Heart Disease Essays (Examples)

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Heart Transplant Asthma & Pulmonary

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74860934

Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%

in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#


Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041

Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac

Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,

March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1

Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…… [Read More]


Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
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Heart Problems Linked to Those Born With HIV Health

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43715537

Heart Problems Linked to Those Born with HIV

HIV treatment now improves the longevity of infected persons, and researchers have since shifted their focus to the health-related complications that such persons could face later in life. Cardiovascular disease has been found to be one, and perhaps the most significant, of these complications. esearch has, in fact, established that "children born with HIV are more likely to have heart problems later in life, even if they are treated early with antiretroviral drugs" (McNeil Jr., 2014). Whereas almost no child in America is now born with HIV, owing to the availability of preventive drugs, more than 250, 000 children born every year in the developing world are not as lucky, and have to take antiretroviral drugs their entire lives. This text establishes how the "combination of the effects of HIV itself and the antiretroviral drugs used to treat it" increases the likelihood…… [Read More]


Fox News. (2013). HIV Linked to Higher Chance of Heart Attack. Fox News. Retrieved 26 April 2014 from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/03/06/hiv-linked-to-higher-chance-heart-attack/

McNeil Jr. D.G. (2014). Heart Problems Linked to Those Born with HIV. Positive Living Society of British Columbia. Retrieved 26 April 2014 from http://www.positivelivingbc.org/news/140303/heart-problems-linked-those-born-hiv

NIH. (2014). Youth Born with HIV may have Higher Heart Disease Risk, NIH Network Study Shows. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 26 April 2014 from http://www.nih.gov/news/health/feb2014/nichd-24.htm
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Heart Rate

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23918262

Heart Rate and Exercise

The leading cause of death in America is cardiovascular disease. This particular disease was responsible for 960,000 deaths in this country last year, accounting for 41.5% of all deaths. Studies have shown that exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. Indeed, people who are less fit have between a thirty and fifty percent greater risk for the development of high blood pressure. (Just Move, PG 1)

Unfortunately fifty-four percent of all Americans are overweight and only ten percent follow a regular exercise regimen. (Ask Yahoo, Pg 1) Currently only twenty-two percent of all Americans get enough exercise to protect their hearts. Fifty-three percent get some exercise, but nowhere near enough to cut down their probabilities of disease and twenty-five percent are not active at all. (Just Move, Pg 1) Numerous studies have shown throughout the years that exercise and physical fitness lowers the heart disease risk…… [Read More]


Frequently Asked Questions." Just Move. http://www.justmove.org/fitnessnews/faqbodyframe.htm

Heart Rate." Heart Rate Basics. http://www.heartmonitors.com/heart_rate_basics.htm

Ask Yahoo." Ask Yahoo. http://ask.yahoo.com/ask/20001229.html
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Disease Control and Prevention Cdc

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38467204

3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.

orks Cited

Centers for Disease…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at  http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm 

Metabolism." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at  http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/weightloss/metabolism.html
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Damage to Heart Valves

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57262851

Heart Valves

Heart disease is something that is negatively impacting 735 thousand Americans annually. Most patients manifest heart failure based upon inactivity and poor diet. This makes it difficult for the body to adequately pump blood to the rest of the body. Older adults will develop the condition based upon an increase in weight and they will have excessive fluid in their legs and arms. Someone who is suffering from heart failure will have blood pressure of 160 / 100 and above. Their arterial pressure will be 179 / 109 and central venous pressure is 180 / 110. This places tremendous amounts of strain on their valves. Once this occurs, is when the damage can become severe and negatively impact the underlying health of the patient causing cardiac arrest. (Silverstein, 2006) To fully understand what is occurring requires focusing on the extent of these injuries, the deformities and impact it…… [Read More]


Robinson, B. (2007). Biomedicine. Boulder, CO: Blue Choppy Press.

Silverstein, A. (2006). Heart Disease. Minneapolis, MN: 21st Century Books.
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Management of Left Ventricular Heart

Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90872428

(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]


Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html

Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#

NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.

NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
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Alzheimer's Disease Currently Affects More Than Four

Words: 2553 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61380087

Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.

For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…… [Read More]


Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,

Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),

Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.

Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
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Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
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Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16018360

Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart," discusses the benefits of fish-oil supplements in controlling atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart disease. Studies show that fish-oil helps break down triglycerides, that can cause atherosclerosis, and people who exercise regularly show the most benefits from taking fish-oil supplements. The research used test subjects, and a variety of situations to test results, and showed that those who exercised and took fish-oil could reduce their triglyceride levels by 50%. This article indicates that fish-oil supplements could replace some other drug therapies for heart disease, and that it is a good idea to begin and exercise program and take fish-oil supplements if you want to reduce your risk of heart disease. I do not take fish-oil now, but I think I will start.

