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As Hellenistic art is gradually transformed into Roman and early Christian art, the concept of pathos continues to play an important role. Discuss pathos in the evolution from Hellenistic to Roman art and the emergence of pietas as a marker of Roman/Early Christian art.
The Hellenistic period is focusing on artworks created in the timeframe between: the death of Alexander the Great (in 332 BC) to the beginning of ancient Rome. The pathos is the emotions and feelings tied directly to various works and their underlying meaning. For the Hellenistic period, this had an influence on the Romans based upon the styles and techniques that were utilized. They focused mainly on creating a sense of balance, showing the human side of their deities and projecting everyday people (using these attributes). ("Beyond the Borders of Classic Greek Art") ("Hellenistic, Etruscan and Early Roman Art")
This was accomplished through utilizing…
"Beyond the Borders of Classic Greek Art." You Tube, 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2014
"Early Christian Art." You Tube, 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2014
"Hellenistic, Etruscan and Early Roman Art." You Tube, 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2014
The Skeptics view anxiety as arising from the inability to ascertain right or wrong through the use of reason. Anxiety also arises through an immoderation in affect in the apprehension of the reality of evident things. Freedom from anxiety can be achieved by ceasing to ascertain reality of non-evident things through reason and to withhold judgment in such situations. According to the Epicureans, anxiety arises from an apprehension of an individual's inability to control events in life. The anxiety is exacerbated through belief in myths about gods. It can be reduced when human beings take actions to increase necessary natural desires in order to increase pleasure over pain. According to the Stoics, anxiety is created when individuals do not act in compliance with the laws of nature. Individuals need to achieve harmony with nature and adapt to the events that cannot be controlled by human effort. The anxiety…
As such the Hellenistic style of paining was used partially as a marketing tool to attract followers. However, it was also used to convey religious elements in a manner that was appealing to many non-believers during the period. To obtain the attention of the general population, the artwork needed to be stunning both visually and conceptual. As such the Hellenistic was the ideal candidate in which to achieve these objectives. At this time, there was also a general knowledge that the Earth was in motion, which was a giant conceptual leap to show this aspect of life in art. The idea of motion therefore, quickly entered into the Hellenistic style of painting. Compositions tended to have more open space. Objects and scenes were in a state of motion to create emotion; they either came out at the viewer or something could fall on the viewer. The motion in these pieces…
One of the ways in which the art, history and architecture of ancient cultures can be understood and investigated is through what is left behind to be examined. Some of the most permanent artifacts that are available for examination are ancient tombs which have stood the test to time. From these tombs one can not only understand and form opinions of the architecture and historical context of the time, but the content of many tombs reveals a plethora of information and insight into the culture being studied. Many experts concur with this view and emphasize the archelogivla significance of ancient tombs, monuments and burial sites.
In view of the chancing conditions under which primitive people have always lived, it is not surprising that they should have left no more permanent memorials of their existence than their tombs. All else is apt to be swept away by subsequent civilization.…
Greek Architecture . 2004. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dinsmoor, William Bell, William J. Anderson, and R. Phene Spiers. 1973. The Architecture of Ancient Greece: An Account of Its Historic Development. New York: Biblo and Tannen.
Fyfe, Theodore. 1936. Hellenistic Architecture: An Introductory Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner, Percy. 1892. New Chapters in Greek History, Historical Results of Recent Excavations in Greece and Asia Minor. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Ancient Indian art starting from the 3-century BC experienced a considerable influence of Hellenistic traditions
In general, Greek state-cities in Middle Asia had a number of typical features of Greek urban culture so that life of its inhabitants was quite similar to traditional life of Greeks in Mediterranean. Urban architecture, ethics, dress code and social relations in Asian Hellenistic colonies were quite similar to classical Greek traditions.
For example, Greek-Bactrian city of Ai-Khanoum according to Boardman had all the hallmarks of a Hellenistic city, with a Greek theater, gymnasium and some Greek houses with colonnated courtyards"(p. 201). Culture of Hellenisticcolonies as in many ways common to Greek classical traditions, but on the hand with Greek customs colonists adopted a number of aboriginal traditions. Polytheism of Greeks also experienced mixture with local religious beliefs and experienced a certain influence of Zoroastrian and Buddhist religious traditions, but Greek mythology preserved its privileges.…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
Greek Colonies Hellenistic
Most artists do not enjoy remaining static - they want to create new and different artworks as their career progresses. Clearly, the person who created this artwork was not a beginner. Perhaps they were at a stage in their career where they wanted to explore new avenues of expression and creativity. This statue is a new, more realistic form of sculpture, and perhaps the artist was testing their own abilities and creativity by creating something that was new, unique, and different. This is often how styles of artwork change and grow, and certainly Greek artists had many of the same characteristics of later artists - they wanted to push new boundaries and find new forms of expressions. Of course, these are only theories. It will probably never be known exactly why the artist created this specific statue at this specific time, but it seems that as Greece and Greek culture…
Author not Available. "Classic Greek Sculpture." ThinkQuest.org. 26 Aug. 1998. 11 July 2005. http://library.thinkquest.org/23492/data/period1.htm
Carpenter, Rhys. Greek Art: A Study of the Formal Evolution of Style. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962.
