Hellenistic Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Egyptian Civilizations Classical Greek or

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90859767

As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.

The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting

Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]

References

American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm

Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/

Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1

Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
View Full Essay

Greek After the Death of

Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18012603

For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.

But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.

Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…… [Read More]

References

Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001

Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997

Greek
View Full Essay

Polybius Historian and Politician

Words: 3811 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82435874

Polybius: Historian and Politician

Louis XIV

The histories written by Polybius are considered to be essential from historiographic perspective as it gives detailed and comprehensive picture and understanding of the Hellenistic world. His work on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire are considered to be one of the most important and significant works in the field of classical history.[footnoteRef:1] The aim of this research is to investigate and study the historical settings in which Polybius had penned down his most famous work, the Histories in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. The analysis would be beneficial in understanding the political and social constraints responsible for influencing his work and furthermore, the opinion of his contemporaries and the reception got from critics when Polybius work was completed. [1: ulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World, Berkeley-Los AngelesLondon

Clarke, K. (1999a) Between Geography and History: Hellenistic Reconstructions of the Roman World, Oxford

Clarke, K. (1999b) 'Unusual perspectives in historiography', in C.S. Kraus, ed., The Limits of Historiography: Genre and Narrative in Ancient Historical Texts (Leiden-Boston-Cologne) 249 -- 79

Collatz, C.F., Helms, H. And Schafer, M. (2000) Polybios-Lexikon, Band I, Lieferung I (?-), 2nd edn, Berlin
View Full Essay

Greek Project 1272 ART204 Formal Research Project

Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52279146

Greek Project 1272

ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012

Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.

Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques

There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
View Full Essay

Nude Religion Influenced the Artistic

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90911238

Another work of art using nudes was dated as having been created by the end of the Hellenistic period is that of Laocoon Group. The sculpture was inspired by a legend and it is the depiction of the epic fight between Laoccon, his sons and the snakes. The admiration for the beauty of the human body that can be seen from the sculptures created during the Hellenistic period reflects the attitude the Greeks had toward its reflection in art. Compared to their predecessors, the Greeks appear to be the first to acknowledge the artistic values of the human body, in its bare form. Kenneth Clark even wrote that "the nude is an art form invented by the Greeks in the fifth century" () Naked children are often depicted in the works of ancient Greeks and one of the examples is a Roman reproduction of a boy strangling a goose. The…… [Read More]

Diderot, Goodman. Diderot on Art: The Salon of 1767. 1995. Yale University Press

Sturgis, A. Clayson, Hollis. Understanding Paintings. 2000. Watson-Guptill

"Ancient Greek and Hellenistic Art: Children with Animals." Retrieved: June 17, 2009. Available at: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/ChildGoose.htm
View Full Essay

Greek After the Death of

Words: 800 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79244346

it's also important to note that Greeks brought metallurgy innovations to the non-Greek world: iron, which dramatically increased strength of metal tools and weapons and cupro-nickel (used in coining). A number of Asian peoples also adapted Greek alphabet and papyrus.

But in many cases influence of Greeks was considerably obvious only in Asian kingdoms, as most of Mediterranean non-Greek cultures stood on the same level of development as Greeks. For such peoples as Jews and Assyrians Greek colonization mainly meant the threat of assimilation and loss of identity. Assyrians and Jews who in their majority were monotheists could not adopt Greek religion of polytheist as it was against their religious traditions. All the attempts of Greeks to convert Jews to polytheism failed. For example the attempt to convert Jewish Temple to Temple of Greek god Zeus under Antiochus IV Epiphanes only led tot he revolt of Jews led by Maccabees,…… [Read More]

References

Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001

Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997

Shuckburgh. Evelyn S. Histories. Polybius. London, New York. Macmillan. 1889. Reprint Bloomington 1962.

Greek
View Full Essay

Polybius Was a Distinguished Green

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58259916

Harris (1979) noted that the work of Polybius on oman Imperialism can be viewed to be a much more closer/realistic account of the process that any other 20th century historians. Polybius was therefore very honest and at the same time reliable with his work on oman history (Davidson, 1991, p.10).

