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Health psychology looks at several factors and how they are involved in preventing threats to physical health. Most commonly, psychological, cultural, environmental, and biological issues are all addressed by those who study health psychology (Marks, Murray, Evans, & Estacio, 2011). In clinical settings, health psychologists work with others in the medical profession, conduct research, teach at colleges and universities, and work on showing people how they can change their behavior in order to live a healthier life (Michie & Abraham, 2004). Promoting public health is a very important part of health psychology and can entail anti-smoking campaigns, weight loss information, and discussions on the benefits of exercise.
The field of health psychology began as part of clinical psychology, but has since branched off and become a field in its own right. Within the field, there are four different divisions -- critical health, clinical health, community health, and public health. There…
Cohen, L.M., McChargue, D.E., & Collins, Jr. F.L. (Eds.). (2003). The health psychology handbook: Practical issues for the behavioral medicine specialist. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Marks, D.F., Murray, M., Evans, B., & Estacio, E.V. (2011) Health psychology: Theory-research-practice (3rd Ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Michie, S., & Abraham, C. (Eds.). (2004). Health psychology in practice. London: BPS Blackwells.
Ogden, J. (2007). Health psychology: A textbook (4th ed.). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Inpatient psychologists would also possess a more in-depth knowledge of the specific treatment the patient was undergoing, and be able to tailor the treatment plan to the illness. According to the American Psychological Association in a bulletin specifically addressed to patients suffering chronic illnesses: "A qualified psychologist can help you build the emotional resilience necessary to navigate the difficulties of chronic illness. Working with your physician and other specialists, the psychologist can help develop appropriate coping strategies that will not only reinforce your treatment program, but also help you fulfillment in life regardless of any physical limitations" (Chronic illness, 2011, APA). The adult and/or child psychologist could provide assistance in helping adult and child patients deal with stress, regret, PTSD and other associated complaints when warranted.
A fifth possible role might include a psychiatrist specifically trained in an illness present in the population at a high rate or to treat…
Chronic illness. (2011). American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved August 11, 2011
Department of Psychology. (2011). Mass General Hospital. Retrieved August 11, 2011
Health Psychology Response
Past conducted research led experts to believe that men as a gender tend to not seek medical attention as often as they should for various health concerns. The purpose of this research study was to determine why it is that men under-use primary health services. Since reasons for this attitude towards healthcare are psychological, it necessitates a type of study which is subjective and based upon the individual opinions and experiences of the subjects involved. Researchers are particularly interested in the past negative experiences that these male subjects may have had with healthcare practitioners which would add to this phenomenon of under-utilization.
hile conducting the investigation, researchers conducted "semi-structured" interviews with male GPs who were between ages 35 and 53. The only male GPs that researchers could get to participate in the experiment were persons that were some way already known to researchers. The writers of the…
Hale, Susan and Sarah Grogan. (2010). "Male GPs' Views on Men Seeking Medical Help: a Qualitative Study." British Journal of Health Psychology. The British Psychological Society. 15. 697-713.
Health Psychology: Overeating
Overeating is a health issue that results in obesity in individuals with an eating disorder that results in over-consumption of food products. Various programs are in use by the psychology profession to address the issue of overeating with many of them stating claims of success. This work intends to examine overeating as it relates to the principles of healthy psychology.
According to the work of Prentice (2001) entitled "Overeating: The Health isks" published in the journal of Obesity esearch states that overeating "is a relative term. It refers to the consumption of an energy intake that is appropriately large for a given energy expenditure, thus leading to obesity." There are reportedly specific "environmental and cultural factors that have converged in the past few decades to markedly increase the risk of both active and passive (inadvertent) overeating. Chief among these are the increased availability and promotion of cheap…
Ackard, D.M., Neumark-Sztainer, D. And Story, M. (2003) Overeating Among Adolescents: Prevalence and Association with Weight-Related Characteristics and Psychological Health. Pediatrics Vol. 111 No. 1 January 2003. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/111/1/67
Astrup, A. (1998) The American paradox: the role of energy-dense fat-reduced food in increasing prevalence of obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1: 573 -- 577. | Article | PubMed |
Berry, J.T.M. And Glover, R.M. (2004) Stress and Overeating in African-Americans: A comparative Study on the Influence of Stress on Overeating Behaviors. Public Health and the Environment. Nov. 6-10. Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://apha.confex.com/apha/132am/techprogram/paper_84172.htm
Blair, S.N., Brodney, S. (1999) Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: S646 -- S662. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
Health Psychology Issues
Health psychology is the field of study in which psychological and behavioral factors of health, sickness, and wellness are examined. This paper has three parts in which the first part is dedicated to an investigation of a health psychology topic along with a broad literature review; the second part reviews a recovery process aided by a self-help group; the third part encompasses presents a behavioral health prevention report.