Lullies, Reinhard. Greek Sculpture. Trans. Bullock, Michael. Revised ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1957.
Mareli?, Marko. "Brief Athenian History." Korcula.net. 27 Oct. 2003. 11 July 2005. http://www.korcula.net/history/mmarelic_korkyra.htm
Hellenic sculpture and Hellenistic sculpture? First, the Greek Hellenic period dates from 900-323 .C., and the Hellenistic period came right after that and lasted until 31 .C. The focus of the Hellenic period is Idealism, while the focus of the Hellenistic period is Realism. Hellenic art and sculpture was developed mostly in Greece, with no outside influence, while Hellenistic art and sculpture became more influenced by other lands, because of conquests by Alexander the Great.
Hellenic art was moderate and restrained, as it strived for the universal and perfect components. It had a strong emphasis on traditions and rules. An example of this point is by Aristotle's observation that poetry is more profound than history, because it deals with what is universally true; whereas history deals with individual instances that may not be representative of the whole. During this time, they followed all rules about art and architecture. Archaeologists were…
Greek Sculpture Project. Ed. Jan Mainzer, Ph.D. 2000. 11 December 2002. www.academic.marist.edu/mainzer/notes05/avn05.htm
Classicism and Hellenistic Art; What is the Difference? 11 December 2002. www.clyes.clara.net/essays/art.html
Kimball, Charles. A History of Europe, part S. 11 December 2002. http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/europe/eu02s.html
Art in the Western Tradition Chronology. Ed. Kim, SoJeong. 25 October 1996. Northpark U. 11 December 2002. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Mediterranean/HellenisticSculpture.html
The Hellenistic culture differed quite greatly from the earlier Hellenic culture in a variety of ways. The entire civilization changed. While it had been centered around the core of the polis during the Hellenic phase, it shifted to a civilization more based in empires and kingdoms, and the city-state of the polis dwindled in power. This made many Greeks feel less sure of their position in the government and in affairs outside Greece. This was perhaps the most disturbing aspect of the Hellenistic age, because Greek society had been based on a true democracy of the people, and with the rise of the empires and the kingdoms, the people lost some of their power in everyday government. It made them feel isolated and alone as the polis disappeared, but it also changed the basic makeup of the people, creating a distinct "ruling" class that had not…
Greek/Hellenistic Tradition Augustine View
In Book XIX of Augustine's City of God, his focus is on the end of two cities -- "the earthly and the heavenly" (843), which he explains while simultaneously illustrating the nature of the Supreme Good. He tells the reader that peace and happiness, which exists in the heavenly city, can also be experienced on earth. The cities are, in fact, entangled in this, the earthly, world. Augustine explains to us the many different ways humans try to combine virtues and pleasure in order to find peace and happiness in life, but he claims that none of these ways are answers, none of these ways will bring a person peace nor happiness; on the contrary, combining virtues and pleasures can bring insecurity and thus unhappiness. Man does not know, according to Augustine, how to combine both virtue and pleasure, so the goal of life becomes about…
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. Ed. Roger Crisp. (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy). Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Plato & Grube, G.M.A. Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo.
Hackett Publishing Co., 2nd edition, 2002.
St. Augustine. City of God. Translated by Henry Bettenson; with an introduction by G.R.
Greek Temple Architecture From Its Inception Through the Hellenistic Period
Present day Greece still retains the Greek temples, shrines and sanctuaries of the pre-Hellenic period. The modern world of architecture and historians regards these temples very highly because of their unique and simple designs and also because of their apparent beauty and technical excellence. These temples have a profound history behind them because they stand testament to perhaps one of the most astonishing occurrences in the recorded human history -- the Greek religion. The Greeks had several hundreds of gods as they thought that everything in life was full of gods. Helmut erve and Gottfried Gruben (1963) discuss this phenomenon: "The presence of gods or demigods might be felt on towering mountain heights or on a headland overlooking the storm-lashed sea; in mysterious woodland thickets, ravines, and caves, the solemn stillness of a grove, or the middle of a sunny,…
A. Orlandos in: BCH. 84, 1960, 148 ff. Taken from: Helmut Berve and Gottfried Gruben. Greek Temples, Theatres and Shrines. Thames and Hudson, 1963.
A. Frickenhaus in: AM. 36, 1911, 27 ff. Taken from: Helmut Berve and Gottfried Gruben. Greek Temples, Theatres and Shrines. Thames and Hudson, 1963.
