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Individuals who use this coping style tend to be less depressed and more satisfied with their lives. (Kulich, et al. 1998)
High El students were able to use their social skills to access their social network in coping with their stress. They were able to use interpersonal skills to address stressful conflicts with colleagues and patients.
Low El students tended to procrastinate and withdraw from their social support network.
Interpersonal skills are recommended as ideal skills in a good dentist and discussing problems with other per-sons involved has been cited as a coping strategy for stress in practising dentist. (Lundh, et al. 2001)
High El students were able to judge that such behaviours were not helpful. Health-damaging behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol consumption
Adopting health-damaging lifestyles or behaviours was reported by low El students in response to their experiences of stress.
The use of drugs…
Forrest WR. 1978. 'Stresses and Self-Destructive Behaviours of Dentists'. Dental Clinics of North America. 22: 361-371.
Firth-Cozens, Jenny and Roy L. Payne, eds. 1999. Stress in Health Professionals: Psychological and Organisational Causes and Interventions. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Goleman D. 1995. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam.
Goleman, D., R. Boyatzis, and A. McKee. 2002. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Worker responses provide data, which is known as primary data. On the other hand, some research projects entail use of data already collected by somebody else (for example, Canadian Census survey data). Researchers study this already-gathered data to find answers to their research question. Such data is known as secondary data. One advantage of primary data collection is that, in this process, information is collected specifically for a particular study. The questions asked by researchers are essentially tailored for eliciting information which will aid them in the study. Research tools like interviews, surveys and direct observation (e.g. observation of safety practices at a factory) are employed for collecting primary data. Secondary data is normally easily available and obtainable at low prices. Additionally, secondary data over a long duration can be easily obtained for analysis. For instance, one can examine a firm's lost-time rate trends over many years (IWH, 2008).
IWH. (2008). What researchers mean by primary data and secondary data. Retrieved from Institute of Work and Health: http://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/primary-data-and-secondary-data
Nielsen, J., Zielinski, B., Ferguson, M., Lainhart, J., & Anderson, J. (2013). An Evaluation of the Left-Brain vs. Right-Brain Hypothesis with Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PLOS Collections.
Ramachandran, V., & Altschuler, E. (2009). The use of visual feedback, in particular mirror visual feedback, in restoring brain function. A Journal of Neurology, 1693-1710.
UCSC. (n.d.). Distinguish Between Primary and Secondary Sources. Retrieved from University Library: http://guides.library.ucsc.edu/primarysecondary
Healthcae Regulation Reseach
Regulation is a key aspect in the health cae industy. Regulation is necessay to safeguad the public inteest. In paticula, egulation in the health cae industy is all the moe significant as it diectly impacts the life and health of consumes (Field, 2006). The vaious egulatoy institutions implement health cae egulations to safeguad the geneal public fom vaious health isks and augment public health and well-being. Health cae egulations and standads ae impeative and fundamental to make cetain that thee is compliance and to povide safe health cae to evey peson that has accessibility to the healthcae system. They ae established and executed at the local, fedeal and state levels (Field, 2006).
Selected Health Cae Regulation
The selected health cae egulation is the HIPAA Pivacy Rule. The HIPAA Pivacy Rule was allotted by the United States Depatment of Health and Human Sevices to limit the usage and…
Pritts, J. (2008). The importance and value of protecting the privacy of health information: Roles of HIPAA Privacy Rule and the Common Rule in health research. National Academies.
Community/Organization of Interest:
Health and medical services in Bella Vista, PA, a South Philadelphia neighborhood
The cultural perspective
Bella Vista, PA, a South Philadelphia neighborhood, is a largely Italian-American ethnic enclave dominated by white, working-class residents. Although recent scholarly literature has focused upon the deficit of healthcare knowledge and services in lower-income nonwhite populations, deficits in knowledge and willingness and ability to access vital resources to improve their health still persist across population groups. For example, one study of non-Hispanic and Hispanics found that there were high levels of systemic barriers to obtain colorectal screening, including: scheduling and financial barriers; fear of diagnosis and pain; and lack of motivation amongst all study participants (Green et al. 2008). Culturally and psychologically in many communities, there is often an unwillingness to seek medical treatment in the form of screening. Even though Bella Vista is not a poor community cultural attitudes towards healthcare…
Breen, T. (2013). Overview of the 2013-2014 Medicaid payment increase for primary care services. The Advisory Board Company. Retrieved:
Brown, E.R. (et al2004). Effects of community factors on access to ambulatory care for lower-
income adults in large urban communities. Inquiry - Excellus Health Plan, 41(1), 39-56.
reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Why do People Believe the Crisis is eal?
What Evidence is There That it is Not eal?
What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.
What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?
For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere…
There. (U.S. health care crisis and crime problem)
St. Louis Journalism Review; May 1, 1994; Blumenthal, H.T.