The second article, "Heart of the Matter," discusses several different supplements that are supposed to help prevent heart disease, including fish…… [Read More]

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Is Obesity a Disease

Words: 2251 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32358508

Obesity a Disease?

Introduction, Background, and Definition

Persuade the scientists

Persuade the advocacy groups

Persuade the federal agencies

Persuade the insurance companies

Persuade the drug makers

Visual: Charts

Recommendations & Conclusions

Is Obesity a Disease?

hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.

By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm.

Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term=.

Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml.

Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
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Public Awareness and Human Diseases

Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71634531

A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…… [Read More]


Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468 

CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from  http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/ 

Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf

Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
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Congestive Heart Failure Case Management

Words: 2139 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34374449

Questions regarding all three aspects should be asked during intake because this disease should be treated holistically meaning that everything should be factored in.


A disease management plan is necessary for the congestive heart failure patient because so many other illnesses are associated with this disease. The plan is designed to improve the patient's health, while at the same time reducing medical costs.

Disease Management Model


To manage as well as reduce congestive heart failure and the illnesses generally associated with it.

Target Population

Patients who already have congestive heart failure or those who are at risk.


To reduce the chances of developing other illnesses and diseases associated with congestive heart failure.

To cut down on hospital admissions by ensuring patients follow instructions for at home care as well as regular follow up visits.

To cut down on medical costs by monitoring patients at…… [Read More]


Jones, M., Edwards, I., and L. Gifford. (2002). Conceptual models for implementing biopsychosocial theory in clinical practice. Manual Therapy, 7(1), 2-9.
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Genetics and Human Disease Millions

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63619286

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is linked to genetic inheritance, and more than 250 genes have been explored as having potential links with CAD. Although these genes are thought not to directly pass on CAD, research has seen that some mutations within these particular genes actually increase the risk of CAD within an individual who as immediate family members who have already suffered from the affects of CAD. Further research has pinpointed six genes out of that larger batch which may also play a role in heart disease. As seen in people who have experienced heart disease, variations of these six genes prove relatively common in individuals under the age of sixty-six years old. Researchers are using these new and continuous findings regarding heart disease's genetic base in order to compile genetic testing which can prepare individuals to have to potentially take measures to avoid heart disease. Utilizing genetic testing can…… [Read More]

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Provider Education Pivotal to Optimized Heart Patient Program

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60717889

Healthcare Implementation Quality Issues

Instructions-a. For each intervention listed arrange it to tell a story for studies findings of a Health failure program (only use the information given no reference are need. Each intervention story should be no more than 830 character limit that is including spaces). Make sure that the vital point with in each section is captured in the story. b. Paper format Label each section with corresponding story.

Intervention 1?- Symptom and Sign Management Intervention

Symptom and sign management will occur in the care plan development. For each member, this will include a care manager initiated assessment of the member's HF risk group, medication, diet, and methods for monitoring HF status including how to accurately weigh oneself and monitor symptoms. Management of symptoms will be guided by goals established in care plan. For example, a goal to maintain weight within 150-152 pounds will be measured by daily…… [Read More]

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Obesity An Overview What Is the Disease

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58097195

Obesity: An Overview

hat is the disease?

Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder whereby a patient's BMI or body mass index, defined as the patient's weight in kilograms divided by the patient's height in meters squared in kilograms, is greater than 30. Obesity puts one at greater risk for a number of ailments, and a BMI less than 21 is associated with the greatest protection from coronary heart disease mortality and other life-threatening ailments affecting the heart, other vital organs, and the body's metabolism. (Eckel, 1997)

However, there are problems with the BMI-based definition of obesity, as many women with a BMI of near 30 may be less at risk for heart disease if their increase in adipose tissue is distributed in the pelvis and not the abdomen. Substantial evidence now indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, better predicts co-morbidities and mortality from obesity, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benson, Lorna. (2003) "MPR: Obesity as a Disease." Minnesota Public Radio (MPH) Special Report. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at  http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2004/03/29_bensonl_desease/ 

Eckel, Robert H. (1997) "Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 96:3248-3250. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/96/9/3248#SEC1
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PICOT Analysis on Chronic Heart Failure

