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The Manhattan Project
When I was asked to work on the Manhattan project during the late 1930's, I was delighted to be included in work of such magnitude. Not only would I work with the most prominent scientists in the world; I would also make a substantial contribution to the United States Government and its effort to keep the country safe.
Recently however I have begun experiencing considerable ambivalence regarding the work we were doing. Nuclear technology is extremely volatile and dangerous. The Government is also under pressure to end the war quickly, and plans are being made to use the atomic bomb for this purpose. Although the atomic bomb would effectively accomplish this, I am having serious misgivings about using it on human targets. My colleagues have voiced similar misgivings. For this reason I was asked to draw up a petition voicing our concerns about using the…
The reverend did hard work during the after math of the bombing and was dedicated to help the survivors. He later on became a peace activist and traveled to the U.S. To give speeches and have TV appearances and raised money for the surviving victim's treatments.
Mr. Tanimoto is a more complex and complicated person in this novel and shows that he has ties to the U.S. He is acting upon them and this created suspicion to other Japanese people. He is spending so much time traveling to the U.S. that he misses out in the creation of a Japanese Peace movement in which he has no saying. Mr. Tanimoto has spend great time with survivors, yet due to his actions long after the bombing he appears not in good light to most Japanese people. His involvement and steady traveling to the U.S. made him not creditable to the Japanese…
Hersey, J. (ndi). Hiroshima. Retrieved May 04, 2010, from SparkNotes.com: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/hiroshima/canalysis.html#Reverend-Mr.-Kiyoshi-Tanimoto
NAI. (ndi). Hiroshima: John Hersey. Retrieved May 04, 2010, from Cliff notes on Hiroshima: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature/Hiroshima-John-Hersey-Biography-Later-Years.id-14,pageNum-9.html
bombing of Hiroshima raises some significant ethical issues. From a military perspective, the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki served as the catalyst for bringing about Japanese surrender, thereby ending the war in the Pacific. However, these attacks on civilian targets were among the most horrific in the history of wartime. Such attacks would be outlawed today under the Fourth Geneva Convention, which was enacted in 1949 partly as a response to the bombings and other atrocities committed against civilians and prisoners of war during the Second orld ar. It is my view that the bombing of Hiroshima, while violating any reasonable code of ethics, resulted in a net sparing of human life and was therefore a necessary act to bring about the end of the war.
On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped the first atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Approximately 80,000 people were…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
BBC. (2012). Japan marks Hiroshima bombing amid anti-nuclear calls. British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19144486
Driver, J. (2009). The history of utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/
History.com. (2012). The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. History.com. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.history.com/topics/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki
This new warfare had psychological as well as purely physical aspects of battle. The will of the Japanese people themselves had to be annihilated by snuffing out the lives of sufficient hundreds of thousands of them.
The old weapons were simply not sufficient anymore for the effect. Ironically, this most savage warfare is conceived and carried out by the most rational of scientists, senior military men and politicians who coat their various agendas in the belief that somehow they have been knighted by a "good war." The Japanese had started it after all, and by God, we were going to finish it. Vietnam was not the first place that the U.S. had to burn a village or a town to save its people from an "ism." It was instead in Hiroshima. This frightful paradigm of the "good war" candy coats our consciences when we recoil at the tens of thousands…
Hersey, John and Sam Sloan. Hiroshima. Bronx, NY: Ishi Press International, 2010.
Dropping the Atom Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During orld ar II, a mid-20th-century conflict that involved several nations, the United States military dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (ikipedia, 2005). The first atomic bomb was exploded over Hiroshima on August 5, 1945; the second was detonated over Nagasaki four days later. The bombs killed more than 120,000 people immediately and about twice as many over time. Many of the victims were civilians.
As a result of the bombings, Japan surrendered unconditionally. These bombings went down in history as the first and only nuclear attacks, and have been the source of much debate in the sixty years that have followed. This paper discusses the decision to drop the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in an effort to demonstrate that the decision to drop these bombs was indeed the right decision.
The atomic bombs were…
Bernstein, Barton J. (1976). The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Ferrell, R. (1980). Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman. New York: Harper and Row.
Takaki, Ronald. (1995). Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
Miles, Rufus E. (1985). Hiroshima: The Strange Myth of Half a Million American Lives Saved.
