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Canada is even further behind in its access to high tech equipment, including machines used for MRI's and CAT scans. This shortage of equipment affects wait time for diagnostic tests, which in some provinces can run well over three months (Beaudan, 2002).
According to Michael Decter, chair of the national board of Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Canadian health care system is dazed but he still believes that modernized public healthcare is the answer. "e do well on life expectancy and immunization of children compared to the U.S.," he says, noting that the United States spends 40% more on healthcare than Canada does (Beaudan, 2002).
Americans who go to Canada for cheap flu shots often come away impressed at how Canada offers free and first class medical care to everyone. But hospital administrators will tell a different story about having to cut staff for lack of funds or about…
Beaudan, Eric. "Canadian model of healthcare ails." Christian Science Monitor. 28 Aug. 2002: 1.
David, Guy. "The Convergence between for-Profit and Nonprofit Hospitals in the United
States." (2005). The Wharton School of Business University of Pennsylvania. 13 April 2009
During times of labor scarcity, workers have less of an incentive to take low-paying jobs, and employers have more of an incentive to provide benefits, to attract a higher-quality workforce. During times of high unemployment, workers are more desperate for jobs and will accept work at lower wages and lower benefits. But over a long duration of time, poor health status can actually result in higher rates of unemployment and lower wages, as conditions become more chronic and impede a worker's ability to labor: for example, 64% of males with diabetes and 40% of women with diabetes between the ages of 50 and 60 were employed; versus 82% of males and 60% of female without diabetes (Jacobs & apoport 2002: 259). Diabetes is a condition often associated with the working poor and very poor, and if the disease goes unmanaged it can become more chronic and impede the ability of…
Arnst, Catherine. (2008, May 25). Healthcare: Not so recession-proof. Business week.
Retrieved June 12, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2008/tc20080324_828167.htm
Jacobs, Philip & John Rapoport. (2002). The economics of health and medical care. Aspen.
Overall, 8% from the control group completed testing and counseling versus 23% from the intervention group, which is a "modest increase" according to the researchers. None of those who completed testing was positive for HIV.
With the results controlled for race/ethnicity, i.e., meaning, within the same race/ethnic group, the turnout from the incentive-driven group was significantly higher than the control group. It was also found that whether or not they came from the incentive group, African-Americans and to a lesser degree, Hispanics were significantly less likely to complete testing and counseling compared to the other racial groups.
The researchers concluded that financial incentive resulted in a moderate increase in the number of ED-referred patients completing HIV testing and counseling. They could not say if this method was going to increase the percentage of detection of undiagnosed HIV+ individuals or if it's going to be cost-effective. They recommended point-of-care testing, or…
Haukoos, J., Witt, M., Coil, C., & Lewis, R. (2005). The Effect of Financial Incentives on Adherence with Outpatient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Referrals from the Emergency Department. Academic Emergency Medicine 12 (7); p 617. Retrieved May 27, 2008 from Proquest.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Design. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3760/3760lect04a.htm .
Health Care esearch
The definition of health care research has evolved over the last one hundred years or so. Many scholars and researchers define it differently. The University of Washington (2011) opines that the most detailed definition of health care is that given by the Academy for Health Service esearch and Health Policy, which defines it as a branch of scientific inquiry that merges several fields looking into how factors such as access, cost individual mannerisms, financial systems, social factors, structures, processes and technologies affect the delivery of quality healthcare. The primary objective of this is to identify the best ways to organize, manage, finance and provide care that enhances patient safety and patient health outcomes (Ojo, 2014).
The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of health care research in the modern day world. The idea of evidence-based practice and how it related to research is also…
Jacobsen, K. H. (2011). Introduction to health research methods. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Ojo, A. (2014). Importance of Health Care Research. Retrieved June 22, 2016 from http://www.academia.edu/9350354/Importance_of_Health_Care_Research
University of Washington. (2011). Department of Health Services. Retrieved June 22, 2016 from http://depts.washington.edu/hserv/hs-research-definitions#content
(Health Insurance Coverage, 2009). This is just a little higher than what was reported in the state of Pennsylvania over the last two-year period, which was at 25% (Krawczeniuk, 2009). "The number of uninsured rose 2.2 million between 2005 and 2006 and has increased by almost 8 million people since 2000" (Health Insurance Coverage, 2009).
