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Encouraging people to retain a sense of control over their lives is essential to for them to sustain a positive mindset.
Another study revealed that while an experimental group of infants easily learned to control the movements of a mobile with their head with pressure-sensitive pillows, the control group that was initially put in cribs with randomly turning mobiles took far longer to learn the skill, given that they had already 'learned' that they had no control over the actions of the revolutions of the toy, and that to try to have control was futile.
The dog study and subsequent research thus provides suggestions in terms of how to structure a care environment for the elderly, young, and sick. The studies should also stimulate self-consciousness on the part of the reader. Almost everyone has some sort of unproductive psychological defense mechanism, some of which may cause the perpetuation of unproductive…
Hock, Roger. Forty studies that changed psychology: Explorations into the history of psychological research. 6th edition. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.
Helplessness and Depression
The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."
The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…
Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans:
Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87(1): 49 -- 74.
Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Depression in Young and Older Women
Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.
Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.
To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…
Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.
Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.
Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.
National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
Perception of Helplessness
Helplessness is defined in the dictionary as a "powerlessness revealed by an inability to act." Alternative definitions are: "a feeling of being unable to manage" or "the state of needing help from something." Helplessness is part and parcel of human existence. Given the natural order of life's process, helplessness is a reaction to traumatic events in our own lives. These are mental, emotional and physical anguish. In addition, helplessness is also caused by sensitivity to the sufferings of others. After the events of September 11, 2001, most Americans felt helpless. This helplessness was from the recognition of the fragility of life. Helplessness was also the inability to seek immediate retribution to the grievous loss to those even far removed from most of us. In most cases however, helplessness comes from events that are associated with self and those very near. Illness is a prime example. This is…
Bodner, E., & Mikulincer, M. (1998). Learned Helplessness and the Occurrence of Depressive-Like and Paranoid-Like Responses: The Role of Attentional Focus. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology., 74(4), 1010-1023.
Fredholm, L. (2003). Pavlov's Dog. Nobel.se. Retrieved December 17, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/pavlov/readmore.html
Lindstrom, T.C. (1997). Immunity and health after bereavement in relation to coping. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 235-259.
Minor, T.R., & Hunter, A.M. (2002). Stressor controllability and learned helplessness research in the United States: sensitization and fatigue processes. Integr Physiol Behav Sci, 37(1), 35-43.
Child development in low-income families, however, is indicative of the way learned helplessness applies to many different aspects of living in a low-income family. There is abundant evidence that children living in poverty have increased developmental issues and reduced mental abilities later in life (Campbell & amey 1994). It is also true that living in low-income situations makes children more likely to live in single-parent homes, meaning tat there is markedly reduced time for interaction with the child during the critical early years of development (Campbell & amey 1994). These are the components from which learned helplessness can be deduced.
Poverty, in a capitalist society, by definition means that there is a prohibitive reduction in the amount of resources available, and it has long been known that children living in poverty are less equipped to deal with the world as they grow, making it more likely that they will stay…
Campbell, F. And Ramey, C. (1994). "Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement." Child development 65(20), pp. 684-98.
Shields, K. (1997). "The conflicts of learned helplessness in motivation." San Jose state university. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/00000062.htm
Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.
Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117
Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673
Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
Depression in African-American Adolescents
Etiology of Depression
Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…
Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.
Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.
Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)
Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)
Another study, described in…
Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp
Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm
Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical
Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/ query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Coping ith Depression
Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.
Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…
Carter, Sharon and Lawrence Clayton. Coping with Depression. New York; Hazeldon, 1995.
Depression may range in severity from mild symptoms to more severe forms that include delusional thinking, excessive somatic concern, and suicidal ideation, over longer periods of time. The DSM-IIIR requires the presence of at least five of the symptoms listed above for a diagnosis of major depressive episode.
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…
Santorck, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
psychology and human behavior. Specifically it will discuss the effects of population density on individuals, including noise and territoriality. Population density has a dramatic affect on the population, and it can even lead to major health concerns. Studies show that residents of high-noise areas suffer a variety of ailments, from loss of attention span to hearing loss and stress. The denser the population, the more noise, stress, and lack of personal space all come together to make living conditions far less bearable than any other living situation.
Noise is one of the biggest problems facing the residents of high-density population centers. Noise can affect just about every aspect of life, and it can make sleeping, learning, conversing, and every aspect of life nearly unbearable. Noise is a part of life, but high noise levels are often most prevalent in inner cities and areas of high population density, meaning that more…
Editors. (2009). The San Francisco noise model. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the San Francisco Department of Public Heath Web site: http://www.sfphes.org/HIA_Tools_Noise.htm .