People are becoming more health conscious than they used to be a few years back and as a result, they are opting for healthier food options. Although diet plans and exercise programs play a major role in weight loss but the imperative role is that of human cognitive processes that persuade one to stay healthy (Smith, n.d.). Human mind is responsible for making everyday decisions, such as what to eat, and in what quantities, hence, the weight loss greatly…
Brande, L. (2015, December 16). About the alcoholics anonymous (AA) 12 step recovery program. Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.recovery.org/topics/alcoholics - anonymous-12-step/
Burke, L.E., Wang, J., & Sevick, M.A. (2012). Self-monitoring in weight loss: A systematic review of literature. Journal of American Diet Association, 111(1), 92-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.008
Gavin, J., Seguin, D., & McBrearty, M. (2006, February 1). The psychology of exercise. Idea Fit. Retrieved from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/psychology-exercise-1
Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.). Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 63-84). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Patient adherence to taking medications has been a major issue facing many insurance companies. Patients tend to forget to take their medications, and this will reduce the effectiveness of the medicines. The lack of adherence means that the patient's disease will continue developing, and it might become chronic. The patients do not intentionally refuse or forget to take medications, it just happens and sometimes they end up taking the medications later than the appointed times or when they are in pain. In order to promote adherence, most insurance companies have proposed for telephonic coaching, which entails a nurse calling and reminding the patient to take their medication. The nurse no only calls to remind the patient regarding their medication, they also enquire about the patient's progress. This way the patient does not feel burdened with taking medication, but rather they feel they have someone who cares…
Adams, S.R., Goler, N.C., Sanna, R.S., Boccio, M., Bellamy, D.J., Brown, S.D., . . . Schmittdiel, J.A. (2013). Peer Reviewed: Patient Satisfaction and Perceived Success with a Telephonic Health Coaching Program: The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study, Northern California, 2011. Preventing chronic disease, 10.
Florez, H., Pan, Q., Ackermann, R.T., Marrero, D.G., Barrett-Connor, E., Delahanty, L., . . . Rubin, R.R. (2012). Impact of lifestyle intervention and metformin on health-related quality of life: the Diabetes Prevention Program Randomized Trial. Journal of general internal medicine, 27(12), 1594-1601.
Future of Health Psychology
Health Psychology -- Future Challenges
In Health Psychology, Taylor (2011) notes that in thinking about future challenges to health we must acknowledge that we have made great strides in health-related issues over the past years. In the past decade, life expectancy has risen, death rates have dropped, there have been fewer traffic fatalities and children are missing fewer days of school (2011). All this is great new, but there is still progress to be made and there are some future challenges that are unavoidable.
One unavoidable challenge facing us is the fact that there is a rapid aging population. Taylor (2011) notes that by the year 2021, "we will have the largest elderly cohort ever seen in this and other countries." However, the cohort can go one of two ways: it can be healthy or it can be plagued by illness. Obviously, having a healthy elderly…
Taylor, Shelley E. (2011). Health psychology. (8th edition). McGraw-Hill.
Dean Ornish in his 2008 TED talk on "natural healing" presents a simple, low-cost and effective plan for disease prevention and management through lifestyle change. Ornish breaks down the areas of discussion into four basic subjects: diet, smoking cessation, obesity, and finally the "psychosocial" implications of health and how to address them in practice. The thread that runs through all these four topics is Ornish's insistence that "the body can heal itself if given half a chance." The lifestyle changes he offers by way of disease prevention are not just a better option than more drastic medical intervention when the disease has progressed, Ornish compares any kind of medical solution without prevention is like "mopping up a floor without turning off the faucet." And as he notes later in the talk, large-scale lifestyle changes may be viewed as disruptive, but the decision to have children is such a large-scale lifestyle…
Enhancing Health and Wellness
The concept of enhancing health and wellness means different things to different people. To some, the enhancement of health and wellness is about exercise and a fit and healthy lifestyle based on a good diet. To others, enhancing health and wellness is an overarching concept that has less to do with an individual person and more to do with society as a whole. Why society has sickness and how more people can be reached and made to understand the value of health is at the core of this far-reaching understanding. That idea is much closer to what health psychologists consider when they talk about how health and wellness should be advanced into the future (Marks, et al., 2011).
Past experience has shown that there are many different components to health and wellness from a societal standpoint. It is not just about sickness and disease, but about…
Marks, D.F., Murray, M., Evans, B., & Estacio, E.V. (2011) Health psychology: Theory-research-practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Michie, S., & Abraham, C. (Eds.). (2004). Health psychology in practice. London: BPS Blackwells.
Taylor, S.E. (2005). Health psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Personal Change Plan: Alcohol Consumption
My personal plan for change focuses on cutting down my alcohol consumption and working towards cessation. Although I am an extremely active and healthy individual, I have a growing concern regarding the frequency of my drinking and my growing tendency to binge on alcohol. I frequently feel physically ill and emotionally drained on the following days following my binges. In addition, while I have not yet experienced any work-related or legal issues connected to my drinking, I know that my romantic partner and several close friends are concerned about my use of alcohol.
I've recently found myself feeling increasingly guilty about my drinking, and on several occasions I have been dishonest and secretive about my use of alcohol. These feelings and behaviors are of growing concern to me, and as such, I've decided to formulate a personal change plan regarding my drinking.
Gross M. 2010 Alcoholics Anonymous: still sober after 75 years. 1935. American Journal of Public Health. 100(12). 2361-3.