Most Americans are provided with health insurance coverage through their employers. But in today's society employment is no longer a guarantee of health insurance coverage. "As America continues to move from a manufacturing-based economy to a service economy, and employee working patterns continue to evolve, health insurance coverage has become less stable. The service sector tends to offer less access to health insurance than the manufacturing sector does. Further, an increasing reliance on part-time and contract workers who are not eligible for coverage means fewer workers have access to employer-sponsored health insurance" (Health Insurance Coverage,…
Descriptive Statistics. (2006). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Research Methods Knowledge Base
Web site: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Health Insurance Coverage. (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from National Coalition on Healthcare Web site: http://www.nchc.org/facts/coverage.shtml
Krawczeniuk, Borys. (2009, March 26). Study Finds Health Care Gaps. Times-Tribune, The
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
Leadership and Management in Healthcare
Effective Leadership and Management
Leadership is much like communications in regards to the complexity inherent in these concepts. There are many different perspectives that are used to examine these issues and researchers study leadership and management from such disciplines includes Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Business, and Sociology. There have been somewhere in the neighborhood of six to eight major approaches, depending on the vantage point, to leadership theory produced in the scientific literature over the last sixty years and even more have emerged from outside academia (Kilburg & Donohue, 2011). Competing theories include such perspectives as trait theory, situational theory, behavioral theory, competencies theory, network theory of leadership and many more.
Much of the work that a nurse-leader engages in on a daily basis rests in their ability to communicate with others; including clients, colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. Therefore, since this…
Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.
Kilburg, R., & Donohue, M. (2011). Toward a "Grand Unifying Theory" of Leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 6-25.
Marquis, B., & Huston, C. (2011). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Straker, D. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from Changing Minds: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm
Healthcare System Practice Guideline
Introduce an overview of one healthcare system practice guideline
There are numerous areas within health care that demand change in everyday healthcare practice. More often than not, irrespective of the healthcare setting, an inventive group is required to conduct research and facilitate change. There are numerous practices that require change or upgrading. This is facilitated through the establishment and advancement of clinical practice guidelines. The selected healthcare system practice guideline is Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care (2017). This particular guideline delineates the important decision points in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and provides well-outlines and wide-ranging evidence based recommendations assimilating prevailing information and practices for practitioners throughout Department of Defense (DoD) and Veretan Affairs (VA) Health Care Systems. Diabetes mellitus is an illness that is caused either by an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin giving rise to hyperglycemia. Type 1 DM (T1DM)…
Americans healthcare delivery in the United States has been via a market driven system, 1 usually through purchase of health insurance, participation in HOs or other types of collective agencies. For those who qualify enrollment in edicare and edicaid programs will cover or defray costs of healthcare.2 For a growing number of people in the U.S. medical care costs are not covered by insurance or government programs, for them out of pocket and indigent services are their only options.3 This paper will look at the how financing healthcare affects both costs and use of healthcare services.
Private Health insurance.
Private health insurance in the United States developed around the 1930's during the Depression4 and grew during the economic expansion of the post-WWII years. "Under most private insurance and Blue Cross -- Blue Shield plans, fee-for-service, with physicians determining the economic value of their own services, became the established method of…
Martin Ruef, "Social Ontology and the Dynamics of Organizational Forms: Creating Market Actors in the Healthcare Field, 1966-1994,"
Journal article by; University of North Carolina Press, 1999
Zelman W., and McLaughlin C. (1990). "Product Lines in a Complex Marketplace: Matching Organizational Strategy to Buyer Behavior." Health Care Management Review 15:2 (Spring),
One of the more controversial questions that arises when discussing group interactions is if one person need to lead the group, for the group to be effective (Lane, 2000, Decision mapping). In healthcare, some type of hierarchy is essential. Treatment decisions cannot be made through consensus alone, especially when a patient's life is in immediate danger. Also, seniority and areas of expertise are essential to define -- a more experienced nurse's decision-making ability must have priority over a novice nurse's. Certain areas of expertise, like the staff's registered nutritionist, must be respected when providing care. In fact, research in support of a communication theory known as decision-mapping notes that "groups with ineffective leadership" are less rather than more cohesive (Stephens 1999). Knowing there is an effective source of leadership can produce confidence. However, some consultation between different people, including the patient, family, nurses, physicians, and other caregivers, is ideal when…
Cartwright Stephens. (1999). Recasting groupthink as a consequence of ineffective leadership: Is cohesion the problem or the solution? Small Groups' Communication Context.
Retrieved January 20, 2009 http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/group/dmap.htm
Lane, Derek (2000). Groupthink. Small Groups' Communication Context.