Goines, L. And Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plague. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 100: p. 287-294.
Harris, A.S., Fleming, G.G., Lang, W.W. And Schomer, P.D. (2004). Reducing the impact of environmental noise on quality of life requires an effective national noise policy. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the Volpe.dot.gov Web site: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/acoustics/docs/2000/dts-34-03_2.pdf .
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
Hispanic Immigrants & Social Networks
Successful immigration of Hispanic persons to the U.S. involves much more than a shift in geographical location. or the purposes of this dissertation, 'successful immigration' denotes the successful establishment of an independent existence is the U.S., to include ease of motion within a familial, social, and political context, as facilitated by language acquisition and the development of trust in the democratic government. I consider this form of immigration successful based on past and current studies suggesting that Hispanic immigrants benefit from language acquisition and the development of political trust, while immigrants who do not learn the English language are limited in their ability to experience the American culture and, as a result, have difficulty functioning in this culture, which in turn discourages trust and supports alienation.
The term 'acculturation' refers to the process of adopting cultural attitudes, behavioral norms, values and beliefs not…
For example, while the Latino National Political Survey (LNPS) conducted in 1990 failed to measure the influence of family and civic ties on the development of trust, the Latino National Survey (LNS), conducted in 2006, included several cross-disciplinary variables -- to include family and civic ties -- however it stopped short of exploring the types of information communicated through these ties, to include information pertaining to the cultural and political climate.
Nonetheless, the cross-disciplinary nature of the LNS paved the way for further research into the influence of family and civic ties on the development of trust specific to Hispanic immigrants to the U.S. What is needed now, and what I will endeavor to present in the following pages, is a study that incorporates the findings of the LNS into a comprehensive look at the acculturation and institutional context variables that support or discourage political trust development.
The following dissertation examines the acculturation process of Hispanic-Americans in three parts: language acquisition, the potential for the development of depression, and the factors contributing to the development of political trust. As discussed in this introduction, each component of the process of acculturation informs the other, however the specific ways in which this information is passed has yet to be addressed. For example, while previous studies support the claim that language acquisition results in a more positive experience in social, educational and professional sectors, the incentives for learning language -- in addition to the sources of resistance to language -- remain unclear, or at the least incomprehensive. It is the purpose of this dissertation to present a comprehensive study of acculturation in the institution context of Mexico and the U.S., accounting for several cross-disciplinary factors, to include distance, gender, age, family and civic ties as influencing the three components of acculturation.
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
treating depression is cognitive therapy which was developed by American psychologists Martin Seligman (1991), Albert Ellis (1975) and Aaron Beck (1976) (an American psychiatrist). Several research studies have established that cognitive therapy is specifically efficient in treating depression as well as the prevention of relapse and the reduction of withdrawal symptoms concerned with therapy (Ball, n.d). According to Beck (1976), cognitive response is founded on two major concepts:
The depressed individuals possess a regular negative prejudice in their thoughts.
The manner in which the happenings are understood sustains the depression.
Cognitive therapy generally mentions that it is not the circumstance only, but instead the manners in which individuals understand it which determines their specific feelings. The cognitive design depends upon the ABC model;
Adverse situations: This might be an abstraction or real. The visualized occurrences could result to similar responses as the real and actual ones. Hence if individuals believe…
Ball J. (n.d.). Thinking your way out of depression. Retrieved 10 August 2015 from http://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/docs/CBT_JillianBall.pdf
Ellis, A., & Harper, R.A. (1975). A new guide to rational living. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.
Seligman, M.E.P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: A.A. Knopf.
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.
The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.
Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?
It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…
Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.
Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.
Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
1930's novel "They Shoot Horses, Don't They" and the film with the same title, which adapted the storyline written by Horace McCoy.
They Shoot Horses. Don't They?"
The book "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?" was written by the American author Horace McCoy. hen it was written in the 1930's the American population has fallen victim to the great depression. In 1969 the book was converted into a film that was nominated for the Academy Awards in nine categories. The film follows the basic storyline of the book like any other adaptation.
ith its structure, storyline and expression the novel can be stated to be giving a murky glance at both, human disposition and human psychology. To say the least this is fast moving, atrocious crime novel. These elements are exposed through the participation of "Couple 22" in a marathon dance contest being held in the state of California. The competition…
McCoy, Horace. They Shoot Horses Don't They
THEY SHOOT HORSES, DON'T THEY? Sydney Pollack, 1969
Review titled They Shoot Horses Don't They, available on http://apolloguide.com/mov_fullrev.asp?CID=1857&Specific=2348.30th April 2004.
eal-Life case study
The research informant selected is a soldier who was deployed in Iraq who is 35 years of age and who was in the army for 15 years. He suffered from drug and alcohol addiction along with post traumatic stress syndrome. At this time he is still battling both of these conditions. When interviewing him, the clear purpose of this project was stated without a doubt, and he was informed of his voluntary participation, along with the fact that he was allowing us to use all the data that he provided. He was reassured of the complete and utter privacy of his responses and how all of his data was going to be kept confidential. For example, he was told that he name was never going to be recorded, none of the researchers would ever have it; instead he was going to be given a number. Furthermore, while…
Berger, K. (2009). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Psychology Press.