Film Argument- Night and Fog (1955) and Hiroshima My Love (1959) by Alain Resnais (France)
n the films Night and Fog (1955) and Hiroshima My Love (1959), both directed by the French film director Alain Resnais, the filmmaker attempts to speak the unspoken through the silent language of film. n other words, Resnais attempts to create a sense of the unaccountable horrors of war, even though he cannot directly convey through spoken language or any singular image the impact of the felt, lived experience of wartime Europe.
n comparing the opening scenes of both films, one sees that the director first attempts to do so with juxtapositions of beauty and horror. Night and Fog first begins with a panoramic shot of the bucolic Polish countryside, followed with images of what it contained hidden amongst its beauty, namely the death camps. Hiroshima My Love begins with shots of a lover's embrace…
In the films Night and Fog (1955) and Hiroshima My Love (1959), both directed by the French film director Alain Resnais, the filmmaker attempts to speak the unspoken through the silent language of film. In other words, Resnais attempts to create a sense of the unaccountable horrors of war, even though he cannot directly convey through spoken language or any singular image the impact of the felt, lived experience of wartime Europe.
In comparing the opening scenes of both films, one sees that the director first attempts to do so with juxtapositions of beauty and horror. Night and Fog first begins with a panoramic shot of the bucolic Polish countryside, followed with images of what it contained hidden amongst its beauty, namely the death camps. Hiroshima My Love begins with shots of a lover's embrace in close-up, followed by images of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima. Life and beauty goes on, horror results, and there is no answer, even the inceptions of these cinematic narratives suggest, to the viewer.
The horror of war and the inability of art to translate this into effective images or words is further reinforced in Hiroshima My Love, in the scene where the female protagonist tells the male protagonist about her lost love, a German soldier, in the hotel the New Hiroshima. Terror is a constant in this world, the narrative suggests but it is so omnipresent it has become banal, just like the lived experience of the main characters that exists in the constant presence of the reminders of greater horrors. Memory is repressed, but the truth remains. This is perhaps even more powerfully suggested in the earlier film, when a boy is killed, yet the killer is unseen. The death is real, and the pain is real, but the actual accountability does not come to the victim. Because the living killer cannot express and refuses to face the consequences of his actions, the killer's face in the film is not literally revealed. He cannot, any more than the lovers take note of the name of the hotel The New Hiroshima, although in the latter case the camera does at least register its name. At least in the later film there is some hope. Even though the protagonists cannot see the death around them, at least the filmed narrative can encompass it, while in the film about the Holocaust, Night and Fog, the cinema cannot truly render justice in the form of accountability, of seeing a killer during a killing.
Biggest Decision" (Hiroshima)
"The Biggest Decision: Why We Had to Drop the Atomic Bomb" presents a number of nuanced reasons as to why President Truman ultimately gave the order for the atomic bombs dropped onto the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945. Robert James Maddox offers a number of persuasive reasons as to how Truman's decision was justified, mostly dealing with an examination of the Japanese side of the evidence. Japanese military policy seems to have necessitated the American military policy, in this case, as various facts on the public record will indicate.
Maddox notes first of all that the Japanese were in a position to continue hostilities for a relatively long time: he notes that in 1945 "the Japanese had more than 2,000,000 troops in the home islands, were training millions of irregulars, and for some time had been conserving aircraft that might…
United States' decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan in II was motivated by a desire for a decisive victory, an unnecessary act against a country that was would have surrendered without the use of the bomb, and a disturbing use of force that created worldwide fear and horror about the use of nuclear weapons. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the United States were justified by the American government as a reasonable means to bring a quick end to a bloody and long war that had engulfed the world for years. However, critics have argued that dropping the bombs was a completely unnecessary act, as a beleaguered Japan would have surrendered to the United States within days, even if the bombs had never been dropped. Further, critics argued that the United States' decision was ultimately motivated by a political desire to assert itself as a military and political…
Alperovitz, Gar. The decision to use the atomic bomb and the architecture of an American myth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
Harper, Stephen. Miracle of deliverance: the case for the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985.
Perrine, Toni A. Film and the nuclear age: representing cultural anxiety. New York: Garland Pub., 1998.
Szasz, Ferenc Morton. The day the sun rose twice: the story of the Trinity Site nuclear explosion, July 16, 1945.
Atomic bomb in Japan [...] President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb in Japan, and discuss why Truman's decision was the proper decision for the time. Choosing to use the atomic bomb to end the war with Japan was not an easy decision, or one that President Truman chose lightly. It was a necessary decision to keep the war from continuing, and ultimately save thousands of soldiers' and civilians' lives.
When Truman took office after President Franklin D. oosevelt died, he did not know about the development of the atomic bomb, it had been kept that secret. oosevelt had created a nuclear program to look into creating an atom bomb several years before his death in 1945. In June 1942, this program was turned over to the army, and worked in Manhattan, and that is why it was code-named the "Manhattan Project." Just three months later, Enrico Fermi, the…
Osborn, Tracey. "Teacher Oz's Kingdom of History - World War II." TeacherOz.com. June, 2004. 15 Nov. 2004.
Selden, Kyoko. The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ed. Mark Selden. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1989.
Szasz, Ferenc Morton. The Day the Sun Rose Twice: The Story of the Trinity Site Nuclear Explosion, July 16, 1945. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1984.