Retrieved January 20, 2009 at http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/group/gthink.htm
Community Teaching Plan
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics which was chosen within your CLC group:
Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Planning Before Teaching:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:
Three 2-hour sessions
Location of Teaching:
Athens Community Health Department
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:
Laptop; digital projector; screen
Community and Target Aggregate:
Athens Community Health Department, Athens, Georgia
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Session I: Sources of Vulnerability
Session II:Implications for Healthcare Providers
Session III: Innovative Practice; Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment
Epidemiological ationale for Topic (statistics related to topic):
The literature on vulnerable people clearly indicates that the special needs of these populations and the ubiquitous barriers to quality care access lead to traceable disparities in the provision of healthcare and in their health outcomes…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). National healthcare disparities report 2008. Chapter 3, Access to healthcare. Washington: AHRQ; 2008. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr08/Chap3.htm
Edelman, C.L. And Mandle, C.L. (2006). In D. Como, L. Thomas (Eds.), Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Research risk management programs for health care facilities or organizations
Healthcare risk management entails the administrative and clinical processes, systems and reports applied for the purpose of detecting, assessing, monitoring, preventing, and mitigating risk (NEJEM Catalyst, 2018). Through the implementation of risk management programs healthcare institutions can systematically and proactively protect the patient and hospital assets, accreditation, market share, brand value, reimbursement levels and the community standards. A risk management plan can be understood as a fundamental tool for implementation of the risk management program. The plan provides structures and guidance for the business and clinical services that make it possible to deliver quality care to the patients and foster safe hospital environment (The University of Scranton, 2018).
· Description of the Incident Risk management plan
Any risk management plan must be focused on provision of comprehensive, systematic and ongoing strategies for the alleviation of risk exposure. Some…
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential
Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF
Prepare Your Facility…
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…
Altman, D.E. And L. Levin. (2005). The Sad History of Health Care Cost Containment as
Told by One Client. Health Affairs, 24(1).
Bodenheimer, T. (2005). High and rising health care costs. part 1: Seeking an explanation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(10), 847-54.
Health Care Past, Current, And Future
The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.
Past Health Care Services -- Early America
Health care in colonial…
Daly, John. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York:
Springer Publishing Company.
Gorsky, Martin. (2010). Good Health for America? History Today, 60(2), 1-6.
McCarthy, Robert L., and Schafermeyer, Kenneth W. (2007). Introduction to Health Care
Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).
Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…
BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:
Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.
Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:
However, they contradict themselves trough supporting one's right to commit physician-assisted suicide, since this would virtually mean that the individual who is no longer willing to live is not provided with health care meant to prevent him or her from dying (Epstein, 1999, p. 1).
Among those opposed to the fact that health care is becoming increasingly better are those who are in their twenties and are obliged to work hard in order to pay for their own medical insurance and for that of the underprivileged (Bonner, 2010).
Contemporary health care is basically provided by groups forced to pay taxes in order for others to benefit out of the process. The fact that health care is a privilege and not a right was made obvious ever since the 1954 foundation of the Department of Health, Education, and elfare. The name contained the term welfare with the intention of highlighting how…
Bloche, M.G. ed., The Privatization of Health Care Reform: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Epstein, R.A. Mortal Peril: Our Inalienable Right to Health Care? (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999)
Heirich, M. Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998)
Sanders, B. (2009). Retrieved from the Huffington Post Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-bernie-sanders/health-care-is-a-right-no_b_212770.html
(Wolf, 2008) When you put all of these different elements together, it means that denying health care services to undocumented workers and their families will cause their underlying levels of health to slowly deteriorate. If something serious does occur, these people will more than likely be forced to fend for themselves.
Conducting research in these two areas would be beneficial in influencing health care policy / outcome by: highlighting the overall human cost of the problem on the industry and society. Where, the act of denying them access to health care and the lingering effects could be considered a human rights issue. As a result, the research that would be conducted would be beneficial, in highlighting the overall harsh conditions that these families are forced to endure. Once you present the situation in this light, this will shift the debate from one of a cost issue to being about: basic…
Health Care for Undocumented Immigrants. (2008). Medical News Today. Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/56809.php
Aparico, A. (2004). Costs of Care and Lack of Health Insurance. Immigrants, Welfare Reform and Poverty Policy. (pp. 73 -- 77). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Wolf, R. (2008). Rising Health Care Costs. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-01-21-immigrant-healthcare_N.htm
arity: Health Care EIT is one of many luxury and acute care investment properties on the market.