A. Furtwangler, Aegina, das Heiligtum der Aphaia. 1906. Taken from: Helmut Berve and Gottfried Gruben. Greek Temples, Theatres and Shrines. Thames and Hudson, 1963.
C.R. Cockerell, The Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina and of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae near Phigaleia in Arcadia. 1860. Taken from: Helmut Berve and Gottfried Gruben. Greek Temples, Theatres and Shrines. Thames and Hudson, 1963.
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
Polybius: Historian and Politician
The histories written by Polybius are considered to be essential from historiographic perspective as it gives detailed and comprehensive picture and understanding of the Hellenistic world. His work on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire are considered to be one of the most important and significant works in the field of classical history.[footnoteRef:1] The aim of this research is to investigate and study the historical settings in which Polybius had penned down his most famous work, the Histories in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. The analysis would be beneficial in understanding the political and social constraints responsible for influencing his work and furthermore, the opinion of his contemporaries and the reception got from critics when Polybius work was completed. [1: ulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World,…
Bulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World, Berkeley-Los AngelesLondon
Clarke, K. (1999a) Between Geography and History: Hellenistic Reconstructions of the Roman World, Oxford
Clarke, K. (1999b) 'Unusual perspectives in historiography', in C.S. Kraus, ed., The Limits of Historiography: Genre and Narrative in Ancient Historical Texts (Leiden-Boston-Cologne) 249 -- 79
Collatz, C.F., Helms, H. And Schafer, M. (2000) Polybios-Lexikon, Band I, Lieferung I (?-), 2nd edn, Berlin
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…
Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
Another work of art using nudes was dated as having been created by the end of the Hellenistic period is that of Laocoon Group. The sculpture was inspired by a legend and it is the depiction of the epic fight between Laoccon, his sons and the snakes. The admiration for the beauty of the human body that can be seen from the sculptures created during the Hellenistic period reflects the attitude the Greeks had toward its reflection in art. Compared to their predecessors, the Greeks appear to be the first to acknowledge the artistic values of the human body, in its bare form. Kenneth Clark even wrote that "the nude is an art form invented by the Greeks in the fifth century" () Naked children are often depicted in the works of ancient Greeks and one of the examples is a Roman reproduction of a boy strangling a goose. The…
Diderot, Goodman. Diderot on Art: The Salon of 1767. 1995. Yale University Press
Sturgis, A. Clayson, Hollis. Understanding Paintings. 2000. Watson-Guptill
"Ancient Greek and Hellenistic Art: Children with Animals." Retrieved: June 17, 2009. Available at: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/ChildGoose.htm
it's also important to note that Greeks brought metallurgy innovations to the non-Greek world: iron, which dramatically increased strength of metal tools and weapons and cupro-nickel (used in coining). A number of Asian peoples also adapted Greek alphabet and papyrus.
But in many cases influence of Greeks was considerably obvious only in Asian kingdoms, as most of Mediterranean non-Greek cultures stood on the same level of development as Greeks. For such peoples as Jews and Assyrians Greek colonization mainly meant the threat of assimilation and loss of identity. Assyrians and Jews who in their majority were monotheists could not adopt Greek religion of polytheist as it was against their religious traditions. All the attempts of Greeks to convert Jews to polytheism failed. For example the attempt to convert Jewish Temple to Temple of Greek god Zeus under Antiochus IV Epiphanes only led tot he revolt of Jews led by Maccabees,…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
Shuckburgh. Evelyn S. Histories. Polybius. London, New York. Macmillan. 1889. Reprint Bloomington 1962.
Harris (1979) noted that the work of Polybius on oman Imperialism can be viewed to be a much more closer/realistic account of the process that any other 20th century historians. Polybius was therefore very honest and at the same time reliable with his work on oman history (Davidson, 1991, p.10).
Polybius' contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution
The contribution of Polybius to the establishment of the U.S. constitution is well documented. His work on the separation of powers is indicated to have immensely influenced the U.S. Founding Fathers (Lloyd,1998). His work can therefore be regarded as one aspect of classical contributions to the U.S. constitution (Bederman,2008).The concept of separation of powers concerns the need for having separate and very distinct legislative, executive as well as judicial branches of a given government. This is one of the central features of the U.S. Constitution. Through this process of separation of…
Bederman, DJ (2008).The Classical Foundations of the American Constitution: Prevailing Wisdom. Cambridge University Press
Davidson, J (1991).The Gaze in Polybius' Histories James Davidson Source: The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 81 (1991), pp. 10-24 Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.
Hamilton, A.,Jay, J and Madison, J (1788).The Federalist Papers. Available online at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1404/1404-h/1404-h.htm
Harris, W.V. (1979) War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (I 979), esp. I1I 1- 13 and IIS-I 6.
It was more important for Saul to be baptized than to eat and therefore, spirituality is more important that even physical life.