Nathan, P., Wallace, Zweben, J., Horvath, T. 2011 "Understanding Alcohol Use Disorders and their Treatment", American Psychological Association,. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/alcohol-disorders.aspx
Mayo Clinic Staff, 27, March. 2009, "Alcohol Use: Do You Have a Drinking Problem?. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcohol-use/MH00123
"Self-help organizations for alcohol and drug problems: towards evidence-based practice and policy" Workgroup on Substance Abuse Self-Help Organizations. Feb 2003. Retrieved from http://smartrecovery.org/links/VAsmafeb1103.pdf
Affective Distress and Its Impact
Health Psychology: Affective Distress and its Impact
Stress is a significant part of daily life for most people. It can take its toll on a person if he or she does not understand good techniques that can be used to mitigate its effects. One of the biggest problems with stress, other than not knowing how to manage it, is that too much stress can trigger the fight of flight response in some people (Taylor, 2005). When that occurs, the person generally experiences what is called a panic attack or an anxiety attack. These usually only last a few minutes, but they can linger for much longer periods of time in some cases. Panic and anxiety are debilitating (Petersen, Maier, & Seligman, 1995). Often, the person insists that he or she is dying. An ambulance is called or the person is rushed to the emergency room,…
Petersen, C., Maier, S.F., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.
Seligman, M.E.P. (1990). Learned optimism. New York: Knopf. (Reissue edition, 1998, Free Press).
Taylor, S.E. (2005). Health psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
articles on compulsive gambling. Specifically, it will summarize and evaluate both articles, discussing the articles themselves, not the issues they cover. Both magazine articles cover aspects and causes of compulsive gambling, or a specific addictive disorder common in America today.
The first article, Gambling: when it is not a game anymore by Jeremiah Weinstock, James P. Whelan, and Andrew W. Meyers, discusses some of the causes of compulsive gambling, and how the gambler can easily and slowly become addicted to betting. The article also discusses how gambling is not a problem for everyone who ever plays in a casino, but it can be a major problem for family and friends of the compulsive gambler, and the community. The article notes, "Studies have found that approximately one in fifty or 2% of Americans have had severe levels of disordered gambling at some point in their lifetime. An additional 3 to 5%…
Virtues guru Bennett: 'Gambling days over'. (2003, May 31). The Christian Century, 120, 18.
Weinstock, J., Whelan, J.P., & Meyers, A.W. (1999, Summer). Gambling: when it is not a game anymore. Business Perspectives, 11, 18+.
Evidence-Based Programs and Practices in psychological health
Numerous years of research and studies in clinical psychology have illustrated that how individuals process received information, particularly with an attentional bias (AB) to scary information as well as bias in negatively interpreting vague information and data (interpretation bias), actually plays a huge part in the start and maintenance of depression and anxiety (Hughes at al., 2016). There is a growing interest in health psychology in the application of these experimental techniques to evaluate possible cognitive processing prejudices in health conditions like chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome together with health behaviors like smoking, eating, and alcohol abuse. Experimental studies in these fields could inform hypothetical development by allowing access to types and levels of information and data processing that might underpin unhelpful disease representation and manipulate health behaviors. Therefore, this paper is a study that aims to…
Social Media Trends: Health Psychology
One of the most notable trends in recent years is the rise in interest in the field of popular psychology. People conduct personality tests on themselves, engage in self-diagnosis, and simplify psychological conditions (both common and uncommon) and apply them to their daily lives. The ubiquity of the Internet has made this even more accessible. Although self-help books have been best sellers for more than a hundred years, and even 19th century magazines printed personality self-quizzes, the ease of taking and scoring them online has caused an explosion of self-analysis (Bisceglio, 2017). Although some of the quizzes are clearly silly, others, like online versions of the Myers-Briggs, are also used in a serious setting as a method of analyzing prospective employees. “In-depth psychological assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator began popping up in the first half of the 20th century for the purpose of scanning…
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
Health and Psychology
In the past, research findings have pointed out that illnesses are brought about by a constellation of factors. This effectively means that contrary to popular belief, no single factor can be said to cause illness and hence social, psychological and biological factors all have a role to play in relation to illness. It is on this realization that health psychology is founded. In this text, I concern myself on health and psychology.
The elationship between Health and Psychology
In basic terms, psychology concerns itself with mental processes and behavior. According to Pitts and Phillips (1998), health psychology addresses a number of questions regarding the link between health and psychology through identifying how health and illness relates to an individual's emotional psychological bases. In a large way, an individual's physical health remains intertwined (sometimes inexorably) with his or her mental state. Thus effectively, our vulnerability to ailments can…
Pitts, M. & Phillips, K. (1998). The Psychology of Health: An Introduction. Routledge
Health care, and that too, a quality health care is one of the most basic needs of any human being. In current times, where the fast paced lives are getting faster each day, work stresses are increasing, streets are being storm with junk foods and fast foods, and pollution and congestion is increasing, human lives are getting more and more prone to physical and mental diseases. As a result, the importance of health care systems and health care facilities increases. While, surgeons and doctors are generally seen as the captain of the ship as far as health sector is concerned, very important personnel of the health sector are the nurses. Once quite ignored, the importance of the nursing profession was highlighted by Florence Nightingale, one of the nursing pioneers. Florence Nightingale broke the conventional perceptions associated with the profession of nursing and took it to a new level, explored various…
Lee, H. & Winters, C. (2006). Rural nursing: concepts, theories and practice. New York:
Joel, A. & Kelly, L. (2002). The nursing experience: trends, challenges and transitions. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical Challenges: focus on nursing. St. Leonards, N.S.W: Allen and Unwin.