Polybius' contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution

The contribution of Polybius to the establishment of the U.S. constitution is well documented. His work on the separation of powers is indicated to have immensely influenced the U.S. Founding Fathers (Lloyd,1998). His work can therefore be regarded as one aspect of classical contributions to the U.S. constitution (Bederman,2008).The concept of separation of powers concerns the need for having separate and very distinct legislative, executive as well as judicial branches of a given government. This is one of the central features of the U.S. Constitution. Through this process of separation of…… [Read More]

References

Bederman, DJ (2008).The Classical Foundations of the American Constitution: Prevailing Wisdom. Cambridge University Press

Davidson, J (1991).The Gaze in Polybius' Histories James Davidson Source: The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 81 (1991), pp. 10-24 Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

Hamilton, A.,Jay, J and Madison, J (1788).The Federalist Papers. Available online at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1404/1404-h/1404-h.htm

Harris, W.V. (1979) War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (I 979), esp. I1I 1- 13 and IIS-I 6.
View Full Essay

Saul of Tarsus Embarked on

Words: 1480 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5486770

It was more important for Saul to be baptized than to eat and therefore, spirituality is more important that even physical life.

Next, the Book of Acts stated "He stayed some time with the disciples in Damascus. ithout delay he proclaimed Jesus publicly in the synagogues, declaring him to he the Son of God. All those who heard were astounded." (Acts 9.20-21)

It is no wonder that those who heard Saul, at this time called Paul, were astounded. After all, he had been the leader of those who not only rejected Jesus Christ, but actively sought the destruction of his followers. Paul had very little credibility, or Ethos, among early Christians as many of those he tried to join with were wary of his intentions. Many thought his "conversion" was a trick to gain information about the membership of the Christians.

This began to changed when those who doubted Paul…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Suggs, Jack, Katherine Doob Sakenfeld, and James Mueller. The Oxford Study Bible:

Revised English Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. Print.

This passage is in contradiction with what Paul wrote in his first letter to the Galatians. In Galatians 1:16-24 Paul describes the aftermath of his conversion and does not mention that he stayed with the disciples in Damascus and preached the word of Christ. Instead Paul stated that "without consulting a single person, without going up to Jerusalem to see those who were Apostles before me, I went off to Arabia, and afterwards returned to Damascus." (Gal 1.16-24)
View Full Essay

Ancient Art in the Ancient World Polykleitos

Words: 1420 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97191063

Ancient Art

Art in the Ancient World

Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)

As Paul Johnson (2003) notes, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness, and helped steer the direction of Grecian art and sculpture. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting. It also serves as a good example of the relationship…… [Read More]

Reference List

Cunningham, L. (2009). Culture and Values: a Survey of the Humanities. Boston:

Cengage Learning.

Dembskey, E.J. (2009). Aqua Appia. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Retrieved from http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/romappia/

Hansen, R.D. (n.d.). "Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome." Retrieved
View Full Essay

Historical View of the Greek Heroic Ideal

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87791054

Greco-oman Tradition

How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?

Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…… [Read More]

References

Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).

Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.

[Type text]
View Full Essay

Athens and Sparta

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21722235

Did the war between Athens and Sparta set the stage for Philip II to rise to power?

Philip II's power worked out according to plan after his noticeable involvement in the 3rd Social War fought in the year 356 BC. Delphi was overrun and defeated by the Phocians. The Spartans as well as the Athenians entered the fray rooting for the Phocians. Though unable to unite in opposition to Philip II, the Athenians continued waging war till the treaty, Peace of Philocrates, was signed in the year 346 BC. South Greece was weakened further by such continuous discord. In the middle of this struggle, Philip II expanded his kingdom by capturing Crenides' urban areas and renaming it Philippi in the year 355 BC, destroying Methone in the year 354 BC, and annexing the Chalcidice promontory's ancient city Olynthus in the year 348 BC (MAG).

How did Philip II build the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

religion the theology and teachings of Paul

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47605076

Paul’s writings are naturally cosmopolitan, his being influenced by Hellenistic culture and philosophy as well as Judaism. As a result, Paul’s contributions indelibly and significantly transformed the mode, meaning, and implications of Christ’s message. As Scholz (2013) points out, Paul penned almost half of all New Testament texts: thirteen books. Paul’s theology is “one of the cornerstones upon which the Christian Church is built,” (Zetterholm, 2009, p. 1). What also makes Pauline texts different is that unlike the synoptic gospels, Pauline letters reflect the author’s own theology. Reading and re-reading Pauline theology offers insight into how early Christian theology evolved and was influenced inevitably by historical, cultural, and contextual variables. Moreover, the Pauline letters show how later Christian theologians would revise and reinterpret the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.

Most likely, Paul viewed himself as a theologian, one who felt an intense personal responsibility to travel, preach, and teach…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Seeing Spirituality in Art

Words: 2066 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11138450

Greek sculptures, 'Veiled and Masked Dancer' and 'Hermes and the Infant Dionysos' dating back to the art periods, and their connection to the realm of spirituality.