) Some even thought (rightly) that it was being spared for something big. However, no one in their wildest imagination was anticipating an atomic bomb attack. Hence, on the morning of the fateful day, the residents of Hiroshima were completely unprepared for an atomic bomb explosion.
Painting of Hell":
Many survivors of the atomic explosion on Hiroshima have likened the experience of the blast and its immediate aftermath to mankind's common perception of hell. A young Japanese sociologist, for example, described the scene of a nearby park after the explosion: "The most impressive thing I saw was some girls, very young girls, not only with their clothes torn off but with their skin peeled off as well...my immediate thought was that this was like the hell I had always read about." (Selden and Selden, xix) Another eye-witness, twenty-year-old Shibayama Hiroshi, recalled entering Hiroshima on foot from his suburban workplace within…
Braw, Monica. The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Hume, Mick. "Hiroshima: the 'White Man's Bomb' revisited." Spiked Essays. August 2, 2005. May 24, 2006. http://www.spiked-online.com/Printable/0000000CACD0.htm
Kagan, Donald. "Why America Dropped the Bomb." Commentary Sept. 1995: 17+.
Kamata, Sadao, and Stephen Salaff. "The Atomic Bomb and the Citizens of Nagasaki." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 14.2 (1982): 38-50.
While many argued that it was a mistake the attack happened anyway and the result was a punishment that had never been experienced before in the history of the world. The dropping of an atomic bomb changed the strategic thinking of Japan for the rest of history. Today, and for the past five decades the nation has spent its energies trying to be a friendly ally to America and Great Britain instead of trying to become more powerful than they are. It has focused its attention on technological development and assisting the world in moving forward and not on which nation has the most power, the most money or the best military forces. The strategy behind the attack on Pearl Harbor was founded in the fear of economic and trade threats. Now the nation addresses those fears through advances in technology and the sharing of those advances with the nations…
Alperovitz, Gar (1995) Hiroshima: historians reassess. (atomic bombing)
Honan, William (1991) Who Planned Pearl Harbor?;a British Expert Warned the World, but Only Japan Remembered.The Washington Post
Fallows, James (1991) the mind of Japan. (Japanese history) (Special Report: Pearl Harbor: 50 Years) (Cover Story) U.S. News & World Report
Though Seita, seems a solid and stoic young man he is still charged with care that is far beyond his years and the losses are only hampered by the real need that is present within his sister. Even when Seita seeks assistance from his distant aunt there is still no relief from the care he must provide his sister and the absence of everything that they once knew. There really is for me limited hidden meaning in the present absent dichotomy as the film is reflective of imagery that brings hope back to the children over and over, but only in very small ways, as the reality of the absent environment marks the backdrop of the whole film.
The relationship between Seita and Setsuko provides additional textual evidence of the real challenges that they both face and how, realistically they cope with it. For Seita the only goal is to…
In order to be taken seriously in the world and to build understanding, a nation must make good on all their promises, be them positive or negative. it's likely that the Allied forces could have found another means of guaranteeing Japan's surrender with more ingenuity, though perhaps not. They had exhausted standard means of warfare, American lives and they didn't want to continue battle. Japan refused and essentially guaranteed more bloodshed. "hen advisors informed him that the alternative to using the atomic bomb was a million American casualties, he did not hesitate to give the order to use it" (Conlin, 718). America, some could argue, was being realistic and doing "the very bad things" powerful nations have to do to protect their people. And there is a strong argument for supporting the validity of such maneuvers. After America dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and issued a statement that it was…
Bodden, V. . The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Mankato: Creative Education,
Conlin, J.R. The American Past: A Survey of American History: Since 1865. Boston:
Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
The Depiction of Japanese Victimization in Gojira and Voice of Hibakusha
World War II left the countries involved devastated and permanently changed. This became true for Japan on August 6th 1945 when the U.S. army dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima in retaliation to an earlier attack by the Japanese. Huge areas of land were destroyed and the thousands of lives were ended. Japan has carried the weight of this tragedy for decades and struggled with the idea of their victimization. This struggle plays out in the art, literature and film of post-war Japan. In the documentary Voice of Hibakusha, the victims of the bombings spoke about their experiences and how it changed their lives. The 1954 film Gojira shows Japan being once again victimized on a large scale, but this threat comes not only as a side effect of war, but from Japan's past. Both works address…
Part 4 -- Just War and Iraq -- it can be very difficult to define intangible philosophies or actions that are both part of the human psyche and that seem obvious. One of these such intangibles is war. What is war? Each historical period has added a new meaning to the word, but the essence of it still remained the same. War is always associated with terror, cruelty and unhappiness. There are really five elements that allow a just war: cause, authority, intention, hope for success, and proportionality. Without becoming too cynical, most scholars would probably agree that the first Iraqi war was Just but the second, under Bush II, was not. There were clear distinctions. In the first, Iraq invaded a soverign country, Kuwait, who asked for aid and protection; in the second, data was never fully disclosed as to the infamous weapons of mass destruction, and later found…
"Information for Research on Euthanasia." December 2009. Euthanasia.com. .