Health Care Crisis Is Not a Misnomer
Newsday; November 30, 2002; Robert Reno
Statistics and Research Method for Business Decisions
Potential of Fitness Industry
Fitness industries today are increasingly receiving clients from all sorts of demographics and ages. Human fitness is turning out to be an asset that people are taking every effort to ensure it is preserved and protected at all times. The fitness standards are essential because they are multifaceted but appear to converge towards the need for a long healthy life characterized by productivity and reduced vulnerabilities. Fitness is a concern for almost every individual in the world today and the reasons are diverse and varied depending on one's goals and aspirations. Every individual in the world, across all ages, aspires to be healthy for some reasons. For instance, every individual seeks to be healthy so that they can engage freely in almost everything that requires a healthy body system (Jacobsen, 2011). Human health is a concern for attacks from…
Human Services Intervention for the Homeless
Working with homeless people is one of the challenging tasks in the social sector. Similar to other social worker position, supporting homeless people can be very difficult and challenging because most of the homeless people are a drug addict, jobless, and suffer from mental disorders. Homelessness is a condition without having access to a regular dwelling. Thus, homeless are people who are unable to acquire safe, regular, and secure housing units. Thus, anybody cannot just work with this set of the population, social workers or other professionals ready to work with this set of people should possess interpersonal skills to work successfully with them.
The objective of this paper is to address the interpersonal skills to work homeless.
Interpersonal skills to work with Homeless
A strong communication skill is one of the interpersonal skills needed to work with homeless people. A social or health…
Finfgeld-Connett, D. Bloom, T.L. & Johnson, E.D. (2012). Perceived Competency and Resolution of Homelessness Among Women With Substance Abuse Problems. Qualitative Health Research
Finfgeld-Connett, D. (2010). Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31, 461-469.
Health Policy Analysis for Maryland AC (Affordable Care) Act
McLaughlin, & McLaughlin (2014) rank 11 areas of health innovation based on their impact on costs and quality of healthcare delivery. The process improvement is the highest ranking item. However, the authors identify data analytics, disease management, "non-physician delivery alternatives," and "alternative to fee-for service" (McLaughlin, & McLaughlin, 2014 p 335) as other innovation items that can enhance quality and reduce costs. Additionally, the authors point out that innovation in electronic medical records, diagnosis, and pharmaceuticals can also assist with quality and cost.
Objective of this health policy paper is to evaluate the items that can play important role in the health policy process of Maryland's ACA (Affordable Care Act).
Healthcare items for Health Policy Process for in Maryland Affordable Care Act
The ACA (Affordable Care Act) is a federal government legislation focusing on healthcare coverage for small groups and individuals.…
Abrams, M. Nuzum, R. Mika, S. et al. (2011). Realizing Health Reform's Potential How the Affordable Care Act Will Strengthen Primary Care and Benefit Patients, Providers, and Payers. The Commonwealth Fund.
Chin, W.W. Hamermesh, R.G. Huckman, R.S. et al.(2012). 5 Imperatives Addressing Innovative Challenge. Harvard Business School.
McLaughlin, C.P. & McLaughlin, C.D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach.(2nd Edition). Burlington, Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Resnik, D.B. (2007). Responsibility for Health: Personal, Social, and Environmental. J Med Ethics. 33(8): 444-445.
The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential
Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF
Prepare Your Facility…
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
Health Care Past, Current, And Future
The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.
Past Health Care Services -- Early America
Health care in colonial…
Daly, John. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York:
Springer Publishing Company.
Gorsky, Martin. (2010). Good Health for America? History Today, 60(2), 1-6.
McCarthy, Robert L., and Schafermeyer, Kenneth W. (2007). Introduction to Health Care
Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).
Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…
BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:
Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.
Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
However, they contradict themselves trough supporting one's right to commit physician-assisted suicide, since this would virtually mean that the individual who is no longer willing to live is not provided with health care meant to prevent him or her from dying (Epstein, 1999, p. 1).
Among those opposed to the fact that health care is becoming increasingly better are those who are in their twenties and are obliged to work hard in order to pay for their own medical insurance and for that of the underprivileged (Bonner, 2010).
Contemporary health care is basically provided by groups forced to pay taxes in order for others to benefit out of the process. The fact that health care is a privilege and not a right was made obvious ever since the 1954 foundation of the Department of Health, Education, and elfare. The name contained the term welfare with the intention of highlighting how…
Bloche, M.G. ed., The Privatization of Health Care Reform: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Epstein, R.A. Mortal Peril: Our Inalienable Right to Health Care? (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999)
Heirich, M. Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998)
Sanders, B. (2009). Retrieved from the Huffington Post Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-bernie-sanders/health-care-is-a-right-no_b_212770.html
(Wolf, 2008) When you put all of these different elements together, it means that denying health care services to undocumented workers and their families will cause their underlying levels of health to slowly deteriorate. If something serious does occur, these people will more than likely be forced to fend for themselves.
Conducting research in these two areas would be beneficial in influencing health care policy / outcome by: highlighting the overall human cost of the problem on the industry and society. Where, the act of denying them access to health care and the lingering effects could be considered a human rights issue. As a result, the research that would be conducted would be beneficial, in highlighting the overall harsh conditions that these families are forced to endure. Once you present the situation in this light, this will shift the debate from one of a cost issue to being about: basic…
Health Care for Undocumented Immigrants. (2008). Medical News Today. Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/56809.php
Aparico, A. (2004). Costs of Care and Lack of Health Insurance. Immigrants, Welfare Reform and Poverty Policy. (pp. 73 -- 77). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Wolf, R. (2008). Rising Health Care Costs. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-01-21-immigrant-healthcare_N.htm
S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Civil Rights. (2011). Your health information privacy rights. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services Civil Rights:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Health information privacy. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:
Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).