Next, the Book of Acts stated "He stayed some time with the disciples in Damascus. ithout delay he proclaimed Jesus publicly in the synagogues, declaring him to he the Son of God. All those who heard were astounded." (Acts 9.20-21)
It is no wonder that those who heard Saul, at this time called Paul, were astounded. After all, he had been the leader of those who not only rejected Jesus Christ, but actively sought the destruction of his followers. Paul had very little credibility, or Ethos, among early Christians as many of those he tried to join with were wary of his intentions. Many thought his "conversion" was a trick to gain information about the membership of the Christians.
This began to changed when those who doubted Paul…
Suggs, Jack, Katherine Doob Sakenfeld, and James Mueller. The Oxford Study Bible:
Revised English Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. Print.
This passage is in contradiction with what Paul wrote in his first letter to the Galatians. In Galatians 1:16-24 Paul describes the aftermath of his conversion and does not mention that he stayed with the disciples in Damascus and preached the word of Christ. Instead Paul stated that "without consulting a single person, without going up to Jerusalem to see those who were Apostles before me, I went off to Arabia, and afterwards returned to Damascus." (Gal 1.16-24)
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…
Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).
Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.
Did the war between Athens and Sparta set the stage for Philip II to rise to power?
Philip II's power worked out according to plan after his noticeable involvement in the 3rd Social War fought in the year 356 BC. Delphi was overrun and defeated by the Phocians. The Spartans as well as the Athenians entered the fray rooting for the Phocians. Though unable to unite in opposition to Philip II, the Athenians continued waging war till the treaty, Peace of Philocrates, was signed in the year 346 BC. South Greece was weakened further by such continuous discord. In the middle of this struggle, Philip II expanded his kingdom by capturing Crenides' urban areas and renaming it Philippi in the year 355 BC, destroying Methone in the year 354 BC, and annexing the Chalcidice promontory's ancient city Olynthus in the year 348 BC (MAG).
How did Philip II build the…
Paul’s writings are naturally cosmopolitan, his being influenced by Hellenistic culture and philosophy as well as Judaism. As a result, Paul’s contributions indelibly and significantly transformed the mode, meaning, and implications of Christ’s message. As Scholz (2013) points out, Paul penned almost half of all New Testament texts: thirteen books. Paul’s theology is “one of the cornerstones upon which the Christian Church is built,” (Zetterholm, 2009, p. 1). What also makes Pauline texts different is that unlike the synoptic gospels, Pauline letters reflect the author’s own theology. Reading and re-reading Pauline theology offers insight into how early Christian theology evolved and was influenced inevitably by historical, cultural, and contextual variables. Moreover, the Pauline letters show how later Christian theologians would revise and reinterpret the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
Most likely, Paul viewed himself as a theologian, one who felt an intense personal responsibility to travel, preach, and teach…
Greek sculptures, 'Veiled and Masked Dancer' and 'Hermes and the Infant Dionysos' dating back to the art periods, and their connection to the realm of spirituality.
Is art linked to spirituality in any special way? One might find a number of reasons to answer in the affirmative; there, indeed, appears to be some sort of profuse series of links among the two. Art has always occupied a central position in religion. In religious rituals and houses of worship, one can witness sacred dances, sacred symbols, hymns, sacred pictures, tunes, and chants; these art forms have also been utilized as meditation and prayer aids by all religions. The above examples of art in religion alone make the former discipline appear to be intrinsic to connecting with or expressing the divine (Art and Spirituality 1). eligious art represents a superior art form in both Western medieval Christianity and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Buddhists…
Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture, society, and architecture. (n.d.). Praxiteles - Ancient Greek Sculptor. Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Praxiteles/
Ancient Greece. History of Greece: Classical Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://ancient-greece.org/history/classical.html
Garcia, A. (n.d.). Endnotes. Endnotes -- Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer this. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://mcuhistory.tumblr.com/post/60566947687/statuette-of-a-veiled-and-masked-dancer-this
History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. (n.d.). Hellenistic Greece - Ancient History - HISTORY.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/hellenistic-greece
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline
of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.
November 15, 2010.
let us begin by analyzing the Pharisees.
The term itself is derived from a Hebrew word which literally means "separated." Right from the ethimological interpretation we can deduce that the Pharisees were a group of people who saw things differently compared to the majority. This difference was manifested in the religious area, but also in the political area and the social one.
The Second Temple was the period in which the Phariseean philosophy flourished. It is worth underlining that it is this very philosophy and religious thought that put the basis of the contemporary forms of Judaism.
During the reign of the king Antiochus Epiphanes in which numerous pressures were being made in order to impose the Hellenistic culture and polytheist religion, an anti-Hellenistic Jewish movement was created in order to defend the traditional views.