Is art linked to spirituality in any special way? One might find a number of reasons to answer in the affirmative; there, indeed, appears to be some sort of profuse series of links among the two. Art has always occupied a central position in religion. In religious rituals and houses of worship, one can witness sacred dances, sacred symbols, hymns, sacred pictures, tunes, and chants; these art forms have also been utilized as meditation and prayer aids by all religions. The above examples of art in religion alone make the former discipline appear to be intrinsic to connecting with or expressing the divine (Art and Spirituality 1). eligious art represents a superior art form in both Western medieval Christianity and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Buddhists…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture, society, and architecture. (n.d.). Praxiteles - Ancient Greek Sculptor. Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Praxiteles/

Ancient Greece. History of Greece: Classical Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://ancient-greece.org/history/classical.html

Garcia, A. (n.d.). Endnotes. Endnotes -- Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer this. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://mcuhistory.tumblr.com/post/60566947687/statuette-of-a-veiled-and-masked-dancer-this

History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. (n.d.). Hellenistic Greece - Ancient History - HISTORY.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/hellenistic-greece
View Full Essay

Gender and Greek Art Gender

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27476178



http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/35.11.3

Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.

http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm

Figure 1: Michael Lahanas

Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Figure 5: Discus thrower

Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art

James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm

Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm

"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?

"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…… [Read More]

References

"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline

of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.

November 15, 2010.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16
View Full Essay

Education of Jeses in the

Words: 4690 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5383480

let us begin by analyzing the Pharisees.

The term itself is derived from a Hebrew word which literally means "separated." Right from the ethimological interpretation we can deduce that the Pharisees were a group of people who saw things differently compared to the majority. This difference was manifested in the religious area, but also in the political area and the social one.

The Second Temple was the period in which the Phariseean philosophy flourished. It is worth underlining that it is this very philosophy and religious thought that put the basis of the contemporary forms of Judaism.

During the reign of the king Antiochus Epiphanes in which numerous pressures were being made in order to impose the Hellenistic culture and polytheist religion, an anti-Hellenistic Jewish movement was created in order to defend the traditional views.

This movement was called the Hasidim and the Pharisees are one of the group's successors.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Blank, Wayne. Who ere the Pharisees? From the Daily Bible Study. Retrieved May 6, 2009 from  http://www.keyway.ca/htm2002/pharisee.htm 

Dolphin, Lambert. Second Temple Times. Retrieved May 6,2009 from  http://www.templemount.org/secondtmp.html 

Essenes. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from  http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/e/essenes.html 

Essenes. From The catholic encyclopaedia. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05546a.htm
View Full Essay

Jewish History

Words: 5166 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85257744

Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.

Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.

INTRODUCTION

In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.

Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=809#Biblical%20Studies:%20Jewish%20and%20Christian

Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006 http://books.google.com/books?id=zdQY_pHP0FYC&dq=jewish+history&pg=PP1&ots=DDVycu70fB&source=citation&sig=r6dn9cM2TswSod-OTzjaFHqQE6Q&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=gmail&q=Jewish+History&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=1&cad=bottom-3results#PPA20,M1

Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
View Full Essay

Greek Artifacts the Civilization of

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27467730

Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).

Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.

Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp.

Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.

New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
View Full Essay

Exegesis of Hebrews One of

Words: 5259 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21024028

Unless the author's typological approach is appreciated, the interpreter may wrongly assume that the author is making literal statements about the salvation-historical significance of Christ.

The fact that Hebrews was originally written in Greek does not provide any substantial or definitive help in the search for author or audience. During the time period in which Hebrews had to be composed, Christians in Rome spoke Greece. In fact, Hellenism had much of Western Europe and the modern-day Middle East familiar with Greek. This familiarity would have been even more likely among educated groups, and is highly unlikely that uneducated people would have had the ability to read or write. While there was some early suggestion that Hebrews was originally written in a language other than Greek, it seems highly unlikely that that was the case:

That the Letter to the Hebrews was originally written in Greek is suggested by the fact…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Human History the Concept of

Words: 5712 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60516710

Those who went took with them knowledge of Mesopotamian customs, ideas, and skills, but many chose to remain, having put down firm roots during the decades of exile (LeMiere 19). Mesopotamia itself became even more cosmopolitan than before, since not only did the Persian court at times visit and contribute to local administration, but also foreign levies and mercenaries did tours of military service there. Anti-Persian feeling in conquered lands led to scurrilous rumors, such as the tale that Xerxes destroyed the statue of Marduk-Bel in Babylon (LeMiere 20).