Overview of Arguments Against Euthanasia." January 2010. BBC Ethics Guide. .
Sherwin, M. A World Destroyed. Stanford University Press, 2003.
And modern warfare, although it is less overt, is never-ending and demands constant intelligence-gathering. This kind of flexibility that challenges nations which would often prefer to be fighting 'the last war' they fought, rather than the current one.
During the Cold War, both adversaries 'played by the same rules.' The Soviet Union was even more of a perfect model of an industrialized war society, in which all resources were focused upon defeating its main adversary at the expense of economically providing for its people. But after the dissolution of the bipolar balance of power, non-state actors could openly claim the loyalty of small bands of nationals and co-religionists within the fragmented new world order. Industrialized warfare came into being with the modern nation-state, with its capability of mobilizing large numbers of relatively expendable soldiers. These individuals were organized by a larger, centralized intelligence. Today, given that various non-state cells may…
Smith, Rupert. The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Vintage
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Anscombe and Truman’s Decision to Drop the Bomb
As G.E.M. Anscombe notes in his essay criticizing Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the intention was “to kill the innocent as a means to an end” (3)—the end being the unconditional surrender of the Japanese and the termination of WWII in terms favorable to the West. The question of whether those means were moral meets with another question: whether the desired end of the West could have been achieved by any other means. Anscombe points out that Truman’s policy to make war on the innocent stood out in stark contrast to his earlier policy of ensuring that “civil populations would not be attacked” (1). With the war almost at an end, Truman decided to show the full force of American military might and detonate two atomic bombs over Japan. The act was merciless and oriented towards…
Dr. Megan Sethi
Mokusatsu: Translation lunders and the Atomic omb
The motive behind President Harry Truman's decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan is one of those most debated topics of 20th century history. Much attention is often focused on two widely held perspectives: first, that the American government was reluctant to invade the Japanese mainland and, second, that the United States wished to preempt the nuclear arms race by establishing itself as the global leader of "atomic diplomacy." However, popular debates almost always fail to acknowledge that a relatively minor linguistic mishap was the real catalyst behind the series of events leading up to Hiroshima and Nagasaki.. Despite the larger ideological motivations most often cited by historians, the "mokusatsu" translation blunder is in fact the actual historical event that directly triggered the dropping of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
y the summer of 1945…
Stimson, Henry. "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb." Harper's Magazine: 97-107.
Shigenori, Togo. The Cause of Japan. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956.
"Japan Officially Turns Down Allied Surrender Ultimatum." The New York Times 28 July 1945.
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Bias of Authors Regarding America Dropping the Atom Bomb on Japan
This paper examines what has been written about the dropping of the atom bomb on Japan, following the attack on Pearl Harbor. The writer details several articles and explores where the writer is coming from and what may have led to a particular slant on a story regarding the bomb. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
THE BIAS OF AUTHORS REGARDING THE ATOM BOMB AND JAPAN
The atom bomb was dropped on Japan to make a statement to the world. It was not just that the U.S. wanted Japan to understand attacking Pearl Harbor was wrong, but Japan was the example the United States made for the world. The message was loud and clear that if the U.S. is attacked the enemy will be hit back ten fold and then some. In addition to it being…
Davis, Raymond. Clear Conscience: The Atom Bomb Vs. The Super Holocaust by Raymond Davis, Dan Winn (Preface)
Roleff, Tamara. The Atom Bomb (Turning Points in World History (Greenhaven Press).)
CREAN Mike, No hate after Hiroshima., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 02-19-2002, pp 4.
Allan H. 'Bud' Selig, U.S. owes world apology for dropping atomic bombs., USA Today, 08-05-1994, pp 12.
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
The Reflective Essay
President Harry Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan during World War II
The United States remains the only country in the world that has ever made use of an atomic weapon against another country during a war. In 1945 the U.S. bombed two Japanese cities – Hiroshima and Nagasaki – in what effectively informed the surrender of Japan during World War II. It is important to note that over time, the use of an atomic bomb by the U.S. against Japan has been debated widely. Was the U.S. justified in the deployment of the atomic bombs? What escalated the wartime circumstances to dangerous levels, and could the massive devastation that came about as a consequence be prevented? These are some of the questions that scholars have grapples with on this front. This text revisits the debate and highlights President Harry Truman's decision to drop…
S. during the summer of 1945 had indicated that the Japanese were ready to surrender; that the War could have been ended, if the U.S. had responded by offering the retention of the Japanese Imperial Monarchy instead of insisting on unconditional surrender. Further research on the decoded messages, however, indicate that the militarists still dominated the power hierarchy in Japan and they were willing to fight to the bitter end, despite their precarious military position. They were depending on the war-wariness of the Americans. Their theory being that the United States was unwilling to bear more casualties and any major setback to the American forces during a planned invasion of the Japanese mainland would improve Japan's bargaining position and obtain a peace agreement. In other words, the Japanese military leaders were only agreeable to a ceasefire and unwilling to consider surrender. They wanted to retain the militarist policies of the…
Frank, R.B. (2005). "Why Truman Dropped the Bomb." The Weekly Standard.