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20575519

PICOT Analysis on Chronic Heart Failure

One may describe heart failure (HF) as a complicated medical condition which may arise due to functional or structural cardiac disorders capable of hindering ventricular capability of ejecting or filling blood. Chronic HF (CHF) represents a serious health issue. Its prevalence in America stands at over 5.8 million, while over 23 million individuals across the globe are affected by this problem. The mortality rate linked to HF is 40% in the initial diagnostic year, which reduces to 10% subsequently. Individuals most impacted by the condition lie in the age group of over 65 years. This age group is associated with rather high healthcare costs and high mortality and morbidity rates. HF patients get admitted to hospitals often and their re-hospitalization rates continually increase. In this paper, peer-reviewed articles will be employed for shedding light on the clinical issue, its diagnosis, patient care and the…… [Read More]


Nicklas JM, Bleske BE, Van Harrison R, Hogikyan RV, Kwok Y, Chavey WE. (2013) Heart Failure: Clinical Problem and Management Issues. PubMed retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23402460
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Role of ALS in EMS

Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83786338

ole of ALS in EMS

ALS (Advanced Life Support) represents a complex collection of rules and procedures extending beyond elementary life support, for further aiding ailing or injured individuals in clearing their windpipe, breathing and ensuring air circulates throughout their body, thus supporting blood circulation under emergency circumstances (Advanced Life Support (Definition and Explanation), 2016). The following individuals commonly need ALS transport (Lifeline: Basic and Advanced Life Support, 2016):

A surgical or medical patient with ongoing intravenous medicine but not requiring any egistered Nurse, in keeping with state regulation.

Individuals with Cardiac Monitor attached

Urgent care center patients

Patients suffering from a possible compromise of the airway

Obstetrical Patients

Patients regarded as having a possible complication in the course of transport, as indicated by a report forwarded by the sending healthcare facility.

Whiteman, C., Shaver, E., Doerr, ., Davis, S., Blum, F., Davidov, D., & Lander, O. (2014). Trauma patient…… [Read More]


Advanced Life Support (Definition And Explanation). (2016, February 19). Retrieved from Nurse Frontier:  http://www.nursefrontier.com/advanced-life-support/ 

Al-Shaqsi, S. (2010). Models of International Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Systems. Oman Medical Journal, 320-323.

Anest, T., Ramirez, S., Balhara, K., Hodkinson, P., Wallis, L., & Hansoti, B. (2016). Defining and improving the role of emergency medical services in Cape Town, South Africa. Emergency Medical Journal.

Gordon, E., & Ornato, J. (2000). Emergency cardiac care: introduction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
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The Book Addict and Disease Model

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90425930

Addict, Michael Stein uses a case study approach to exhibit, analyze, and discuss addiction in general and how addiction impacts the lives of individuals specifically. The author takes into account psychological trauma, psycho-social issues, and other situational variables but ultimately ascribes to the disease model of addiction. Stein concludes from his case study with Lucy that substance abuse is a disease just as heart disease is but does not provide any substantial evidence backing up this claim. In fact, Stein (2010) simply calls addiction "the disease of wanting more," which is hardly a scientific assessment of substance abuse (p. 25). If the disease model were supported by the literature, there would be clear outlines of disease etiology and the neurobiological pathways upon which it works. In fact, the disease model has not received unequivocal research support. Although popular and politically effective in terms of freeing up funding for addiction treatment,…… [Read More]

References Not Cited

Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.

Rasmussen, S. (2013). A management model for a chronic disease called addiction. APHA 275427. Retrieved online: https://apha.confex.com/apha/141am/webprogram/Paper275427.html

Volkow, N.D., Koob, G.F. & McLellan, T. (2016). Neurobiologic advances from the brain disease model of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine 2016(374), 363-371.
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Two Concept Maps of Two Different Diseases

Words: 715 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81769465

Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer


Eating Better

Cutting down on alcohol

Giving up Tobacco


Controlling Stress


Medications approved to treat breast cancer:



Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine

Afinitor et al. (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Concept Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer



The etiology of breast cancer remains mainly unidentified. isk factors linked with breast cancer can be clustered into three comprehensive contributing factors: i. family history (hereditary) factors, ii. hormonal reproductive factors

environmental factors (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).


Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence risk of breast cancer from environmental chemicals, dietary agents, and endogenous steroids (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).




Lump or contour change

Skin tethering

Nipple inversion

Dilated veins


Paget disease

Edema or peau d'orange (Medscape, 2015)

Diagnostic/Lab Tests

Chest x-ray (CX) Complete blood count (CBC)

Basic metabolic panel (BMP)

Lactate Urine…… [Read More]


Lepor, H. (2005). Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the aging male population. Reviews in urology, 7(Suppl 4), S3.

Roehrborn, C. G. (2008). Pathology of benign prostatic hyperplasia. International journal of impotence research, 20, S11-S18.