This story has proved to be a fabrication: the cult statue continued unscathed to embody the presence of the god in his undamaged temple in Babylon during subsequent centuries, and so Herodotos' description of the golden statue of Marduk-Bel in the time of Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) need not be doubted. Continuity of cult and architecture are thoroughly attested by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, R. Architecture of Ancient Samaria. New York: Prentice Hall, 1989. Print.

Akkermans, P. "Tell Sabi Abyad: Preliminary Report on the 1986 Excavations." Akkadica 52 (1987): 10-28. Print.

Blackham, M.. "Further Investigations as to the Relationship of Samarian and Ubaic Ceramic Assemblages." Iraq 53 (2006): 1-16. Print.

Boethius, a. The Golden House of Nero. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. Print.
View Full Essay

History and Development of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of Western Civilization

Words: 6891 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11303212

Architecture through the Ages

Mesopotamia

Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;

228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .

Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
View Full Essay

Christian mysticism during Early Christianity

Words: 2223 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31504181

hereas Origen did, to a certain degree, follow Clement's teachings, he introduced his own point-of-view in the matter and provided his followers with less information regarding Christian mysticism. This is most probably caused by his interest in teaching mainstream Christianity. He considered that it was easier for him to promote the religion this way, as the masses were presumably unable to understand mystical concepts if they did not know the difference between material Christianity and spiritual Christianity.

Origen feared that by employing a Gnostic approach at understanding religion, people would realize that it was not obligatory for them to consider Jesus Christ and His crucifixion. Origen believes that it is not that a Gnostic "denies or doubts the truth of the Gospel history, but he feels that events which only happened once can be of no importance, and regards the life, death, and resurrection of Christ as only one manifestation…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Chadwick, Henry Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)

Horton, Michael S. "Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological Method," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45.2 (2002)

Inge, William Ralph, Christian Mysticism: Considered in Eight Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899)

Lardner Carmody, Denise and Carmody, John Tully, Mysticism: Holiness East and West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
View Full Essay

Beowulf and Vis and Ramin

Words: 1151 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52741714

XV were Christian is beyond doubt; and it is equally certain that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England, since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Yet the only Biblical references in Beowulf are to the Old Testament, and Christ is never mentioned. The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans. Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All." Were those the prayers of a pagan who used phrases the Christians subsequently appropriated? or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues" (Yeager)

Interesting though Vis and amin share some characteristics with Hellenistic romances written…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Dick Davis, Panthea's Children: Hellenistic Novels and Medieval Persian Romances, New York, 2002.

Vladimir Minorsky, "Vis u Ramin: A Parthian Romance," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. XI, 1943-46, pp. 741-63; Vol. XII, 1947-1948, pp. 20-35; Vol. XVI, 1954, pp. 91-92; "New Developments." Vol. XXV, 1962, pp. 275-86.

Abrams, M.H.; Greenblatt, Stephen (2000). The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 30.

Yeager, Robert F.. "Why Read Beowulf?." National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
View Full Essay

Creation Narrative Analysis of Genesis Myth or History or Myth and History

Words: 15782 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9755140

Creation Myth Analysis

Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives

What Is Myth?

What Is History?

Manetho

Josephus

Jeroboam

Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?

Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?

Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?

An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record

God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.

Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:

Macmillan Co., 1905.

Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
View Full Essay

Military -- Naval Questions in

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74051888

[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Alexander the Great Western Civilization Has Wide

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59934789

Alexander the Great

Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.

Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.

Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…… [Read More]

He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.

Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:

Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web:  http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
View Full Essay

History of Project Management at

Words: 6401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615055

Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.

It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Hebraism and Hellenism the Old Debate Between

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81105471

Hebraism and Hellenism

The old debate between the values of so-called 'Hebraism' and 'Hellenism' is manifest in our culture today. Hebraism, according to the Victorian scholar Matthew Arnold is defined as putting 'right doing' over 'right knowing.' Hellenism, in the spirit of the ancient Greeks, emphasizes the need to understand the world: "to see things as they really are" (Drake 2001). This can be seen in our modern debate over teaching evolution in schools. People who take a literal view of the Bible are less concerned about scientific truth and are more worried about the implications of teaching a theory of the origin of life that denies God's moral influence upon human existence. The Hellenistic mindset stresses the need to teach a scientifically-accepted theory to educate the young and advance human progress and insight.

