof showing that health IT reduces costs while improving the standard of care offered. The same factors that had caused delays in reaping benefits from IT investment made in other sectors (i.e. time consuming procedural change) are also very common within the healthcare sector. Due to the current transitive nature of the Healthcare sector, new IT investment is likely not going to provide maximum value unless this new investment is backed up with a total reform of healthcare delivery. The overall ability of healthcare IT value researchers to add value to practice will be severely limited as a result of the traditional ex-post approach to measuring IT and the fact that government spurs significant investment. It may be risky to generalize or compare results from traditional IT value research with those…
Fichman, R., Kohli, R., & Krishnan, R. (2011). The role of information systems in healthcare: Current research and future trends. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 419-428.
Goh, J.M., Gao, G., & Agarwal, R. (n.d.). Evolving work routines: Adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 565-585.
Hoffnagel, E., Woods, D., & Leveson, N. (2006). Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts. Abingdon: GBR: Ashgate Publishing.
Jones, S., Heaton, P., Riudin, R., & Schneider, E. (2012). Unraveling the IT productivity paradox lessons for health care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2243-2245.
Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:
Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals
Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.
Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.
Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…
Discussion Paper on Adverse Event and Error Reporting In Healthcare: Institute for Safe Medication Practices Jan 24, 2000
Patient Safety/Medical Errors Online at the Premiere Inc. page located at: http://www.premierinc.com/all/safety/resources/patient_safety/downloads/patient_safety_policy_position_2001.doc
Medstat / Shortell, S. Assessing the Impact of Continuous Quality Improvement on Clinical Practice: What It Will Take to Accelerate Progress.
Health Policy Monitor (2001) A Publication of the Council of State Governments Vol. 6, No. 1 Winter/Spring 2001 PO18-0101
Healthcae Regulation Reseach
Regulation is a key aspect in the health cae industy. Regulation is necessay to safeguad the public inteest. In paticula, egulation in the health cae industy is all the moe significant as it diectly impacts the life and health of consumes (Field, 2006). The vaious egulatoy institutions implement health cae egulations to safeguad the geneal public fom vaious health isks and augment public health and well-being. Health cae egulations and standads ae impeative and fundamental to make cetain that thee is compliance and to povide safe health cae to evey peson that has accessibility to the healthcae system. They ae established and executed at the local, fedeal and state levels (Field, 2006).
Selected Health Cae Regulation
The selected health cae egulation is the HIPAA Pivacy Rule. The HIPAA Pivacy Rule was allotted by the United States Depatment of Health and Human Sevices to limit the usage and…
Pritts, J. (2008). The importance and value of protecting the privacy of health information: Roles of HIPAA Privacy Rule and the Common Rule in health research. National Academies.
In addition, Senator Collins led the fight to restore critical f funding to Medicare for home health care so that elderly citizens and disabled can receive needed care in their own homes ("Biography")."
Obviously the senator encourages the funding of both Medicaid and Medicare as she has fought to ensure that both are funded correctly. Collins was also a supporter of the stimulus package that improves healthcare information technology.
As it pertains to abortions Susan Collins is also pro-choice and believes in stem cell research. She is adamant about the right of a woman to choose just as Senator Kennedy. She also voted no on prohibiting HHS grants to organization who perform abortions. She has also been a proponent of expanding stem cell research.
In both the present and the past Collins has worked to ensure that healthcare coverage is affordable. From the bill that she coauthored with Senator Kennedy…
Biography. Official Website of Senator Susan Collins. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://collins.senate.gov/public/continue.cfm?FuseAction=AboutSenatorCollins.Biography&CFID=1388899&CFTOKEN=51070689
Fritze, J. Moderates in Congress feel health care push. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=7789528&page=1
Funding for Biomedical Research at Maine Medical Center. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://senatorcollins.blogspot.com/2009/06/funding-for-biomedial-research-at-maine.html
Healthcare. Official Website of Edward Kennedy. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://kennedy.senate.gov/issues_and_agenda/issue.cfm?id=dad5db98-20db-4e85-9b73-7a16c4eac15f
Soda Consumption and its link to obesity in California
The soda sugary drink consumption has increased tenfold along with its availability. California Center for Public Health Advocacy (CCPHA) confirms that the overall exposure and consumption of soda and sugary drinks amongst children is extremely harmful. The even recently released fact sheets that supported the related harms as well as their concerns towards increasing soda consumption. After reading the article, it became quite clear that the increase in the soda consumption was an after-shoot of the media promotions of unhealthy diets and junk consumption. Increasing attractive advertisements also gave the food industry the opportunity to exploit the increased attractiveness and thus penetrate the market for huge profits.