Dhingra, N., & Bhagwat, D. (2011). Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment. Indian journal of pharmacology, 43(1), 6.
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Psychosocial Smoking Cessation Interventions for Coronary Heart

Words: 3420 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23044103

psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?

The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]


Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.

Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.

Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679

Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
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Mortality Morbidity Heart Conditions

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48574328

Care Plan

Morbidity and Mortality Statistics:

Hypertension affects around 1 in 3 Americans and according to the CDC only 52% of people have this condition under control (CDC.gov, 2016). In older men, two-thirds have hypertension, and one-third of white men have hypertension. There are nearly 1000 deaths from hypertension daily in the United States, around 360,000 per year. Hypertension is related to first heart attacks, strokes and chronic heart failure.

The patient also suffers from orthostatic hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops when going from a lying or sitting position to standing. The largest risk for elderly people is the increased risk of falling that this brings. The patient may have fallen because of this condition. It is caused by, or linked to, high blood pressure and prolonged bed rest, as well as other conditions not faced by this patient. Anemia or vitamin B12 deficiency is another potential contributor…… [Read More]


CDC.gov (2015). Postural hypotension. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/postural_hypotension-a.pdf

CDC.gov (2016). Atrial fibrillation fact sheet. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fs_atrial_fibrillation.htm

CDC.gov (2016) Heart disease facts. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from  http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/ facts.htm

CDC.gov (2016). High blood pressure. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/index.htm
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How to Ease the Burden of Disease in the Elderly

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95912782

Active Aging and the Burden of Disease

Some countries differ in life expectancy from others for a number of reasons. Some of the reasons are cultural, economical, political and social. For instance, in advanced nations, the cultural lifestyles are bound up in the economic, political and social factors of the country; cleanliness and hygiene are considered high priorities primarily because society has made them more possible through advancements in technology. Wealth is evenly spread around so that the majority of the population in such nations can enjoy greater access to health and prosperity. In other, less developed countries, however, disease can be widespread and social unrest can be a problem that leads to much violence and many deaths.

Yet, even in advanced nations, life expectancy can deteriorate as people become too civilized that they fail to realize the benefit of an active lifestyle. They become complacent and eat foods that…… [Read More]


Bertolote, J., Flieschmann, A. (2002). A global perspective in the epidemiology of suicide. Suicidologi, 7(2): 6-8.

Collins, P., Patel, V., Joestl, S. et al. (2011). Grand challenges in global mental health.

Nature, 6(475): 27-30.

Pallini, A. (n.d.). Health Care and Health Challenges Facing the Elderly in Latin
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Cardiac Exercise and Cardiac Respiratory Health Heart Health

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40796659


Exercise and Cardiac/Respiratory Health

Heart health is positively correlated with exercise and, according to the research, physical activity can be a good way to diagnosis, detect or treat emerging heart conditions in individuals. Connections are also made in general research between exercise and both aerobic and anaerobic gains for individuals. Indeed, as the discussion hereafter will show, exercise is among the most consistently effective and proven methods of preventing heart disease and such causal conditions as obesity or hypertension. Research points to a host of indicators that suggest exercise should in some form be a regular part of every individuals lifestyle. Chief among these indicators is the evidence demonstrating that exercise and physical activity are directly related to cardiovascular and respiratory health.

e find that there are a wide array of methods to diminishing the risk of heart disease, which can be associated with a sedentary lifestyle, a poor…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blair, S.N. & Church. (2004). The Fitness, Obesity, and Health Equation: Is Physical

Activity the Common Denominator? The Journal of the American Medical Association,

292(10), 1232-1234.

Brannagan, M. (2010). The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiac Cycle. Live Strong.com.
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Improving Heart Care Treatment

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77657941

emote Monitoring Systems for Seniors

Content Summary: This article examined the efficacy of remote monitoring systems on a couple of extremely salient factors for older patients who had experienced severe trauma related to heart disease: heart failure. The authors hypothesized that the utilization of these monitoring systems would enhance the treatment of such patients. They were able to produce quantifiable evidence that actually demonstrated the accuracy of their hypothesis in specific categories that included self-care, quality of life, and activation. Activation is defined as "self-care knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy" in administering treatment and dealing with the repercussions of heart failure. The crux of the study was based on data produced by two different populations from the study's sample: one was able to utilize remote monitoring systems while the control was not. For three months of the authors of this work were able to collect data about the heart rate, blood…… [Read More]


Evangelista, L.S., Lee, J-A., Moore, A.A., Motie, M., Gahsemzadeh, H., Sarrafzadeh, M., Mangione, C.M. (2015). Examining the effects of remote monitoring systems on activation, self-care, and quality of life in older patients with chronic heart failure. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 30(1), 51-57.
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Heart the Basic Work of the Heart

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65551499


The basic work of the heart is to pump blood to the entire body. It performs two types of functions, electrical and mechanical. The electrical function of the heart is the periodic contraction that is triggered by the pacemaker. The pacemaker generates the pumping effect throughout the heart. This pumping action commonly known as action potential is carried in an electrical conduction system. The mechanical function is the fluidic movement of blood; the heart is a pump. The heart's anatomical features include; ventricle, which is the pump, heart valves; that allow blood to flow one way and the atria, which includes the four chambers of the heart. The heart is susceptible to disease and as a result if unable to pump blood can lead to failure in other body organs.