Ptsd.va.gov. (2013). Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Retrieved from Ptsd.va.gov: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/adult-int/caps.asp
Schmal, C. (2004). Psychophysiological reactivity to traumatic and abandonment. Psychiatry Research, 33-42.
Walker, P. (2013). Managing Abandonment Depression in Complex PTSD. Retrieved from peter-walker.com: http://www.pete-walker.com/managingAbandonDepression.htm
evolt Among the Sharecroppers - Howard Kester
evolt Among the Sharecroppers is a brief and convincing first-person account on the effects of the 1930s Depression and a dramatic story of the impact of New Deal on rural life of the Southern labor. The book was originally published in 1936 as a rural studies research pamphlet by Howard Kester. In 1969, it was reprinted by Arno Press in their American Negro Series. Within a year, the book was sold out and not printed again.
Alexander Lichtenstein, a lecturer in University of Tennessee took the initiative of reissuing the book in 1997, in realization of its value as a historical piece of research. This re-established a significant political and social document of the early twentieth century. The book does not only enhance the understanding of modern generations on the importance of social movements but also asserts that the contemporary social gap between…
Grim, Valerie. Review: Revolt Among the Sharecroppers. Visiting Associate Professor,
History and African-American Studies Interim Director, African-American Studies, Iowa
State University. Published by H-Rural (October, 1997)
Kester, Howard. Revolt Among the Sharecroppers. Originally published 1936. New introduction by Alexander Lichtenstein. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…
Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at http://www.antidote.org.uk
Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.
Letter to My Addiction:
To an Old Friend,
Chai Latte, you have always been there for me every day, even when no one else was. As a result, you were my first love because I could turn to you when I was happy, sad, stressed, or angry. You were always there to give me comfort and relief by taking away my fears and insecurities, while giving me hope and strength to face the next moment and situation. While I felt alone in the beginning, you became my best friend by being ever-present to an extent I no longer feel lonely or alone. Your ability to lessen my pain, struggles, and worries made me to lean on you on a daily basis.
You appealed to my senses by enabling me to have increased focus and attention, especially in moments when I was tired and helpless. I turned to your strength at…
eliability and Validity
eliability refers to the capacity of an instrument to capture the most accurate and "truest" score of an individual. A reliable test enables us to distinguish one individual from another with confidence that errors will primarily be generated by individual differences, and to a lesser extent, to the imperfections of the instrument. Indicators that a test is reliable include test-retest reliability that is accounted for by the internal consistency in the components of the test. The test-retest criteria is generally considered a manifestation of the consistency of measurement for individual performance over time, such that the score a person gets on a test today will be the same -- or nearly the same -- as the score the person gets on a test, say, in three, six, or twelve months. There are a number of substantive issues with the test-retest criteria, including chance covariation, memory, and…
Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.
Newton, P.E. & Shaw, S.D. (2013) Standards for talking and thinking about validity. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 301-319. Doi: 10.1037/a0032969
Sireci, S.G. (2007). On validity theory and test validation. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 477-481. (ProQuest Document ID: 1403803131)
Schwenk, G. (2009). Evaluating social influence relations: An item-response-modeling approach. Metodoloski zvezki, 6(1), 27-50.
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating elationships
Aggression in teenage dating leading to physical, emotional and psychological damage is a social problem not only because of its effects on the teenagers but also because of its prevalence.
Howard and Qi Wang (2003) report figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that overall the prevalence of non-sexual courtship violence ranges from 9% to 65%, depending on the definitions and research methods used. Howard and Qi Wang's study reported "almost one in ten of the 9th- through 12th-grade females who participated in the 1999 Youth isk Behavior Survey reported being a victim of physical dating violence (i.e., had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose) within the past year." Further studies and figures report that about one in five of adolescent girls has experienced dating violence. Some of the physically abusive behaviors perpetrated in dating include being scratched,…
Bush, Vanessa. (2002). A thin line between love and hate: dating violence strikes one in every five teenage girls. Essence November 2002. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1264/7_33/96384286/print.jhtml.