CCPHA also pointed out the trends of limited physical activities that were also decreasing the overall health of the children. This is also a major concern and makes me realize the overall…
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…
Semple, S.J., Patterson, T.L., Temoshok, L.R., McCutchan, J.A., Straits-Troster,
K., Chandler, J.A., & Grant, I. 2003. "Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women." Women & Health, 20(4), 15-36.
Earnshaw, Valerie a., and Stephenie R. Chaudoir.2009. "From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures." AIDS
and Behavior 13.6 (2009): 1160-1177.
The first time that they attempted to build this system they did not follow the life cycle plan and the system ended up failing. Developing a new claims payment system that will talk to and be user friendly with the customer service management system would help to speed up efficiency and enhance quality of all departments within the organization. This streamlining would help the company as a whole to reduce costs and ultimately become more competitive and successful within the insurance market.
Being able to answer the following question is vital to any business. How would your organization continue to deliver mission-critical services if normal business operations were interrupted? Being able to quickly resume functioning enough to continue delivering the services that are critical to a company's mission are very important. When normal business operations are interrupted, an organization should use its business continuity plan to prevent disruption in the…
Business Models on the Web. (2009). Retrieved July 20, 2009, from Web site:
Five Forces Analysis. (2009). Retrieved July 20, 2009, from Marketing Teacher Web site:
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…
Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information
Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-
Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
These needs are only beginning to be addressed in Canada and while there do not appear to be many well-established initiatives there is a growing recognition of the need for such if Canada's healthcare sector is to gain and retain the necessary workers to deliver optimal healthcare in Canada.
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
ack, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the C Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, What's Ailing our Nurses? A…
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
Back, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the BC Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
" (2004, p.159) Activities have included:
(1) Development and promotion of industry-wide standards;
(2) Funding of research for investigation of the impact of IT on quality;
(3) Provision of incentives that provide encouragement of investment in IT;
(4) Giving grants to investors in IT; and (5) Development of strategies to improve the flow of information across providers. (Report to Congress, June, 2004, p.159)
Stated additionally in the Report to Congress is that there are multiple functions that must be considered when purchase IT and hundreds of applications that various vendors offer. The various IT applications are stated to be within three categories including those of:
(1) Administrative and financial systems that facilitate billing, accounting and other administrative tasks;
(2) Clinical systems that facilitate or provide input into the care process; and (3) Infrastructure that supports both the administrative and clinical applications. (Report to Congress, June 2004, p.160)
The work published…
BC Medical Association. Getting IT Right: Patient Centered Information Technology [discussion paper]. Vancouver: BCMA. 2004:39-40.
Blum E. Paperless medical record not all it's cracked up to be AMNews; 17 February 2003. Online available at: www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/pick_03/bica0217.htm
Brookstone A, Braziller C. Engaging physicians in the use of electronic medical records. Electronic Healthcare 2003;2:23-27.
Brookstone, Alan. 2004. Electronic Medical Records: Creating the Environment for Change. BCMJ, Vol. 46, No. 5 June 2004. Online available at: http://www.bcmj.org/electronic-medical-records-creating-environment-change
A Model Healthcare Delivery System
The healthcare delivery system also referred to in short as the HCDS is the most effective system that works for most healthcare organizations in all countries with fair, effective and efficient distribution of resources. It is a fast growing service that demands attention from various quarters and domains. At the optimal level, the service program presents relief and hope to the individual, and the general population. The system offers a balanced quality care service through efficiency and fairness. HCDS varies across the world but its focus is constantly on enhancing healthcare access, quality of service and coverage. The success of the program is dependent on the availability of certain basic resources (Kumar & Bano, 2017, p. 1).
HCDS is how the society has responded to the health determinants. The idea of a healthcare system contemplates involving the people that are likely to be served…
Migrant Health Problem
Presently, access to social and health services for most migrants is determined by their legal status. Undocumented migrants have least possible access to health services. Legal status is one of the preconditions for ability involved in receiving adequate care. Further, the availability, acceptability, quality and accessibility of such services is dependent on different influences such as cultural, social, linguistic, structural, gender, geographical and financial factors. From this, different knowledge and beliefs about ill health and healthy status deter migrants from engaging national health services.
