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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Of the many identified and treated mental disorders that exist in the fields of psychology and psychiatry, the author of this report has decided to focus on obsessive compulsive disorder. The author will be giving a review and summary of that selected case and disorder. The facets of the disorder that will be described include the biological, psychological and social factors involved in the selected case. It will also describe the rationale for selecting any given intervention, what would be done, who would be involved, the setting in which the intervention would occur and what area the intervention is targeting. By "area," the author is referring to the aforementioned biological, psychological and social factors that tend to be involved. While obsessive compulsive disorder can be a debilitating mental disorder, there are most definitely defined and established intervention methods available that can and should be used.
Breininger, D. (2014). Hoarding: Is an intervention right for you and your client. Counselor: The Magazine for Addiction Professionals, 15(4), 70-75.
Gellatly, J., & Molloy, C. (2014). Psychological interventions in obsessive compulsive disorder. Nursing Standard, 28(51), 51-59.
Nedelisky, A., & Steele, M. (2009). Attachment to people and to objects in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory comparison of hoarders and non-
hoarders. Attachment & Human Development, 11(4), 365-383.
, 2011). Since hoarders are less likely to be married, it is possible that help for a hoarder who has fallen or otherwise become injured may be severely delayed. Sometimes, it can be too late. Fire is another danger faced by a hoarder. Such a large number of items can make a house more flammable, and also make it highly difficult to escape if a fire does get started (Saxena, et al., 2011). That is something that should be taken into consideration.
Impairment and Insight
The levels of impairment and insight vary with hoarders. Some of them see that they have a serious problem for which they need to get help, and some of them do not see what is wrong with the way they are living (Steketee, et al., 2010). They are generally very reluctant to part with any of their things, and they can become resentful of family…
Anderson, S.W. Domasio, H., & Domasio, A.R. (2005). A neural basis for collecting behaviour in humans. Brain, 128, 201-212
Frost, R. & Gross, R. (1993). The hoarding of possessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 367-382
Saxena, S., Ayers, C.R., Maidment, K.M., Vapnik, T., Wetherell, J.:. Brstritsky, A. (2011). Quality of life and functional impairment in compulsive hoarding. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 475-480
Steketee, G., Frost, R.O., Tolin, D.F., Rasmussen, J. & Brown, T.A. (2010). Waitlist-controoled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for hoarding disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 275, 476-484
Compulsive hoarding is a disorder that is characterized by an inability discarding items that to most people appear to have little or no value. This inability to throw things away results in an accumulation of clutter that often leads to an inability to use living areas and workspaces for their intended functions. Moreover, the clutter can lead to potential serious health conditions and to safety risks of the hoarder or others.
In order for a person to meet criteria to qualify for a diagnosis of compulsive hoarding the person must experience significant personal distress and/or impairment in their functioning due to their hoarding behaviors. More often it is the impairment in functioning that qualifies someone for a diagnosis as the hoarding behavior serves to reduce anxiety in the person associated with discarding items. Several types of functional impairment seen in hoarders include: health or fire hazards due to clutter or…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Sadock, B.J., and Sadock, V.A., (2007). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry:
Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry (10th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…
Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html
Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at http://www.bu.edu/ssw/training/pep/programs/workshops/boston/index.shtml
Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11/unrestricted/Cromer_Thesis_Nov_2005.pdf
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…
Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder - gamma-knife
Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.
Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf
Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632. http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
181). Thus, it seems that a majority of hoarder have some kind of mental or psychiatric issue. The dementia patients who hoarded food were sometimes successfully treated with the drug fluvoxamine 15 Phenyopropanoloamine (Hwang et al., 1998, pg. 287), while most of the elderly received physical assistance in cleaning and/or clearing out the home, but this treatment was not "consistently effective" (Steketee, Frost & Kim, 2001, p. 182). A majority of the elderly hoarders were women, while dementia patients did not show a specific pattern. More than have of the elderly who hoarded lived alone, and had never married (Steketee, Frost & Kim, 2001, p. 182).
Another study in 2001 studied the same problem of hoarding in the elderly, and found some similar results. The study followed 62 cases found through social and service organizations, where the members were 65 or older. Caseworkers were interviewed about their elderly clients, and…
Hwang, Jen-Ping, Tsai, Shih-Jen, Yang, Chen-Hong, Liu, King-Ming, and Limg, Jiing-Feng. (1998). Hoarding behavior in dementia: A preliminary report. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Fall, Vol. 6, Iss. 4, 285-290.
Lovett, R.A. (2004, March/April). Clues to Compulsive Collecting: Separating Useless Junk from Objects of Value. Psychology Today, 37, 29.
Steketee, G., Frost, R.O., & Kim, H. (2001). Hoarding by Elderly People. Health and Social Work, 26(3), 176-185.
Tryba, L. (2002, November/December). Trash Menagerie: The Disturbing World of Animal Hoarders. Psychology Today, 35, 22.
Characteristics did Jenny have as a child that are common in individuals who develop hoarding disorder?
Hoarding usually involves having difficulty getting rid of items and also issues on the maintenance of control over belongings. This behavior affects school and social functioning and appeared to Jenny when she was aged eight (Sorensen, 2011). Jenny also experienced problems at school as the teacher often sent notes stating that her desk is messy and she appeared to be absent minded in class. By the time she was in second grade, she had started being left behind in some subjects.