Gillies-Bradley & Wagner Tammy L. (2003). When love hurts. Briarpatch, 32(2), 18-19.
Howard, Donna E. & Qi Wang, Min. (2003). Risk profiles of adolescent girls who were victims of dating violence. Adolescence Spring 2003. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/149_38/103381757/print.jhtml.
James, William H., West, Carolyn, Deters, Karla Ezrre, Amigo, Eduardo. (2000). Youth dating violence. Adolescence Fall 2000. Retrieved November 7th, 2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/139_35/68535843/print.jhtml
Bullying -- and Victims
Summary of Important Facts on Page 502 of the Text
About 10 to 20% of today's children are bullies and up to 30% of children are victimized over and over. About a third to a half of victims are also aggressive and they do fight back. There are interventions available for victims and the best way to reduce bullying is to promote sports and other recreational activities, and basically to change the school environment.
how do children become bullies and how do bullies develop aggressive behaviors toward others? Bullies show very little "anxiety" and rarely are insecure, and they have a "strong desire" to be a dominant force over others -- notably their peers (Carter, 2011, 99). In fact those children who become bullies "derive entertainment" from their aggressive acts against others, and they rarely experience "remorse and empathy" for those unfortunate children who have been…
Berk, L.E. (2010). Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson College
Division, p. 502.
Carter, S. (2011). Bullies and Power: A Look at the Research. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric
Nursing, 34(2), 97-102.
A list of all of the residents was obtained from the two facilities as well as their admission dates. All of the necessary charts of eligibility were reviewed ads well as the data obtained from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) which were recorded by means of the Chart eview Form as well as the Minimum Data Set Cognitive Performance Scale (MDS-CPS).
The Minimum Data Set Cognitive Performance Scale (MDS-CPS) is a scale which is generated from the 5 MDS elements (comatose status, ability to make decisions, short-term memory, ability to make oneself be understood as well as eating).The scores from the scale ranged from 0 (for, no impairment) to 6 ( for, very severe impairment) as pointed out by Hartmaier et al. (1995).
The residents who scored two or less on the MDS-CPS were then asked in a kind way to willingly be part of the interview.
The interview involved…
Helpless omen in the Glass Menagerie
omen are often depicted as helpless creatures and when we look at women during the Depression era, we should not be surprised to see some women not only depicted as helpless but also see them left helpless and hopeless as the men in their lives cope with the struggling economy. The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee illiams, reveals two female characters as helpless women, victims of the economy and the men in their lives. Amanda and Laura depend on Tom for not only their physical survival but they also depend on him for emotional support. As expected, Tom cannot support his mother and sister in either of these capacities and he ends up deserting them much like his father did. The Glass Menagerie provides a look at hopeless women and what allows them to stay that way in their world. The female characters in this…
Boxill, Roger. "The Glass Menagerie." Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations. Web. 29 April
2011. Facts On File Resource Database.
Optimism and Pessimism Relates to Stress and Coping with Cancer
An increasing amount of research links negative and positive emotional states to wellness or ill health. The negative or pessimistic emotions seem to have a negative effect on the immune system and on general health. Pessimism has been shown to be unhealthy and have adverse effects on health, including increasing the risk of cancer and preventing recovery from the disease. On the other hand, positive or optimistic emotions have been shown to strengthen immune function and bring good health. (Gillman, 1989)
There is a wealth of research that suggests optimism has a positive association with better mental and physical health, as well as coping with stress. Pessimism has been linked to a higher risk of death before the age of 65, while positive emotions, like optimism, are linked to lowered production of the stress hormone cortisol, better immune function, and…
Schultz, Richard. Bookwala, Judith, Scheier Michael. "Pessimism, Age, and Cancer Survival." Psychology and Aging, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 304-309.
Brissette, I., Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (2002). The role of optimism and social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 102-111.
Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and self-regulation. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 31-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gillman, Jane. The Science of Optimism and Hope: Research Essays in Honor of Martin E.P. Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, 1999.
"All I needed was someone to tell say, 'Yeah, I've been there, too,'" Susan said, "and that's what I found here." This attitude was typical of many of the older members present at the meeting; he almost total experience of isolation, difference and strangeness, and total helplessness could jus as well have come from a depression support group. Though these people had a specific real-world reason for their mental distress, their symptoms were no less chronic or clinically viable than those suffering from depression in more commonly recognized situations.