Health literacy within such awareness senses entitlements individuals to availability and care services that pose barriers to using similar services (Becker, 2003). The situation also shows dependence on various migrants irrespective of the existing legal or socio-economic statuses. The nature of mobility makes it difficult to establish the available providers of health care service. Temporary and seasonal workers prefer delaying care until there…
Becker, G. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction with Health Care among Chronically Ill African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 742.
Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. & Shea, S. (2000). Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. American Journal of Public Health 90 (6): 917 -- 923.
Huang, J., Yu, S. & Ledsky, R. (2006). Health Status and Health Service Access and Use among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families. American Journal of Public Health 96 (4): 634 -- 640.
Okie, S. (2007). Immigrants and Health Care -- At the Intersection of Two broken Systems. The New England Journal of Medicine: 525 -- 529.
Evolution of Nursing oles in an Enlarged National Health Care System
The Affordable Care Act enables the provision of health insurance to 30 million people above the coverage figures prior to the enactment of the law. Because of this precipitous rise in the number of health insurance members, access to care as a function of the availability of primary care providers has been a leading issue in the transition to the nation-wide system of health care insurance. Public health models and nursing practice arrangements are changing in order to meet the immediate and anticipated care needs that have been brought to bear on the health care systems.
Public Health and Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHCs)
From the earliest days of public health, the roles of nurses have been embedded in the social, educational, and political needs of communities. Health education has functioned as a springboard to community organizing, patient advocacy,…
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2005, January). CMS.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/ACO/index.html
Kulbok, P.A., Thatcher, E., Park, E., & Meszaros, P.S. (2012, May). Evolving public health nursing roles: Focus on community participatory health promotion and prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (OJIN), 17(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No02Man01. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012, September). The Medical Home Model of Care. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/the-medical-home-model-of-care.aspx
Reid, R., Haggerty, J., & McKendry, R. (2002, March). Final Report. Defusing the confusion: Concepts and measures of continuity of healthcare. Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and the Advisory Committee on Health Services of the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Deputy Ministers of Health. Retrieved from http://www.hpm.org/Downloads/Bellagio/Articles/Continuity/cr_contcare_e.pdf
home health care services in extending care delivery to the home setting is increasing in contemporary times. Home health care aims to shorten hospitalization and reduce the frequency of visits to the hospital for patients recuperating from a surgical operation or disease, or living with a chronic illness such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes (Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS], n.d.). It enables patients to have more independent living and a better quality of life. The author's organisation specialises in home health care. In conjunction with hospitals and physicians, the organisation delivers a wide range of individualised care services to patients at their own homes. Whereas the organisation has performed impressively in terms of patient satisfaction, there is still room for improvement. In cognizance of increased demand for home health care due to the underlying greater demand for healthcare in general, it is imperative for the organisation to…
Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (n.d.). What is home health care? Retrieved from: https://www.medicare.gov/what-medicare-covers/home-health- care/home-health-care-what-is-it-what-to-expect.html
Ellenbecker, C., Samia, L., Cushman, M., & Alster, K. (2008). Chapter 13: Patient safety and quality in home health care. In R. Hughes (ed.), Patient safety and quality: an evidence-based handbook for nurses. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Burden of disease: disability/morbidity
The word 'pre-diabetes' applies to persons highly susceptible to contracting diabetes mellitus (type 2). Those diagnosed as pre-diabetic have sustained, higher-than-normal blood glucose levels; however, these levels are not sufficiently high to be characterized as diabetes. Pre-diabetics suffer from either IGT (impaired glucose tolerance), or IFG (impaired fasting glucose), or both. The former denotes a condition wherein glucose tolerance levels of individuals after two hours of glucose consumption lie between 140 and 199 milligrams/deciliter whereas the latter refers to a condition wherein fasting blood glucose levels lie between 100 and 125 milligrams/deciliter (when nothing has been consumed throughout the night) (Thomaskutty & Dwivedi, 2011).