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…
Cassell, Dana K, and Gleaves, David H. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating
Disorders, Third Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Grogan, Sarah. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Koocher, Gerald P., and La Greca, Annette. (2010). The Parents' Guide to Psychological First
healthcare has been moving from a total "organic" model to a more holistic viewpoint of the patient and their individual needs. Healthcare professionals have come to realize that within any organization, nothing is ever in isolation. Research has shown us many things that can be improved using the holistic and multi-cultural models, as well as the direction(s) we are suggesting with our new program. Clearly, the empirical research shows us that there are many modifiers that can create illness, modify illness patterns, contribute to healing, and act in a preventative manner (Adler, 1994). This is particularly true when dealing with chronic diseases like AIDS. Specialized AIDS units within a modern healthcare facility offer a team of experts who are familiar with the various permutations of the disease and who have greater responsibility and autonomy within the nursing staff. This should, in theory, increase both objective and subjective outcomes for the…
Adler, N., et.al. (1994), "Health Psychology: Why do Some People Get Sick and Some
Stay Well?," Annual Review of Psychology, 45. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/oi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.001305
Aiken, L., Sloan, D. (1997). Effects of Specialization and Client Differentiation on the Status of Nurses: The Case of AIDS. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 38 (3): 203-22.
Chow, M.k, et al. (2010). The benefits of using a mixed methods approach -- quantitative with qualitative -- to identify client satisfaction and unmet needs in an HIV healthcare centre. AIDS Care. 22-94): 491-98.
Statistics and Research Method for Business Decisions
Potential of Fitness Industry
Fitness industries today are increasingly receiving clients from all sorts of demographics and ages. Human fitness is turning out to be an asset that people are taking every effort to ensure it is preserved and protected at all times. The fitness standards are essential because they are multifaceted but appear to converge towards the need for a long healthy life characterized by productivity and reduced vulnerabilities. Fitness is a concern for almost every individual in the world today and the reasons are diverse and varied depending on one's goals and aspirations. Every individual in the world, across all ages, aspires to be healthy for some reasons. For instance, every individual seeks to be healthy so that they can engage freely in almost everything that requires a healthy body system (Jacobsen, 2011). Human health is a concern for attacks from…
Health and Social Sciences
Health, Well Being and Social Care in UK
Sociological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psychological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psycho-Social Needs of Service Users in UK
Health and Social Sciences
This report casts light upon the various aspects of physical and mental health of people living in United Kingdom. The selected sample chosen for this study belongs to the settings of people who do not belong to UK from their old generations and they are spending the lives of homelessness there. In other words, the paper is about physical and mental health of people who belong to other areas of the world but are settled in UK for education of job purpose. Since they are outsiders, they do not have permanent place to live in, they make temporal arrangements depending upon their requirements. Their priorities are different…
BBC News, 2011. Archbishop calls for NHS bill to cover spiritual health. [Online] Available at: < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15570290 > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Department of Health, 2012. Public Health, adult social care and the NHS. [online] Available at: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
International Health Insurance, 2012. 3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance. [Online] Available at: < http://www.international-health-insurance.com / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Men's Health News, 2012. The Hardest Workout You're not Doing. [online] Available at: < http://news.menshealth.com/the-hardest-workout-youre-not-doing/2012/02/10 / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
One of the best things about the WAP program is the flexibility that it has. Every patient has their own individual needs that need to be met by a recovery program. Most recovery programs are very rigid and to not have much give to them. The WAP program is just the opposite. It allows each patient to recover at their own rate and using the best resources available to them.
The flexibility that the WAP program allows each patient to have helps to reinforce the idea of self-management recovery. This is so important is giving each patient the responsibility for their own recovery. Empowering each patient to design and implement their own recovery helps to ensure that they will follow through and be successful in recovering.
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). ecovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental…
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). Recovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 14(1), 25-35.
Dewa, Carolyn S., Hoch, Jeffrey S., Carmen, Glenn, Guscott, Richard, and Anderson, Chris.
(2009). Cost, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Mental Health
Care Program for People Receiving Short-Term Disability Benefits for Psychiatric
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…
Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients
Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.
According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…
Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.
The Hastings Center Report.
Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Psychology Movie elation
A ose for Emily
Diagnosing a psychological complication are a daunting task and one that requires immense responsibility of the concerned health professionals who examine the patient and decide the appropriate diagnosis (APA, 2001). Among the many variables that a psychological professional observes, are the patient's past life history. For Emily, an examination of the setting and characters in the plot, and an assessment of some of the themes in Faulkner's short story, A ose for Emily and the occurrences involving Emily's father aids the reader to comprehend the pressures with which Emily tried coping and how she might have suffered from schizophrenia. Emily came from a family of high stature and affluence in their southern community and always had a burden of enormous expectations that people had for her. Her community anticipated her to have a hereditary obligation to uphold traditions, norms that her ancestors had…
APA. (2001). Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
Kinney, A.F. (2000). Faulkner's Narrative Poetics: Style as Vision. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Staton, S.F. (2005). Literary Theories in Praxis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
William, F. (2003). "A Rose for Emily." In The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 2160-2166. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
Informed consent signifies one of the protections in studies on mental illness. Consent is a procedure that permits for the free choice by a knowledgeable and competent person to or not to partake in investigative procedures. Capacity for consent is not a stationary experience. It can transform with the circumstance of the person. The theory of informed consent was established on two distinctive legal philosophies. Every patient has the right to figure out what will or will not be completed on them and in regards to a fiduciary character of the patient physician affiliation it has to be articulated with the main purpose of endorsing individual self-rule while endorsing balanced decision formulation.