08/08/2005, Volume 010, Issue 44.
Truman, the Bomb, and What Was Necessary." (2005). Seattle Times News Services, August 06, 1995. Retrieved on October 4, 2007 at http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=2135131&date=19950806&query=President+Truman%2C+in+a+speech+on+August+6%2C+1945
Wainstock, D.D. (1996). "The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb." Praeger: Westport, CT.
Japan and Korea Occupation
How and why did the Allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ?
Allied occupations of Japan and Korea date backs to year 1945 when orld ar II got ended. Both the occupations occurred as a consequence of victory of allies over the axis. The allied powers included the United States of America, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France, and China whereas axis included Germany, Empire of Japan, and Italy (Schaller 1985, 1-11). The causes and effects of both these occupations were dependent on occupation of Japan by the allied forces. This paper will investigate and analyze that how and why did the allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ? After stating a brief hypothesis of this study, the paper will briefly inform the reader about the background that led to both these occupations. This will set the stage for understanding that how and why did both of…
Dower, John W. Embracing defeat: Japan in the wake of World War II. WW Norton & Company, 2000.
Molasky, Michael S. The American occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and memory. Routledge, 2001.
Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Addison-Wesley, 1997.
Schaller, Michael. The American occupation of Japan: the origins of the Cold War in Asia. Oxford University Press, 1985.
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.
John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die…
Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']
Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.
Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1 .
Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
But to me, a young woman standing alone on a busy street in a still strange country, the word gaijin changed the tone of this encounter. For the group of teenagers waving and shouting at me, the word gaijin was merely a way of identifying their rare and exciting discovery. For me, a citizen of a country whose history has its share of prejudice and violence, the impersonal identification of me, based solely on my appearance, sounded like the racial and ethnic epithets hurled at Italian immigrants, African-Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Irish immigrants, Jews and millions of other people in the United States.
The word gaijin simply means "foreigner." It is not a derogatory term. But in Italy and the United States, two countries rich with immigrants from all over the world, the act of impersonally identifying a person's racial or ethnic background based solely on the person's appearance, is…
As a matter of fact, that is precisely what bin Laden has pledged to do in an operation he calls the "American Hiroshima." Except that bin Laden's dream consists of detonating nuclear devices in six or seven major American cities like New York, Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington, and Los Angeles simultaneously.
Allison explains that this is the real danger to the U.S. posed by Iranian intentions to start enriching uranium to weapons grade in their reactor facilities, which they will soon be able to do unless they accept the trade concessions and other incentives offered by the West to suspend such ambitions and allow regular inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Whereas Iranian missile technology is far less advanced than necessary to threaten the U.S. directly, it could easily furnish enough weapons-grade uranium to make bin Laden's dream a real possibility within a matter of only a few…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt
This idea appears repeatedly. hen Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:
Billy didn't want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).
However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn't try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind's fate.
At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human…
Brifonski and Mendelson (Eds). Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.8. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1978.
Riley, Carolyn (Editor); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.1. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1973.
Riley, Carolyn and Barbara Harte (Editors); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.2. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1974.
Vit, Marek. "The Themes of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five." Kurt Vonnegut Corner. http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/4953/themes.html.
They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.
The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…
Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Science-and-Technology-World-war-ii-and-the-early-cold-war.html
Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/nhl/themes/HomefrontStudy.pdf
Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-52-no-4/nisei-linguists.html
Legitimacy of International Institutions
International institutions are based on the multilateral treaties or the agreements among multiple states. States generally enter in the treaties to promote their common aims, and law recognizes the existence of international institutions. Typically, international institutions are established based on the charters that bind the member states together. "International institutions are the set of rules means to govern international behaviours" (Simmons & Martin 2001 P. 194). This definition is very important because international institutions have established set of rules guiding the conduct of member states. Based on the definitions of international institutions, it is revealed that member states are subject to abide by the decision of international institutions. However, there are hot debates among scholars and political actors whether international institutions posses legitimacy on the member states. (D'Amato,2007, Zurn, & Stephen 2010).
The objective of this paper is to investigate the legitimacy of international institutions.
BBC News (2011).Libya: UN Security Council votes sanctions on Gaddafi. BBC News Africa.27 February 2011.
Bodansky, D. (2011). International Relations and Legitimacy in International Law.
Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law Arizona State University.