Treated Heart Conditions

Cardiology is generally a field of medicine focusing on diagnosis and treatment of the heart. Discussed…… [Read More]


American Medical Association. (2011). CPT Professional Edition. Chicago: American Medical


Fishbein, M.C. (2012). Heart Transplant. Retrieved February 27, 2012, from www.medicinenet.com:  http://www.medicinenet.com/heart_transplant/page2.htm 

Heartmart. (2007). Commonly Performed Heart Procedures - Fixing Broken Hearts. Retrieved February 27, 2012, from www.heartmart.com:  http://www.heartmart.com/heart-health/heart-procedures/
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Heart Problem

Words: 967 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31837065

Personal Health History

Yes (Please list medications and reasons for usage below)


eason for usage

Tiotropium Breathlessness

Emsam Depression

Are you taking any vitamins or dietary supplements?

Yes (If yes then please list supplements and reasons for usage below)

I am taking Vitamin C through consuming multitude of fruits in order to fight muscle spasms, fatigue, and joint pain.

Do you now, or have you had in the past: Yes No

History of heart problems, chest pain or stroke?

Increased blood pressure?

Any chronic illness or condition?

Do you ever get dizzy, lose your balance or lose consciousness?

Difficulty with physical exercise?

Advice from physician not to exercise?

ecent surgery (last 12 months)?










History of breathing or lung problems? No

Swollen, stiff, or painful joints? Yes

Foot problems? No

Back problems? Yes

Any significant vision or hearing problems? No

14.…… [Read More]

Reference Article

National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN). NCN clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Myeloid growth factors. Version 1. 2006
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Population at Risk

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11116571

eart Failure in African-Americans

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top killers in the world population and number one in the U.S. eart failure is the number one killer in the U.S. And stroke, number three. The African-American Population has even higher numbers that fall victims to these killers. The main factors that lead to heart failure and stroke are: "high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, poor diet and physical inactivity," with their natural consequences: "overweight and obesity" (http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=21).

Although heart diseases are the number one cause of death in the U.S. today, they are also among the most preventable diseases. An unprecedented opportunity to prevent heart disease and stroke exists today in the United States. "We know what causes these conditions and how to prevent them, largely because of the decades of research supported by NI, the American eart Association, and others" (http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/action_plan/pdfs/action_plan_full.pdf ). The African-American Population…… [Read More]

Hansen, Jeff. The Birmingham News. "Health Department Wins Double Grants $13 Million to Fight Obesity, Tobacco." Available at: http://www.jcdh.org/misc/ViewBLOB.aspx?BLOBId=270 Retrieved: Sep 29th, 2014

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers: At A Glance 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/dhdsp.htm Retrieved: Sep 28th, 2014

On the Move to Better Heart Health for African-Americans. U.S. Department of health and Human Services. 2008. Available at:  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/heart/aariskfactors.pdf  Retrieved: Sep 29th, 2014
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Broken Heart Syndrome Cardiovascular Case Study Broken

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39907338

Broken Heart Syndrome

Cardiovascular Case Study

Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.

TTC Demographics

An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…… [Read More]


American Heart Association, American Stroke Association. (2011). Women & cardiovascular disease: Statistical fact sheet 2012 update. Heart.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from  http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319576.pdf 

Derrick, Dawn. (2009). The "broken heart syndrome": Understanding Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Critical Care Nurse, 29, 49-57.

Fitzgerald, Helen. (2000). Helping a grieving parent: Working through Grief. AmericanHospice.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.americanhospice.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=84&Itemid=8

Liao, Joshua. (2011). Takotsubo: Octopus trap. Journal of Medical Humanities. Published ahead of print online Aug. 9. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/ak0776051x43w701/
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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68003192

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder distinguished by the growth of lots of cysts in the kidneys ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 1). In the majority of cases, this genetic disease is passed down through families as an autosomal dominant trait. If a parent is the carrier of the gene, there is a fifty percent chance for the children to develop the disorder ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

The kidneys are two organs. Each kidney is about the size of a fist and is found in a human being's abdomen (upper part) towards the back. Extra fluid and wastes present in the blood are filtered by kidneys forming urine as a result. Kidneys also help in the regulation of amounts of certain essential substances in the body. When cysts are formed in the kidneys, they are full of fluid. The normal structure of the kidneys thus becomes greatly enlarged due to the…… [Read More]


"Polycystic Kidney Disease." NIDDK. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2013. .