The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.
The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…
Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.
Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.
Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .
These were categorized into three aspects, which the care provider could control for the benefit of the patients. These were satisfaction with the punctuality of the caregiver; the quality of interaction between the patient and the caregiver; and the overall dependability of health care. Promptness or punctuality with care or service was rated most highly by both groups. eing on time affected their functioning and comfort throughout the day, specifically with dressing, bathing and daily activities. Promptness was considered the easiest and most controllable aspect for the provider. The quality of interaction made the patients feel safe, respected and valued. And satisfaction with the overall dependability of health care mostly involved the caregiver's following through with the patient's suggestions, especially those by the more frail patients. This last aspect was also well within the control of the health care provider (Kolodonsky, et al.).#
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of…
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of U.S. elders do not have health insurance coverage -- not even Medicare (Online). American Academy of Family Physicians.
http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/media/releases/2004/uninsured-elders-4-1-04 (Accessed 18 August 2009).
Cummings, S.M.; Neff, J.A.; and Husaine, B.A. (2003), functional impairment as a predictor of depressive symptomatology: the role of race, religiosity and social support (Online). Health and Social Work, National Association of Social Workers. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb138/is_1_28/ai_n28983552 (Accessed 18 August 2009)
Kolodinsky, J.; Junghun, N.; Lee, J.K.; and Dorzewiczewski, M. (2001). Degree of frailty and elderly satisfaction with personal care services in a community setting (Online). Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, ProQuest Information and Learning Company. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5516/is_200101/ai_n21465985 . Accessed 18 August 2009).
(Health Insurance Coverage, 2009). This is just a little higher than what was reported in the state of Pennsylvania over the last two-year period, which was at 25% (Krawczeniuk, 2009). "The number of uninsured rose 2.2 million between 2005 and 2006 and has increased by almost 8 million people since 2000" (Health Insurance Coverage, 2009).
Most Americans are provided with health insurance coverage through their employers. But in today's society employment is no longer a guarantee of health insurance coverage. "As America continues to move from a manufacturing-based economy to a service economy, and employee working patterns continue to evolve, health insurance coverage has become less stable. The service sector tends to offer less access to health insurance than the manufacturing sector does. Further, an increasing reliance on part-time and contract workers who are not eligible for coverage means fewer workers have access to employer-sponsored health insurance" (Health Insurance Coverage,…
Descriptive Statistics. (2006). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Research Methods Knowledge Base
Web site: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Health Insurance Coverage. (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from National Coalition on Healthcare Web site: http://www.nchc.org/facts/coverage.shtml
Krawczeniuk, Borys. (2009, March 26). Study Finds Health Care Gaps. Times-Tribune, The
On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.
American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.
Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."
Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008 http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA
County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).
The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…
County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&
Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA: http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm
Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704
Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA: http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
Health Policies Medicare
hen everyone in our country finally starts to reach the age of 65 years of age or older, then every person will become eligible for Medicare. It is clear that there are some elderly that are having minimum health concerns while others recurrently are dealing with medical issues for which they will have to seek out treatment by the doctor. However, research is starting to display that there are at least five top conditions that are enhancing on medical and drug spending. It is obvious that Heart disease circumstances are the number one medical issue that the those that are considered elderly are facing and that is becoming very costly to them. Most are unaware that the second one is the disease cancer and it could be internal or external for various elderly patients. Other issues such as joint ailments a lot of the times can cost…
Wenzlow, Audra T., et al. "Effects of a Discharge Planning Program on Medicaid Coverage of State Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 62.1 (2011): 73-8.
Sommers, Benjamin D. "Loss of Health Insurance among Non-Elderly Adults in Medicaid." Journal of General Internal Medicine 24.1 (2009): 1-7.
Verdier, James, and Allison Barrett. "How Medicaid Agencies Administer Mental Health Services: Results from a 50-State Survey." Psychiatric Services 59.10 (2008): 1203-6.
Harman, Jeffrey S., Allyson G. Hall, and Jianyi Zhang. "Changes in Health Care use and Costs After a Break in Medicaid Coverage among Persons with Depression." Psychiatric Services 58.1 (2007): 49-54.
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
Health eform Act
The work of Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood (2010) entitled "Employee Benefit Plan eview -- Meyerowitz, Health care eform Is Here -- Now What?" states that health care reform laws are expected to have an impact that is significant in nature and this is on the health insurance industry as well as on employee benefit issues as well. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which was then supplemented and modified, less than one week later, by the Health Care and Education Tax Credit econciliation Act (HCEA)." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) Those two laws are referred to as "Health Care eform" or "Health eform Laws." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) The Health eform Laws are reported, while being extremely lengthy and in depth and very detailed to "leave open a host of issues that will have to be resolved either through agency regulations…
Current Internal Revenue Code (Standard Federal version), SEC. 45R. EMPLOYEE HEALTH INSURANCE EXPENSES OF SMALL EMPLOYERS (2010) WK_ Current Internal Revenue Code SEC 45R EMPLOYEE HEALTH INSURANCE EXPENSES OF SMALL EMPLOYERS.pdf
Part III - Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous Section 45R -- Tax Credit for Employee Health Insurance Expenses of Small Employers Notice 2010-44
National Tax Advisory (2010) What you need to know now about the tax aspects of health reform litigation. 6 Apr 2010.