Doug, too, is an example of depression at work in the family of alcoholics. The real-world manipulation that his ex-wife practiced with the couple's children and money would be enough to drive most people to the brink of sever depression, if not right into it. This was not seemed to get Doug down the most, however. With some encouragement, he shared…
Al-Anon Official Website. (2006). Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.al-anon.alateen.org/english.html
Janssen Pharmaceuticals. (2007). "Alcohol related disorders." Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=substance_alcohol
RightHealth. (2008). "Depression guide." Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Depression/overview/adam20?fdid=adam_b593fc53774e94d72ec3432ed3972154§ion=Summary
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
empathy must be accorded to the child, that teacher helps child master words in ways that are most congruent to the child, that teacher must 'step into the child's shoes' (i.e. go down to his level) in order to help him best, that the child must be made to feel that he can succeed, and that progression of knowledge must proceed from lower to progressively more challenging levels
Teaching students who have learning disabilities is done as all teaching is done in the form of an assessment. Understanding that students with learning disabilities have difficulties spelling and reading a large number of commonly used words due to their being irregular, and thus avoiding them (Robinson, 2005), may help us conduct our assessment better and know how to better help these students within the format of the class assessment delineated by McMillan (). In this way, assessment are used for learning…
Learned Helplessness Theory www.iversonsoftware.com/reference/psychology/l/learned_helplessness_theory
Antoin, D. Depression and Learned Helplessness.
Arnold, NG. (n.d.) Learned Helplessness and Attribution for Success and Failure in LD Students. LDOnline.com www.ldonline.com/ld_indepth/self_esteem/helplessness.html
Lifespan development is a field of study that involves growth patterns stability and change in one's behavior in the whole stretch of life. The definition does not fully capture the intricate process of the study. The study employs scientific approaches to establish these trends. We need a close examination of the elements of the definition above. In examining stability, growth and change, lifespan development checks the assumptions about the course and nature of the development of a human being. This is a scientific way of establishing the facts in the study. Scientists evolve development theories and apply systematic scientific methods to establish the exactness of these assumptions. The focus of the studies is the development of human beings (FLDNMC, 2010).Lifespan Development scientists select a topical area of focus and consider the age range of study. The span normally spreads out in broad age range segments. These segments include…
Adolescence. (n.d.). Pearson Highered. Retrieved from:https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/020559526X.pdf
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. In Handbook of Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0111/abstract
Chand, S. (2013). How to Adapt CBT for Older Adults? Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 10-15.
Cooper, J., Masi, R., & Vick, J. (2009). Social-emotional Development in Early Childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty.
Long-Term Impacts of Bullying
Bullying is an undesirable, hostile behavior exhibited by adolescents due to perceived and sometimes real power imbalance. This is a repeated behavior, or one that may be possibly repeated, as time goes on. Both the bullies and those bullied can develop long-term problems. For a child's behavior to be termed 'bullying', it must be a hostile behavior and include the following:
Power imbalance: Children who bully make use of their physical strengths, their access to information that could be considered embarrassing, or their popularity to harm or control the activities of other children. These imbalances in power can alter with time and circumstances, even when they involve the same set of people.
epetition: These bullying behaviors do not occur just once, or can occur recurrently.
Bullying behaviors involve certain actions like threatening others, physical and verbal attacks, spreading rumors about someone, or leaving someone out…
APA. (2016). Bullying. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/topics/bullying/
Castillo, M. (2013, August 19). Childhood bullying may lead to social, health issues in adulthood. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/childhood-bullying-may-lead-to-social-health-issues-in-adulthood/
Chiril?, T. (2010). Social and Psychological Implications of Bullying in Schools. Toma Cozma.
Dombeck, M. (2014). The Long-Term Effects of Bullying. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress: http://www.aaets.org/article204.htm
The Macy et al. (nd) research, coupled with the lack of federal support for a nationwide network of services, point to one of the root causes of domestic violence: gender inequity. Gender equality remains elusive in a society that claims otherwise. Learned helplessness and financial dependence are both linked to traditional gender roles and norms for behavior. Domestic abuse has long been considered a "private" issue: one that rarely surfaces until the problem escalates into ancillary issues including alcohol and drug abuse that demand help seeking (Macy et al. nd). Because of the stigma surrounding victims of domestic violence and because of the lack of sufficient social censuring of domestic violence, women who seek counseling for a substance abuse problems are unlikely to bring up their domestic violence issues. In extreme cases, battered women syndrome leads to what should be a preventable murder. atifying initiatives like CEDAW sends a clear…
American Bar Association. Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at http://www.abanet.org/irr/cedaw/violagwomen.html
Chapter 3: Profiles and Syndromes.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Full text retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm
Macy, R., Nurius, P.S., Kernic, M.A., & Holt, V.L. (nd). Battered Women's Profiles Associated with Service Help-Seeking Efforts: Illuminating Opportunities for Intervention.