"Polycystic kidney disease." National Center for Biotechnology Information. A.D.A.M., Inc., 20 Sept. 2011. Web. 5 Jan. 2013.
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Huntington's Disease Huntington's Chorea

Words: 2877 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66784189

Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…… [Read More]


DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false

Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false

Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false

Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
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Peripheral Vascular Disease

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31835233

Vascular Disease

andy Jackson

Geriatric Nursing

The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain." This disease refers to a narrowing of those vessels that carry blood to one's leg and arm muscles.

In particular, the AHA states that there are two forms of PVD: one is "Functional Peripheral Vascular Disease," and the other is "Organic Peripheral Vascular Disease." The first, Functional PVD, does not allude to actual defects in the structure of the blood vessel, but rather refers to "short-term effects" caused by cold temperatures, stress caused by emotions, smoking, or handling machinery that vibrates powerfully.

The second form of PVD - "Organic" - is actually caused by "structural changes" in blood vessels. These changes may be inflammation, tissue damage, or the buildup of fatty substances in the arteries, called "atherosclerosis" - which…… [Read More]


American Medical Association (2004). "Peripheral Vascular Disease." Retrieved June 17, 2004, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4692.

Barker, Jason; & Meletis, Chris D. "Peripheral Vascular Disease and Stasis Ulcers:

Treatment from a Naturopathic Perspective." Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. i241-242, 76-79.

Health & Medicine Week (2003). "Peripheral Vascular Disease Treatment Slated to Begin Phase II Trials." NewsRX, 123.
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Chagas Disease Is One of

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13558440

cruzi is included in the waste of the insect vectors and gets entrance into its mammalian hosts by way of infection. This method of spread is different than that of the two species of African trypanosomes that cause human illness, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which are conveyed by means of the saliva of their vectors, and with the device by which the nonpathogenic trypanosome found in the Americas, Trypanosoma rangeli, is passed on to its mammalian hosts. As with other vermin that contaminate both mammalian and insect hosts, the life cycle of T. cruzi is multifaceted. The T. cruzi life cycle is made up of three major developmental types. Epimastigotes are an extracellular and non-infective appearance of the parasite found in the midgut of insect vectors, where they increase by binary fission (Kirchhoff, 2009).

There are two advances to healing when treating Chagas, both of which can…… [Read More]


Chagas Disease. (2009). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from CDC Web site:


Chagas Disease. (2010). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from Medline Plus Web site:

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How Huntington's Disease Affects Families

Words: 3858 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83682537

Huntington's disease affects families

What is Huntington's disease, and how does it affect the patient and his family? How does one deal with the patient? Is there any cure for the disease, and what is it? When was the disease discovered? Who discovered it, and how was it discovered? What way is support offered from external sources for the disease, and how can one avail of the support? What, exactly is Huntington's disease? It is a genetic disease that affects the central nervous system, in individuals who are thirty years and above, though it does occur sometimes in people younger than this. When the disease occurs, it occurs as an inherited autosomal dominant condition, and it affects all or most of the family members within the same family. The onset of symptoms and of the rate of the progression of the disease may differ between the different family members, and…… [Read More]


A Brief History of Huntington's disease. 8 July, 2004. Retrieved From

http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/timeline/r2.html Accessed on 22 March, 2005

Abuse of the patient. Retrieved From

  http://www.kumc.edu/hospital/huntingtons/ abuse.html  Accessed on 22 March, 2005
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Huntington's Disease Correlation of Body

Words: 2806 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58919609

Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks." (Dedeoglu, et al., 2003) Specifically it is stated that the "...Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntington aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to…… [Read More]


NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page (2009) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Online available at  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm 

Hamilton, J.M., et al. (2004) Rate and Correlates of Weight Change in Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology Neuroscience and Psychiatry 2004; 75:209-212. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Online available at http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/209

Gaba, Ann M. et al. (2005) Energy Balance in Early-Stage Huntington Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6. June 2005.

Djousse, L. (2002) Weight Loss in Early Stage of Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology 2002. Nov. 12:59(9): 1325-30.
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Thousands of Diseases Afflicting Humans

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97399852

" This drug has already won approval for use in Europe and the United tates. tudies conducted show that the drug "targets the tumor to control in four areas: in the site where hypersecretion starts, in GH secretion, IGF-1 and in the symptoms associated with the disease (Unknown, 2004)." While the drug has been approved, there are still contraindications to taking it such as a patient who has an irregular or slow heart rate, or blood sugar levels which are either too high or too low.