A different view of the Hebraism vs. Hellenistic mindset can be seen as early as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Designer arcade." March 2, 2011.

 http://www.designarcade.in/showcase/listing_products.php?id=1545 

Drake, Alfred J. "Hebraism and Hellenism." The Victorian Web. Updated December 2001.

March 2, 2011.  http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/arnold/writings/4.html
View Full Essay

Alexander the Great Why Alexander Was Truly

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88736177

Alexander the Great

Why Alexander was truly 'great'

Dictionaries have since provided evidence as valued source for definition of the word great, it therefore defined great as getting powerful, superior or character in terms of quality, eminent as well as noble. It is true to say that Alexander was powerful as well as very eminent not failing to mention the large empire he managed to build. As the saying goes that every all that glitters is not gold so was Alexander. Despite the fact that Alexander managed to achieve all that he did he could not be fit the definition of the word Great on the grounds of humanity.

I do not think that a great person can always be pushing his people into situations (war) for his personal ambitions and gain. For the reasons of bad a temper, I don't think one who is known to be great should…… [Read More]

Reference

A.B. Bosworth, 'Alexander the Great and the Decline of Macedon', JHS 106 (1986). Retrieved on 16/10/2013  http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2004/2004-01-31.html 

N.G.L. Hammond, 'The Macedonian Imprint on the Hellenistic World', in Hellenistic History and Culture, ed. P. Green (Berkeley & Los Angeles 1993). Retrieved on 16/10/2013  http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft0000035f;chunk.id=0;doc.view=print
View Full Essay

Military Strategies Employed by Alexander the Great

Words: 1866 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82746280

military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.

Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…… [Read More]

References

Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)

J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)

J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68
View Full Essay

Statuette of Nedjemu

Words: 420 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66544026

Statuette of Nedjemu of Ancient Egypt (image retrieved at (http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm) illustrates several aspects of Egyptian funerary sculpture that remained typical for almost 3000 years, although not in all of the surrounding ancient kingdoms and nations. This particular statue is thought to date from the Old Kingdom period, probably the Fifth Dynasty around 2500-2350 B.C.E. The strict use of proportionality on the part of the limestone structure as well as the rigid posture and the quiet facial expression "reflect the Egyptian desire to represent the deceased in a manner appropriate for eternity," in a stylized fashion, rather than to capture how the dead were uniquely individuated as people in life. (Art of Egypt, 2004)

This fixation upon honoring the dead is in direct contrast to Greek statues of the period that were more often used in living temple rites, although they were often equally rigid and stylized. (Artlex, 2004) According to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Art of Egypt. (2004)

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/scultpurePlastic/SculptureHistory/ArtofEgypt/StatuetteofNedjemu/StatuetteofNedjemu.htm

Artlex. (2004) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at  http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/h/hellenistic.html 

Statuette of Nedjemu." (1996) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm
View Full Essay

Gays in the Military The

Words: 1735 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78966616



hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.

orks Cited:

Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.

.

Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12

October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .

"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .

Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .

Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:

Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.

.… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.

.

Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12

October 1985: n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. .
View Full Essay

Oif Columns in Architecture Extends

Words: 6600 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68072807



3. Curriculum or Method of the Study

The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.

The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.

What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from  http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html 

Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from  http://upge.wn.com/?t=ancientgreece/index12.txt 

Barry C. What Are the Types of Architectural Columns? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5453707_types-architectural-columns.html

Column: New World Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Column
View Full Essay

Holy Saturation the Traditional or

Words: 4689 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88491185

The popularization of the idea, though was somewhat linguistic in that when speaking of God and the Holy Spirit, different words were used that could mean "person," "nature," "essence," or "substance," -- words that were part of a longer, and far older tradition, but not adopted by the new Church .

Later, to echo this interpretation, the French Dominican Yves Conger, wrote that the Spirit of God was equal to the Spirit of Wisdom -- intelligent, holy, unique, manifold, subtle

However, we must realize, too, that there was a long and rich tradition within the Ancient Near East. Whether one subscribes to the idea that essential mythos was something common arising out of civilization and being passed forward, or that each individual religion of the Ancient World was divinely inspired by its own set of beings, the concept of the Trinity is neither new, nor linked inexorably to the New…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Carraway, B. Spiritual Gifts: Their Purpose and Power. WinePress Publishing, 2005.

Chadwell, D. Jesus' Two Great Commissions: Balancing Evangelism and Edification.

Christian Education Video and Publishing.

Clark, N. Interpreting the Resurrection. SCM Books, 1967.
View Full Essay

Ancient Greek & Ancient Roman

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89566570

Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."

Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Greek Culture Greek Art and

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35170500



Of course, the history of ancient Greek art is inseparable from the city of Athens, where our modern principles of democracy emerged around 400 B.C.E. And which has become the penultimate symbol of Greek culture, especially related to the Parthenon atop the Acropolis which still stands today as the quintessential icon of ancient Greek architecture. It was here in Athens that some of the finest products of Greek civilization were created by Athenians, such as Phidias, one of the greatest sculptors of all time and responsible for the creation and overall design of the Parthenon.

Also, modern-day Western society and the nation of Greece owe much to the writers who created the great Greek tragic plays, such as Aeschylus and Sophocles whose plays were "presented to eager citizens with personal obligations to the gods" (de la Croix, 2003, p. 125). In addition, we must remember to include Homer, the author…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Greek Art." (2008). Internet. Retrieved May 30, 2008 at  http://www.crystalinks.com/greekart.html .

De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey. (2003). Art Through the Ages. 10th ed.

New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.

Martin, Thomas R. (2004). Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times.
View Full Essay

Education Has Evolved Substantially Over

Words: 2345 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51786892

Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.

In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.

Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading beyond Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Clark, Donald Lemen. John Milton at St. Paul's School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.

Clinton, Catherine, and Christine Lunardini. The Columbia Guide to American Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Furniss, W. Todd, and Patricia Albjerg Graham, eds. Women in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1974.
View Full Essay

Chadwick Henry Early Christian Thought

Words: 731 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5704933

This did not seem to affect many that were truly committed however, to the Gnostic way of life.

sborn, E.F. The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1957)

According to sborn, the philosophy of Clement of Alexandria was that a person could not consider ration as a means to understanding God because God could only be understood through spirituality (p. 32). Clement wanted individuals to consider his work based on philosophical principles however, because they would have to delve into Gnosticism to understand his work from a realistic standpoint, and Clement was assuming that people would be Christians and not Gnostics. Clement wanted to promote Christianity but was looking at the deeper levels of spirituality which was something that required clarification. Further, Clement believed in the concept of a spiritual ladder individual's needed to climb to achieve positive results in their relationship with the divine. Clement's philosophy…… [Read More]

Osborn, E.F. The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1957)

According to Osborn, the philosophy of Clement of Alexandria was that a person could not consider ration as a means to understanding God because God could only be understood through spirituality (p. 32). Clement wanted individuals to consider his work based on philosophical principles however, because they would have to delve into Gnosticism to understand his work from a realistic standpoint, and Clement was assuming that people would be Christians and not Gnostics. Clement wanted to promote Christianity but was looking at the deeper levels of spirituality which was something that required clarification. Further, Clement believed in the concept of a spiritual ladder individual's needed to climb to achieve positive results in their relationship with the divine. Clement's philosophy takes on some Gnostic principles, allowing the reader to delve deeper into Christianity and allowing intriguing thoughts to shape their personality from those points. The work encourages praying verbal prayers during these times, as this focus on the importance of spiritual matter, which is something the aspiring Christian must focus on and learn the importance of.

According to Clement, a true gnostic is something that is able to reason and give a reasonable account of what they know in faith by giving summary and general form response of such matters (p. 118). Faith is an important concept to emphasize, and something that had to be combined with other Christian principles for true Christianity to prevail. One of the most important contributions of this work was the philosophy that knowledge and love could be combined to work together for the same common cause, a religious or gnostic cause whose purpose was the same, in promoting the common good of the people. Good was the end result of all works in which Christians engaged in, the common good of the people, because Christians and spirituality were inherently good by nature, this was an undisputed principle.
View Full Essay

Greek Sculpture a Timeline of Greek Sculpture

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83902479

Greek Sculpture

A Timeline of Greek Sculpture

Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)

As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)

Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]

Reference List

Agony -- The Famous Group of Laocoon. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/rome-19.shtml

Haaren, J. (2000). Famous Men of Greece. Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.

Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

The Farnesse Bull. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/naples-5.shtml
View Full Essay

Alexander the Great King Philip

Words: 3988 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60132116

Alexander saw himself as that philosopher-king who would install a new kind of cooperation and brotherhood with one or unified Greek culture, Hellenism, and speaking a common language, Greek (Smitha 1998). He intended that his subjects in the East would be reared and trained to become like the Greeks and Macedonians.

In consolidating his huge territory, Alexander founded cities, mostly named Alexandria, in suitable and well-paved locations with sufficient supply of water. His army veterans, young men, merchants, traders and scholars settled there, infused Greek culture and, through them, the Greek language widely flourished. Through his mighty victories and territorial control, Alexander thus spread Greek civilization and paved the way for the incoming Hellenistic kingdoms and the conquest of the Roman Empire (Microsoft 2004).