Combat and Substance Abuse
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a consequence of combat experience, is believed to be a significant risk factor for substance abuse. This theory has been undermined to some extent by recent findings which suggest mental illness, apart from PTSD, may be a stronger predictor. Although combat-related PTSD may significantly contribute to the prevalence of substance abuse among veterans, the dominant substance abuse risks are the same for both civilians and combat veterans. This conclusion suggests than combat may represent a minor risk factor for substance abuse.
The Association between Combat and Substance Abuse
Veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are faced with many of the same problems that previous combat veterans have had to face, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). While most veterans suffering from these conditions will successfully cope with the challenges they face through treatment and social…
Adamou, Marios C. And Hale, Anthony S. (2003). PTSD and the law of psychiatric injury and England and Wales: Finally coming closer? Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry Law, 31, 327-332.
Bagalman, Erin. (2011). Suicide, PTSD, and substance use among OEF/OIF veterans using VA Health Care: Facts and figures. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41921.pdf .
National Center for PTSD. (2011). PTSD and substance abuse in veterans. PTSD.VA.gov. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/ptsd_substance_abuse_veterans.asp .
Nooner, Kate B., Linares, L. Oriana., Batinjane, Jessica, Kramer, Rachel A., Silva, Raul., and Cloitre, Marylene. (2012). Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(3), 153-166.
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…
AACAP (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Number 70, Facts for Families"
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved on October 12,
2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder_70.aspx
CSC (n.d.). Roles of a social worker. Chadron State College: Nebraska State College
Magnetic esonance System on patients
Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.
MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…
Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New
Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.
Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.
Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:
Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.
Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…
works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.
The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.
Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at http://www.nursing.gr/index1.html , retrieved 7 October 2009.
Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
diverse populations in a study, the implications of crisis/trauma-causing events on adolescent depression, implications of resiliency, the implications of neurobiology, and looks into a relevant development theory. It also covers different categories of adolescent depression. Causes of this problem, available diagnosis techniques, and the best treatment methods are also considered. Its relationship with other health issues, such as obesity and cancer, are also considered. There is a provision of some quantitative information about this problem. This paper also pays attention to important studies other experts have conducted. To some experts, this problem is in no way a medical ailment. There is also emphasis on the role adequate exercises and balanced diets play in curbing depression in adolescents. In conclusion, it is emphasized that a depressed adolescent can turn out to become a very normal and happy individual. The Cognitive Theory of Depression as postulated by Beck gives a description of…
Allen, J.P. (2009). An Overview of Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression in Contemporary Literature. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/allen.html
Brian, K. (2012). Adolescent Depression. http://www.healthline.com/health/adolescentdepression#Overview1
Bujoreanu, S., PhD., Benhayon, David, M.D., PhD., & Szigethy, Eva, M.D., PhD. (2011). Treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Pediatric Annals, 40(11), 548-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20111007-05
Corry, M., & Tubridy, A. (2005). Depression: An emotion not a disease . Dublin: Mercier Press.
Specifically, deficient cae may esult in a child's being vulneable as a consequence of a low intinsic level of self-esteem and self-woth (Pake, Baett, and Hickie, 1992). It is clea that a numbe of factos ae likely to affect the teenaged individual esulting in depession and it is citically noted that this depession must necessaily be addessed, teated and esolved. The client in this instance has bodeline low blood pessue which should be monitoed seveal times each week and futhemoe the body mass index (BMI) of this individual is excessively low indicating that this patient needs to be counseled in egads to thei diet both in tems of quality and quantity of foods consumed.
Logsdon, Cynthia J.(nd) Depession in Adolescent Gils: Sceening and Teatment Stategies fo Pimay Cae Povides Jounal of the Ameican Medical Women's Association Volume 59, No 2.
Lemay, Edwad P. And Ashmoe, Richad D. (2005) the…
reference: Studies of occupational and recreational choice. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 11-18.
"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)
These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one…
Anthis, Kristine. "The role of sexist discrimination in adult women's identity development." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. November 2002, p.1-4. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_Nov/ai_97728461/pg_1
Mindi D. Foster and Kenneth L. Dion. "The role of hardiness in moderating the relationship between global/specific attributions and actions against discrimination." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August 2004, p.1-5. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_3-4_51/ai_n6212699
Renzetti, Claire M. & Daniel Curran, Women, Men, and Society. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…
Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655
Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326
Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645
Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…
Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.
Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007796657
Arieti, S. & Brodie, H.K. (Eds.). (1981). Advances and New Directions. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101519121
Aronoff N., Geliebter a., and Zammit G. ( 2001) Gender and body mass index as related to the night-eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Am Diet Assoc.101(1), pp.102-4.
(Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, p. 8)
esults from this study relate a moderate quality evidence that aerobic-only exercise training at recommended intensity levels produces positive effects "global well-being (SMD 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13 to 0.75) and physical function (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) and possibly on pain (SMD 0.94, 95% CI -0.15 to 2.03) and tender points (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.79)." esults noted that flexibility and strength and flexibility remain under assessed. (Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, pp. 11-13)
According to criteria Melnyk Fineout-Overholt (2005) present, this study is a Level II study. From the Cochrane review, the following relates what research notes regarding the effect of exercise for FMS:
moderate intensity aerobic training for 12 weeks may improve overall well-being slightly and physical function.; moderate intensity aerobic exercise probably leads to little or no difference in pain…
Antai-Otong, Deborah, MS, APRN, BC, FAAN. (2005). "Depression and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS): Pharmacologic Considerations." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Volume: 4, Issue 3, 146+. Retrieved April 29, 2008, at http://www.questia.com/read/5011211783?title=Depression%20and%20Fibromyalgia% Syndrome%20(FMS)%3a%20Pharmacologic%20Considerations
Busch AJ, Barber KAR, Overend TJ, Peloso PMJ, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003786. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.
Burckhardt, Carol S. Mannerkorpi, Hedenberg, Kaisa, Lars and Bjelle, Anders. (1994). A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Education and Physical Training for Women with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology; 11:4, 714-719
Costa1, D. Da., Abrahamowicz, M., Lowensteyn, I., Bernatsky, S., Dritsa1, M., Fitzcharles, a., and Dobki, P.L.. Advance Access Rheumatology; 19 July 2005, 44:1422
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…
Bates, Steve. (2002). Personality counts: psychological tests can help peg the job applicants best suited for certain jobs. HR Magazine. Feb. 2002
Flynn, Gillian. (2002). A legal examination of testing. Workforce. June 2002
Newitz, Annalee. (2000). The personality paradox. Industry Stand. October, 2000.
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) has long been used to assist psychoanalysts elicit fantasy material from their patients (Morgan & Murray, 1935). According to Belleck and Murray (1973), the TAT was designed to bring forth interpretations by subject of social situations. Stories and pictures reveal some of the dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, conflicts, and complexes of a personality. The original cards used in the test were drawn or painted in color (Morge, 1995), but over time and much use, they became more and more achromatic. This achromatic appearances of the cards has caused many to speculate about their validity, especially, in patients suffering from depression. The question being asked by some researchers was, "would the achromatic appearance of the cards cause a depressed story whether or not the subject was depressed?
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment.…
In both cases, contributing variables such as country of origin, the existence or non-existence of family ties, gender and an immigrant's experience of the immigration process are omitted from the equation. This sector aimed to satisfy this gap by testing the combined effects of acculturation, kin, civic ties, and institutional context on immigrant's distrust of U.S. government, by testing for both acculturation factors (i.e. second-hand experience) and institutional factors (i.e. immediate experience of immigrant).
Three hypothesize were stated. Firstly, that the quantity of kin ties in the USD will influence trust towards the government; the greater the quantity of relations living in the U.S., the more trust experienced. Secondly, that high numbers of civic ties will increase trust in the government, and that the reverse will be true if the majority of one's civic ties reside in Mexico. Thirdly, that negative immediate experience (i.e. institution context) will impel low levels…
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…
Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2
Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002
Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974
Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
Mortality and Life eview
For most of us, a sense of impending mortality prompts a need to find closure, conduct a full life review and reconciliation (Clarke, 2007). The reality that death is a natural process -- leading towards an inescapable final destination -- seems implausible at first glance. For a variety of reasons, death has become a taboo subject that no longer represents an accepted progression of life, but something unnatural to be wrestled against. Coming to terms with impending mortality is challenging and calls forth a range of deep emotions that need to be expressed. Expressing these intense feelings and reviewing one's life is essential to finding peace and allowing true healing on an emotional and spiritual level (Sand et al., 2009).
The definition of the life review process is described as a "naturally occurring, universal mental process" (Butler, 1963). In other words, it is a normal developmental…
Breitbart, W., Gibson, C., Poppito, S., & Berg, A. (2004). Psychotherapeutic Interventions at the end of life: A focus on meaning and spirituality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 336-372.
Butler, R.N. (1963). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26, 65-75.
Carlander, I., Ternestedt, B., Sahlberg-Blom, E., Hellstrom, I., & Sandberg, J. (2011). Being Me and Being Us in a Family Living Close to Death at Home. Qualitative Health Research, 21(5), 683-695. doi:10.1177/1049732310396102.