This article was very easy to read and attempted to break the subject matter down into everyday language in order to maintain clarity. It gave a very good overview of psychiatric drug testing on children and how…
Malhotra, Savita and B.N., Subodh. (2009). Informed consent & ethical issues in paediatric psychopharmacology. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 129(1), p.19-32.
Health Unit Coordinator Description
A health unit coordinator may also be known as a unit clerk, ward clerk, or unit secretary (Health Unit Coordinator). They help maintain the facility's service and performance. One of the main responsibilities is acting as a liaison between patients and staff, which includes communicating with doctors, nurses, patients, other departments, patients, and visitors that visit the patients.
Prospects of health unit coordinator positions are in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, health maintenance organizations, and home health agencies all across the nation. Employment opportunities for this position are expected to grow in demand as agencies require more help to coordinate services and performance. The start salary can range from $21,600 to over $24,000. The health unit coordinator may specialize in several different areas, such as reception, scheduling, safety protocols, or patient interaction.
High school courses of algebra, biology, chemistry, computer skills, data processing, psychology, English, composition, social…
Health Unit Coordinator Certification, Exam, and Licensing Information. (2012, Dec 8). Retrieved from Edcation Portal: http://education-portal.com/articles/Health_Unit_Coordinator_Certification_Exam_and_Licensing_Information.html
Health Unit Coordinator. (n.d.). Retrieved from Health Careers Center: http://www.mshealthcareers.com/careers/healthunitcoord.htm
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…
Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website: http://ahpweb.org/aboutahp/aboutahp.html .
Berger, Kathleen S. The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, Sixth Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. 2002.
Thompson, Ross a. "Child development." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557692_2/Development_Child.html.
Thorpe, G.L., Olson, S.L. (1997) Behavior Therapy: Concepts, Procedures, and Applications, Second Edition (Paperback). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
It is my belief therefore, as a very wealthy family it is the obligation of the group to help those less fortunate. In this instance, health care (Kim, 1976).
There is an opportunity cost associated against the population for not implemented this policy on a nationwide basis. For one, the money allocated towards health care will help prevent illness. Illness associated with absenteeism, tardiness, and lack of productivity can cost society billions of dollars. Various studies have been conducted to measure productivity loss in the workplace due to worker illness. esults show that not only does the business suffer when a worker is absent from the job, but productivity loss can also occur when a worker is suffering from illness and attempting to work. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine also cites idle assets and benefits paid to absent workers as additional costs an employer must deal with…
1) Earley, P.C. "Trust, Perceived Importance of Praise and Criticism, and Work Performance: An Examination of Feedback in the United States and England." Journal of Management 12.4 (1986): 457 -- 73
2) Kim, J. & Hamner, C. (1976 February). Effect of Performance Feedback and Goal Setting on Productivity and Satisfaction in an Organized Setting. Journal of Applied Psychology
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…
Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=101936297' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Psychology Law and Ethics
In presenting my analysis of the legal and ethical issues involved with Beverly's and Ron's situation, I've tried to push aside many of my own personal feelings that would bias me in my considerations. For starters, I've tried to consider that a woman can just as easily abuse a man despite my beliefs about traditional gender roles and that males are usually the aggressors in domestic abuse. I also believe there may be a class and educational bias on my part because of the way that Beverly has communicated her response to Ron's allegations. Here, she appears to be mentally unstable, but I've tried to consider that she may either lack the education and social skills to relay her feelings in a more meaningful way, may herself be the victim of abuse who is too traumatized to relay a calmer response, or that she may have…
Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments
Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.
What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…
Banyard, Philip. Just Following Orders? Chapter 2.
Edgar, Helen, and Edgar, Graham. Paying Attention. Chapter 8.
Toates, Frederick. Changing Behaviour. Chapter 4
Health Care -- Introduction of Evaluation Plan:
Los Angeles Department of Mental Health Services
he Los Angeles Department of Mental Health Services (LADMH) is the largest mental health department in the United States. reating more than 250,000 patients of all ages every year, LADMH stresses the importance of community for adequately addressing mental health issues. Furthermore, in order to serve its stated mission of enriching lives through partnership with the community, the Department has developed six long-term goals supported by multiple short-term goals.
he Mission of the Organization Responsible for Implementing the Program
he stated mission of the Los Angeles Department of Mental Health Services (LADMH) is "Enriching lives through partnership designed to strengthen the community's capacity to support recovery and resiliency" (Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, n.d.)
he Program's Short and/or Long-erm Goals
LADMH is a comprehensive program that stresses the importance of community for effectively addressing…
The stated mission of the Los Angeles Department of Mental Health Services (LADMH) is "Enriching lives through partnership designed to strengthen the community's capacity to support recovery and resiliency" (Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, n.d.)