He also felt that trade would unite his empire more strongly and so he forced new commercial possibilities and made abylon the center of brisk world…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dorst, Sander van. Macedonian Army. Van Dorst, 2000. http://members.tripod.com/~S-vn_Dorst/Alexander.html

Marx, Irma. Empire of Alexander the Great - Expansion into Asia and Central Asia. Silkroad Foundation, 2000. http://www.silk-road.com/art/alex.shtml

Microsoft Encarta. Alexander the Great. Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation, 2004. http://encyclopedia_761564408/Alexander_the_Great.html

Smitha, Frank E. Alexander Changes the World. World History, 1998.  http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch11.htm
View Full Essay

Art and Society an Analysis

Words: 2935 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30330794

(176)

In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).

Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.

Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.

According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.

Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892.

Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
View Full Essay

Epicurus's View on Death Death

Words: 2062 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73751186

It was argued by Epicurus that the souls and body could only interact if the souls are material.

Bibliography

Amicus, C. Ante Oculos - Epicurus and the Evidence-Based Life. Cassius Amicus, 2010.

Amicus, C. Lion of Epicurus - Lucian and His Epicurean Passages. Cassius Amicus, 2010.

Amicus, C. A Life Worthy of the Gods - the Life and Work of Epicurus. Cassius Amicus, 2011.

Amicus, C. The octrines of Epicurus -- Annotated. Cassius Amicus, 2011.

Benatar, . Life, eath, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

Fish, J., and Sanders, K.R. Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Greer, H.T., and Lewis, G. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004.

Hindson, E., and Caner, E. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the…… [Read More]

David Benatar. Life, Death, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009, p. 23.

Thomas H. Greer, Gavin Lewis. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004, p. 45.

Ed Hindson, Ergun Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers, 2008, p. 52.
View Full Essay

Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta

Words: 2198 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88891091

Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.

Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.

John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world

Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.

Rousseau JJ (1755) Economie ou Oeconomie (Morale et Politique). in: Diderot Det d' Alembert J, Le R (eds.) Encyclopedie au Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers, vol V, Paris, pp 337 -- 349. Quoted from the French-German edition entitled, Rousseau JJ (1977) Politische Okonomie. Edit. And transl by Schneider HP, Schneider-Pachaly B. Klostermann, Frankfurt, pp 22 -- 113. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.
View Full Essay

Education of Abbasid

Words: 4250 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57391060

Education of Abbasid

Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.

One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Herod the Great

Words: 5872 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92131594

King Herod, The Great

Quite a variety of members belonging to the royal dynasty had their names Herod being originated in Edom or Idumea after John Hyrcanus in 125 B.C was obligated to adopt the Jewish religion (1). The Herod family ruled in Palestine as vassals of the omans. Followed by Maccabees, the history of this dynasty mainly relates to the political history of Palestine during this whole era (1).

omans in 40 B.C made Herod I the Great, son of Antipater the king who managed to keep hold of his throne even during the times of changes in the government at ome (1). Herod's kingdom includes Idumea, Galilee, Judea, Batanea, Samaria and Peraea, which was more or less the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon (1).

Though Herod had outstanding leadership skills, yet he was greatly detested by the Jews. One of the reasons for disliking…… [Read More]

References

Bible History. King Herod the great, the Servant of Rome.

A www.bible-history.com

Follow the Rabbi. Herod the Great.

A www.community.gospelcom.net
View Full Essay

Religion Life of Historical Jesus

Words: 2372 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63066184

Jesus

Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical… [Read More]

Works Cited

Theissen, Gerd, and Merz, Annette. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.
View Full Essay

Compare and Contrast the Athenian Empire to Alexander the Great's Empire

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43968159

Athenian Empire to Alexander the Great's Empire as the two main efforts to unify and expand ancient Greece. Ancient Greece played a vital role in the civilization and culture of the world. They developed some of the things we take for granted today, such as democracy, art, and philosophy. Alexander the Great helped spread Athenian culture around the world, and its influence is still felt today.

The Athenian Empire was one of the greatest on Earth, and it became a model for civilization, culture, and democracy. Athens, the city the culture was named after, was the leading city in Greece, and a leading city in the world. The Greeks had a thriving trade center, they had wealth, they had a great navy that ruled over the rest of the area, and they had developed a democratic system of government. They had great buildings such as the Parthenon, and they enjoyed…… [Read More]

References

Mareli?, Marko. "Brief Athenian History." Korcula.net. 27 Oct. 2003. 4 May 2004. http://www.korcula.net/history/mmarelic_korkyra.htm
View Full Essay

History of Egyptian and Mayan Writing Egyptian

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37558866

History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing

Egyptian writing

The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.

Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.

Smith, Tony)

Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004.  http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm 

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004.  http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm 

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004.  http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
View Full Essay

Chris's Biblical Statement I Am the Light

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25877636

Chris's biblical statement "I am the light of the world." Specifically, it will describe the events that surround the "I am" statement, how the "I am" statement relates to the revelation of God in the Old Testament, and how the statement reveals the deity of Christ. The semantics of the Bible are awesome. Since it was written in ancient tongues, they can be translated in many ways, and so it is with this passage where John repeats Christ's words, "I am the light of the world." Light can mean many things to many people, but here, light really means love, and Christ is a reflection of God's love of all the people of Earth.

A am" also has many contextual meanings in the Bible, and together, these words affirm Christ as a deity and the Son of God. Thus, Christ not only affirms his own place and purpose on Earth,…… [Read More]

References

Borg, Marcus J., ed. Jesus at 2000. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.

Knight, George A.F. "The Light of God in Action." The Christian Century 16 Dec. 1998: 1212.

Rollins, Wayne G. The Gospels: Portraits of Christ. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1963.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: Books, Inc., Publishers.
View Full Essay

Why Did Augustine Convert

Words: 2190 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66241685

Saint Augustine's conversion, as recounted in his Confessions

This paper will explore the factors leading to Saint Augustine's conversion. This conversion was believed to be the result of an ultimate battle of sexual desire with spirit.

Augustine Biography Info

Augustine of Hippo was born on November 13, in AD 354, in Thagaste (modern day Souk Ahras, Algeria), and died on August 28, in AD 430, in modern-day Annaba, Algeria (then known as Hippo egius). It was in the latter city where he was named Bishop 35 years prior to his death. It is a challenge to encapsulate renowned personalities, and with St. Augustine, this task is even more difficult (Augustine of Hippo).

A theologian and philosopher, Augustine dithered between an earlier, positive Hellenistic outlook, and a pessimistic Christian outlook later on in his life. Shifting from one extreme to another, Augustine accommodated several diverse disciplines and philosophies into his comprehensive…… [Read More]

References

"Augustine of Hippo - Philosopher - Biography." The European Graduate School - Media and Communication - Graduate & Postgraduate Studies Program. Web. 13 Jul 2015. .

"Confessions Book VIII -- The Birthpangs of Conversion Summary and Analysis | GradeSaver." Study Guides & Essay Editing | GradeSaver. Web. 13 Jul 2015. .

McCabe, Joseph. "The Conversion of St. Augustine ." International Journal of Ethics. 12.4 (1902): 450-459.Web. http://luce.sunymaritime.edu:2113/stable/2376053?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=The&searchText=Conversion&searchText=of&searchText=St.&searchText=Augustine&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DThe%2BConversion%2Bof%2BSt%2BAugustine%2B%26amp%3BSearch%3DSearch%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff%26amp%3BglobalSearch%3D%26amp%3BsbbBox%3D%26amp%3BsbjBox%3D%26amp%3BsbpBox%3D&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Saint, Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine - St. Augustine. Start Publishing LLC, 2013. Ebook. .
View Full Essay

Gospel Accounts of the Passion

Words: 3304 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6084847

Rst: New Testament

the passion in synoptic gospels vs john'S GOSPEL

The Synoptic Gospels, which are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, are called "Synoptic" because their patterns and stories show similar themes as well as differences. Placing them side by side, which has been done many times, can give a quick "historical" synopsis of Jesus' life. hile the Synoptic Gospels use many of the same patterns and stories, each author stresses his own themes, particularly in describing Jesus' Passion: his suffering and death. Mark emphasizes Jesus' suffering. Matthew focuses on Jesus' kingship and the jealous plotting against him. Luke stresses Jesus' innocence and its recognition by several of Jesus' key oppressors. The Synoptic Gospels use common historical patterns and stories to convey their messages.

In contrast to the Synoptic Gospels, John's Gospel is less historical and more poetically, theologically developed. John's Gospel does not use the same patterns…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Just, Felix. The Passion and Death of Jesus. 15 August 2014. Web. 15 August 2015.

King James Bible Online. John Chapter 18. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.

-- . John Chapter 19. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.

-- . Luke Chapters 22 and 23. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.