After pre-diabetes sets in, beta cells lose their function progressively, resulting in the onset of diabetes. Type 2 diabetics characteristically have by high blood sugar levels, a condition that, with time, damages blood vessels and nerves, thereby giving rise to…
Nursing Health Care Informatics
"…At the beginning of the 21st century, nursing informatics has become a part of our professional activities…[and has] advanced the field of nursing by bridging the gap from nursing as an art to nursing as a science…" (Saba, 2001, 177).
Nursing Health Care informatics relate to and address technology and other cutting edge issues of great interest in the healthcare field. According to the AMIA, Nursing Informatics is the "…science and practice (that) integrates nursing, its information and knowledge, with management of information and communication technologies to promote the health of people, families, and communities worldwide." New and relevant knowledge presented in the genre of informatics helps to empower nurses and other healthcare practitioners to deliver the most effective patient-center care possible. This paper presents several informatics in the belief that applying healthcare technologies and practices that are genuinely progressive and helpful to today's nurse is…
AMIA (2009) Working Group Nursing Informatics. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from http://www.amia.org .
An, J.Y., Hayman, L.L., Panniers, T., and Carty, B. (2007). Theory Development in Nursing
And Healthcare Informatics. A Model explaining and Predicting Information and Communication Technology Acceptance by Healthcare Consumers. Advances in Nursing Science, 30(3), E37-E49.
Cipriano, P.F. (2011). The Future of Nursing and Health IT. Nursing Economics, 29(5).
The healthcare industry has widely adopted IT solutions in the development and maintenance of information systems for this sector. These information system applications will go a long way in boosting medical care goals by reducing costs significantly, increasing efficiency in the process and achieving a zero error. With this, client satisfaction will be realized. At the core of this is the electronic medical records (EHR) which is representative of all the health information of an individual that is available in a database and can be shared across healthcare service providers (Rouse, 2016). Also integral to this system are two components; mobile health (mHealth) and telehealth (telemedicine). Though the two are interconnected, they have a slight difference. Telehealth includes home monitoring of health conditions through desktops, laptops and other online material (Terry, 2016), while mobile health is restricted to mobile devices.
Considering the impact of electronic medical records (EHR), it is…
Medicare Health Care eform
The Medicare is an American health program that is administered by the federal government and serves as a health insurance for people aged 65 years and above. The Medicare is also designed for people with disabilities and people diagnosed with the renal disease. (Davis, Cathy, & Stuart, 2013). The Medicare is currently being funded by the premiums, payroll tax, surtax from general revenue. In 2015, over 55 million American enrolled for the Medicare services where 46 million people are people aged 65 years and above and 9 million are young people. On the average, Medicare covers half of the health costs and the enrollees are to cover the remaining costs through a separate insurance, supplemental insurance, or out-of-pocket. Since the inception of the Medicare, the cost of funding the program continues to increase, and the rising costs of funding are becoming unbearable both for the current…
Blum, J. (2011). Improving Quality, Lowering Costs: The Role of Health Care Delivery System. Center for Medicare Management.
Davis, K. Cathy, S. & Stuart, G. (2013). Medicare Essential: An Option to Promote Better
Care and Curb Spending Growth, Health Affairs 32, no. 5: 901 -- 9.
Golberstein, E. Kayo, W. Yulei, H. et al. (2013). Supplemental Coverage Associated with More Rapid Spending Growth for Medicare Beneficiaries, Health Affairs, 32, no. 5. 873 -- 81.