This movement was called the Hasidim and the Pharisees are one of the group's successors.…
Blank, Wayne. Who ere the Pharisees? From the Daily Bible Study. Retrieved May 6, 2009 from http://www.keyway.ca/htm2002/pharisee.htm
Dolphin, Lambert. Second Temple Times. Retrieved May 6,2009 from http://www.templemount.org/secondtmp.html
Essenes. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/e/essenes.html
Essenes. From The catholic encyclopaedia. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05546a.htm
Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.
Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.
In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=809#Biblical%20Studies:%20Jewish%20and%20Christian
Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006 http://books.google.com/books?id=zdQY_pHP0FYC&dq=jewish+history&pg=PP1&ots=DDVycu70fB&source=citation&sig=r6dn9cM2TswSod-OTzjaFHqQE6Q&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=gmail&q=Jewish+History&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=1&cad=bottom-3results#PPA20,M1
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
Unless the author's typological approach is appreciated, the interpreter may wrongly assume that the author is making literal statements about the salvation-historical significance of Christ.
The fact that Hebrews was originally written in Greek does not provide any substantial or definitive help in the search for author or audience. During the time period in which Hebrews had to be composed, Christians in Rome spoke Greece. In fact, Hellenism had much of Western Europe and the modern-day Middle East familiar with Greek. This familiarity would have been even more likely among educated groups, and is highly unlikely that uneducated people would have had the ability to read or write. While there was some early suggestion that Hebrews was originally written in a language other than Greek, it seems highly unlikely that that was the case:
That the Letter to the Hebrews was originally written in Greek is suggested by the fact…
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
hereas Origen did, to a certain degree, follow Clement's teachings, he introduced his own point-of-view in the matter and provided his followers with less information regarding Christian mysticism. This is most probably caused by his interest in teaching mainstream Christianity. He considered that it was easier for him to promote the religion this way, as the masses were presumably unable to understand mystical concepts if they did not know the difference between material Christianity and spiritual Christianity.
Origen feared that by employing a Gnostic approach at understanding religion, people would realize that it was not obligatory for them to consider Jesus Christ and His crucifixion. Origen believes that it is not that a Gnostic "denies or doubts the truth of the Gospel history, but he feels that events which only happened once can be of no importance, and regards the life, death, and resurrection of Christ as only one manifestation…
Chadwick, Henry Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)
Horton, Michael S. "Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological Method," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45.2 (2002)
Inge, William Ralph, Christian Mysticism: Considered in Eight Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899)
Lardner Carmody, Denise and Carmody, John Tully, Mysticism: Holiness East and West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
XV were Christian is beyond doubt; and it is equally certain that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England, since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Yet the only Biblical references in Beowulf are to the Old Testament, and Christ is never mentioned. The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans. Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All." Were those the prayers of a pagan who used phrases the Christians subsequently appropriated? or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues" (Yeager)
Interesting though Vis and amin share some characteristics with Hellenistic romances written…
Dick Davis, Panthea's Children: Hellenistic Novels and Medieval Persian Romances, New York, 2002.
Vladimir Minorsky, "Vis u Ramin: A Parthian Romance," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. XI, 1943-46, pp. 741-63; Vol. XII, 1947-1948, pp. 20-35; Vol. XVI, 1954, pp. 91-92; "New Developments." Vol. XXV, 1962, pp. 275-86.
Abrams, M.H.; Greenblatt, Stephen (2000). The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 30.
Yeager, Robert F.. "Why Read Beowulf?." National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…
Alexander the Great
Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.
Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.
Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…
He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.
Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:
Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web: http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…
Hebraism and Hellenism
The old debate between the values of so-called 'Hebraism' and 'Hellenism' is manifest in our culture today. Hebraism, according to the Victorian scholar Matthew Arnold is defined as putting 'right doing' over 'right knowing.' Hellenism, in the spirit of the ancient Greeks, emphasizes the need to understand the world: "to see things as they really are" (Drake 2001). This can be seen in our modern debate over teaching evolution in schools. People who take a literal view of the Bible are less concerned about scientific truth and are more worried about the implications of teaching a theory of the origin of life that denies God's moral influence upon human existence. The Hellenistic mindset stresses the need to teach a scientifically-accepted theory to educate the young and advance human progress and insight.
A different view of the Hebraism vs. Hellenistic mindset can be seen as early as the…
"Designer arcade." March 2, 2011.
Drake, Alfred J. "Hebraism and Hellenism." The Victorian Web. Updated December 2001.
March 2, 2011. http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/arnold/writings/4.html
Alexander the Great
Why Alexander was truly 'great'
Dictionaries have since provided evidence as valued source for definition of the word great, it therefore defined great as getting powerful, superior or character in terms of quality, eminent as well as noble. It is true to say that Alexander was powerful as well as very eminent not failing to mention the large empire he managed to build. As the saying goes that every all that glitters is not gold so was Alexander. Despite the fact that Alexander managed to achieve all that he did he could not be fit the definition of the word Great on the grounds of humanity.