Although gigantism begins prior to puberty, the "majority of giants eventually demonstrate features of acromegaly, of which the mean age for the onset is within the 3rd decade of life. Even a congenital onset of GH excess has been suggested by linear growth acceleration occurring within the first few months of life in young children with documented gigantism (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)." Although there is no…… [Read More]

Simmons, Kirt E. (01 October, 1999). "Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Changes: Preliminary Data From Studies in Turner's Syndrome." Pediatrics.

Skatssoon, Judy. (21 May, 2002). "NSW: New discovery could lead to cure for dwaftism, gigantism." AAP General News (Australia).

Unknown. (01 June, 2004). "Novartis Sandostatin LAR approved in Japan for Acromegaly. Worldwide Biotech.
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Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease in This

Words: 1599 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71218996

Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease

In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.

Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…… [Read More]


'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri

"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.

'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from  http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html 

'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
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Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901

Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]


He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
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Grave's Disease

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97073410

Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.

Overview and Brief History of the Condition:

Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.


The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.

Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:

pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.

Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
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Diabetic Vascular Disease

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3201728

Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]


Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
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Cirrohsis Liver Disease Cirrhosis When

Words: 1409 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10116018

Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)

Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:

Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…… [Read More]


Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html

Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html

Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
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Cardiac Arrest

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91083108

Heart Disease

elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease

The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac…… [Read More]


Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600

CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/ 

Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054

Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
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Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Is a Sometimes-Lethal Disease Affecting

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24372280

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a sometimes-lethal disease affecting primarily the lungs and thoracic lymphatic system, and its hallmark feature is noncaseating granulomas in multiple tissues and organs (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36; American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 736). Over 90% of all sufferers have pulmonary involvement, but granulomas are frequently found in other organs and tissues, including the skin, eyes, liver, spleen, parotid glands, central nervous system, muscles, bones, and genitourinary tract (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36). When death does result, it is typically due to pulmonary fibrosis. What follows is a review of pulmonary sarcoidosis from a clinical perspective.

Causes and isk Factors

The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but research into the nature of the resulting granulomas suggests immune dysregulation in genetically susceptible individuals is the primary causative factor (American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 738-740). The genetic contribution appears to be significant, as evidenced by an…… [Read More]


American Thoracic Society. (1999). Statement on Sarcoidosis. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 160, 736-755.

American Lung Association. (2010). State of lung disease in diverse communities 2010. Lung.org. Retrieved 5 Mar. 2012 from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/solddc_2010.pdf.

Baughman, Robert P., Lower, Elyse E., and du Bois, Roland M. (2003). Sarcoidosis. Lancet, 361, 1111-1118.

Drent, Marjolein, De Vries, Jolanda, Lenters, Merinke, Lamers, Rob J. s., Rothkranz-Kos, Snjezana, Wouters, Emiel F.M. et al. (2003). Sarcoidosis: Assessment of disease severity using HRCT. European Radiology, 13, 2462-2471.
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Addressing Despondency in Chronic Care

Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80650080

Heart Disease

A sense of futility and deep despondency are the primary drivers of the patient's approach to his self-care. These emotions are mirrored by his wife, and further complicated by the exhausting circumstances of being a primary caregiver to a depressed and declining patient. It is doubtful that either the patient or his wife are getting enough sleep, eating well -- within the dietary restrictions -- or following a healthy regimen of moderate exercise. The pattern of behaviors described and observed indicate that both the patient and his wife are overwhelmed by difficulties of managing the disease and the centrality of the disease in their life.

To address head-on the emotional fatigue and hopelessness that the couple face, it is imperative to provide examples of other patients and their spouses who have or are successfully dealing with the same disease at a comparable level of severity. Examples must show…… [Read More]


Diseases and Conditions: Heart Failure. Mayo Clinic. Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-failure/basics/definition/con-2002

Hoyt, R.E. & Bowling, L.S. (2001, April 15). American Family Physician, 63(8), 1593-1599. Retrieved from  http://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1593.pdf 

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Hodgkin's Disease - Human Lymphatic

Words: 2766 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81244452

Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)

Effects on Bone Marrow

Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518.

Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html.

Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri.

Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
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Lung Disease Affecting Many Americans

Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6917132

41). Groups like the ALA fund research on various forms of COPD every year, so it seems certain that some kind of additional treatments and preventions may be discovered in the future. Since emphysema is such a prevalent disease, continued research must be completed to help ease the suffering of millions of Americans, and save lives, too.