Buchanan, A & Keohane, R.O. (2006). The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions. Ethics & International Affairs, 20(4): 405-437.
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .
Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.
Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
-29 and -26 bombers were used by U.S. forces to decimate Korean cities through round-the-clock air war using incendiary bombs, delayed demolition explosives and an "infernal jelly" called napalm.[footnoteRef:38] Created secretly during World War II, napalm was basically a mixture of petroleum and a thickening agent, designed to fiercely adhere to the target and severely burn it. Though first used against enemy structures and humans in World War II, napalm was used in the Korean War to devastating effect.[footnoteRef:39] the results of the U.S. air war against North Korea were intentionally catastrophic: at the commencement of the War, North Korea had 22 major cities, 18 of which suffered at least 50% obliteration.[footnoteRef:40] Furthermore, the U.S. government seriously considered using the atomic bombs that had so decisively ended World War II in the Pacific Theater. Particularly in September and October of 1951, -29 bombers were used for multiple runs to drop…
Bizony, Piers. The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA's First Space Plane. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press, 2011.
Blight, James G., and Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Wild and Blue: A History of the United States Air Force, 1947-2007, Second Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Chant, Christopher. The World's Greatest Aircraft. New York, NY: Crescent Publishing, 1991.
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…
Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.
Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.npr.org . 2013.
Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu . 2013.
Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2014.
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…
1) Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008), 'Chemical Warfare and Medical Response during World War 1', Am J. Public Health 98(4): 611 -- 625 available online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376985/
2) IDPH, 'Hydrogen Cyanide', retrieved Sep 6th 2010 from, http://www.idph.state.il.us/Bioterrorism/factsheets/cyanide.htm
3) Johan de Wittlaan, (2010), 'Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/cwc.pdf
4) Geneva Protocol, (1925) 'Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or other gases, and of Bacteriological methods of Warfare', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/genev.pdf
Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).
The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…
"Gun control." On the issues. 2008. June 5, 2010.
Kinzie, Susan. "GWU adds ethical focus to business school." The Washington Post.
September 15, 2008. June 5, 2010. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/15/AR2008091502975.html
Bentham also suggests that individuals would reasonably seek the general happiness simply because the interests of others are inextricably bound up with their own, though he recognized that this is something that is easy for individuals to ignore" (Sweet 2008).
Critical section: Raise two or three objections to Bentham's principle of utility. hat reasons do you think we have to doubt that it is the fundamental principle of morality? It is often helpful to give concrete examples to illustrate your objections.
One obvious argument against Bentham's philosophy is that it is unrealistic to think that a decision-maker can easily determine the best, utilitarian interests of the majority in a disinterested fashion. Bentham's utilitarian decision-maker is presumed to be completely objective, but it is hard to imagine such an individual existing in the real world. Using moral laws, rather than a situational utilitarian calculus might seem to be superior to Bentham's…
Sweet, William. "Bentham, Jeremy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. December 23, 2008.
[September 11, 2010]. http://www.iep.utm.edu/bentham/#H4
Threats due to weather include floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes and blizzards. Planning for weather events should be very realistic in nature. Major weather events usually occur in 25, 50 and 100-year cycles. Disease outbreaks are also a big threat. A potential flu pandemic could be detrimental to many businesses. For example, the bird flu pandemic scenarios that are floating around are being modeled on the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. That global outbreak killed 500,000 people in the United States and more than 20 million people worldwide. Since that time there have been two other smaller scale flu pandemics, each that killed hundreds of thousands of people. The flu is just one disease that can cause a business disaster situation around the world (Business Continuity during a Disaster, 2008).
ecent years have also shown that terrorism threats are a real possibility that needs to be considered. Terrorism is a great…
Aceh Post-Tsunami Reconstruction: Lessons Learned Two Years on. (2006). Retrieved
September 22, 2009, from the World Bank Web site:
Amato-McCoy, Deena M. (2006). Planning for Continuity. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Bank Systems and Technology Web site:
The last major x-ray flare occurred in 2003 ("O'Dell). Most of the energy from an x-ray flare is absorbed by the earth's ionosphere ("O'Dell). Thus, a CME can be far more dangerous for human societies than an x-ray flare.
The first and most subtle observable phenomenon signaling an upcoming solar storm are known as coronal loops, which are "kinks in the magnetic flux form" forced to the surface of the sun due to a buildup of magnetic energy (O'Dell). Dark spots on the sun's surface then appear, usually in the "footprint" of the coronal loops ("O'Dell). The dark spots visibly signal the buildup of magnetism. NASA describes the phenomenon of solar flares as occurring in three stages: a precursor stage, an impulsive stage, and a decay stage. During the precursor stage, the release of magnetic energy is only triggered and leads to "soft x-ray emissions," ("What is a Solar Flare?").…
Hadhazy, Adam. "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma." Scientific American. Mar 13, 2009. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=geomagnetic-storm-march-13-1989-extreme-space-weather
O'Neill, Ian. "2012: No Killer Solar Flare." Universe Today. June 21, 2008. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/21/2012-no-killer-solar-flare/
What is a Solar Flare?" Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/flare.htm
Countries such as Spain and England were able to colonize other countries with their advanced military and weapons system.