I do not think that a great person can always be pushing his people into situations (war) for his personal ambitions and gain. For the reasons of bad a temper, I don't think one who is known to be great should…
A.B. Bosworth, 'Alexander the Great and the Decline of Macedon', JHS 106 (1986). Retrieved on 16/10/2013 http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2004/2004-01-31.html
N.G.L. Hammond, 'The Macedonian Imprint on the Hellenistic World', in Hellenistic History and Culture, ed. P. Green (Berkeley & Los Angeles 1993). Retrieved on 16/10/2013 http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft0000035f;chunk.id=0;doc.view=print
military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.
Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…
Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)
J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)
J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)
Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68
Statuette of Nedjemu of Ancient Egypt (image retrieved at (http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm) illustrates several aspects of Egyptian funerary sculpture that remained typical for almost 3000 years, although not in all of the surrounding ancient kingdoms and nations. This particular statue is thought to date from the Old Kingdom period, probably the Fifth Dynasty around 2500-2350 B.C.E. The strict use of proportionality on the part of the limestone structure as well as the rigid posture and the quiet facial expression "reflect the Egyptian desire to represent the deceased in a manner appropriate for eternity," in a stylized fashion, rather than to capture how the dead were uniquely individuated as people in life. (Art of Egypt, 2004)
This fixation upon honoring the dead is in direct contrast to Greek statues of the period that were more often used in living temple rites, although they were often equally rigid and stylized. (Artlex, 2004) According to…
Art of Egypt. (2004)
Artlex. (2004) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/h/hellenistic.html
Statuette of Nedjemu." (1996) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. .
3. Curriculum or Method of the Study
The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.
The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.
What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…
Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html
Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from http://upge.wn.com/?t=ancientgreece/index12.txt
Barry C. What Are the Types of Architectural Columns? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5453707_types-architectural-columns.html
Column: New World Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Column
The popularization of the idea, though was somewhat linguistic in that when speaking of God and the Holy Spirit, different words were used that could mean "person," "nature," "essence," or "substance," -- words that were part of a longer, and far older tradition, but not adopted by the new Church .
Later, to echo this interpretation, the French Dominican Yves Conger, wrote that the Spirit of God was equal to the Spirit of Wisdom -- intelligent, holy, unique, manifold, subtle
However, we must realize, too, that there was a long and rich tradition within the Ancient Near East. Whether one subscribes to the idea that essential mythos was something common arising out of civilization and being passed forward, or that each individual religion of the Ancient World was divinely inspired by its own set of beings, the concept of the Trinity is neither new, nor linked inexorably to the New…
Carraway, B. Spiritual Gifts: Their Purpose and Power. WinePress Publishing, 2005.
Chadwell, D. Jesus' Two Great Commissions: Balancing Evangelism and Edification.
Christian Education Video and Publishing.
Clark, N. Interpreting the Resurrection. SCM Books, 1967.
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.
Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.
In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.
Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…
Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading beyond Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Clark, Donald Lemen. John Milton at St. Paul's School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Clinton, Catherine, and Christine Lunardini. The Columbia Guide to American Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Furniss, W. Todd, and Patricia Albjerg Graham, eds. Women in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1974.
This did not seem to affect many that were truly committed however, to the Gnostic way of life.
sborn, E.F. The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1957)
According to sborn, the philosophy of Clement of Alexandria was that a person could not consider ration as a means to understanding God because God could only be understood through spirituality (p. 32). Clement wanted individuals to consider his work based on philosophical principles however, because they would have to delve into Gnosticism to understand his work from a realistic standpoint, and Clement was assuming that people would be Christians and not Gnostics. Clement wanted to promote Christianity but was looking at the deeper levels of spirituality which was something that required clarification. Further, Clement believed in the concept of a spiritual ladder individual's needed to climb to achieve positive results in their relationship with the divine. Clement's philosophy…
Osborn, E.F. The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1957)
According to Osborn, the philosophy of Clement of Alexandria was that a person could not consider ration as a means to understanding God because God could only be understood through spirituality (p. 32). Clement wanted individuals to consider his work based on philosophical principles however, because they would have to delve into Gnosticism to understand his work from a realistic standpoint, and Clement was assuming that people would be Christians and not Gnostics. Clement wanted to promote Christianity but was looking at the deeper levels of spirituality which was something that required clarification. Further, Clement believed in the concept of a spiritual ladder individual's needed to climb to achieve positive results in their relationship with the divine. Clement's philosophy takes on some Gnostic principles, allowing the reader to delve deeper into Christianity and allowing intriguing thoughts to shape their personality from those points. The work encourages praying verbal prayers during these times, as this focus on the importance of spiritual matter, which is something the aspiring Christian must focus on and learn the importance of.