Imatability: Given the lack of available credit for starting new property ventures and construction, the company's current facilities do give it an advantage. Financial barriers to industry entry are higher than they were in the past. This can act as a barrier to 'imatiblity' of its business model.
Organization: Health Care EIT has a fairly concentrated organizational structure. While this can be an advantage in terms of assuring consistency of service, it can also result in narrowness of vision, such as (perhaps) a tendency to focus too much on high-end offerings, when seniors may have less financial leverage than in the past.
Sources, rarity, and imatability of cost advantages
Economies of scale may be possible, given the size of Healthcare EIT. Unlike some of its competitors, the company was an early, first mover…
Executive Officers. (2010). Health Care. REIT. Retrieved November 3, 2010 at http://www.hcreit.com/about-hcn/executive-officers
History (2010). Health Care. REIT. Retrieved November 3, 2010 at http://www.hcreit.com/about-hcn/history
Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).
The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.
The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…
Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.
Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.
Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .
On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.
American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.
Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."
Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008 http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA
County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).
The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…
County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&
Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA: http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm
Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704
Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA: http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
He further goes on to say that, "I am my brother's keeper and I am my sister's keeper" to bolster this point.
In a separate interview, epublican National Committee chairman Michael Steele refutes Obama's speech and maintained that Obama's call for healthcare reform as moral obligation is simply a "gimmick" and Obama's choice of going as far as this means that the White House is running scared as it needs to financially shore up its base.
The article closes on White House's denial that Obama is preparing to initiate a government-run "public option" for healthcare that will compete against private healthcare companies. As a matter of fact, Obama is working on the intensification of his healthcare reform call by reaching the channels of grass roots supporters via online and telephone meeting.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)
Several studies, including Kelly arnes, show that healthcare generally moves from "costly settings" such as hospitals into cheaper and more flexible options, such as retail clinics and mobile health
What this actually shows as a future trend is that the global recession has played an important role in defining the customer profile. Clients are no longer interested solely in the best available services, but in low-cost services. For this, they look at flexible options and, in the same context of flexibility, they look more and more towards customization. Customization includes customized treatments and customized location (home, hospital, clinics, mobile)
At the same time, the demand for innovation remains key. The Harvard usiness Review points to the demand for innovation in emerging markets, such as China and India, but this is also true, to a different degree, for the U.S. market
. Innovation can take different…
1. Barnes, Kelly. Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. PriceWaterHouse Coopers. On the Internet at http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/index.jhtml . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
2. Top Trends in Healthcare, medicine & pharmaceuticals. What's Next. On the Internet at http://www.nowandnext.com/?action=top_trend/list_trends§orId=10 . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
3. N.a. Megatrends in Global Health Care. On the Internet at http://hbr.org/web/extras/insight-center/health-care/globaltrends/2-slide . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014
4. Child Trends. (2013). Fertility and birth rates. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=fertility-and-birth-rates
Meanwhile, without any competition, such as n the form of a public healthcare insurance system, the private healthcare insurance industry also continually increases premium fees virtually at will (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). Furthermore, by refusing policies to high-risk patients, private health insurers essentially "cherry pick" the lowest risk patients while leaving the most expensive medical services to be furnished at the public's expense by public funds available to provide healthcare for low-income individuals (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). That is why, at the very least. The future of American healthcare insurance must include a public option (Kennedy, 2006).
The Issue of Government Healthcare Insurance Lobbying
The principal way that the private healthcare insurance industry maintains its control over American healthcare is through political lobbying of government representatives (Kennedy, 2006). In fact, there are approximately six healthcare industry lobbyists in Washington for every publicly elected representative. Throughout the 2009 negotiations in Washington…
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
In doing so, organizations:
advance the idea of public assurance that the organization is concerned for patient safety and the quality of care present a safe and capable work environment that adds to worker satisfaction negotiate in regards to sources of payment for care in regards to data on the quality of care pay attention to patients and their families, value their rights, and connect them in the care process as partners produce a culture that is open to learning from the timely reporting of unfavorable events and safety concerns set up joint leadership that sets precedence's for and unremitting leadership for quality and patient safety at all points (Introduction, n.d.).