Clarke, D. (2007). Growing old and getting sick: Maintaining a positive spirit at the end of life. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 15, 148-154.
Echo Valley Council
Case eport: Mr. William Doe
Director, Community Options Program
Proposed Interventions and Treatment Plan for Mr. William Doe
Like other developed Western nations, the elderly in Australia are confronted with numerous challenges to living independently as they grow older, including coping with age-related diseases processes such as dementia and obstructive airways disease as well as adjusting to the loss of a spouse. This case report provides a discussion concerning the application of the overarching and practice functions of the case management model described within the organisational and community contexts. A reflective discussion concerning the proposed approach to practice that focuses on decisions and reasons for practice, the effectiveness of the proposed practice and alternative approaches, skills or techniques that may be required to provide appropriate levels of care for Mr. William Doe who is described further below.
eview and Discussion
Overview of Client: "Mr. William…
Calver, J., Holman, C.D. & Lewin, G. (2004, January 1). A preliminary casemix classification system for home and community care clients in Western Australia. Australian Health
Review, 27(2), 27-33.
Cameron, M., Chahine, N. & Selig, S. (2008, August). A pilot program of physical activity promotion among clients receiving home and community care. Australian Health Review,
preadolescent child by the name of Janis has been diagnosed as potentially suffering from depression. Her grandmother, her caretaker and guardian, is having to deal with unruly behavior from Janis culminating in a death threat. Because Janis has now displayed a violent behavior (making a death threat), the need for evaluation is urgent. Her alleged depression could turn violent.
The case study mentions she hangs out with a 'rough' crowd. This crowd could peer pressure her into taking drugs and alcohol. Many children have peer pressure and unstable conditions at home, motivate them to begin engaging in substance abuse. This substance abuse could lead to other mental health problems and so forth. Alcohol abuse has the potential to increase aggressive behavior and may enable development of generalized anxiety disorder. Janis' behavior has become more aggressive signaling there could be substance abuse already.
The main questions center on who is Janis…
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…
Fagan, P.F. (May 14, 2004). The social scientific data on the impact of marriage and divorce on children. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2007). The effects of divorce on America.
Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation, No. 1378. http:www.elsevier.com / retrieve/pii/S0194659504000061.html.
She sighed and said, "I've been feeling horrible! I haven't been able to eat and I can't sleep at night, and I can barely concentrate on anything." She did not elaborate much so I prompted her with some questions that might stimulate the conversation.
Objective questions about her weight seemed unnecessary since she admitted to the problem. Some of the objective questions I asked were far more difficult to talk about. For example, I asked, "At what point did dad start treating you this way, and at what point did it start bothering you so much?" I asked if things were ever alright, whether dad always treated her poorly or whether he was only occasionally irritable. I asked her how exactly she was dealing with dad: did she raise her voice or lose her temper? Did she ever think that there was anything she could do better? as she doing…
Barker, Larry and Watson, Kittie. Listen Up. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Scott, Susan. Fierce Conversations. New York: Viking, 2002.
Alcohol and substance abuse is a prevalent problem among youth. Effects of alcohol and substance abuse range from mental health problems like depression and suicide ideation to dating violence, to poor academic performance (adliff, Wheaton, obinson, & Morris, 2012). Early exposure to substance and alcohol abuse in the home may lead to an earlier instance of drug and alcohol abuse. This is because of the higher degree of availability and potential lack of parental involvement. This research paper aims to highlight the various ways in which drug and alcohol abuse affect youth from within and outside the home.
Effects of alcohol and substance abuse on high school youth
Academic failure can be one effect of substance and alcohol abuse. One study notes the lack of school commitment from youth experimenting with drugs and alcohol (Kelly et al., 2015, p. 627). The study examined gender, and substance/alcohol abuse in a 30-day…
Benjet, C., Borges, G., Medina-Mora, M., & Mendez, E. (2013). Chronic childhood adversity and stages of substance use involvement in adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(1-2), 85-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.002
Epstein-Ngo, Q., Cunningham, R., Whiteside, L., Chermack, S., Booth, B., Zimmerman, M., & Walton, M. (2013). A daily calendar analysis of substance use and dating violence among high risk urban youth. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 130(1-3), 194-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.11.006
Gauffin, K., Vinnerljung, B., Fridell, M., Hesse, M., & Hjern, A. (2013). Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study. Addiction, 108(8), 1441-1449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12169
Ivanov, I., Liu, X., Shulz, K., Fan, J., London, E., & Friston, K. et al. (2012). Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naive youth. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 201(2), 128-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.004