IRS Rulings & Other Documents (2002-Current), Rev. Rul. 2010-13, Internal Revenue Service, (May 3, 2010) WK_ IRS Rulings Other Documents 2002-Current Rev Rul 2010-13 May 3, 2010.pdf ©2010 Wolters Kluwer.
This research focuses on the health impacts of the Industrial evolution on various sectors of the British population, and hypothesizes that working class and poor laborers suffered from poorer health than their wealthier counterparts due to exposure to pollution and to lack of exposure to a varied diet.
Public health and the public health system existing in the 21st century is unrecognizable from what existed just a century before. As Wohl (1983) points out, poverty, ignorance, and poor sanitation plagued British public health throughout the Victorian era. It is important to understand what prompted the changes that led to increased knowledge, awareness, and application of ethical principles in health care. Armed with this knowledge, the bioarchaeologist and health care specialists alike can work together to transform health care outcomes in the future.
In particular, the Industrial evolution impacted individual and public health in significant and measurable ways. Coal…
Wohl, A.S. (1983). Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain.London: J.M. Dent.
Health Organization Case Study
The mission of Banner Healthcare is to make a difference in the lives of people through excellent patient care. They achieve this by providing leadership for excellence in patient safety and clinical care. Traditionally, healthcare institutions focused on analyzing aggregate performance, questioning causation, monitoring scorecards and identifying gaps. Planning and managing stages at integral to the process of achieving Banner Healthcare's vision. Planning entails the development of standards, rules, and work teams necessary for the work. Concurrent management involves patient-oriented care and coordinated health care. Across the various work teams, care management efforts and the number of people are involved in making clinical improvements across the organization have been gradually increasing.
This occurs regardless of whether they are work groups, system wide teams, strategic initiatives, and special projects. The work is organized under functional teams. Besides the functional teams, initiative work groups and clinical consensus groups…
Wickramasinghe, N. & Sharma, S.K. (2010). Creating knowledge-based healthcare organizations. Hershey Penns: Idea Group Pub.
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
arity: Health Care EIT is one of many luxury and acute care investment properties on the market.
Imatability: Given the lack of available credit for starting new property ventures and construction, the company's current facilities do give it an advantage. Financial barriers to industry entry are higher than they were in the past. This can act as a barrier to 'imatiblity' of its business model.
Organization: Health Care EIT has a fairly concentrated organizational structure. While this can be an advantage in terms of assuring consistency of service, it can also result in narrowness of vision, such as (perhaps) a tendency to focus too much on high-end offerings, when seniors may have less financial leverage than in the past.
Sources, rarity, and imatability of cost advantages
Economies of scale may be possible, given the size of Healthcare EIT. Unlike some of its competitors, the company was an early, first mover…
Executive Officers. (2010). Health Care. REIT. Retrieved November 3, 2010 at http://www.hcreit.com/about-hcn/executive-officers
History (2010). Health Care. REIT. Retrieved November 3, 2010 at http://www.hcreit.com/about-hcn/history
He further goes on to say that, "I am my brother's keeper and I am my sister's keeper" to bolster this point.
In a separate interview, epublican National Committee chairman Michael Steele refutes Obama's speech and maintained that Obama's call for healthcare reform as moral obligation is simply a "gimmick" and Obama's choice of going as far as this means that the White House is running scared as it needs to financially shore up its base.
The article closes on White House's denial that Obama is preparing to initiate a government-run "public option" for healthcare that will compete against private healthcare companies. As a matter of fact, Obama is working on the intensification of his healthcare reform call by reaching the channels of grass roots supporters via online and telephone meeting.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)
Several studies, including Kelly arnes, show that healthcare generally moves from "costly settings" such as hospitals into cheaper and more flexible options, such as retail clinics and mobile health
What this actually shows as a future trend is that the global recession has played an important role in defining the customer profile. Clients are no longer interested solely in the best available services, but in low-cost services. For this, they look at flexible options and, in the same context of flexibility, they look more and more towards customization. Customization includes customized treatments and customized location (home, hospital, clinics, mobile)
At the same time, the demand for innovation remains key. The Harvard usiness Review points to the demand for innovation in emerging markets, such as China and India, but this is also true, to a different degree, for the U.S. market
. Innovation can take different…
1. Barnes, Kelly. Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. PriceWaterHouse Coopers. On the Internet at http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/index.jhtml . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
2. Top Trends in Healthcare, medicine & pharmaceuticals. What's Next. On the Internet at http://www.nowandnext.com/?action=top_trend/list_trends§orId=10 . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
3. N.a. Megatrends in Global Health Care. On the Internet at http://hbr.org/web/extras/insight-center/health-care/globaltrends/2-slide . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
4. Child Trends. (2013). Fertility and birth rates. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=fertility-and-birth-rates
Meanwhile, without any competition, such as n the form of a public healthcare insurance system, the private healthcare insurance industry also continually increases premium fees virtually at will (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). Furthermore, by refusing policies to high-risk patients, private health insurers essentially "cherry pick" the lowest risk patients while leaving the most expensive medical services to be furnished at the public's expense by public funds available to provide healthcare for low-income individuals (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). That is why, at the very least. The future of American healthcare insurance must include a public option (Kennedy, 2006).