The Program's Short and/or Long-Term Goals
LADMH is a comprehensive program that stresses the importance of community for effectively addressing mental health issues (Edmund G. "Pat" Brown Institute of Public Affairs, 2010). The organization has six long-term goals supported by multiple short-term goals. The first long-term goal, to "Enhance the quality and capacity, within available resources, of mental health services and supports in partnership with clients, family members, and communities to achieve hope, wellness, recovery and resiliency," is supported by the short-term goals of: developing a system providing a balanced and "transformed continuum" of services to as many County clients as possible, according to the program's resources; providing integrated mental/physical health and substance abuse treatment to improve service quality and the clients' well-being; assisting clients' establishment of their own goals and the best process for achieving those goals; inclusion and support of clients' families as a vital aspect of the clients' recovery (Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, n.d.). The second long-term goal to "Eliminate disparities in mental health services, especially those due to race, ethnicity and culture" is supported by the short-term goals of: developing programs for early intervention for underserved populations; working with underserved communities to provide services in ways that reduce and overcome traditional barriers to treatment such as socioeconomics, culture, race, language, religion, age, disability and sexual orientation; develop programs that reach out to and educate the population in order to reduce the stigma of mental health treatment, promote tolerance of and increase compassion for persons suffering from mental illness, and reduce the incidence/severity of mental illness (Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, n.d.). The third long-term goal to "Enhance the community's social and emotional well-being through collaborative Partnerships" is supported by the short-term goals of: creating effective partnerships/models for integrating mental/physical health and substance abuse treatment; establishing, supporting and enhancing the organization's partnerships with community organizations in natural environments to enhance the community's well-being; increasing collaboration with organizations, individuals and families that serve children and youth in order to address the mental health of children and youth; strengthening partnerships among mental health organizations, courts, probation and law enforcement to best address the mental health needs of the community's children and youth; partnering with educational institutions ranging from pre-school through higher education to enhance the provision of mental health services; and partnering with religious organizations to use spirituality in supporting mental health recovery goals (Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, n.d.; (Edmund G. "Pat" Brown Institute of Public Affairs, 2010). The fourth long-term goal to "Create and enhance a culturally diverse, client- and family-driven, mental health workforce capable of meeting the needs of our diverse communities" is supported by the short-term goals of:
The results will be analyzed and compared with reference to the two hypotheses.
The results of the experiment were statistically significant with respect to all three experimental hypotheses and all three experimental hypotheses were confirmed. Specifically, (1) reaction times were shorter in the second sequence of each sequence set, averaging a .040/second difference as between the first and second random sequences and averaging .080/sec difference as between the first and second fixed-interval sequences; (2) reaction times were shorter in connection with regular or fixed-interval sequences than in connection with random-interval sequences by an average of .064 as between the first random sequences and the first fixed-interval sequences, and by an average of 0.80 as between the second random sequence and the second fixed-interval sequences; and (3) the differential increased by an average time of .024 as between the first trials and the second trials of random/fixed-sequence measurements.
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Tables and Figures
I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.
According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:
Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.
Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.
Creating a bedtime ritual…
Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm
Carpenter, S. & Huffman, K. (2009). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.aasment.org/resources/factsheets/crsd.pdf
Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sleep/HQ01387
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
After reviewing the "Vignette Miles "case study, using the five axis of the DSM-IV-T, it is clear as Axis I provides anxiety because he has been distressed after the holidays due to financial set backs. His financial situation has been gradually deteriorating during the past six months, and he has been feeling a great deal of anxiety. Miles demonstrated tolerance, loss of control, and denial. This also included trying often to cut down going out but to no avail. Axis II and Axis III shows no symptoms. However, Axis IV provides marital problems and legal involvement. His work as a tree cutter is seasonal, and his income varies from month to month. The child support payments for his two children have recently been increased, and his new wife of two years has no job. She is unwilling to work outside the home. Miles reports that his marriage is otherwise…
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47
Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories of Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Healthcare Master Case Study
Baum, C.M., et al. (2008). eliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility of the Executive Function Performance Test: A Measure of Executive Function in a Sample of People With Stroke The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62 (4); pg 446.
Study rationale. The research study is designed to assess the validity and reliability of a test for executive function in post-stroke occupational therapy patients. Clinical tests of executive function may not be good predictors of a patient's ability to function in day-to-day life. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) employs ordinary daily living skills in which the post-stroke patients are likely to have engaged in the past, and are reasonable target behaviors for adaptation to independent or supported living arrangements. The test is particularly valuable in that it offers a convenient test for executive function using real-world tasks.
esearch design. An experimental design is employed in this study.…
Baum, C.M., Connor, L.T., Morrison, T., Hahn, M., Dromerick, A.W., Edwards, D.F. (2008). Reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the executive function performance test: A measure of executive function in a sample of people with stroke, The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62 (4), 446. Retrieved http://www.practicechangefellows.org / documents/Baum_et_al.pdf
Chaytor, N., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2003). The ecological validity of neuropsychological tests: A review of the literature on everyday cognitive skills. Neuropsychology Review, 13, 181 -- 197. Retrieved http://www.dissertations.wsu.edu/Dissertations/
It would be impractical, for example, to expect Cardiac Medicine, Billing Services, Supply, and Maintenance functions to be supervised by the same individuals. In essence, the many services and functions provided by modern hospitals are so different from one another that they are actually completely distinct operations, each with its own organizational substructure and supervisory hierarchy.