Technology advancement within today's society ensures that new ways of performing tasks must be learned. This cycle of discovery is at the heart of every academic or professional pursuit that molds and evolves our methods and thinking patterns. The digital revolution that has occurred throughout the last two decades has forced many industries to alter their approach to their tasks, requiring re-education and an open mind ready to welcome these new ideas into practice and use.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the notion of cloud computing and how this technological practice is modifying the world we live in. This essay will introduce basic and key concepts related to cloud computing to demonstrate its effect on today's world. To further enhance this argument, this essay will explore my personal career goals and how they relate to the notion of cloud computing and the effects of this…
Good, S. (2013). Why Healthcare Must Embrace Cloud Computing. Forbes, 2 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/centurylink/2013/05/02/why-healthcare - must-embrace-cloud-computing/
Holloway, K. (2013). Floating In the Cloud. Nursing Review, February, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nursingreview.co.nz/issue/february-2013/floating-in-the - cloud/#.UaicUZzLuF9
Linthicum, D. (2013). Health care and the cloud are finally coming together. Infoworld, 12 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/health-care-and - the-cloud-are-finally-coming-together-212581
Tiffin, C. (2012). Beyond the Bedside: The Changing Role of Today's Nurses. The Huffington Post, 28 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/charles-tiffin - phd/nursing-school_b_1384285.html
The Greatest Challenge to US Healthcare
The role is played by the government
The role played by the government in healthcare is a divisive issue. Many healthcare organizations executives do support the idea of extending healthcare coverage to the uninsured, however, who this is implemented is the cause of concern. There are numerous changes that are taking place in the healthcare industry and the government needs to catch up quickly. Policy development is the role of government and there is a need to ensure that there are timely and applicable policies in place to govern the provision of healthcare services to the masses. As it stands, healthcare is moving from fee-for-service to value outcomes and there should be policies in place to support this advanced move. Providers have been moving towards value-driven care and the government policies should be able to mirror this movement. While not all providers will be…
Patient portals, electronic medical records, and personal monitoring devices are three of the most revolutionary technologies in the healthcare sector. Each of these technologies presents patients with the potential to empower themselves, taking control of their own healthcare outcomes, and taking part in their overall healthcare goals. These technologies also streamline healthcare administration and minimize medication and billing errors. However, each of these technologies is also constrained by a range of issues related to accessibility, with potent socioeconomic class disparities evident. Security and standardization of healthcare technologies are also proving problematic. Patient portals, electronic medical records, and personal monitoring devices are all technologies that have the potential to radically improve the quality of healthcare and patient outcomes, as well as improve overall patient experiences. Because of their abundant benefits, these technologies need to be embraced and promoted through effective public health policies. Otherwise, disparities will continue to threaten to exacerbate…
protect the privacy of the individual via EU Directive for Protection of Personal Data
The internet revolutionized the human life as we know it. It established a culture of liberty aided by not just ingenuousness but also standardized protocols. This was achieved by transmitting the essential products for business-related growth, adopting a model of governance with no formal existence of regulations along with free availability of abundant software packages. This internet revolution can't be underestimated as it has its pros and cons, which also comes under discussion in this paper. With the surging popularity of internet, there happen to be a plethora of new dilemmas knocking at the door. There are tons of merits of Internet for that matter while its demerits have been ignored and hidden along the sidelines. These issues have materialized in the preceding decade and the demand is urgent to solidify a legislation which is tasked…
Andrew, S. (2011). The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy: Defining Enforcement and Encouraging the Adoption of Best Practices, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809, 854 -- 56.
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security vs. privacy in technology law: A balancing act? Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 130 -- 143
Asinari, M and Poullet, Y. (2004). Public security vs. data privacy -- Airline passengers' data: adoption of an adequacy decision by the European commission. How will the story end?' Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 370 -- 376.
Bambauer, D.E. (2013). Privacy vs. Security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Vol. 103, No. 3.
IT Acquisition Management for a new Video Shop
Individual Project Activities
Identification of a problem
Showtime Video Store
Business Capture Group
The problem is that there is no real information technology security measure employed in the video shop. There is very little awareness of the necessary IT security measures amongst the current management heads which is why they need an effective IT security plan and structure to implement to ensure there is no copyright infringement and stealing from their shop.
Business Activities and Processes Affected by the Problem
The problem directly affects all products and videos that are at the disposal of the customers online as well as on-site.
Actual Performance (e.g., current baseline)
The guidelines associated to the informational security strategy should incorporate contingency actions which will facilitate the video shop to endure any discrepancy or calamity and tackle it audaciously. Actions like incorporating data storage and…
Abt Associates, Inc. 2004a. Summary of findings from the second round of MedPAC hospital IT investment interviews. Deliverable submitted to MedPAC. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.
Abt Associates, Inc. 2004b. Summary of findings from the first round of MedPAC hospital IT investment interviews. Deliverable submitted to MedPAC. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.
Brailer, D.J., and E.L. Terasawa. 2003. Use and adoption of computer-based patient records in the United States: A review and update. Manuscript. California Healthcare Foundation. March 28. Oakland, CA.
Glaser, J.P. 2002. The strategic application of information technology in health care organizations. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey Bass.