The Issue of Government Healthcare Insurance Lobbying
The principal way that the private healthcare insurance industry maintains its control over American healthcare is through political lobbying of government representatives (Kennedy, 2006). In fact, there are approximately six healthcare industry lobbyists in Washington for every publicly elected representative. Throughout the 2009 negotiations in Washington…
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…
Altman, D.E. And L. Levin. (2005). The Sad History of Health Care Cost Containment as
Told by One Client. Health Affairs, 24(1).
Bodenheimer, T. (2005). High and rising health care costs. part 1: Seeking an explanation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(10), 847-54.
Psychosocial Model of Health
Use questions 2, 3, 5, 11, and 12
Many times a health professional will look at a health issue and see only the problem at hand. The difficulty with this approach is that most health problems affect the entire person whether or not the issue is localized or not. The psychosocial model of health looks at more than an individual's physical state to determine how they will respond to treatments in the short- and long-term. A patient's psychological well-being and their support system are as important as a willingness to see a treatment through to the end. The following paper looks at two patients and whether they were well-served from a psychosocial perspective, and, if not, what improvements could be made to serve the patient better.
In the documentaries, two of the patient interviews stood out as especially relevant to this discussion. One of these…
Back, A.L., Arnold, R.M., Baile, W.F., Fryer-Edwards, K.A., Alexander, S.C., Barley, G.E., Gooley, T.A., & Tulsky, J.A. (2007). Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions too palliative care. Arch International Medicine, 167, 453-459.
Douglass, J.L., Sowell, R.L., & Phillips, K.D. (2003). Using Peplau's Theory to examine the psychosocial factors associated with HIV-infected women's difficulty in taking their medications. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 7(1).
Ellingson, L.L. (2002). Introduction to the field of healthcare communication. Communication Research Trends, 21(3).
Holland, D.J., Bradley, D.W., & Khoury, J.M. (2005). Sending men the message about preventive care: An evaluation of communication strategies. International Journal of Men's Health, 4(2).
In doing so, organizations:
advance the idea of public assurance that the organization is concerned for patient safety and the quality of care present a safe and capable work environment that adds to worker satisfaction negotiate in regards to sources of payment for care in regards to data on the quality of care pay attention to patients and their families, value their rights, and connect them in the care process as partners produce a culture that is open to learning from the timely reporting of unfavorable events and safety concerns set up joint leadership that sets precedence's for and unremitting leadership for quality and patient safety at all points (Introduction, n.d.).
In 2012 Joint Commission made quite a few changes to the 2012 accreditation decision rules. These rules present the consistent structure that the Joint Commission uses to deliver an accreditation decision limiting unpredictability or prejudice. The first thing that…
2012 Accreditation Decision Rules. (2011). Retrieved from www.jcrinc.com/common/PDFs/fpdfs/.../JCP-01-12-S8.pdf
About Joint Commission International. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.jointcommissioninternational.org/About-JCI/
Common Questions and Answers Regarding JCI Accreditation, Clinical Laboratories, and These Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.jointcommissioninternational.org/common/pdfs/jcia/QuestionsandAnswer
At the same time, 25% of Americans do not have any kind of health insurance coverage or not enough to pay for all of their expenses. (Amadeo) This can have an impact upon their financial well being, as a person must spend money that they do not have, to treat different conditions that could be life threatening. Once this begins to occur, is when the total number of bankruptcies will begin to rise sharply. As nearly half of all the filings that are made are: medical related, due to the overwhelming costs and the inability to pay them. (Amadeo) These different challenges are creating sudden shift in the economy that are: having short- and long-term impacts upon economic growth.
What is happening is rising health care costs are beginning to become a hidden tax on: businesses and consumers. As they are slowly eating away at any kind of added investments…
"The Boomer Stats." BBHQ, 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2011
"The Economic Effects of Health Care Reform." The White House, 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2011
Amadeo, Kimberly. "Health Care Reform." About.com, 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2011.
Francis, Diane. "Health Care Reform is Smart." Huffington Post, 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2011.
(ennie; Fontanarosa, 2006)
Apart from financial reasons, millions are not bale to access healthcare due to a lot of barriers inclusive of geography, racial differences and immigrant status. The people who do not have access to required care, that might comprise incapability to get primary care chronic care, specialist care, or emergency care stand at risk for severe health consequences. As per a recent report, absence of health insurance was linked with considerably lowered application of recommended healthcare services for cancer prevention, cardiovascular disease threat reduction, and diabetes management within the lower-income as also higher-income adults. Apart from the concerns, trouble, and stress directly associated to their illness, patients those who lack insurance or are underinsured also encounter increased levels of debt, threatening calls from collection agencies, anxiety, and possible insolvency. (ennie; Fontanarosa, 2006)
Impact of reform measures on the nursing profession:
The U.S. healthcare system is considered among the…
Granger, David; Young, Audrey. (1999) "Healthcare and the Underserved: America's Poor and Managed Care." Project of the Standing Committee on Health Policy: American Medical Student Association. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://www.amsa.org/pdf/hlthcareunderserved.pdf
N.A. (2002, Jun 1) "Collective bargaining in the nursing profession: salient issues and recent developments in healthcare reform" Hospital Topics. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0198-95081_ITM
N.A. (n. d.) "Nursing's Agenda for Healthcare Reform." The American Nurses Association
Inc. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://www.needlestick.org/readroom/rnagenda.htm
Health Disparities in Louisville KY
Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:
A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).