With the two World Wars in the 1900s, weapons and military have evolved to meet the challenges posed by the times. States are in particular looking for more technological applications in developing their army and navy. Another branch of the military service was developed in this era, the birth of the air force. The invention of the airplane led to its development from a means of transportation to a formidable military weapon. The quest of military superiority was now determined by an advanced air force, planes well armed to drop bombs at the opposing navy and army as well as deploy infantry in the battlefield. Germany and Japan in World War II had good fighter planes that won them several battles in the onset of the war, but the consolidated air…
Stearns, Peter, Donald Schwartz and Barry Beyer. World History Traditions and New Directions. New York: Addison Wesley, 1991.
Crevald, Martin. The Transformation of War. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
Goodwin, Peter. Nuclear War - the Facts on Survival. London: Ash and Grant, 1994.
Nuclear weapons became a tool of American policy that goes far beyond protection of national interests, for American national interests depend on the propagation of American ideals. The United States is, in the words of Harold Lasswell, a "garrison state;" a crusading nation that seeks to combat all enemies real and imagined and to remake the world in its own image. (Flint 86-87) Under the new doctrine, nuclear strategy becomes a means of enforcing an ideology - all dissent, or supposed dissent, is rooted out through the threat of ultimate and complete destruction. Terrorism is made the defining characteristic of immorality. States that support terrorism become the ultimate evildoers. The Bush Administration redefined international relations in terms of an axis of good led by the United States and its allies, and an axis of evil consisting preeminently of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea and their terrorist associates. Alone among these…
Botti, Timothy J. Ace in the Hole: Why the United States Did Not Use Nuclear Weapons in the Cold War, 1945 to 1965. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Hirschbein, Ron. Massing the Tropes: The Metaphorical Construction of American Nuclear Strategy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.
The morality of the act can be defended by the Utilitarian principle that the number of deaths (250,000+) caused by dropping the weapons of mass destruction over Hiroshima and Nagasaki was less than the deaths that would have been caused by a land invasion of Japan ("John Stuart Mill").
However, despite the considerable improvement and sophistication provided by Mill to the philosophy of Utilitarianism and the practical usefulness of the 'greatest happiness principle' the theory still suffers from serious flaws.
Dr. Ruut Veenhoven, a professor of Erasmus University, Rotterdam, for instance points out in an article that the 'greatest happiness principle' is particularly problematic when applied at the level of individual choice. This is because we cannot usually foresee the consequences of our actions or whether they would produce happiness or pain but paradoxically the Utilitarian theory deems well-intended behavior to be a-moral if it happens to pan out adversely.…
John Stuart Mill." Great Philosophers: Oregon State University Website. 2002. November 6, 2008. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Mill/mill.html
Fox, James. "Utilitarianism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. November 6, 2008. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15241c.htm
Garth Kemerling. "Utilitarianism." Philosophy Pages. February 21, 2002. November 6, 2008. http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/5q.htm#lib
Veenhoven, Ruut. "Happiness as an Aim in Public Policy: The Greatest Happiness Principle."
S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.
The Politics of Proliferation
The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.
Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is…
Curtis, L. 2007. "U.S. Policy and Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Containing Threats and Encouraging Regional Security." The Heritage Foundation. July 6, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Kerr, P. 2004. "Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program. Arms Control Today." January/February 2004. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_01-02/Libya (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Lavie, M. "Israel Stands by Vague Nuclear Policy." December 7, 2006. Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701234.html)
Levy, D. 2007. "U.S. nuclear policy goes from MAD to NUTS, Panofsky says." Stanford Report. April 18, 2007. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/april18/pief-041807.html (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…
Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.
Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.
Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
2% of the total GDP and 2.9 in the employment; the proportions are expected to increase and are still considered relatively low in comparison to other countries, generally due to the tardy response of the Japanese authorities. "As the tourism market continues to grow steadily, tourism industry is expected to become the leading industry of Japan throughout the 21st century" (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2002).
Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of eproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, outledge
Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23
Hudman, L., Jackson, ., Essa, E., 2002, Geography of Travel and Tourism, 4th Edition, Cengage Delmar Learning
Ishikawa, N., Fukushige, M., 2006, Impacts…
Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of Reproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, Routledge
Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
Instead, they carried out their missions without question, and effectively won the war with their attention to detail and sense of duty. The book makes the reader question their own sense of duty, and if they would have the resolve to fight in a war like this if it happened again. It is a powerful book, partly because it is emotional, and partly because the reader realizes that these people are real, their duty was real, and that our freedom really rests on their shoulders.