Literature points out that hoarding has been higher among children having ADHD than in children who are relatively healthy (Sorensen, 2011). In the case of Jenny, she was diagnosed with ADHD by a neuropsychologist. Dr. Davis said that she had neurodevelopment disorder that ensured it was hard for her to sustain her attention…
American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Hoarding Disorder. Retrieved 26 February 2015, from
Frost, R., Tolin, D., & Maltby, N. (2010).Insight-Related Challenges in the Treatment of Hoarding. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(4), 404-413. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.07.004
Pogosian, L. (2010). Treatment of Compulsive Hoarding: A Case Study. The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8-11. Retrieved from http://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedfiles/ejbm/page8_page11.pdf
Sorensen, R.J. (2011). Hoarding Disorder (Compulsive Hoarding): A Comprehensive Literature Review and Professional Training to Prepare Clinicians to Treat Problematic Hoarding. Retrieved from
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…
Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35
Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.
Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.
Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
She felt as if no one understood her conditions or why she was the way she was and because it took her longer to accept herself for who she was, she could not have a full understanding of having Tourette's and OCD meant to her or anyone else. It was until she fully accepted her condition that she would be able to come to grips with it and learn how to live with it.
Wilensky associated drinking with a loss of control, but also realized that drinking would help lessen the tics, or at least make it seem like it. The OCD part of Wilensky connected her personal rules as a means for controlling the things her body did that she felt were negative. By drinking with friends, even if it felt good, she was breaking her own rules. She didn't feel like she could be normal like the other…
All participants will be clinically diagnosed with an addiction problem to alcohol and/or another controlled substance. Those that are addicted to prescription medicine alone will be excluded from the study as they are suspected to represent a different underlying order. Subjects will be chosen for addiction to alcohol, meth, crack, opiates and other controlled substances, other than prescription drugs. Participants may have single or multiple substances of addiction.
In order to eliminate as many potential confounding variables as possible the subjects will be males between the ages of 25-40. They will be from a number of socioeconomic backgrounds and will not be eliminated for race or other cultural attributes. However, these attributes will be considered in the final analysis to eliminate potential sources of sample bias. Participation in this study will be voluntary and all participants will be asked to sign a consent form. Participants meeting the criteria will be…
Bowden-Jones, O., Iqbal, M., Tyrer, P., Sieverwright, N., Cooper, S., Judd, a., & Weaver, T.
2004). Prevalence of personality disorder in alcohol and drug services and associated comorbidity. Society for the Study of Addiction. 99: 1106-1314.
Bucholz, K., Hesselbrock, V., Heath, a., Kramer, J., & S***t, M. (2000). A latent class analysis of antisocial personality disorder symptom data from a multi-centre family study of alcoholism. Addiction. 95 (4): 553-567.
Craig, R., Verinis, J., & Wexler, S. (1985). Personality Characteristics of Drug Addicts and Alcoholics on the Millon Clinical Multiazial Inventory. Journal of Personality
Echo Valley Council
Case eport: Mr. William Doe
Director, Community Options Program
Proposed Interventions and Treatment Plan for Mr. William Doe
Like other developed Western nations, the elderly in Australia are confronted with numerous challenges to living independently as they grow older, including coping with age-related diseases processes such as dementia and obstructive airways disease as well as adjusting to the loss of a spouse. This case report provides a discussion concerning the application of the overarching and practice functions of the case management model described within the organisational and community contexts. A reflective discussion concerning the proposed approach to practice that focuses on decisions and reasons for practice, the effectiveness of the proposed practice and alternative approaches, skills or techniques that may be required to provide appropriate levels of care for Mr. William Doe who is described further below.
eview and Discussion
Overview of Client: "Mr. William…
Calver, J., Holman, C.D. & Lewin, G. (2004, January 1). A preliminary casemix classification system for home and community care clients in Western Australia. Australian Health
Review, 27(2), 27-33.
Cameron, M., Chahine, N. & Selig, S. (2008, August). A pilot program of physical activity promotion among clients receiving home and community care. Australian Health Review,
Most people have no idea how it is that clutter affects there lives, but the truth is that is does in a number of negative ways. Clutter has a way of getting in the way of the life that a person really wants to live. Ones outer environment tends to be an indication of what's going on inside of them, so when things are cluttered, untidy, traumatic, and overwhelming in their surroundings, they have an equal level of overwhelm and stress inside as well, which keeps one from living life to its fullest (Why Stop Clutter, 2011).
Clutter comes in many forms and not only affects a persons daily life, but also directly and radically affects the accomplishment of ones business and work, ones level of wealth in all areas, their health, their relationships, and their capability to be the kind of person they want to be (Why Stop…
Parker-Pope, T. (2008). A Clutter Too Deep for Mere Bins and Shelves. Retreived from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/01/health/01well.html
Why Is It A Bad Thing To Have Clutter? (2011). Retrieved from http://www.essortment.com/bad-thing-clutter-46944.html
Why Stop Clutter? (2011). Retreived from http://www.unclutter-organize-transform.com/stop-clutter.html
But if he is so disorganized that his life has become a mess, and he doesn't find it in himself to bring some order to his daily life then he should seek counseling.
The reason disorganization is a problem is due to waste of time that occurs due to this issue. A disorganized person will always be losing things, won't know where the keys are, he may have to get replacements for important documents etc. This means that when he needs something, he doesn't really know where exactly it would be and hence waste a lot of time looking for it. Hence he becomes less efficient and less effective. This is because there is no system which can be followed.
People need a system in order to be organized. At work, we need to know when to make important calls, which task has higher priority, where must all important documents…
In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as a parent or guardian interested in protecting and helping the child” (yale.edu, 2000). These reforms were novel at the time, and helped to enact changes such as closed hearings for…