In conclusion, emphysema is a serious and deadly disease that can be prevented in most people by simply avoiding cigarettes. The disease can be treated, but once diagnosed, it cannot be cured. It affects millions of Americans, and studies show it will continue to affect Americans who smoke, even if they have quit smoking years before. While there have been many studies done on the disease, researchers still do not know how to recondition the lungs once they are affected. Emphysema is serious, and more studies need to be done to help determine…… [Read More]


Author not Available. (Nov. 2004). Emphysema. Retrieved from the American Lung Association Web site: http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35043#whatis20 April 2005.

Berardelli, P. (1997, October 27). Of mice and men. Insight on the News, 13, 41.

Honish, R.L. (1982). Chest and lung diseases. In Over 55: A handbook on health, Duncan, T.G. (Ed.) (pp. 81-100). Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.

Lewis, C. (1999, March). Every breath you take. FDA Consumer, 33, 9.
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Symptoms and Psychosocial Aspect of the Disease

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56663190

symptoms and psychosocial aspect of the disease as well as what treatments are available. The writer examines one epidemic from history to detail the way syphilis affected society at the time compared to how it affects society today. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

Over the last two or three decades the discovery and growth of the AIDS epidemic have effectively squashed concerns and knowledge about other STD's. This does not mean they are not around however, and it actually serves to open the doors for some of them to become more prevalent again as the focus is taken off of them and place on AIDS. One STD that has been around for many years and at one time was considered as dangerous as AIDS is today is Syphilis. Syphilis has been wreaking havoc on the world for hundreds of years and it is still one of…… [Read More]


From mercury to malaria to penicillin: The history of the treatment of syphilis at the Mayo Clinic, 1916-1955 by Jeffrey S. Sartin, MD and Harold O. Perry, MD http://www.imsdocs.com/syphilis.htm

The Great Scourge': Syphilis as a medical problem and moral metaphor, 1880-1916

Lesley A. Hall http://homepages.primex.co.uk/~lesleyah/grtscrge.htm

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Sarcoidosis Is a Granulomatous Disease

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35892392

, 1998). It is hard to know where the boundary stops between psychological and physical illness, since the two are, often intimately combined with one affecting the other.

QOL, as De Vries and Drent (2008) point out is often confounded with state of physical health but actually it reflects one's emotional and psychological welfare. Nonetheless, the two are intimately related in that each affects the other.

Conducting a through review on the subject with key words involving 'Sarcoidosis and health status', Sarcoidosis and quality of life" or Sarcoidosis and fatigue" De Vries and Drent (2008) ended up with 15 studies that they considered relevant to their subject.

Counter-intuitively, they discovered that the greatest challenge on QOL as effected by was the patient's fatigue caused by the disease. Breathlessness, reduced exercise, and impaired working and physical activities were the most frequent reported hindrances. The instrument used was the World Health Organization…… [Read More]


American Thoracic Society (1999) Statement on Sarcoidosis, 736-749

The report provides a thorough overview of Sarcoidosis discussing new developments and demonstrating how much in the field remains enigmatic.

Bona, J. et al. (1998) Neurosarcoidosis as a Cause of Refractory Psychosis: A Complicated Case ReportAm J. Psychiatry 155:8, 1100-1107

The report describes Sarcoidosis and gives a case history as example.
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Polycythemia Vera and Lou Gehrig's Disease Polycythemia

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21796163

Polycythemia Vera and Lou Gehrig's Disease

Polycythemia Vera (PV)

PV is in basic terms "a stem cell disorder characterized by proliferation of a clone of hematopoietic precursors, nearly all of which arise from a mutation in the JAK2 (janus kinase 2) gene" (Hines & Marschall, 2012, p.417). Being a bone marrow disease, PV leads to what MedicinePlus (2013), a U.S. National Library of Medicine service, refers to as an unusual increase in primary red blood cell numbers.

Symptoms and Causes

Some of the symptoms of this PV include but they are not limited to fatigue and shortness of breath, reddened and itchy skin, dizziness and unexplained headaches, and breathing difficulties (MedicinePlus, 2013). Other symptoms in this case could include unexplained weight loss and general body weakness.

PV essentially comes about when there is a problem with the production of blood cells as a result of a mutation in the affected…… [Read More]


ALS Association. (2010). What is ALS? Retrieved from  http://www.alsa.org/about-als/what-is-als.html 

Hines, R.L. & Marschall, K.E. (2012). Stoelting's Anesthesia and Co-existing Disease (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

MedicinePlus. (2013). Polycythemia Vera. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000589.htm

Mills, E.J. (2005). Handbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.