In 2012 Joint Commission made quite a few changes to the 2012 accreditation decision rules. These rules present the consistent structure that the Joint Commission uses to deliver an accreditation decision limiting unpredictability or prejudice. The first thing that…
2012 Accreditation Decision Rules. (2011). Retrieved from www.jcrinc.com/common/PDFs/fpdfs/.../JCP-01-12-S8.pdf
About Joint Commission International. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.jointcommissioninternational.org/About-JCI/
Common Questions and Answers Regarding JCI Accreditation, Clinical Laboratories, and These Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.jointcommissioninternational.org/common/pdfs/jcia/QuestionsandAnswer
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
Health Care Access Ethical Dilemma
Access to health care services is not equitable in the United States. The 15% of Americans without health insurance coverage find it extremely difficult to access health care services (Trotochaud, 2006). This is an injustice that should be addressed. Patients going to rural health care facilities face myriad challenges that are occasioned by stigmatization. Stigmatization of illnesses that patients grapple with occasions ethical conflicts. In the process, patients' right to privacy and confidentiality are often violated. There are practical guidelines that can be used to minimize ethical conflicts. It is imperative that confidentiality and trust be made paramount under circumstances where healthcare professionals deal with patients with stigmatizing illnesses.
A typical example of confidentiality, overlapping relationships and lack of willingness to seek care can be attested to in a situation where a woman working at a local store finds out that her partner is HIV-positive…
Trotochaud, K. (2006). Ethical Issues and Access to Healthcare. Journal of Infusion Nursing,
Tummala, A. & Roberts, L.W., (2009). Ethics Conflicts in Rural Communities: Stigma and Illness. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
The health of any single person is the most important and most limiting factor about that person's ability to complete physical tasks and live a useful and purposeful life. Healthcare is a term that is widely used but never discussed in how it can best be accessed. The purpose of this essay is to identify and describe a useful plan that helps solve the dilemma of people acquiring a proper and useful source of healthcare. The ethical component of the situation will also be introduced to help demonstrate how practical this plan can be.
To many, healthcare is often associated with doctors, nurses, hospitals, drugs and surgery. It seems that more people are sick or are diseased with some sort of affliction than ever before. Tanner (2008) made the point that "a closer look shows that nearly all health care systems worldwide are wrestling with problems of rising…
Cohen, J. (2008). Does Preventive Care Save Money? The New England Journal Of Medicine, 14 Feb 2008. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp0708558
Lowes, C. (2011). Reviewing Medical Ethics. Philosophy International Journal Of Health, 12 June 2012.
Tanner, M. (2008). The Grass is Not Always Greener: A Look at National Health Care Systems Around the World. CATO Institute, 18 Mar 2008. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/grass-is-not-always-greener-look - national-health-care-systems-around-world
Health Policies Medicare
hen everyone in our country finally starts to reach the age of 65 years of age or older, then every person will become eligible for Medicare. It is clear that there are some elderly that are having minimum health concerns while others recurrently are dealing with medical issues for which they will have to seek out treatment by the doctor. However, research is starting to display that there are at least five top conditions that are enhancing on medical and drug spending. It is obvious that Heart disease circumstances are the number one medical issue that the those that are considered elderly are facing and that is becoming very costly to them. Most are unaware that the second one is the disease cancer and it could be internal or external for various elderly patients. Other issues such as joint ailments a lot of the times can cost…
Wenzlow, Audra T., et al. "Effects of a Discharge Planning Program on Medicaid Coverage of State Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 62.1 (2011): 73-8.
Sommers, Benjamin D. "Loss of Health Insurance among Non-Elderly Adults in Medicaid." Journal of General Internal Medicine 24.1 (2009): 1-7.
Verdier, James, and Allison Barrett. "How Medicaid Agencies Administer Mental Health Services: Results from a 50-State Survey." Psychiatric Services 59.10 (2008): 1203-6.
Harman, Jeffrey S., Allyson G. Hall, and Jianyi Zhang. "Changes in Health Care use and Costs After a Break in Medicaid Coverage among Persons with Depression." Psychiatric Services 58.1 (2007): 49-54.
In the current era of managed care in medicine, physicians and other healthcare providers and institutions have been under tremendous pressure to reduce costs. In that regard, avoiding unnecessary hospitalization is one of the most important goals of lowering the costs of healthcare delivery (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004). Toward that end, diverse strategies have evolved to provide as many healthcare services as possible on an ambulatory basis.
Hospitals and insurance companies now encourage patients to participate in preventative medicine and routine testing intended to lower the costs associated with hospitalization over the long-term. The strategy is simply to reduce the incidence of serious illnesses, particularly those that typically develop over many years and which are capable of prevention through behavior modification and early detection through diagnostic testing (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004).