There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…
Eliminating social and economic barriers to good health and safety: Louisville
Center for Health Equity. Retrieved from http://www.preventioninstitute.org/component/jlibrary/article/id-278/127.html?tmpl=component&print=1
Galvin, J.R. (2006) Diabetes. Ebony, 61 p. 157.
GradNation - Making the Connection: Health & Student Achievement. Retrieved from http://www.silentepidemic.net/Our-Work/Dropout-Prevention/~/media/Files/Our%20Work/Dropout%20Prevention/Grad%20Nation%20Action%20Forum/Steve%20Tarver%20working%20sess%20PPT.ashx
Health Care Communication
As the nation's health care resources become more and more strained, health care professionals are being asked to do more with less. They are being pressured to find cheaper ways to improve the quality of health care they deliver. Given the current circumstances, this sounds difficult and even unreasonable, but it may not be entirely impossible.
One simple way for medical professionals to improve the quality of health care they provide is by improving their health care communication skills. Health care communication is "The art and technique of informing, influencing, and motivating individual, institutional, and public audiences about important health issues. The scope of health communication includes disease prevention, health promotion, health care policy, and the business of health care as well as enhancement of the quality of life and health of individuals within the community." (U.S.D.S.H.S., 2000, p.11-20).
In health care, as in all aspects of…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Volume I, Focus Area 11: Health Communication (second edition) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Zachariae, R. et. al. (2003). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. British Journal of Cancer, 88(5), 658-65.
Heisler, M. et. al. (2002). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(4), 243-52.
Safran, D.G. et. al. (1998). Linking primary care performance to outcomes of care. Journal of Family Practice, 47(3), 213-20.
Health Care Access Ethical Dilemma
Access to health care services is not equitable in the United States. The 15% of Americans without health insurance coverage find it extremely difficult to access health care services (Trotochaud, 2006). This is an injustice that should be addressed. Patients going to rural health care facilities face myriad challenges that are occasioned by stigmatization. Stigmatization of illnesses that patients grapple with occasions ethical conflicts. In the process, patients' right to privacy and confidentiality are often violated. There are practical guidelines that can be used to minimize ethical conflicts. It is imperative that confidentiality and trust be made paramount under circumstances where healthcare professionals deal with patients with stigmatizing illnesses.
A typical example of confidentiality, overlapping relationships and lack of willingness to seek care can be attested to in a situation where a woman working at a local store finds out that her partner is HIV-positive…
Trotochaud, K. (2006). Ethical Issues and Access to Healthcare. Journal of Infusion Nursing,
Tummala, A. & Roberts, L.W., (2009). Ethics Conflicts in Rural Communities: Stigma and Illness. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
The health of any single person is the most important and most limiting factor about that person's ability to complete physical tasks and live a useful and purposeful life. Healthcare is a term that is widely used but never discussed in how it can best be accessed. The purpose of this essay is to identify and describe a useful plan that helps solve the dilemma of people acquiring a proper and useful source of healthcare. The ethical component of the situation will also be introduced to help demonstrate how practical this plan can be.
To many, healthcare is often associated with doctors, nurses, hospitals, drugs and surgery. It seems that more people are sick or are diseased with some sort of affliction than ever before. Tanner (2008) made the point that "a closer look shows that nearly all health care systems worldwide are wrestling with problems of rising…
Cohen, J. (2008). Does Preventive Care Save Money? The New England Journal Of Medicine, 14 Feb 2008. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp0708558
Lowes, C. (2011). Reviewing Medical Ethics. Philosophy International Journal Of Health, 12 June 2012.
Tanner, M. (2008). The Grass is Not Always Greener: A Look at National Health Care Systems Around the World. CATO Institute, 18 Mar 2008. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/grass-is-not-always-greener-look - national-health-care-systems-around-world
4). Cooper and castle feel that the universal aims of the program, coupled with the program's redistributive intent, will prevent congressional fence-sitters from voting against a plan that is so obviously in the best interests of the vast majority of working Americans. Ultimately, the bill's appeal to social justice will bridge the partisan divide, and provide President Barack Obama with a firm foundation on which to build future change.
Of course, change, especially necessary change, is in the eye of the beholder, as are partisanship and bipartisanship. Cooper and Castle call their piece a "bipartisan view," but appear to spell out a largely Democratic approach to healthcare reform, one that seems specifically designed to entrench President Obama's position, and guarantee his reelection. They laud the expected, intended, or proposed actions of a man who has not yet taken office. Many of the authors' supporting arguments have already been rendered moot:…
Cooper, Jim; & Castle, Michael (16 January 2009). Health Reform: A Bipartisan View. Health Affairs 28, no. 2 w169-w172.
327). In short, the system 'worked' at this time for patients, hospitals, insurance companies, and the government.
lue Cross plans also benefited from special state-level legislation that allowed them to act as nonprofit corporations, to enjoy tax-exempt status, and to be free from the usual insurance regulations. Physicians, although they initially opposed all forms of health insurance, created lue Shield in deference to the demand for lue Cross insurance, and in fear of more government regulation if some costs were not borne by the industry (Thomasson, 2002, p. 237-338). World War II wage and price controls also meant that one of the primary incentives employers had to attract scarce reserves of high-quality employee was offering benefits, including health insurance (Thomasson, 2002, p. 240).