Ultimately, this is a book about dying. It follows the last days of Greene's father, but it also looks at the bigger picture of America's World War II vets and how many we are losing every day. It also looks at the lives of the Japanese lost in the atomic bomb explosions, and talks about how many more lives could have been lost if the…
There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.
What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…
Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/yucca/seismo01.htm
Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ym_repository/index.shtml
Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.
Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.
Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.…
Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
In 1965, the first American ground troops went to Vietnam, where the American policy of containment of Communism was severely challenged. Vietnam became a junior leaders' war, with much of the responsibility of combat leadership resting on the NCO. Needing large numbers of NCOs for combat, the Army created the Noncommissioned Officers Candidate Course (Arms, 1989). There were many outstanding acts of heroism, including Sergeant First Class Eugene Ashley who was supporting Camp Lang Vei with high explosives and illumination mortar rounds. After a communication loss, he directed air strikes and artillery support and organized a small assault force. Five times Ashley's unit attacked enemy positions and then proceeded through booby-trapped bunkers. Wounded by machinegun fire, Ashley directed air strikes on his own position to clear the enemy. While being transported down the hill, he was killed by enemy artillery (Arms, 1989).
Today in Iraq and other parts of the…
Arms, L.R. (1989) Short history of the NCOs. Museum of the noncommissioned officer.
Website retrieved March 23, 2007.
Giangreco, D.M, and Moore, K. Why a 200-year-old decoration offers evidence in the controversy surrounding the Hiroshima bombing. American Heritage Magazine
51(8). [electronic version]
As NATO plans to "intensify the air campaign," Clinton said the operations are working. "Each day our military campaign takes a toll on Serbia's machinery of repression (Clinton warns Congress not to double Kosovo appropriations request http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/04/28/kosovo/
April 28, 1999 Web posted at: 6:24 P.M. EDT (2224 GMT))."
He believed that ground forces were not needed and that continued air strikes would bring about the desired result of having Serbian forces leave Kosovo.
Clinton assured all involved if he believed ground troops were needed he would seek advice from Congress, to which the House of epresentatives decided to require its authorization if ground troops were requested.
As the conflict continued members of Congress began to assert that Clinton was actually committing acts of war, without the approval of Congress, by calling it something other than war (Albright to Congress: "We cannot fail' in Kosovo (http://www.counterpunch.org/serbia.html).According to Clinton the U.S. was…
Clinton warns Congress not to double Kosovo appropriations request http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/04/28/kosovo/
April 28, 1999
Albright to Congress: "We cannot fail' in Kosovo
Even in the absence of a governmental agency, there is another method to control these covert operations, and that is public opinion. As the news of many government atrocities has become known, there has been a great public outcry against these occurrences, and at least some times, this has led to modification of policies and covert actions. For example, when the atrocities at Abu Ghraib prison became known, there was a moral outcry to stop the offensive practices and punish those who had participated in them. Obviously, covert actions are not going to become known overnight. However, as they do, the citizens can make their feelings known and cry out against these types of outrages, encouraging leaders to stop using these covert actions in the future.
Finally, we must enact legislation to ensure these types of covert operations do not occur. While anyone can find loopholes in legislation, without it,…
Kibbe, Jennifer D. "A Loophole for Covert Operations." Brook.edu. 8 Aug. 2004. 23 Feb. 2007. http://www.brook.edu/views/op-ed/fellows/kibbe20040808.htm
Wachtel, Howard A. "Targeting Osama Bin Laden: Examining the Legality of Assassination as a Tool of U.S. Foreign Policy." Duke Law Journal 55, no. 3 (2005): 677+.
Howard A. Wachtel, "Targeting Osama Bin Laden: Examining the Legality of Assassination as a Tool of U.S. Foreign Policy," Duke Law Journal 55, no. 3 (2005).
Onoda chose to stay in the island amidst all the news suggesting the end of war and despite the fact the he was on his own with no companion to watch his back. He was still very much willing to fight for his country if the need for it arises. The same attitude can be observed on samurais who pledge themselves to the emperor and their daimyo and serves as their protectors no matter what happened. Furthermore, Onoda's stay inside the wild tropics of the island meant major sacrifice and resiliency on his part. Onoda made woven sandals from woven straws and bits of old tires held together with string and wooden pegs. When his cloth was rotted, he patches them with tent canvas, using a piece of wire as needle and plant fiber as thread. He also built shelters of branches, bamboo, vines and leaves. These actions resemble the…
Bushido: The Way of the Warrior, viewed 20 November 2006. http://mcel.pacificu.edu/as/students/bushido/bindex.html
Hiroo Onoda: The One Man Army, viewed 20 November 2006. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials
Jennifer Rosenberg, The War is Over..Please Comeout, viewed 20 November 2006. http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/soldiersurr.htm .
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),