Because state and federal governments must absorb much of the costs of uncompensated medical services, the many administrative agencies…
References Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004) Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.) St. Louis: Mosby.
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Universal healthcare is the only saving formula for this nation, which is doomed in a health care crisis of unprecedented proportions. There is a urgent need to transform healthcare from its present state of commercialism towards the humanitarian approach which guarantees 'healthcare for all' independent of their social or financial circumstances. A shared and collective responsibility of healthcare management is the only viable formula for America. It is high time we learn from Canada, UK and other European nations and restructure the current broken state of our healthcare. The successful passing of the USNHC act (H.R. 676) is the only way for America to wake up from its healthcare nightmare. Will the powerful insurance industry hold its ground yet again and resist this awakening leaving all the citizens doomed? This is an important question for all the citizens of our country.
1) Science Daily, 'American Values lamed for U.S.…
1) Science Daily, 'American Values Blamed for U.S. Healthcare Crisis',
Accessed May 11, 2009, Available at, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081204160558.htm
2) Laura K. Altom, BS, MSIII and Larry R. Churchill, PhD, Ann Geddes Stahlman
'Pay, Pride, and Public Purpose: Why America's Doctors Should Support
In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.
QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortages.
Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/nursingshortage.htm .
Duke, Elizabeth. (2004). Report to Congress. The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians. U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services / Health Resources & Services Administration. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2008, at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/criticalcare/cc1.htm.
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov /opa/pubs/hp2010/hp2010rh_sec2_healthcomm.pdf
Health Care ight or Privilege
Health Care ight Privilege
Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.
Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…
Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from mises.org/journals/jls/4_1/4_1_6.pdf
Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.
Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.
Health Care Finance
Financial analyst Eric Feigenbaum (2009) notes that while we like to think of hospitals in terms of compassion, patient care and dedication to altruistic aims, they are businesses concerned with revenues and expenses like any other business (Feigenbaum 2009, p.2). In today's hectic world of economic downturn and financial struggles felt from individuals of every demographic and social status, revenue and expense accounting are issues that must be addressed carefully by nearly every business in every market. The same holds true for the health care industry and health care providers. With financial uncertainty come threats for health care providers in managing revenue and expenses during the upcoming years. However, with these threats remain certain opportunities for health care providers to take on in order to combat the uncertainty that comes with managing revenue and expenses when the amount of each is not ideal.
With the appropriate management…
Bristow, W. (2009). How to thrive during a recession. Doctor's Digest. 81(1): p.16.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Feigenbaum, E. (2009). Categories of expenses and revenues in the hospital business setting. Demand Media, 2(1), pp. 2-5. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Johnson, N., McNichol, E. And Oliff, P. (2011). Feeling the recession's impact on health care. Handbook of Health Economics 3(2), pp. 54. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Health Care Market
In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.
Scarcity of esources
Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action…
Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Fullerton, D. (2008). How economists see the environment. Nature, 385(6701), p. 433.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Health Care: The Next Twelve Months
Over the next twelve months, there will be many changes to health care in the United States. The largest and most ambitious goal is to provide the majority of Americans with health insurance (Blendon & Benson, 2010). However, there will be a presidential election and a Supreme Court ruling, which means that 2012 could be the year that determines whether the health care law moves forward or whether it is shut down. It could also go forward in part, after having large pieces of it removed, and it could go forward with some fundamental changes. How the elections go will greatly affect the law - unless, of course, the Supreme Court strikes the law down before the elections arrive. It seems like that the Supreme Court will rule on the individual mandate from a constitutional standpoint, and that could lead to some of the…
Blendon R.J., Benson J.M. (2010). Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 362 (16): e55.
Elmendorf, D.W. (2010). Additional information on the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Congressional Budget Office.
Peterson, C.L. & Chaikind, H. (2010), Summary of small business health insurance tax credit under PPACA. Congressional Research Service.
Healthcare Legal Issues
Discuss the impact Federalism has on the regulation of health care delivery; how do the different sources of law as they related to the federal and state governments matter, if at all?
In general, federal regulation of health care delivery would be much more appropriate and efficient than state or local law, at least in so far as major aspects of health care delivery are concerned. That is because state laws vary considerably; that makes it impossible to establish a consistent or uniform standard of health care delivery across state lines. Certainly, there are aspects of health care that are appropriate to regulate at the state or even the local level, but there are others that would be much better to regulate on a national or federal level.