Supply and demand of services and labor thus both conspired as corollary historical forces to increase the prevalence of private insurance in the American model. The improved…
Blue Cross plans also benefited from special state-level legislation that allowed them to act as nonprofit corporations, to enjoy tax-exempt status, and to be free from the usual insurance regulations. Physicians, although they initially opposed all forms of health insurance, created Blue Shield in deference to the demand for Blue Cross insurance, and in fear of more government regulation if some costs were not borne by the industry (Thomasson, 2002, p. 237-338). World War II wage and price controls also meant that one of the primary incentives employers had to attract scarce reserves of high-quality employee was offering benefits, including health insurance (Thomasson, 2002, p. 240).
Supply and demand of services and labor thus both conspired as corollary historical forces to increase the prevalence of private insurance in the American model. The improved quality and supply of healthcare drove up demand and prices, which caused individuals to seek healthcare insurance. Physicians, in response to employer-created insurance, began to provide their own plans. Insurance plans made it favorable for hospitals to increase their supply of patients, and employers could attract scarce labor by offering insurance.
However, there is one problem with Thomasson's article -- were these innovations not present in at least some European countries, which also presumably experienced improved medical care, scarce labor during the war, and similar increases in costs of care. Were there not also potential savings for consumers and hospitals, based upon volume 'sales' of insurance-bearing patients to in-network providers? Without some comparison of conditions abroad in nations that did adopt government models, or more heavily subsidized forms of care, although Thomasson's explanation is persuasive and lucid in isolation, it is hard not to wonder if cultural resistance to government intervention in the U.S. might not play a role. Yet government intervention was more welcome in the 1930s than in the 1990s, when single-payer insurance was rejected by the U.S. government. The explanations for the resistance to widespread government support for healthcare in the U.S. during the Great Depression and World War II still does not have an entirely satisfactory explanation.
In the current era of managed care in medicine, physicians and other healthcare providers and institutions have been under tremendous pressure to reduce costs. In that regard, avoiding unnecessary hospitalization is one of the most important goals of lowering the costs of healthcare delivery (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004). Toward that end, diverse strategies have evolved to provide as many healthcare services as possible on an ambulatory basis.
Hospitals and insurance companies now encourage patients to participate in preventative medicine and routine testing intended to lower the costs associated with hospitalization over the long-term. The strategy is simply to reduce the incidence of serious illnesses, particularly those that typically develop over many years and which are capable of prevention through behavior modification and early detection through diagnostic testing (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004).
Because state and federal governments must absorb much of the costs of uncompensated medical services, the many administrative agencies…
References Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004) Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.) St. Louis: Mosby.
there are three parts. PAT A EQUIES 4 DIFFEENT ANSWES
"ICD-10-PCS is intended to replace ICD-9 volume 3 for facility reporting of inpatient procedures….ICD-10-PCS is a totally new coding system designed to better accommodate the rapidly changing world of procedures. The code system was developed in the 1990s, but use of the continually updated codes will start almost 20 years later." (Dimick 2011). This new standard is supposed to be more accurate and reflective of current healthcare realities than standards of the past, but it is uncertain if in its implementation this promise will be realized.
Current status of implementation
This standard has yet to be fully implemented. "On October 1, 2013, healthcare providers must begin reporting HIPAA claims using the ICD-10 counterparts to the current ICD-9 code sets" and full implementation will be a 20-year process (Dimick 2011).
Three major issues related to implementation status…
About ASC X12. (2013). ASC X12. Retrieved: http://www.x12.org/about/index.cfm
Dimick, Chris. (2011). Learning and using ICD-10-PCS. Journal of AHIMA. Retrieved:
Health Level 7 International. (2013). HL7. Retrieved: http://www.hl7.org/implement/index.cfm
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly
Universal healthcare is the only saving formula for this nation, which is doomed in a health care crisis of unprecedented proportions. There is a urgent need to transform healthcare from its present state of commercialism towards the humanitarian approach which guarantees 'healthcare for all' independent of their social or financial circumstances. A shared and collective responsibility of healthcare management is the only viable formula for America. It is high time we learn from Canada, UK and other European nations and restructure the current broken state of our healthcare. The successful passing of the USNHC act (H.R. 676) is the only way for America to wake up from its healthcare nightmare. Will the powerful insurance industry hold its ground yet again and resist this awakening leaving all the citizens doomed? This is an important question for all the citizens of our country.
1) Science Daily, 'American Values lamed for U.S.…
1) Science Daily, 'American Values Blamed for U.S. Healthcare Crisis',
Accessed May 11, 2009, Available at, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081204160558.htm
2) Laura K. Altom, BS, MSIII and Larry R. Churchill, PhD, Ann Geddes Stahlman
'Pay, Pride, and Public Purpose: Why America's Doctors Should Support
The information contained in Health ars is of tremendous benefit to all readers. e need to take more control over our own health, especially given the rising cost of health care insurance and the exorbitant prices of doctor and hospital bills. Preventing problems depends largely on paying attention to our genetic history: finding out what problems our mothers, fathers, and grandparents and adapting our lifestyle accordingly. Reading Day's book also encourages readers to learn more about common problems and possible solutions that involve diet and lifestyle changes. Taking responsibility for our health is one of the main themes in Health ars. Readers should take heed of what Day believes to be a crisis in modern medicine: the inability or unwillingness to practice common sense prevention.