The Hierarchical Nature of Hospital Administration
Generally, the various different areas of hospital services and functions all use a hierarchical supervisory structure. Within medical departments, senior attending physicians supervise residents based on professional seniority and experience. The same is true within nursing services. Other non-medical service areas such as administration and billing function much more similarly to general business offices. Usually, they are headed by a director or supervisor who performs the same role as supervisors responsible for administrating general business offices. Finally, departments such as supply and maintenance operate within a hierarchical structure…
The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.
As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…
Boundless, 2016. Research Methods for Evaluating Treatment Efficacy - Boundless Open Textbook. Boundless. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/treating-psychological-disorders-19/introduction-to-the-treatment-of-psychological-disorders-99/research-methods-for-evaluating-treatment-efficacy-382-12917/ [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Brassai, L, Piko, B, & Steger, M 2011, 'Meaning in Life: Is It a Protective Factor for Adolescents' Psychological Health?', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 1, p. 44, Advanced Placement Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Cuijpers, P. et al., 2014. EU-Compass for Action on Mental Health and Well-being. PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION AND PROMOTION OF RESILIENCE. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/mental_health/docs/ev_20161006_co03_en.pdf [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Gillham, J.E. et al., 2012. Preventing Depression in Early Adolescent Girls: The Penn Resiliency and Girls in Transition Programs. Handbook of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Adolescent Girls, pp.124 -- 161.
THE STUFF IT'S MADE OF
Psychological Profile of a Terrorist
More than four decades of investigation on the profiling of terrorists yielded two major findings (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). First, there does not seem to a single terrorist personality by which they can be profiled. Terrorism psychologists, political scientists and sociologists shared this consensus. Terrorist personalities are as varied as practitioners in the legal profession or any group. Terrorists do not possess neatly identifiable personality traits by which they can be visibly detected. Second, terrorists are not typically diagnosably psychopathic or mentally sick. Although they act and proceed with their task out of a delusional view of the world, they are actually and ironically sane and quite deliberate (Hudson, Nance).
Terrorist groups are carefully and highly selected during recruitment, although their top leaders may possess psychopathic traits (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). ut members cannot depose a…
Alexander, D.A. And Klein, S. (2005). The psychological aspects of terrorism: from denial to hyperbole. Vol. 98 # 12, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The
Royal Society of Medicine Press. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299349
Hudson, R.A. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Kershaw, S. 2010). The terrorist mind: an update. The New York Times: The New York
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
Leadership and Management in Healthcare
Effective Leadership and Management
Leadership is much like communications in regards to the complexity inherent in these concepts. There are many different perspectives that are used to examine these issues and researchers study leadership and management from such disciplines includes Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Business, and Sociology. There have been somewhere in the neighborhood of six to eight major approaches, depending on the vantage point, to leadership theory produced in the scientific literature over the last sixty years and even more have emerged from outside academia (Kilburg & Donohue, 2011). Competing theories include such perspectives as trait theory, situational theory, behavioral theory, competencies theory, network theory of leadership and many more.
Much of the work that a nurse-leader engages in on a daily basis rests in their ability to communicate with others; including clients, colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. Therefore, since this…
Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.
Kilburg, R., & Donohue, M. (2011). Toward a "Grand Unifying Theory" of Leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 6-25.
Marquis, B., & Huston, C. (2011). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Straker, D. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from Changing Minds: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm
Health and Socio-Cultual Factors
Health and Socio-Cultural Factors
Health and Socio cultural Factors
Health and Socio-Cultural Factors
Health and Socio-Cultural Factors
The value of health being wealth is as old as the history of mankind. People of all times have their philosophies related to healthcare and they developed the precautions and treatment according to their specified theories. As the changes take place in every aspect of life, the theories of healthcare and causes of diseases were also developed and the new concepts were promoted to replace the old concepts and practices.
This paper casts light upon causes of disease and illness with regard to classical and modern concepts. The paper explains the differences between the two concepts and elaborates how the new concepts are better than the classical ones.
Classical Concepts about Health
The classical statement about health was 'Illness is simply a matter of bad luck, bad judgment, or…
International Vegetarian Union. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ivu.org/history/northam20a/einstein.html
Natural News. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/023237_minerals_health_soil.html
World Health Organisation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/index.html
Healthcare Disparity in Georgia
HIV infection continues to be a substantial trouble in Bibb County, Georgia. This illness substantially impacts lots of areas and Bibb County shares among the greatest HIV rates in America. One reason Bibb County deals with greater rates of infection is due to the high minority populace. Likewise, high levels of poverty and joblessness can make it tough for an individual to keep his/her health plan and access their primary-care service provider and acquire the required therapy for HIV. Social preconception likewise extends unfavorable mindsets of the community and can force the individual from looking for therapy or even testing for HIV.