One of the best examples of an aspect of health care delivery that should be regulated federally are elements…
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
A patchwork of laws provided narrow privacy protections for selected health data and certain keepers of that data." (Administrative Simplification in the Health Care Industry) Therefore, new technologies such as relational databases have simplified the data gathering and maintenance processes of all types of healthcare related data like the physician information process. It is not unheard of today for healthcare and insurance providers matching or 'sinking data' on a monthly or quarterly basis because of the availability of better communication capabilities as well as compatible database comparison processes.
Even the doctors themselves have access to providers' systems and databases today. Through automatic telephone systems, business to business Internet portals, and tape or disk delivery processes, all of a physician's personal, office and patient information can be updated easily. In many cases, the entire process including security and confirmation is a completely hands free operation. In other words, without human intervention,…
Administrative Simplification in the Health Care Industry. Ed. HIPAA. Health and Human Services. 23 Oct. 2004 http://www.hipaa.com/.
HMO Patients Can Contact Their Doctors Electronically as Blue Shield of California Expands Online Communication Services. Ed. Unknown. October 29, 2003. Relay Health. 23 Oct. 2004 http://www.relayhealth.com/rh/general/news/newsRecent/news49.aspx .
Hoffer, Prescott, and McFadden. Modern Database Management. 7th ed. Add City: Add Publisher, Add Year.
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.
The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.
1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.
Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)
The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…
Day treatment programs can provide services at less cost because the patient goes home at night after being treated during the day, which often is used for rehabilitating chronically ill patients (Sharfstein, Stoline, & Koran, 1995, p. 249). The mere fact of having more choice benefits some patients by giving them more say in their care.
Patient-focused care involves a method for containing in-patient costs for hospitals and for improving quality by "restructuring services so that more of them take place on nursing units rather than in specialized units in other hospital locations, and by cross-training staff on the nursing units so that they can do several 'jobs' for the same small group of patients rather then one 'job' for a large number of patients" (Kovner, 1995, p. 186). Kovner notes a number of barriers to this type of care. One reason has been that hospitals have not had to…
Doctors Say Managed Care Strains Patient Relationships (1997, June 9). Westchester County Business Journal 36(23), p. 24.
Kovner, a.R. (1995). Hospitals. In Jonas's Health Care Delivery in the United States, a.R. Kovner (ed.), pp. 162-193. New York: springer Publishing.
Moore, G.T. (1991,
April 24). Let's provide primary care to all uninsured Americans ? now! JAMA, pp. 2108-2109.
Healthcare Budgetary Decision Making
With resources becoming increasingly limited in the healthcare industry, managers are continually challenged with devising effective strategies for dealing with budgetary concerns. The most prominent challenge comes in the form of decision making that results in striking a balance between cost reduction and the maintenance of high quality care and safety for patients. The following discussion outlines approaches that can be utilized by managers to effectively deal with budgetary concerns in healthcare settings, with an emphasis on the advantages of group decision making strategies.
It is evident that there is often a struggle in the healthcare industry for managers to continually and effectively manage depleting resources, address the ever-changing needs of patients, and all the while provide a high level of patient care (Sibbald et al., 2010). This struggle has at its core a need for improvement in regards to the processes in which priorities are…
Burleson, G. (1984). Management, budgeting and the use of resources -- a private sector review. Hospital and Health Services Review, 80(3), 124-5.
Sibbald, S.L., Gibson, J.L., Singer, P.A., Upshur, R., Martin, D.K. (2010). Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 131.
Xie, H., Chaussalet, T., Toffa, S., Crowther, P. (2005). A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 114, 284-90.
Why access to healthcare has become an issue in the U.S.
According to a 2010 Gallup Poll, Americans named access to services the "top issue" in health care ("Americans Name Healthcare Access Top U.S. Health Issue," 2010). Empirical research also reveals that access is the top problem in the American health care system at the moment, as "tens of millions of adults under age 65 -- both those with insurance and those without -- saw their access to health care worsen dramatically over the past decade," (Galewitz, 2012). The reasons for the problems related to access stem from social justice and cost barriers (Galewitz, 2012). Health care is simply too expensive for most Americans. As a result, many are delaying seeking treatment. The situation is as true for the insured as the uninsured, showing that health care access is a systemic problem (Young, 2012, p. 1). The 2010 Patient…
"Americans Name Healthcare Access Top U.S. Health Issue," (2010). Gallup. Retrieved online: http://www.gallup.com/video/144902/americans-say-healthcare-access-costs-top-health-issues.aspx
Galewitz, P. (2012). Access to health care in U.S. worsens, study finds. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. May 10, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.stltoday.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/fitness/access-to-health-care-in-u-s-worsens-study-finds/article_84fad081-8f9e-523a-a24f-0c19403430c0.html
Young, J. (2012). Health care access worsens. Huffington Post. May 7, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/07/health-care-access-urban-institute_n_1497658.html
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.