According to Clement, a true gnostic is something that is able to reason and give a reasonable account of what they know in faith by giving summary and general form response of such matters (p. 118). Faith is an important concept to emphasize, and something that had to be combined with other Christian principles for true Christianity to prevail. One of the most important contributions of this work was the philosophy that knowledge and love could be combined to work together for the same common cause, a religious or gnostic cause whose purpose was the same, in promoting the common good of the people. Good was the end result of all works in which Christians engaged in, the common good of the people, because Christians and spirituality were inherently good by nature, this was an undisputed principle.
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…
Agony -- The Famous Group of Laocoon. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/rome-19.shtml
Haaren, J. (2000). Famous Men of Greece. Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
The Farnesse Bull. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/naples-5.shtml
Alexander saw himself as that philosopher-king who would install a new kind of cooperation and brotherhood with one or unified Greek culture, Hellenism, and speaking a common language, Greek (Smitha 1998). He intended that his subjects in the East would be reared and trained to become like the Greeks and Macedonians.
In consolidating his huge territory, Alexander founded cities, mostly named Alexandria, in suitable and well-paved locations with sufficient supply of water. His army veterans, young men, merchants, traders and scholars settled there, infused Greek culture and, through them, the Greek language widely flourished. Through his mighty victories and territorial control, Alexander thus spread Greek civilization and paved the way for the incoming Hellenistic kingdoms and the conquest of the Roman Empire (Microsoft 2004).
He also felt that trade would unite his empire more strongly and so he forced new commercial possibilities and made abylon the center of brisk world…
Dorst, Sander van. Macedonian Army. Van Dorst, 2000. http://members.tripod.com/~S-vn_Dorst/Alexander.html
Marx, Irma. Empire of Alexander the Great - Expansion into Asia and Central Asia. Silkroad Foundation, 2000. http://www.silk-road.com/art/alex.shtml
Microsoft Encarta. Alexander the Great. Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation, 2004. http://encyclopedia_761564408/Alexander_the_Great.html
Smitha, Frank E. Alexander Changes the World. World History, 1998. http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch11.htm
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
It was argued by Epicurus that the souls and body could only interact if the souls are material.
Amicus, C. Ante Oculos - Epicurus and the Evidence-Based Life. Cassius Amicus, 2010.
Amicus, C. Lion of Epicurus - Lucian and His Epicurean Passages. Cassius Amicus, 2010.
Amicus, C. A Life Worthy of the Gods - the Life and Work of Epicurus. Cassius Amicus, 2011.
Amicus, C. The octrines of Epicurus -- Annotated. Cassius Amicus, 2011.
Benatar, . Life, eath, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
Fish, J., and Sanders, K.R. Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Greer, H.T., and Lewis, G. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004.
Hindson, E., and Caner, E. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the…
David Benatar. Life, Death, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009, p. 23.
Thomas H. Greer, Gavin Lewis. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004, p. 45.
Ed Hindson, Ergun Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers, 2008, p. 52.
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…
Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a .
John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world
Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
King Herod, The Great
Quite a variety of members belonging to the royal dynasty had their names Herod being originated in Edom or Idumea after John Hyrcanus in 125 B.C was obligated to adopt the Jewish religion (1). The Herod family ruled in Palestine as vassals of the omans. Followed by Maccabees, the history of this dynasty mainly relates to the political history of Palestine during this whole era (1).
omans in 40 B.C made Herod I the Great, son of Antipater the king who managed to keep hold of his throne even during the times of changes in the government at ome (1). Herod's kingdom includes Idumea, Galilee, Judea, Batanea, Samaria and Peraea, which was more or less the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon (1).
Though Herod had outstanding leadership skills, yet he was greatly detested by the Jews. One of the reasons for disliking…
Bible History. King Herod the great, the Servant of Rome.
Follow the Rabbi. Herod the Great.
Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical
Theissen, Gerd, and Merz, Annette. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.
Athenian Empire to Alexander the Great's Empire as the two main efforts to unify and expand ancient Greece. Ancient Greece played a vital role in the civilization and culture of the world. They developed some of the things we take for granted today, such as democracy, art, and philosophy. Alexander the Great helped spread Athenian culture around the world, and its influence is still felt today.
The Athenian Empire was one of the greatest on Earth, and it became a model for civilization, culture, and democracy. Athens, the city the culture was named after, was the leading city in Greece, and a leading city in the world. The Greeks had a thriving trade center, they had wealth, they had a great navy that ruled over the rest of the area, and they had developed a democratic system of government. They had great buildings such as the Parthenon, and they enjoyed…
Mareli?, Marko. "Brief Athenian History." Korcula.net. 27 Oct. 2003. 4 May 2004. http://www.korcula.net/history/mmarelic_korkyra.htm
History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing
The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.
Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.
Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…
Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm
The Ancient Maya.
Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm
Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
Chris's biblical statement "I am the light of the world." Specifically, it will describe the events that surround the "I am" statement, how the "I am" statement relates to the revelation of God in the Old Testament, and how the statement reveals the deity of Christ. The semantics of the Bible are awesome. Since it was written in ancient tongues, they can be translated in many ways, and so it is with this passage where John repeats Christ's words, "I am the light of the world." Light can mean many things to many people, but here, light really means love, and Christ is a reflection of God's love of all the people of Earth.
A am" also has many contextual meanings in the Bible, and together, these words affirm Christ as a deity and the Son of God. Thus, Christ not only affirms his own place and purpose on Earth,…
Borg, Marcus J., ed. Jesus at 2000. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.
Knight, George A.F. "The Light of God in Action." The Christian Century 16 Dec. 1998: 1212.
Rollins, Wayne G. The Gospels: Portraits of Christ. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1963.
The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: Books, Inc., Publishers.
Saint Augustine's conversion, as recounted in his Confessions
This paper will explore the factors leading to Saint Augustine's conversion. This conversion was believed to be the result of an ultimate battle of sexual desire with spirit.
Augustine Biography Info
Augustine of Hippo was born on November 13, in AD 354, in Thagaste (modern day Souk Ahras, Algeria), and died on August 28, in AD 430, in modern-day Annaba, Algeria (then known as Hippo egius). It was in the latter city where he was named Bishop 35 years prior to his death. It is a challenge to encapsulate renowned personalities, and with St. Augustine, this task is even more difficult (Augustine of Hippo).
A theologian and philosopher, Augustine dithered between an earlier, positive Hellenistic outlook, and a pessimistic Christian outlook later on in his life. Shifting from one extreme to another, Augustine accommodated several diverse disciplines and philosophies into his comprehensive…
"Augustine of Hippo - Philosopher - Biography." The European Graduate School - Media and Communication - Graduate & Postgraduate Studies Program. Web. 13 Jul 2015. .
"Confessions Book VIII -- The Birthpangs of Conversion Summary and Analysis | GradeSaver." Study Guides & Essay Editing | GradeSaver. Web. 13 Jul 2015. .
McCabe, Joseph. "The Conversion of St. Augustine ." International Journal of Ethics. 12.4 (1902): 450-459.Web. http://luce.sunymaritime.edu:2113/stable/2376053?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=The&searchText=Conversion&searchText=of&searchText=St.&searchText=Augustine&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DThe%2BConversion%2Bof%2BSt%2BAugustine%2B%26amp%3BSearch%3DSearch%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff%26amp%3BglobalSearch%3D%26amp%3BsbbBox%3D%26amp%3BsbjBox%3D%26amp%3BsbpBox%3D&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Saint, Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine - St. Augustine. Start Publishing LLC, 2013. Ebook. .
Rst: New Testament
the passion in synoptic gospels vs john'S GOSPEL
The Synoptic Gospels, which are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, are called "Synoptic" because their patterns and stories show similar themes as well as differences. Placing them side by side, which has been done many times, can give a quick "historical" synopsis of Jesus' life. hile the Synoptic Gospels use many of the same patterns and stories, each author stresses his own themes, particularly in describing Jesus' Passion: his suffering and death. Mark emphasizes Jesus' suffering. Matthew focuses on Jesus' kingship and the jealous plotting against him. Luke stresses Jesus' innocence and its recognition by several of Jesus' key oppressors. The Synoptic Gospels use common historical patterns and stories to convey their messages.
In contrast to the Synoptic Gospels, John's Gospel is less historical and more poetically, theologically developed. John's Gospel does not use the same patterns…
Just, Felix. The Passion and Death of Jesus. 15 August 2014. Web. 15 August 2015.
King James Bible Online. John Chapter 18. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
-- . John Chapter 19. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
-- . Luke Chapters 22 and 23. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
Greek Classical Era on Christian Art
The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…
"Art of the Crusades Era." University of Michigan. 8 Dec 1997. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Boardman, John. "The Classical period (5th - 4th century BC)." Classical Art Research Centre.
Oxford University. 26 Oct 2012. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Cartwright, Mark. "Ara Pacis Augustae." The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Boring notes that early church hymns were constructed around a core of theological content, and were largely instructional in nature. According to Boring, the Prologue was one such hymn, and was used in catechism. Boring also points out the historical and sociological function of the Prologue, which would have been to “bridge the minds of the Semitic and Hellenistic worlds,” through the central and unifying concept of logos. Both the Semitic and the Hellenistic worlds shared an appreciation for the power of the Word. Moloney (1989) points out that the Prologue presents Christ as the incarnation of the Word.
Boring also points out that the Prologue emphasizes the first person plural to engender a sense of community among readers. From a theological standpoint, though, the Prologue also tackles the central mystery—and controversy—of the incarnation of Christ. Christ embodies the paradox of a God that is at once transcendent and immanent.…
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…
Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.
Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association
of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.
Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.