The very best protection against HIV is enlightening the general public about the illness. outine testing for HIV is vital too. The first intervention would be to associate with a regional testing center and have the ability to check people as well as inform…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). HIV / AIDS among youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/PDF/youth.pdf
Hamilton, D. (2011). What constitutes best practice in healthcare design? The Health Environments Research and Design Journal 4(2), 121-126. Retrieved from http://www.herdjournal.com/ME2/Default.asp
Maurer, F.A., & Smith, C.M. (2009). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations (4th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.
Bachanas, P., Morris, M., Lewis-Gess, J., Sarett-Cuasay, E., Flores, A., Sirl, K., et al. (2002). Psychological adjustment, substance use, HIV knowledge, and risky sexual behavior in at-risk minority females: developmental differences during adolescence. Journal Of Pediatric Psychology, 27(4), 373-384. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text Database.
Healthcare Psychology Stress Illness orkplace Matrix Use table describe relationship stress health workplace identify ways reduce stress workplace. If additional sources, include citations consistent APA guidelines.
Associate Level Material
Stress and Illness in the orkplace Matrix
Use the following table to describe the relationship between stress and health in the workplace and to identify ways to reduce stress in the workplace. If you use additional sources, include citations consistent with APA guidelines.
Include reference page.
hat is the relationship between stress and health in the workplace?
There is a strong relationship between stress and health in the workplace, as there is a significant number of individuals from around the world who believe that their jobs have a negative effect on their health. A study involving civil service employees in London generated conclusive results showing that many individuals experience low control in the workplace and that this lead to serious health…
Cardwell, M. And Flanagan, C. (2005). Psychology AS. Nelson Thornes.
Nguyen, S. Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture. Retrieved August 6, 2013, from http://workplacepsychology.net/2011/02/14/creating-an-ethical-organizational-culture/
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
The book adds substance, extent, lucidity, and substantiation to the clinical and training processes, and will add energy to mainstreaming motivational advances to behavior change in health care. Primary care physicians and practitioners can augment their expert work and improve patient outcomes by learning about motivational interviewing.
Motivational Interviewing can be defined as a client-centered, directive method for making better inherent motivation to change by investigating and resolving ambivalence. It comprises a mixture of philosophical and clinical aspects that together make up the whole of MI. Motivational interviewing distinguishes and recognizes the fact that clients who need to make changes in their lives move toward counseling at dissimilar levels of eagerness to change their behavior. If the counseling is mandated, they may never have thought of altering the behavior in question. A few may have thought about it but not taken action to do it. Others, particularly those freely seeking…
Miller, William R. & Rollnick, Stephen. (2002). Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change. New York: The Guilford Press.
Smith, David E. & Seymour, Richard. (2001). Clinician's Guide to Substance Abuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.
This decision has proved to be the wrong one, both morally and for their health. Thus, their decision makings skills are called into question, and their behavior has influenced their ability to weigh situations carefully and make the right choices. They did not weigh the side affects at the time, (or did not understand them), and thus paid a price for their choice.
Socially, STDs are a growing problem in America because they erode the health of mostly young Americans, and until the rise in STDs stops, health care costs will continue to rise. More education on the negative results of poor behavioral choices is necessary, as is basic education in STDs, what they are and how they are acquired, could be one way to help stop the epidemic and create a better social environment at the same time.
Furby, L., Ochs, L.M. And Thomas Smith, C.W. (1997) Sexually…
Furby, L., Ochs, L.M. And Thomas Smith, C.W. (1997) Sexually transmitted disease prevention: Adolescents' perceptions of possible side effects. Retrieved from the Find Articles Web site: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n128_v32/ai_206087303 Aug. 2006.
Psychology of Happiness and a Life Well-Lived
In this paper, I have discussed that happiness as well as morality (meaningful purpose) are actually the ultimate goals and the true sign of a life well-lived. I have tried to explain how morality must be considered as the most important factor to signify a well-lived life. I have also given the ideas of Aristotle and Plato regarding morality and happiness and have tried to assess the literature on my chosen factor.
If we ask people to elaborate the definition of a well-lived life, we would surely get very different answers. For some, money will be considered as the means to be happy and successful; others may count recognition of peers as the basis of a well-lived life. A well-designed and useful product will be the success for some; for others it can be a beautiful garden. Good relationships would be a mode…
Aristotle. (2007). Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Cosimo. (Original work published 1911)
Burns, R.P. (2008). On the Foundations and Nature of Morality. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 31(1), 7+. Retrieved July 23, 2013, from http://www.questia.com /read/1G1-175875950/on-the-foundations-and-nature-of-morality
Cameron, D. (2007, May 7). Aristotle Got It Right; Well-Being, Not Just Wealth, Should Mark the Progress of Our Societies. Newsweek International, 1. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from
Obviously, this could have a lasting affect on the study of psychology and predicting many unwanted behaviors and addictions. By studying the human genome of a particular patient, the psychologist might be able to predict these behaviors, and begin treatment or medication to alleviate them.
In addition, children's genomes could be decoded early in life in an effort to find these problems before they start, and treat them behaviorally so they do not occur. Studying the genomes of known addicts or patients with other behavioral problems could also help researchers find more ways to predict these behaviors and perhaps a way to stop them from occurring someday.
This research has many other health implications as well. It could show that many issues that have always been thought to begin in the mind and the psyche can actually be hereditary, and there is no way to stop them from occurring, only…