To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as…
California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010, http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .
Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009, http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .
City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.
Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004," http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf .
Healthcare in Marketing (Lasik)
Lasik's Methods in Other Health Care Organizations
Customer profiling is a vastly unexplored marketing method in the health industry. While it has been used to target very specific markets, such as potential consumers of elective surgery, other markets have been largely neglected (arber 2001). The reasons for this are many, but mostly they include difficulties with medical data gathering, and legal issues regarding potential customer profiling.
Despite the above-mentioned difficulties, there are several organizations that can and do benefit from customer profiling. One such entity is the pharmaceutical industry (Winterhalter 2002). Here the customer being profiled is normally the health care professional, rather than the patient. y gathering geo-demographic data as well as customer loyalty information from a group of health professionals, pharmaceutical companies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of their marketing practices. This will further benefit not only the professionals, but also the healthcare consumer,…
Barber, F.A., R.K. Thomas, M. Huang. "Developing a profile of LASIK surgery customers." Marketing Health Services, Iss. 2, Vol 21. Chicago: Summer 2001.
Business Wire. "New Customer Wins Position Lawson as Dominant Enterprise E-business Solution Provider to Healthcare Industry." New Orleans, 2001.
Winterhalter, K. "Customer profiling in the healthcare industry." Weber Shandwick, 2002. http://www.browna2.fsnet.co.uk/PMLive/doctor_who_frame.htm
Healthcare Delivery Systems Annotated
Parnaby, J., & Towill, D.R. (2008). Seamless healthcare delivery systems. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(3), 249-73.
Towill, D.R., & Christopher, M. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the architecture of effective healthcare delivery systems. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19(2), 130-47.
Through the use of statistical modeling the researcher was able to arrive at the validation of their hypothesis.
Assessment of esearch Findings
Based on the results of the statistical modeling used in conjunction with the Household Component of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data set, it was found that tax subsidies do not have a differentially large or targeted effect on the prevalence of high burdens (Selden, 2008). Selden (2008) defines burdens as cash and wage equivalents of employer premium contributions. The results show that tax subsidies assist those above the poverty line more than those below it. The study is concluded prior to explaining why this is so, yet the author contends there are many other factors in addition to tax-based subsidies that have an impact on those below the poverty line being able to afford medical care even with tax-based subsidies.
This research study shows that at…
Selden, T. (2008). The effect of tax subsidies on high health care expenditure burdens in the United States. International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, 8(3), 209-23.
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
On the other hand, the industry will most likely insist on the service quality segment rather than on the price transparency. A constant improvement of the services provided within the healthcare facility will not only produce the appropriate competition on the market, but it will also provide the incentives for the other healthcare organizations, thus rising overall quality levels in the market. This will rather change the way hospitals price their services rather than price transparency.
Nevertheless, price transparency will change ridiculous situations in which the client is charged $35,000 to change a battery in a pacemaker. It will drive such prices lower, encouraging price competition.
1. A Call for Transparency in Healthcare Cost and Quality. On the Internet at http://blogs.msdn.com/healthblog/archive/2006/05/16/599064.aspx.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007
2. Feld, Stanley. What Is Real Price Transparency? Medicine: Healthcare System. May 2007. On the Internet at http://stanleyfeldmdmace.typepad.com/repairing_the_healthcare_/2007/05/what_is_real_pr.html.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007…
1. A Call for Transparency in Healthcare Cost and Quality. On the Internet at http://blogs.msdn.com/healthblog/archive/2006/05/16/599064.aspx.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007
2. Feld, Stanley. What Is Real Price Transparency? Medicine: Healthcare System. May 2007. On the Internet at http://stanleyfeldmdmace.typepad.com/repairing_the_healthcare_/2007/05/what_is_real_pr.html.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007
Call for Transparency in Healthcare Cost and Quality. On the Internet at
While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.
As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…
Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).
Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM
Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,
Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.