I would recommend Health ars highly for several reasons. First, I believe that the health care crisis might be one of the most important problems…
Day, Phillip. Health Wars. Credence, 2001.
In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.
QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortages.
Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/nursingshortage.htm .
Duke, Elizabeth. (2004). Report to Congress. The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians. U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services / Health Resources & Services Administration. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2008, at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/criticalcare/cc1.htm.
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
Information Technology and Cultural Transformation in Healthcare
apid advances in information technology have continued to drive change in many sectors, including healthcare. Ongoing research suggests that cultural transformation is necessary in order to properly adapt to the capabilities and constraints of the increasing complexity and pervasiveness of information technology in healthcare settings. Better utilizing the information technology available to healthcare organizations and more accurately understanding the social impacts of this technology can actually help to achieve the cultural changes that are needed, as is demonstrated in the following brief literature review.
At one level, there needs to be a certain degree of autonomy for individual healthcare organizations in their adoption and utilization of information technologies in certain operations, as this will enhance opportunities for cultural adaptability and a willingness to undergo such transformations (Abraham et al. 2011; Lopez et al. 2011). Different communities can experience significantly different effects…
Abraham, C., Nishihara, E. & Akiyama, M. (2011). Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: A review of policy, people, and progress. International Journal of Medical Informatics 80(3): 157-70.
Box, T., McDonell, M., Helfrich, C., Jesse, R….Rumsfeld, J. (2010). Strategies from a Nationwide Health Information Technology Implementation: The VA CART STORY. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(1): 72-6.
Karsh, B., Weinger, M., Abbott, P. & Wears, R. (2010). Health information technology: fallacies and sober realities. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17(6): 617-23.
Lopez, L., Green, A., Tan-McGrory, A., King, R. & Betancourt, J. (2011). Bridging the Digital Divide in Health Care: The Role of Health Information Technology in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 37(1): 437-45.
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
Health Plan Dev
Health Plan and Health Organization Development
Five Key Events
There are a multitude of different historical events that have occurred in the modern era in a manner that has drastically changed the way in which health and the relationships between society and healthcare has been viewed. In Germany in 1883, Chncellor Otto van Bismarck managed to implement a national insurance-like healthcare scheme that ensured certain basic access to healthcare for many working-class Germans that would otherwise go without medical care. A second highly similar event occurred in England in 1911 with the establishment of a national health insurance program, which eventually became the National Health ervice of the United Kingdom that still provides healthcare services to the nation's citizens today.
The ocial ecurity Act of 1935 represents a major shift in the direction of healthcare policy in the United tates, as this legislation laid the groundwork for…
Socioeconomic and Legislative Influences
In the latter part of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, industrialization began to create ever more stark and extreme differences in the living standards of individuals and families living at different rungs on the socioeconomic ladder. Medical care had become hugely more effective, but could not be afforded by many of the working class, and thus government increasingly saw a need -- and felt certain pressures -- to intercede and provide at least a minimum of care for its citizens. There are directly pragmatic economic benefits of such intercession; improved healthcare leads to increased productivity and reduced costs in other social spending, even potentially reducing criminality as fewer families would find themselves in destitute situations without reliable wage earners due to illness or injury. All of these socioeconomic factors have led to an increased sense of social and civic responsibility for healthcare, yet the initial and direct expense of such a system on a national level with universal coverage has been a dissuasive factor.
Healthcare organizations in the United States have been hugely impacted by several key pieces of twentieth century legislation, including the Social Security Act of 1935, the adjustments to Medicare and Medicaid made in 1966 and in subsequent years throughout the following decades. Currently, the Affordable Care Act is set to go into full enforcement in 2014, and healthcare organizations and insurance providers are already beginning to make adjustments based on these anticipated changes.
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov /opa/pubs/hp2010/hp2010rh_sec2_healthcomm.pdf
Health Care ight or Privilege
Health Care ight Privilege
Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.
Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…
Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from mises.org/journals/jls/4_1/4_1_6.pdf
Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.
Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.
Health Care Finance
Financial analyst Eric Feigenbaum (2009) notes that while we like to think of hospitals in terms of compassion, patient care and dedication to altruistic aims, they are businesses concerned with revenues and expenses like any other business (Feigenbaum 2009, p.2). In today's hectic world of economic downturn and financial struggles felt from individuals of every demographic and social status, revenue and expense accounting are issues that must be addressed carefully by nearly every business in every market. The same holds true for the health care industry and health care providers. With financial uncertainty come threats for health care providers in managing revenue and expenses during the upcoming years. However, with these threats remain certain opportunities for health care providers to take on in order to combat the uncertainty that comes with managing revenue and expenses when the amount of each is not ideal.
With the appropriate management…
Bristow, W. (2009). How to thrive during a recession. Doctor's Digest. 81(1): p.16.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Feigenbaum, E. (2009). Categories of expenses and revenues in the hospital business setting. Demand Media, 2(1), pp. 2-5. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Johnson, N., McNichol, E. And Oliff, P. (2011). Feeling the recession's impact on health care. Handbook of Health Economics 3(2), pp. 54. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.